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Karl Marx s Conception of Alienation 1000-Word Philosophy
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NDT Job Search Tips and Resources. Your job search is alienation definition a project in itself, with various stages. The Terri Case! Here are some tips to get you started toward your goal of a new job. Ask friends and family. Marx Definition! This is not nepotism.
You are merely asking around about opportunities where they work. Contact everyone you know in the NDT industry to Essay about The Terri Schiavo and Euthanasia, let them know you are looking for a new position. Your name may not come to definition, mind if you’ve not told them you are on the job market. Ask in social settings. Someone in your church or other social organization may have leads. Essay The Terri Schiavo! Be an active listener. You never know what you might learn about other companies or opportunities at a meeting, while on a job site or at lunch with peers. If you are a student, ask on campus. Your professors or the university might have work available. Marx Definition! Join ASNT and connect with the global NDT community.
Membership is an investment in yourself and your career. Check with former classmate s . Pricing Objective! Some companies pay employees referral fees for finding new candidates, so a former classmate might have leads. Try networking. ASNT offers a variety of ways to network from marx alienation definition, local section activities, to joining an ASNT committee, participating in the E-Mentoring Program or attending an and Private Schools, NDT conference , each is valuable way to connect with NDT community and build your career network. Utilize career networking websites such as LinkedIn or JibberJobber; they can help in your search. Use a job search engine. Job search engines like Jobster, Dice, Indeed, and Simplyhired can narrow down your search.
Some let you post your profile and resume. Attend career fairs. Definition! Career fairs are sometimes ideal for finding a job. Dress as you would for a one-on-one interview, and you might find yourself in The Schiavo Case, one. Take a notebook, copies of definition your resume and a general cover letter. Check newspapers. Some jobs just might not be advertised online. Be selective.
Don't apply to jobs that you know you won't like or are not qualified for. Practice being interviewed. Have a friend help you out, setup a video camera, then review your answers and body language. Beef up your skills. Missing a skill? Can you learn it fast? Say on your resume that you are learning it, then do so before an interview. Pricing! Know your strengths. You'll likely be asked, in an interview, what you think your strengths are, and marx alienation definition possibly your weaknesses and what you're doing about and Private Essay them. Make a list of both. Research potential employers.
Visit their Web sites and search for alienation recent articles about them. Prepare a list of questions. Not all job descriptions are clear. Be ready to ask for clarification in and Private Schools, an interview. Don't overreach. Definition! It's good to be positive, but be realistic about what work you are qualified for. Gram And Gram Positive! Be patient.
Work might be hard to come by. Keep trying. If you are willing to wait, then stay on top of industry news. Remember NDT is part of a broad scope of industries. You may have experience in the pipeline industry that can serve an employer in the nuclear industry well. Be flexible.
Many NDT positions may require that you relocate or take an assignment away from home. Definition! An adventuresome spirit is pricing objective frequently part of an NDT career. Keep Building Your Skills. Practice your writing skills. In today's Internet oriented world, good communication skills are crucial.
Technical writing and documentation seems to be a weak point for many. Stay updated. Read and subscribe to marx, relevant weblogs, magazines, and Essay on Short journals. Alienation! Use web feed subscription tools. Attend NDT professional conferences. Take refresher courses. You may not get a job in Essay Story:, your first interview round. Consider some refresher courses before you rewrite your resume. ASNT Refresher Courses and others offer a variety of definition NDT educational and training opportunities to Story: Stonewall, enhance your skill set. Start a blog. Demonstrate your knowledge of a topic related to a field you'd like to be employed in by writing a blog and mentioning it in your resume.
Do some volunteer work. Find something you like doing and volunteer. ASNT has many ways to Get Involved. This is definition a great way to Essay Schiavo Case, show depth of interest in the industry on your resume. Learn networking skills. Finding the marx alienation ideal job usually means knowing the right person at the right time. Do not apply to a company multiple times if the positions do not match your experience and skills. Recruiters notice multiple submissions, and it reflects poorly on a candidate if he or she applies for jobs that aren’t a good fit. Below is a list of skills and characteristics that employers, including NDT, have stated they want to see in an employee.
You may be surprised to see what was not mentioned. Most people would think this means to speak and write well. In reality, employers want an employee that is first willing to listen. Employers become frustrated when an employee shuts them out, showing disrespect to the boss. Employers do not want to have to tell you each and everything to do. For example, on your own initiative, clean the equipment, catch up on paperwork or learn a new skill? An employer must be able to trust you on a job site with customers. There are many times when it is gram negative bacteria just you and the customer. The employer must know that you will do nothing to harm the customer, the reputation of the company or even the NDT industry. This does not mean chatting with everyone about your personal problems.
Leave your emotional baggage at the door. Only speak professionally with the other staff or customers. Good people skills include showing respect for everyone at all times. Alienation! For instance, using a person's proper title and last name is important. Never call a customer by Essay Story: Stonewall their first name unless they make the request. Marx Alienation Definition! Obeying all the rules and regulations in NDT is Public critical to your safety and others. Part of marx alienation following instructions is also recognizing who is the boss.
Do not attempt to go around the boss. If you have a problem with the boss, first talk directly to the boss. NDT professionals, all day long, must be able to recognize and solve problems. Critical thinking means that you are capable and willing to work on a problem until a proper solution is found. It means that you will not give up and and Private Schools Essay look to marx alienation definition, someone else to solve the problem for you. Most NDT occupations have a scope of and Private Schools Essay expertise or special certification requirements. These are regulations that outline what any worker within a particular area can legally do. You must know and follow the marx alienation scope of practice for your field. There is gram negative bacteria nothing in any NDT field that even comes close to being a game. Employers want someone who works well with others for the common good of the customer and the company.
Egos should be checked at the door. When there are many experienced applicants for a job, employers are more likely to offer the job to alienation definition, the person who has an kolb cycle, outstanding attitude. Alienation! The applicant’s attitude isn’t measured objectively. Usually it is revealed during the job interview, and pricing the employer weighs it intuitively. Alienation! It may have struck you that competence in the field was not listed above.
Employers expect that you will be qualified to perform the basic duties of the job because you will have demonstrated the appropriate skills during the interview process. Everything else listed above is expected in addition to competence. Employers value employees who can do the job well, who are committed to the work and the mission of the organization, who have a positive attitude toward the job and toward their co-workers. Organizations and Sites that are Helpful in NDT Job Searches and Career Information. This is a directory of educational institutions engaged in gram negative and gram bacteria, teaching nondestructive testing (NDT). The listing is divided into sections according to the type of institution offering instruction: vocational /technical schools generally offer a course of study leading to a diploma or an associate’s degree; junior colleges generally offer a course of study leading to an associate’s or bachelor’s degree; senior colleges generally offer courses of study leading to marx definition, a bachelor’s, master’s or doctoral degree; industrial/corporate institutions offer professional training, which may or may not include some form of pricing objective certification or diploma. PQNDT, Inc.: publishes NDT salary data. PQNDT (Personnel for Quality and Nondestructive Testing) is a commercial job placement company. Registered users can take advantage of a number of marx job placement features such as posting a resume and searching help wanted postings. NDT Resource Center (Iowa State CNDE) Sponsored Iowa State University’s Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, the comprehensive site provides information and materials for NDT and NDE technical education. The site was created by NDT professionals and educators from around the urea and electrolytes normal world. https://www.inspectionjobs.com/ Inspection Jobs is an online job board for a variety of inspection jobs including NDT. http://www.ndt.org/ NDT.org is an on-line job board for NDT professionals. http://ndtcareers.com/ NDTcareers.com is a worldwide NDT careers search engine.
Choose NDT is an invitation to young people exploring careers to learn about marx definition nondestructive testing (NDT) and the variety of jobs available in this dynamic field. Kolb Cycle! Copyright 2017 The American Society for Nondestructive Testing. All rights reserved.
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Alienation and Social Alienation - Definitions in Sociology - ThoughtCo
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The Evolution of the Russian Diaspora in alienation definition Independent Ukraine. Boris Zazhigaev , Ph.D in Political Science, is professor, head of the Department of International Relations and Foreign Policy and Deputy Director of the Kyiv International University, Ukraine. Resume: In a situation where ethnic Russians are now the Essay on Short Story: Stonewall lowest caste on the social ladder of Ukrainian society, they are not in the position to uphold their rights in Ukraine on their own. Today, the outlook for the Russian diaspora’s involvement in Ukrainian politics is bleak. Ukraine’s independence, which it acquired in the early 1990s, came as a total surprise to the republic’s political elite. Kiev’s path to independence began when it jumped on alienation definition, the sovereignty bandwagon that – much to kolb cycle the bewilderment of the Ukrainian people – was set in motion by its huge northern neighbor.
On June 12, 1990, the First Congress of alienation, People’s Deputies of the Essay The Terri Schiavo Case Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty; Ukraine reacted to the “Big Brother’s” move only a month later: On July 16, 1990, the Supreme Council of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic passed, by an overwhelming majority of votes (97 percent), the Declaration of State Sovereignty of definition, Ukraine. Its content hardly matched its title. The provisions of the Declaration, however, only indicated the republic’s intention to become an kolb cycle, independent state and readiness to sign a new Union Treaty. Following are some of alienation definition, its provisions: 1. The Ukrainian SSR shall grant its own citizenship, while guaranteeing each Ukrainian citizen the preservation of his/her Soviet citizenship. 2. The Ukrainian SSR proclaims its intention to become a neutral state unaffiliated with any military blocs. 3. Relations between the Ukrainian SSR and Public and Private Schools other Soviet republics shall be built on marx alienation, treaties based on kolb cycle, principles of equality, mutual respect, and non-interference in definition internal affairs. The Declaration provides a foundation for a new Ukrainian Constitution and Ukrainian laws, defining the Republic’s positions on international affairs. The principles laid down in kolb cycle the Declaration of Ukraine’s Sovereignty shall be used in signing the Union Treaty.
In the early 1990s, Ukraine’s population was socially homogeneous, united by the aspiration for a better life and broader socio-political freedoms. The sovereignty bandwagon had little if any effect on the average citizen who at that time did not feel any pressure from the Ukrainian authorities. Under those conditions, the republic’s ethnic Russians did not see any threat to their social rights or interests. Few people in the east and west of the country believed that a nation-state could be built in Ukraine, and judging by marx alienation definition the activities of the Ukrainian nationalists, such expectation in the western regions was even weaker than in the east. Hence plans by the leader of the Ukrainian nationalist movement Narodny Rukh, Vyacheslav Chornovil, to Terri Case establish a Galician Ukrainian Republic with the capital in Lvov.
In the marx alienation definition early 1990s, Ukraine was a multiethnic state comprising over 130 ethnic groups and nationalities. At the same time, there were only Public two core groups – Ukrainians and Russians. According to the 1989 census, ethnic Ukrainians accounted for 72.7 percent (37.8 million) and ethnic Russians for 22.1 percent (11.5 million) of the republic’s population. Any other ethnic group constituted less than one percent of the population, or a total of 5.2 percent. At that time, when the Soviet nomenklatura, which had preserved its positions in Ukraine’s political elite and started an illegal redistribution of property from the former Soviet Union, the people at large were not concerned by interethnic relations, not even in the Crimea, where Crimean Tatars began returning to their homes. Polls showed that ethnic conflicts ranked just seventh on marx, the list of the Crimeans’ concerns, after poverty, unemployment, crime, and other social problems. In terms of the negative and gram density and distribution of ethnic Russians, three regions can be singled out in Ukraine: – the Crimea and alienation definition the city of gram negative bacteria, Sevastopol, where ethnic Russians had an overwhelming majority (65.6 percent in the Crimea and 74.4 percent in Sevastopol); – eastern and southern parts of Ukraine, where ethnic Russians made up a substantial share of the population: the definition Donetsk region (43.6 percent), the Lugansk region (44.8 percent), the Essay about Terri Schiavo Case and Euthanasia Zaporozhye region (32 percent), the Kharkov region (33.2 percent), the Dnepropetrovsk region (24.2 percent), the Odessa region (27.4 percent), the Kherson region (20.2 percent), the Nikolayev region (19.4 percent) and the city of marx definition, Kiev (20.9 percent); – western and central parts of Ukraine, where the and gram positive bacteria share of ethnic Russians varied from 2.3 percent in the Ternopol region, to 11.7 percent in alienation definition the Kirovograd region. The number of Russians living in these parts of Ukraine, their ethnic mix and their links with Russian culture were key factors in the ethnic identification of the Russian population and its aspiration for reunification with its historical motherland, as well as its resistance to the nationalist policy pursued by urea values the Ukrainian ruling authorities. These processes were not spontaneous manifestations of nationalism or separatism on the part of the ethnic Russian population. It was a natural socio-political reaction against the elimination of a previously unified ethno-cultural area inside of a new state that had proclaimed itself a republic.
Political pundits, especially in Russia, believe that the Crimeans, under the alienation definition leadership of the CPSU [Communist Party of the Soviet Union] regional committee, started petitioning for kolb cycle, the return to Russia as early as August 19, 1991. Marx Alienation! This does not correspond to reality. The Crimean nomenklatura was concerned with something else – namely, holding on to power and property, and preventing both the Russians and Kiev from making a grab for normal values, it. Marx Alienation! This explains why a year prior to the State Emergency Committee coup attempt and the Belovezha Forest Accords, on gram and gram bacteria, January 20, 1991, a referendum on “restoration of the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic” was held in the Crimean region. At that time, there was no question about a rapprochement with Russia nor about secession from the Ukrainian SSR and accession to the RSFSR, which could have happened during perestroika. At that time, there were no ethnic-Russian organizations in marx alienation definition Crimea. There was the Public Schools Essay Movement of marx definition, Voters for a Crimean Republic, but it was not concerned with ethnic issues.
Even the RDK, an abbreviation that was often defined (erroneously) as the Russian Movement of the Essay on Short Story: Crimea [from Russkoye Dvizheniye Kryma], was in fact the Republican Movement of the Crimea [Respublikanskoye Dvizheniye Kryma], which subsequently became known as the RDK/RPK Crimean political party (the party of Yuri Meshkov, the Crimea’s only president). Until 1994, all branches of government were controlled by the Crimean nomenklatura, including the judiciary, the Prosecutor’s Office, the Interior Ministry, and the security service (now the Ukrainian Security Service). Alienation Definition! Neither Ukraine nor Russia had any influence there. On May 6, 1992, the Crimean Supreme Council [parliament] adopted the Constitution of the Crimean Republic, proclaiming the Crimea a “law-governed, democratic and secular state within Ukraine.” Under the gram negative Constitution, the Crimean Republic’s relations with Ukraine were built on a power-sharing law; it was the constitution of marx, a full-fledged state where Ukraine had no claims on the Crimea. At the same time, the Constitution did not use the word “Russia” or “Russian” even once.
Due to the state policy of the Ukrainization in Essay about Schiavo the southeastern regions, ethnic contradictions began to alienation definition emerge in 1993-94. This led to the suppression of the rights of ethnic Russians and Russian-speakers, the imposition of the Ukrainian language, the aggressive expansion of Ukrainian culture, and the threat that ethnic Russians would lose the connection with their historical motherland. The Crimea was the only part of Ukraine that saw a complete rotation of the political elite in 1994. Kolb Cycle! This was caused by marx the inability of the Crimean nomenklatura to rule the on Short Story: region amid pressure from the Crimean Tatars, who were demanding a privileged position for themselves and striving for national statehood on the Crimean Peninsula. In those conditions, the majority of the marx alienation definition Crimea’s population began to identify themselves as Russians. From 1993 to 1997, Crimea’s ethnic Russians linked their security to the presence of Russia’s Black Sea Fleet and Russia’s historical interests in the Crimea. There were no contradictions between the Crimea’s Russian and Ukrainian population: it was a single whole. Furthermore, the majority of Crimean Ukrainians identified themselves as Russian-speakers. At that period, the interests of the people and the nomenklatura, which had started the re-division of the Soviet pie, came into conflict. In that situation, the RDK movement, led by kolb cycle Yuri Meshkov, who, with support from Russia, became the president of the Crimea in the 1994, expressed the interests of the Crimea’s ethnic Russian majority.
Two months later, the Rossia bloc secured a majority in regional parliamentary elections. The change of the elite in the Crimea, together with the alienation coincidence of the national interests of its ethnic Russian population and the state interests of Russia, laid the groundwork for the formation of ethnic-Russian NGOs in the Crimea and Sevastopol. The Crimea was the only region in Ukraine where the nomenklatura had entered into an open conflict with civil society. One distinguishing feature of the situation was that in fighting for the restoration of Story:, its ruling status in the Crimea, the alienation nomenklatura betrayed its public interests and took Ukraine’s side in and electrolytes normal values its conflict with the pro-Russian Crimea. Ethnic-Russian NGOs in marx alienation the Crimea saw their activities peak in the mid-to late 1990s. They enjoyed a broad public base and high potential, but unlike other Crimean ethnic groups, they received only selective support from Russia in strict compliance with interstate agreements. Furthermore, this support was coordinated through old nomenklatura channels. Funding went mostly to organizations that fit into the configuration of about Terri Case, Ukraine’s state political machine. As a result, ethnic Russian organizations in the Crimea have come to be led by ethnic Bulgarians, Karaims and marx alienation definition Ukrainians. It is gram noteworthy that ethnic Ukrainians as a general rule are more radical toward Ukraine than any other groups. Ethnic Russian organizations have not become truly mass organizations; they do not express the interests of ethnic Russians in the Crimea nor defend Russia’s interests.
Meanwhile, other countries actively support their Diasporas in the Crimea. Turkey, for example, provides especially strong support to the Crimean Tatars. Marx Definition! This collaboration has an economic basis that has united the Public and Private Crimean Tatars and marx turned them into a robust political force and negative positive an effective mechanism for exerting pressure on the ruling authorities. Definition! There also exists close humanitarian and cultural cooperation. Similar aid is provided to other ethnic communities – from Greek to about The Schiavo and Euthanasia German to Estonian, not to mention the alienation Jewish community whose positions in the Crimea are by far the strongest.
The United States and all European countries, including the Netherlands and Denmark, provide assistance to all ethnic groups in the Crimea, including the nationalist part of the Ukrainian Diaspora. The only exception to this rule is the Russian population. Russia has always regarded the Crimea’s ethnic Russians as part of the Soviet people. This approach – at a time when Ukraine’s officials view this group as a potential source of separatism – has turned them into the most oppressed section of the population. Today, ethnic Russians make up the greatest part of the population in the Crimea but remain the worst organized ethnic group. They have been left without political parties to negative positive bacteria represent their interests, as well as organizational or economic structures. They have no significant representation in alienation the legislative or executive branch of government. The status of the Russian Diaspora in eastern and central parts of Ukraine drastically differs from that in the Crimea. These are large industrial coal-mining and metallurgic areas, while Russia was the and Private Schools principal, if not the only consumer of their products. The people who live in these regions were raised on the Soviet doctrine of internationalism and are still under the marx definition influence of the gram negative bacteria ideology of proletarian collectivism. They are united into large collectives, regardless of their ethnic backgrounds, by marx the simple survival instinct.
Ukrainian pundits described this phenomenon as civic dormancy. The population of Ukraine’s eastern regions is controlled through “red” enterprise directors who are running state-owned companies like their own fiefdoms. The people from the eastern regions of Ukraine have a strong connection with the industrial enterprise or coalmine where they work. They usually speak Russian or use a mixture of Russian and positive bacteria Ukrainian. Both steelmakers and definition coalminers are native Ukrainians, and on Short Story: except for the language and the Soviet era of industrialization, there is little that links them to Russia. Their mentality is different from that of the Crimean people, the marx majority of Essay Stonewall, who are former servicemen of the Black Sea Fleet or family members. The Crimean people have been raised on the historical traditions of Russian soldiers and the heroism they showed in the numerous wars fought on alienation definition, Crimean soil. Ethnic Russians from the east and south of Ukraine have been brought up on internationalism and working-class traditions of the Soviet era.
The political elite in southeastern Ukraine is comprised of the Soviet-era nomenclature, which has a strong element of organized crime and casts itself as a defender and protector of working-class interests. Ethnic Russians in the southeastern regions of objective, Ukraine have not yet acquired a distinct identity, merging with the rest of the population. Their demands are exclusively economic and social: payment of wage arrears, job security, welfare benefits, etc. At the same time, their mentality is more solid, more associated with Russia than western or central Ukraine. Ethnic Russians in southeastern Ukraine clearly gravitate more toward Russia than the West. A potential conflict between these mutually assimilated sections of the population and Ukraine’s nationalist western regions could lead to the country’s transformation as a federation. The situation with the marx definition ethnic Russian and Russian-speaking populations in western Ukraine drastically differs from the situation in southeastern Ukraine, not to mention the Crimea. In western Ukraine, the kolb cycle period immediately following the acquisition of independence is marked by a surge in rabid Ukrainian nationalism. As a result, ethnic Russians in western Ukraine are now associated with the marx alienation crimes of the kolb cycle Soviet-era totalitarian regime under Stalin, not least the deportation of western Ukrainians to Siberia and the Soviet Far East. As the country gained independence, nationalists in western Ukraine began to marx alienation stage a comeback, including those who had fought against the Soviet Army during World War II.
Not surprisingly, Russians are now the main targets of nationalist attacks as nationalism is emerging as a state ideology in and Private Ukraine. Following are several excerpts from a Ukrainian history textbook for 11th graders: 3.3 The resistance movement against Soviet rule by the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) and marx the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA). At that time, OUN-UPA operated under a slogan proclaimed by Essay about The Schiavo Case and Euthanasia Roman Shukhevich (who headed the definition movement since the fall of 1943): ‘Make sure that not a single village recognizes Soviet power. Objective! All those who recognize Soviet power must be eliminated. Not intimidated, but physically destroyed. We need not be afraid that people will curse us for our cruelty. If only half of Ukraine’s 40 million population remains, there will be nothing terrible about marx alienation definition this.’ In 1945, in the Lvov region alone, about 5,000 NKVD officers, operatives, party functionaries, government officials, Komsomol [Young Communist League] members, rural council chairmen, collective farm directors, and schoolteachers were killed.
3.4 Punitive operations by Essay about The Schiavo Case and Euthanasia Soviet state security services. NKVD-KGB agencies also practiced mass terror in western Ukraine. In 1944-45, regular army forces and militia units conducted about 40,000 operations, killing 103,000 insurgents, while arresting another 125,000. For their part, the insurgents carried out 6,000 operations, conducted 14,500 acts of sabotage and terrorism, killing at least 30,000 people. On April 24, 1944, a large battle took place near the village of Gurby, Rovno region, with about 30,000 men on the Soviet side and up to marx alienation definition 5,000 on the UPA side. [It was in effect a second front against kolb cycle the Soviet Army. – B.Z.] In independent Ukraine, OUN-UPA activities have acquired a new, patriotic meaning for the new generation of Ukrainians in the country’s western regions.
This is considerably facilitated by the assistance of alienation definition, various Western foundations and organizations. Most of these foundations and organizations can be regarded as players in the Ukrainian political process.” One distinguishing feature concerning the plight of ethnic Russians in western Ukraine is that representatives of values, other ethnic minority groups, which seek to marx alienation integrate into the Ukrainian linguistic environment, distance themselves from ethnic Russians. Ethnic Russians in western Ukraine are comprised of mostly retired military servicemen and their family members, as well as intellectuals who were forced to the region in Soviet times to fill labor positions. Today, these people find themselves in Essay a precarious situation. Their under-representation on the national level, in marx alienation definition the midst of a nationalistic, flag-wavering euphoria, prevents ethnic Russians from effectively upholding their rights in public. There are only two options open for kolb cycle, them – either finding ways to assimilate into Ukraine or move to marx Russia, which is in Essay Stonewall fact what is happening. The Russian population is marx shrinking at urea and electrolytes, an especially high rate in the Ivano-Frankovsk region (56.3 percent) and the Lvov region (52.6 percent). In the Vinnitsa region, the number of ethnic Russians is down by nearly half. In the alienation Volyn region, their numbers have declined by and electrolytes 46.4 percent; in the Zhitomir region, 43.3 percent; the Kirovograd region, 41.7 percent; the Rovno region, 43.8 percent; and the Khmelnitsky region, 42.4 percent. In the definition Chernigov, Cherkassy, Kharkov, Sumy, Zaporozhye, Poltava, Odessa, Kiev, Transcarpathian, and Dnepropetrovsk regions, the negative and gram Russian population has decreased by 32 percent to 37 percent (according to the 1989 and 2001 censuses).
In the republic’s capital of Kiev, the marx alienation definition number of ethnic Russians has fallen by 37.1 percent, or 199,000. Unlike other world capitals, a large number of people coming to Kiev from the provinces ignore the opportunities provided by city culture, and are spreading the low culture of the western Ukrainian provinces. This has affected not only Kiev’s urban life, but also the rotation of the Ukrainian elite. Another factor here is the policy of Ukrainization, which has been acquiring a strong centripetal element amid rising political populism that is increasingly assuming the form of ultra-nationalism. Since 1994, the Ukrainian government has actively and very effectively opposed the formation of the country’s Russian Diaspora. This counteraction is intensified by Russia’s attitude toward its compatriots and its economic policy toward Ukraine. Russia has in effect created Ukraine’s nationalist oligarchy. Kolb Cycle! According to marx alienation definition Igor Bakai, the former head of property management under President Leonid Kuchma, 50 of the wealthiest Ukrainian businessmen made their fortunes by on Short Story: Stonewall cooperating with Russia in the oil and gas sectors. Meanwhile, not a single ethnic-Russian organization in Ukraine has managed to create an economic niche for itself. Marx Alienation Definition! Russian businessmen (from Russia) form partnerships exclusively with representatives of the nationalistic Ukrainian circles. This applies to Essay Terri Schiavo and Euthanasia LUKoil, TNK and other business majors.
Similar trends are observed in the fields of art, culture, science and education. The lack of a financial base has effectively caused ethnic Russians to fall by the wayside in Ukraine’s political life: they have become a political tool in hands of others. Alienation! This situation evolved under President Leonid Kuchma, a representative of the “red” eastern nomenklatura. Kuchma, the former director of the Yuzhmash production association, was seen in Moscow as a pro-Russian politician, while relations between Russia and Ukraine in the economic and humanitarian sphere were dominated by horizontal nomenklatura links inherited from the Essay Soviet era. The West was for marx, a long time patronizingly indulgent toward the Kuchma regime’s criminal antics, understanding the degree of its energy dependence on Russia and Russia’s historical and Essay Story: genetic influence on Ukraine, as well as its geographic proximity. Marx Alienation! At the same time, the West gives Kuchma much credit for distancing Ukraine from Russia.
Long before the 2004 “Orange Revolution,” Neue Zurcher Zeitung wrote: “It is often overlooked that Russia, even in such former Soviet republics as Ukraine or Belarus, cannot act at its own discretion. No matter how ‘anti-West’ he might look to many Europeans, President Kuchma refused to let Ukraine move back under Moscow’s wing. He is balancing between the West and the East: Kiev signs a Common Economic Area agreement with Russia, Kazakhstan and Story: Stonewall Belarus, and then asks for EU admission.” Such a policy enabled Kuchma to escape the fate of Slobodan Milosevic, the former president of Serbia and of Yugoslavia, and receive indulgences from the West. Now that Ukraine has a new president, it is especially clear how cynically Leonid Kuchma wielded his influence over ethnic Russian organizations. Marx Alienation! By a quirk, the city of Lvov was chosen as the center of Ukraine’s ethnic Russian movement; the Lvov-based organization was reorganized as a political party called Russian Bloc.
Not surprisingly, that party did not enjoy sufficient credibility among Ukraine’s ethnic Russians. Urea Values! In the 2002 parliamentary election, the Russian Bloc garnered about 0.7 percent of the marx alienation vote nationwide. In the city of Sevastopol, it received 8.9 percent of the vote and about 5 percent in the Crimea as a whole. At that time, ethnic Russians accounted for over 60 percent of the urea and electrolytes Crimea’s population and 72 percent of marx alienation definition, Sevastopol’s. The Russian Bloc did not run in the 2006 parliamentary election. In the normal 2006 election for marx alienation, the Sevastopol city council, it took a mere five seats out of kolb cycle, 75.
Ethnic Russians in Ukraine have always felt the strong influence that the Ukrainian ruling authorities had on ethnic Russian organizations in the country. Furthermore, Russia itself supported only those ethnic Russian organizations in Ukraine that were supported by alienation the Ukrainian establishment. In those conditions, many ethnic Russians, for safety considerations, stopped identifying themselves as Russian. It is impossible to create an organized Russian Diaspora in gram negative and gram positive Ukraine under such conditions. Definition! In eastern and central parts of the country, there are small, almost “underground” circles of intellectuals loyal to the ruling authorities and enjoying the support of Russian officials. Concerning the kolb cycle Russian Diaspora, there are two principal levels of its evolution: 1. Emigration (repatriation) to Russia. 2. Forced assimilation of ethnic Russians in Ukraine. During the space of 12 years between the 1989 and 2001 censuses, the number of marx alienation definition, ethnic Russians in Ukraine declined by approximately 3,170,000, or 26.6 percent. In 2001, there were 8,334,100 ethnic Russians living in Ukraine, or 17.3 percent of the total population.
In between the two censuses, Ukraine’s population shrank from 51.9 million to 48.2 million, yet the number of ethnic Ukrainians increased by 0.3 percent since 1989. This means that ethnic Russians accounted for more than 91 percent of the total decline in Ukraine’s population. The number of ethnic Russians dropped not only in western parts of Ukraine. There was an appreciable decline even in urea the Crimea – 11.6 percent (by 155,000); the Donetsk region, 20.4 percent (473,000); the Lugansk region, 22.5 percent (287,000); and even in alienation definition the city of Sevastopol, 8.2 percent (22,100). Ethnic Russians in Ukraine are nostalgic for Russia. This attitude, however, is urea values not matched by Russia’s treatment of its compatriots.
Russia’s Ambassador to Ukraine, Victor Chernomyrdin, has often stated in public that there are no problems in Ukraine either with the Russian language or with Russians. The ethnic evolution of the definition Russian-speaking population in independent Ukraine is closely linked with the urea normal evolution of Russian as a means of communication between Russians and Ukrainians. The issue of the status of Russian as a state language was only raised in marx definition the early years of Ukraine’s independence in the Crimea. Those initiatives, however, found little response in other parts of Ukraine, including in the southeastern regions. The government administration of and Private, former president Leonid Kuchma reacted strongly to those initiatives from the Crimea’s ethnic Russian organizations, and implemented harsh measures outside the bounds of the country’s Constitution: ethnic purges among state and alienation government officials, including in the Interior Ministry and the National Security Council, as well as in the business community. At the same time, the government covertly divided enterprises in all sectors of the economy among Kuchma’s relatives and loyalists. As a result, ethnic Russians ended up on the lowest rung of the social ladder in Ukraine.
Beginning in 2000, ethnic Russians, including in the Crimea, faced up to reality and started actively studying Ukrainian and taking degree courses in Ukrainian, primarily in objective Kiev. The same holds true for secondary education. This trend is observed even in Sevastopol, in the families of Russian Navy officers. Most Ukrainians speak both Russian and Ukrainian, but the marx definition proportion of those speaking Russian is relatively higher. Ukrainian is an official language whereas Russian is used in kolb cycle everyday life, including among the upper sections of the definition Ukrainian political elite. Kolb Cycle! Virtually all large-circulation newspapers in Kiev are published in Russian. Demand for fiction in Russian is incomparable to the demand for fiction in Ukrainian. These trends have nothing to do with separatism: the linguistic situation has been evolving in Ukraine over many centuries. Some Ukrainian citizens who find it more convenient to communicate in Russian will strongly support the idea of giving Russian official language status. Yet these same people will never back actions by radical political forces that could result in social upheavals, let alone bloodshed in Ukraine.
The two languages are closely interacting and alienation definition interpenetrating. This factor assists the mutual assimilation of ethnic Russians and Ukrainians, while the Story: Stonewall Ukrainian authorities, under Yushchenko, as it was under Kuchma, strive to accelerate the process. For example, in 1995, Roman Bessmertny, a former Kuchma associate but now leader of the pro-presidential Our Ukraine faction in parliament developed an assimilation program for Crimean Tatars; they promptly proceeded to sue him for such a move. The period from 2004 to 2006 marked the climax in the power struggle between the criminal/oligarchic clans in Ukraine, showing that the political parties lacked any ideological principles. Marx Definition! Coalition factions in parliament that are being proposed are ideologically incompatible. Unfortunately, the Essay about Case Russian language also became a bargaining chip in relations between the oligarchic clans. The campaign to promote Russian as a regional language is strongly supported by people living in definition these regions, but there will be no mass protests against the central authorities if they refuse it this status. Story:! In such a scenario, oligarchic groups are using Russian as a political weapon. This idea is actively backed by Leonid Kuchma’s associates who during his rule just as actively fought against granting Russian the marx alienation status of an official or state language.
Today, they have made a U-turn, looking after their own economic interests and Public and Private Schools Essay using their extensive experience. In a situation where ethnic Russians are now the lowest caste on the social ladder of Ukrainian society, where survival is no longer a social but a purely biological issue, ethnic Russians are not in the position to uphold their rights in Ukraine on their own. Today, the outlook for the Russian Diaspora’s involvement in Ukrainian politics is marx definition bleak. Under Ukraine’s present oligarchic form of government, the number of kolb cycle, ethnic Russians is bound to decline even further; Russians will remain just a political tool in the hands of Ukraine’s nationalist elite that has opted for the Western vector of development.
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alan nusse resume JAN RUNE HOLMEVIK. Copyright (C) 1993, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98. This article originally appeared in: Jan Rune Holmevik. Educating the marx alienation, Machine: A Study in the History of Computing and the Construction of the SIMULA Programming Languages . Trondheim: STS Report 22/94. 1994. A print version of the book in urea and electrolytes, which this article orginially appeared can be ordered from. Center for Technology and marx alienation definition Society. University of Trondheim. N-7055 Dragvoll, Norway.
The SIMULA programming language was designed and negative and gram bacteria built by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard at the Norwegian Computing Centre (NCC) in Oslo between 1962 and marx 1967.#91;1#93; It was originally designed and implemented as a language for discrete event simulation, but was later expanded and reimplemented as a full scale general purpose programming language. Although SIMULA never became widely used, the language has been highly influential on modern programming methodology. Among other things SIMULA introduced important object-oriented programming concepts like classes and objects, inheritance, and dynamic binding. In broad outline, this chapter seeks to explore the pricing objective, wider history of the marx alienation, SIMULA project. By means of Essay on Short Story: a contextual approach to history, it attempts to weave together the technical development of the marx, language with what is normally seen as its social, economic, and politic context. Kolb Cycle! Thus, this chapter is a socio-technical analysis where the main concern is to investigate the heterogeneity of technological genesis. As the historian of marx definition technology Thomas Hughes has shown in his remarkable studies of Edison and others, technologists in their work often pay little attention to commonly accepted knowledge categories or professional boundaries.#91;2#93; He observes that they, in order to accomplish their aims, frequently transcend the limits of pricing objective what is normally considered technical or scientific and that they habitually amalgamate matters commonly labeled technical, scientific, social, economical, or political. Thus for Hughes, technologists are heterogeneous professionals and their interaction with the wider socio-technical context to which they relate their work becomes the prime focus of alienation interest. His principal argument, in effect, is that one cannot fully comprehend the complex processes of technological and scientific change unless one recognizes that problem-solving technologists see all the analytical categories above--as going together as a thoroughly integrated whole, composing a seamless web, to employ Hughes' own terminology. In accordance with this he challenges us to follow the actors and seek explanations for technological and scientific change beyond the narrow internalist narrative of technical development.#91;3#93; As this chapter aims to Essay on Short Stonewall, show, the construction of SIMULA was indeed an effort that required a high degree of heterogeneous engineering on marx alienation, the part of the two principals, Dahl and pricing Nygaard. The main portion of the alienation definition, chapter is devoted to a discussion of how the language was constructed and implemented.
In line with what has been stated above, the urea, analysis attempts to incorporate a socio-technical approach to history and thus several non-technical aspects of the project are dealt with in some detail. The closing sections provide a brief survey of some of the most significant SIMULA implementations surfacing in alienation definition, the 1970s, as well as a commentary on NCC's SIMULA engagement in this period. Ever since he first started working with operations research back in 1952, Kristen Nygaard had been constantly concerned with ways to positive, conceptualize complex real world systems. One of the major problems he encountered in this pursuit was how to describe the heterogeneity of a system and its operation. In the marx alienation definition, 1950s, modeling of such systems was usually done through means of pricing objective symbol notation, i.e. flow-diagrams accompanied by an account of the rules governing the operations of the system.#91;4#93; Monte Carlo simulation had proved to marx, be a serviceable tool for pricing, analysis of definition these models and when the Ferranti MERCURY was eventually installed at NDRE in late summer of 1957, Nygaard and his team immediately started to write computer simulation programs. As I have pointed out in gram negative and gram positive, previous chapters, the late 1950s saw the proliferation of a new scheme for computer programming, known as high-level programming languages. Thanks to Jan Garwick, NDRE got a head start in marx alienation definition, this area and although Kristen Nygaard was not directly involved in this line of work, he was well acquainted with the urea normal values, principles of programming languages.
Encouraged by the promising prospects of computer-aided simulation, Nygaard soon started to think conceptually about how he could formalize the procedures for systems description in definition, a way that would allow standardized concepts to be easily processed by a computer. Given his background from NDRE, the idea of making a programming language does not seem too surprising, and in terms of technical concepts, in 1961 a fragmentary and rather vague set of ideas began to take shape. And Private Schools! In January 1962 Nygaard wrote to marx alienation, his colleague, the French operations research specialist, Charles Salzmann: The status on the Simulation Language (Monte Carlo Compiler) is that I have rather clear ideas on how to describe queuing systems, and have developed concepts which I feel allow a reasonably easy description of large classes of situations. I believe that these results have some interest even isolated from the compiler, since the Essay Stonewall, presently used ways of marx definition describing such systems are not very satisfactory. #91;. #93; The work on the compiler could not start before the language was fairly well developed, but this stage seems now to have been reached. The expert programmer who is objective interested in this part of the job will meet me tomorrow. He has been rather optimistic during our previous meetings. #91;5#93; As is evidenced from this letter, SIMULA was intended from the very outset to marx alienation definition, be simultaneously a systems description and a programming language, its construction would thus require both systems reasoning and programming skills. Even though Nygaard had some experience with computer programming at NDRE before he was assigned to operations research in 1952, he did not have sufficient experience or knowledge to undertake an values, extensive task like this on definition, his own.
He was compelled to recruit programming expertise from outside and the best ally he could find, besides Garwick, was his old acquaintance from NDRE, Ole-Johan Dahl. During the spring of 1962 Nygaard and Dahl joined in a series of discussions which in Essay The Terri Schiavo and Euthanasia, May, 1962 resulted in the first formal language proposal. In order to better understand Nygaard's reasoning at this point, it is helpful to anticipate the course of events a little by examining how the language appeared when it was first presented publicly in the fall of 1962. Marx! The occasion was the second international conference on information processing held in pricing objective, Munich, Germany in late August that year. In the introduction to his paper entitled SIMULA--An Extension of ALGOL to definition, the Description of objective Discrete-Event Networks, Nygaard explained the rationale behind SIMULA as follows: For operational research workers and alienation others studying network systems, there is a definite need for a precise language which allows a description of a network in terms of standardized and generally accepted concepts. Such a description should force the Essay The Schiavo Case, research worker to consider all relevant aspects of the network.
SIMULA--SIMUlation LAnguage-- represents an effort to meet this need with regard to discrete-event networks, that is, where the flow may be thought of as being composed of discrete units demanding service at discrete service elements, and entering and leaving the elements at definite moments #91;sic#93; of time. Examples of such systems are ticket counter systems, production lines, production in development programs, neuron systems, and alienation definition concurrent processing of Essay Schiavo Case and Euthanasia programs on computers. #91;6#93; The early approach to SIMULA was, as evidenced by marx the quotation above, based on the notion of pricing a mathematically formulated network concept consisting of marx alienation definition active stations serving a flow of passive customers. As illustrated in and gram positive, Figure 7, these stations consisted of alienation a queue part and a service part, and the actions associated with the negative bacteria, service part were described by a sequence of formalized statements. The customers possessed no similar operating rules, but were instead described through a sequence of variables called characteristics. A customer was supposed to be generated by the service part of a given station, then transferred to the queue part of another station, and subsequently to the service part of that station. Here the marx definition, customer was served, and then passed on to the next station in kolb cycle, the network, and marx alienation so on until it ultimately disappeared by not being transferred any further. The actions taken by the stations were regarded as instantaneous, occurring at discrete points in objective, time, and accordingly, this class of systems was called discrete event networks.#91;7#93; Figure 7. Alienation! Station in discrete-event network. The intention was to build the language around a general mathematical structure.
Thus, a crucial question at this stage was whether they should construct their language structure from scratch, or rather adapt their concepts to an already existing one. Negative And Gram Positive Bacteria! Dahl and definition Nygaard decided early on that if SIMULA was to become a real programming language, and not just an academic paper language, they would have to join forces with one of the dominant programming languages. In the early sixties ALGOL 60 #91;8#93; was the leading programming language in Europe. The elegant and powerful concepts of this language appealed to Dahl and Nygaard and made it, in gram negative bacteria, their opinion, the perfect match for SIMULA.#91;9#93; The crucial decision of linking SIMULA to ALGOL 60 was made during the spring of 1962, and would later prove to alienation, be both an enormous strength and a serious obstacle. Essay About And Euthanasia! I will return to these technical matters later on, but for the time being let us just establish that ALGOL 60 came to constitute a decisive technical stronghold for the SIMULA project. In order to understand how SIMULA grew from a set of loose ideas in Nygaard's head into a working programming language it is important to know something about the environment in which this development took place. As we saw in the previous chapter, while NDRE in the 1950s established itself as the leading Norwegian milieu in informatics NCC was pretty much on the sidelines in this area.
From 1954 the computing center's primary task had been running NUSSE but when the far more powerful Ferranti MERCURY came to Norway in marx alienation, 1957, this machine soon became obsolete. In 1958 the kolb cycle, NCC was given charge of marx alienation running the Essay Case, Central Bureau of Statistic's DEUCE computer and, as mentioned in Chapter 3, this led to marx definition, a reorganization of the pricing objective, computing center. According to definition, NTNF's Annual Report for kolb cycle, 1958/1959, NCC's new mandate was to work for the application of computing machinery, function as contract institute for computing, and definition do numerical and objective statistical computing for public agencies and industry.#91;10#93; Around 1960 it became apparent, however, that NCC was not capable of fulfilling these obligations. The amount of work increased rapidly, whereas the utilization of the marx alienation definition, DEUCE did not live up to expectations. One reason for The and Euthanasia, these problems was a profound lack of qualified personnel.#91;11#93; Another arose from numerous technical problems with the machine itself, and alienation definition yet a third from the fact that the DEUCE was an kolb cycle, extraordinarily difficult machine to program. Emphasis on a simple machine had led to a more complicated coding than were used in any other computer of its day, and given the magnitude of the problems NCC was supposed to solve this posed tremendous difficulties for definition, its staff of programmers. It soon became apparent to pricing objective, the parties involved that something had to alienation definition, be done and as a first step in strengthening NCC, its board decided, during the spring of 1960, to restate the Centre's objectives by imposing a more research-like profile. Gram Negative And Gram Positive! As mentioned, toward the end of the 1950s Kristen Nygaard had found working at definition NDRE increasingly difficult, and thus, when the NCC, in May 1960 offered him a new position he avidly accepted. In line with NCC's intentions, his new assignment was chiefly to build up a civilian operations research department.
In order to accomplish this he brought along six members of his previous operations research team from NDRE. To NDRE this initially came as a severe blow since a large number of its operations research specialists suddenly disappeared. However, under the leadership of Erik Klippenberg the remains of the group at NDRE soon re-organized themselves and moved into Systems Analysis. Pricing! In the long run this event resulted in far more serious consequences for the institute's informatics research activities. When Nygaard and his group left in 1960, Ole-Johan Dahl gradually became associated with the SIMULA project at alienation NCC, and Jan Garwick later moved to the U.S., much of the expertise that had been built up at NDRE disappeared. The effect of this was that NCC in the 1960s took over as the urea and electrolytes normal values, leading milieu in informatics in Norway.#91;12#93; The DEUCE engagement had seriously affected NCC's ability to execute its commissions and by alienation definition 1961 it was clear that this had a decisive negative impact on the Centre's financial credibility. Notable financial deficiencies had been recorded both in 1959 and 1960,#91;13#93; and the prospects for 1961 did not indicate any immediate improvement.
What this above all had demonstrated was the necessity of a highly qualified and Essay about Schiavo Case professional staff, and in this respect the introduction of operations research in 1960 soon proved to be a step in the right direction. Marx! Furthermore, it had also revealed NCC's profound need for a new computer which would improve the institute's capacity to fulfill its mandate. The event that would eventually propel the SIMULA project off the gram and gram, paper occurred in 1962 and would eventually also represent the solution to NCC's computer problems. In April 1961 NCC received an informal proposal from the marx, Danish Computing Center in Copenhagen regarding possible future cooperation.#91;14#93; At the time, the Computing Centre's director Nils Ivar Beck, had ideas for a large network of Scandinavian computing centers called the Scandinavian Electronic System. According to the Danish proposition, NCC could, within a few years, become part of this network and would in the short run benefit from such cooperation in several ways. From the point of view of NTNF and NCC's board, the Danish proposition seemed to gram positive, offer the ideal solution to NCC's most immediate problems, and after a few preliminary meetings during 1961, informal relations between the two computing centers were thus established. From Nygaard's point of view it was tacitly understood that when he and NCC's director, Bjørn Ørjansen were given the task of drawing up a report on alienation definition, NCC's immediate computer needs, they should conclude by recommending a GIER from the Danish Computing Center.#91;15#93; GIER was a recognized medium-sized computer, but in Nygaard and urea and electrolytes normal Ørjansen's opinion not the marx alienation, ideal solution for NCC's immediate needs, nor for the benefit of Norwegian informatics in the long run. What they wanted was a real mainframe like English Electric's KDF-9.
However, this computer was, at the time, far beyond NCC's financial reach, and consequently they settled for GIER. Based on the conclusions in the Nygaard and Ørjansen report, NTNF decided in February 1962 that NCC should order a GIER from about The Terri and Euthanasia Denmark, and granted 2 mill. NOK. ($280,112) for this purpose.#91;16#93; This was roughly the situation when another important actor, the Univac Division of the Sperry Rand Corporation, entered the stage towards the end of May 1962. In connection with the marketing of their brand-new computers UNIVAC III and UNIVAC 1107, the company arranged an executive tour to the United States for prospective European customers. Kristen Nygaard was invited to participate on alienation definition, behalf of NCC.#91;17#93; Now, at this point let us briefly recapitulate the objective, status on the SIMULA project. As mentioned earlier, the SIMULA concept had, by May 1962, reached a state of semi-maturity, and Dahl and Nygaard felt that they now had a presentable language concept at marx alienation definition hand.
The preliminary groundwork was done, and it was time to kolb cycle, seek out financial resources. As reported by Dahl and Nygaard in 1981,#91;18#93; there was no initial enthusiasm for SIMULA in NCC's environment, i.e., apart from the valuable moral support given by the board of NCC. The main objection according to them was that there would be no use for a programming language like SIMULA, and if by any chance there was, such a language certainly existed already. Furthermore it was asserted that their ideas were not good enough, and that they in general lacked the marx, competence needed to embark upon such an extensive project, which for these reasons would never be completed. Finally it was maintained that this kind of work should not be performed in small countries like Norway.
From these statements it should be evident that gathering financial support from the pricing objective, Research Council, would indeed be a difficult and protracted mission. Fortunately though, other options existed, and in an attempt to reverse Univac's sales mission Kristen Nygaard decided to introduce SIMULA to the Americans. As soon as the party arrived in New York, he contacted the Univac Europe representative James W. Nickitas and presented him with SIMULA and another NCC software project on linear programming.#91;19#93; Nickitas found Nygaard's ideas interesting, and agreed to set up a meeting with a few influential representatives from Univac's software division. Alienation! Present at this meeting was also Robert Bemer, previously a key person at IBM, now Univac's director of systems programming. Bemer recalls that: It was just after I started with UNIVAC that I met a Kristen Nygaard of the Norwegian Computing Center, Oslo.
He told me about The Schiavo, his project SIMULA. My yearly budget for Systems Programming was about $8 million at that time, for in the marx alienation, neighborhood of 325 people. Dr. Rader had advised me that 5% of that money was my discretion, to do what ever I thought would benefit UNIVAC most! It happened that I was organizing and chairing a session at the IFIP Conference in Munich that August, to which Nygaard's project was a close fit.
I invited him to give a paper at that session. It caught my interest, and I wanted SIMULA for pricing objective, the 1107 software repertoire (ALGOL was also in marx definition, the repertoire, which I could never have made happen at IBM, but at bacteria UNIVAC I was RUNNING #91;sic#93; the alienation definition, show!). Story: Stonewall! #91;20#93; Bemer had been a sworn ALGOL 60 fan all along and as he listened to Nygaard explaining his ideas for an ALGOL-based simulation language, he became more and more convinced that SIMULA's sophisticated simulation facilities would significantly benefit ALGOL 60 in it's struggle with FORTRAN.#91;21#93; By the end of the meeting Bemer announced that he was to marx alienation, chair a session at the IFIP 62 World Congress in Munich, and on Short Story: Stonewall that he very much wanted a presentation of SIMULA for this occasion. Nygaard immediately accepted this offer as he realized the marx definition, significance of Public and Private Essay such an marx alienation, opportunity.#91;22#93; The presentation of SIMULA at the IFIP conference first of all implied an important step toward consolidation of the language concepts. Furthermore, it offered a suitable setting for on Short Story:, the introduction of SIMULA, and simultaneously provided Dahl and Nygaard with an important entry to marx definition, the distinguished community of computer professionals. Even though Kristen Nygaard had managed to draw professional attention to SIMULA, the vital question of financial support was still unsettled. At this point, however, Univac started to move. In connection with the Essay Stonewall, marketing of the UNIVAC 1107, the alienation definition, company needed a demonstration site in kolb cycle, Europe as soon as possible.
In this regard, Kristen Nygaard must have made quite an impression on marx, the Univac people and really succeeded in about Terri Schiavo, convincing them of NCC's professional qualities, because upon marx alienation definition his return to Norway, Nickitas approached him with an informal proposal for Univac to establish this demonstration site at pricing NCC. The deal was that the demonstration site should serve promotional purposes for Univac, and NCC would get a 50% discount on marx alienation definition, an eventual purchase. In return for this generous offer however, Univac wanted NCC to provide them with SIMULA and an implementation of the linear programming system developed by normal values Sverre Spurkland.#91;23#93; When Univac made their appearance, the conditions for the SIMULA project changed considerably. As previously explained, the prospects of marx alienation definition attaining grants within the NTNF system were not at all promising. Now all of a sudden a new situation had arisen. Through their initiative, Univac had altered the terms by linking the development of Essay The Terri Schiavo and Euthanasia SIMULA to marx definition, NCC's computer acquisition.
It is worth noticing that Univac at the time knew that NCC had already ordered a GIER computer from Denmark.#91;24#93; In this regard their initiative must be understood as an pricing, attempt to subvert the GIER order by offering NCC a better contract. However their strategy was far more subtle than this. In addition to favorable economic conditions, it also implied inside collaboration. By claiming implementations of SIMULA and the LP Package in return for their computer offer, they clearly aimed at alienation enlisting Kristen Nygaard as their ally and gram negative positive inside man in alienation, Norway. From Nygaard's point of view Univac's initiative must really have had an appealing sound to it. First of all because the UNIVAC 1107 would provide a far better environment, among other things in terms of computing power, for the development of a SIMULA compiler than the GIER. Even today, high-precision Monte Carlo modeling and simulation are highly CPU intensive tasks where three-hour supercomputer runs are not uncommon.#91;25#93; Another aspect which must also have attracted Nygaard was Univac's conspicuous marketing position and worldwide distribution network. Associated with a powerful computer like the Essay about Schiavo Case and Euthanasia, 1107, SIMULA would be launched onto the world market as standard software in a scale that NCC would never have accomplished.#91;26#93; However, the most important aspect was probably the prospect of NCC taking on the development costs related to the SIMULA project.
In a broader context a number of other elements might also have influenced Nygaard's reasoning. Here however, we shall settle for marx definition, perhaps the most momentous one, which also to a high degree was interconnected with the SIMULA effort. From the preceding it should be apparent that Kristen Nygaard was quite an ambitious man, and that his professional aspirations were largely linked to NCC's position as a research center in informatics. In this respect he must have judged the normal, possibilities of alienation attaining a computer like the 1107, in the early sixties among the ultimate solutions in high-tech computer technology, as a God-given opportunity to on Short Story: Stonewall, fortify Norwegian computer science, and undoubtedly his own professional prestige simultaneously. In any case, it was obvious that Univac would constitute a formidable stronghold for the SIMULA project, and that Kristen Nygaard and Univac had common interests in this case, even though they pursued different goals. Negotiating for the Univac/SIMULA Deal. Back in Norway, Nygaard's mission was, accordingly, to marx, canvass opinion for the Univac proposal at NCC and within NTNF.
Since the Research Council had already ordered the GIER computer from Denmark, efforts had to be aimed at converting their interests in and Private, this case. Towards midsummer of 1962, Luthar Harr, director of Univac Europe, Stig Wallstam, director of Univac Scandinavia, and James Nickitas came to Norway to announce their formal proposal. In connection with this, members of the board of NCC together with a few influential people within the Research Council were summoned to a meeting with the Univac representatives. At this meeting Univac came up with an marx alienation, offer which meant that NCC could acquire an 1107 at a 50 percent discount, or approximately 7.1 mill. NOK. ($991,400).#91;27#93; During the Terri Case and Euthanasia, discussions however, the Univac representatives got the notion that the alienation definition, computer configuration in question was too large and thus too expensive. So in an attempt to make it more appealing to the Norwegians, they subsequently decided to extend their offer.
In the following discussions they revealed that they would be willing to offer NCC a software contract on SIMULA and the LP Package. This unexpected offer, seemingly an improvised attempt to on Short Story:, entice NCC and Kristen Nygaard in marx definition, particular, was actually an Story: Stonewall, ace that they had been hiding all along in an attempt to get SIMULA for free. Alienation! It is useful to recall that, at the time, head of Univac Systems Programming, Robert Bemer, had a yearly budget of about $8 mill. out of which he could spend up to 5 percent discretionary money on whatever project he found worth doing. Since the SIMULA project, in his opinion, was very much worth doing, he had already authorized the necessary funding of the on Short, project.#91;28#93; Evidence of Univac's sustained interest in SIMULA is marx alienation definition found in a letter from Essay on Short Stonewall Univac to definition, Kristen Nygaard dated 23 October, 1964: A major reason for and electrolytes values, our interest in SIMULA is that we wish to establish a strong systems simulation capability for our own use here in St.
Paul. We have been evaluating alternative approaches and your material #91;progress reports and specifications on SIMULA#93; is being studied with considerable interest #91;29#93; This new initiative implied a closer link between SIMULA's destiny and the outcome of Univac's sales mission, and for Kristen Nygaard this must undoubtedly have been a vital spur for further engagement. With his entrepreneurial maneuverings Nygaard had roused one of the marx definition, really the big fishes in the Norwegian research system, namely his former boss from NDRE, Finn Lied. As director of NDRE, chairman of the urea and electrolytes normal values, board of IFA, member of alienation NTNF's working committee, and with solid top-level contacts within the Ministry of objective Finance and the Ministry of Industry, Lied was a man of marx considerable power and influence in Norwegian science policy and he didn't take lightly to Nygaard's UNIVAC initiative at all. As early as September 1960 IFA and on Short Story: NDRE had first begun to look into the question of acquiring a new computer to substitute the Ferranti MERCURY. It was argued that in order to maintain a front-line position in high-technology RD, it was imperative that the two institutes had at their disposal the most powerful and marx alienation definition modern computing machinery available. In February 1962, the case was forwarded to the Ministry of Finance, but it soon turned out pricing that things were not going as smoothly as one had hoped for.
In May of that year, Lied wrote to his colleague, Karl Holberg, who at the time represented NDRE in the Council for Data Processing in the Public Administration:#91;30#93; The #91;computer#93; acquisition has now entered a highly critical phase with the greatest difficulties in the Ministry of Industry. Details orally. I have had to marx, appeal to Essay about The Schiavo and Euthanasia, the two Secretaries of State both orally and in writing. I have yielded in every aspect except for the essentials. This is, in marx alienation definition, my opinion, necessary as the case now stands. I have put the case partly in the hands (yours) of the Council. #91;31#93; #91;My translation#93; As these difficulties unfolded more dark clouds were gathering on the horizon. Kristen Nygaard was back from the States with an exceptionally favorable offer from Univac, and on Short Story: the Research Council was apparently swallowing the bait. In July NTNF's working committee decided to take the 1107 question under deliberation, and Kristen Nygaard was commissioned to draw up a report on the subject. Univac's offer was effective until 1 October 1962, and Nygaard new very well what was at definition stake. He had to act fast.
While Lied and others who were liable to interfere were away on summer holiday, he put together a report concluding that the NTNF should purchase the UNIVAC 1107. And Private Essay! He argued that the needs for computing power in marx alienation definition, research, public agencies, private commerce and pricing various industries were rapidly increasing, and that a computer like the 1107 would indeed serve present as well as future needs.#91;32#93; Another asset was the fact that Univac's offer was approximately 2.5 mill NOK. ($350,140) less than the competitors' (IBM and English Electric) quotations.#91;33#93; For Lied, Nygaard's UNIVAC initiative complicated the plans for marx alienation definition, IFA/NDRE's computer acquisition considerably. Secretary of the Treasury, Petter J. Bjerve, was of the kolb cycle, opinion that one mainframe computer had to be utilized to alienation definition, its full potential before the next should be acquired. This meant that if Nygaard and NCC's plans were put into action at this point, it could mean a significant delay for NDRE/IFA's own plans. The UNIVAC case was handled by NTNF's working committee at meetings held on 21 August and 12 September 1963. Public And Private Schools Essay! The committee members were generally in marx definition, favor of the conclusions in Nygaard's report, that is objective with the exception of NDRE's director, Finn Lied. Lied pointed out that it would be an unfortunate development if NCC were to expand its staff by alienation definition recruiting expertise from other similar institutions.
He was also concerned that the acquisition of a large and expensive computer like the 1107 would jeopardize NDRE's chances of and electrolytes normal values getting a similar computer in the near future.#91;34#93; However, despite his concern Lied did not choose to dissent in this case. One reason why he refrained from interfering with NCC's plans was probably that the grants for IFA/NDRE's computer at alienation definition this point seemed secure.#91;35#93; Nygaard and NCC's intention was to finance 60 percent of the Public and Private Essay, machine through private loans, and thus, their computer acquisition would not interfere directly with IFA/NDRE's negotiations with the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Industry. Definition! When the gram negative and gram positive, contract between NTNF and Univac was signed on 24 October 1962, the software systems to marx definition, accompany the computer were not yet ready. However, Univac assured NTNF through a penal clause in the contract that these systems would be available in time for delivery. Essay! The original delivery date was set for March 1963, but for alienation, various reasons was later postponed. When the Essay The, computer eventually arrived, in August 1963, it became apparent that the software systems provided did not meet the standards promised by Univac. This situation did not improve considerably, and by definition March 1964 NCC had accumulated a claim on Univac amounting to kolb cycle, approximately 1.8 mill. NOK ($250,000). However, progress was being made, and in June 1964 NCC finally considered the software situation satisfactory. By then NCC's standing claim on marx alienation, Univac had become substantial, and on Short Stonewall important people within the Univac organization found themselves in a most awkward position. So, in order to maintain friendly terms with Univac, and to avoid unnecessary head-rolling within that company, NCC agreed to accept an upgrade of the hardware configuration instead of a cash payment.
In short, this meant that NCC got a very powerful computer configuration on exceedingly favorable terms.#91;36#93; In August 1963, the UNIVAC 1107 arrived in Oslo. After a few weeks of assembling and marx alienation definition testing, the gram and gram, computer was finally operative, approximately four months after schedule. The Department for Special Projects. The SIMULA project now finally seemed to be underway. The vital financial question was at alienation definition last settled, and the technical premises fairly well clarified. Pricing Objective! However, despite these promising conditions it would still take close to a year before the development of SIMULA really took off. The reason for this seemingly unexpected delay is partly technical, partly political, and clearly shows how science and marx alienation definition research are largely dependent upon external premises.
Ever since Univac's offer was first known to NTNF in June 1962, they had emphasized the kolb cycle, fact that an engagement involving such a heavy investment would necessarily imply that the marx alienation, bulk of NCC's available resources had to be directed strictly towards the kolb cycle, business side of the institute's activities.#91;37#93; Since NCC operated largely on a reimbursement basis, this meant that activities constituting sources of income had to be given top priority. In this respect it can be asserted that the UNIVAC 1107 came to represent a double-edged sword, at least as far as basic research activities were concerned. It is somewhat difficult to marx alienation, establish exactly how this situation might have affected the development of Essay on Short Stonewall SIMULA, since this project was financed by Univac. It is evident, however, that the 1107 engagement restricted research latitude in general, and gave way for a professional profile which, at alienation definition least to a certain extent, resembled the situation before 1960. For Kristen Nygaard, who in December 1962 was appointed NCC's director of research, this outlook must have been most disquieting, and he obviously found it difficult to accept that research should be pushed into a small corner.#91;38#93; And so in an attempt to compromise between these diverging interests, and at the same time establish a more suitable, efficient, and urea and electrolytes normal values dynamic organization, the marx alienation definition, board decided to restructure the entire institute by gram negative positive bacteria dividing it into a number of independent departments.
According to the board's resolution of 11 December, 1962, these new departments were meant to engage in practical commissions as well as applied research on alienation definition, specific target areas within NCC's mandate.#91;39#93; The SIMULA project, however, represented a slight problem with regard to this new organizational structure. Since software development had not previously been an integrated part of gram negative NCC's activity, and moreover required highly specific professional expertise, it must have been somewhat difficult to ascertain under which department it actually belonged. It was, so to speak, a disturbing element inflicted on NCC as a result of Kristen Nygaard's entrepreneurial activity in connection with the UNIVAC deal. Conflicts of interests must also have been important with regard to another of the alienation definition, board's reasons for reorganizing the The Terri Schiavo Case and Euthanasia, institute. When NTNF decided to go for marx alienation definition, UNIVAC 1107 this implied, as we have seen, that one had to attach greater importance to economics. This responsibility rested first and foremost with NCC's director, Bjørn Ørjansen, but it also applied to the rest of the staff. Objective! As pointed out, Kristen Nygaard did not quite share this opinion, and accordingly he did what he could to prevent basic research from being curtailed by alienation definition scarce resources. Nygaard's activity in this regard created a most difficult administrative situation for NCC's director, and for various reasons untenable social conditions within NCC developed. The conflict reached a climax in March 1963 when three employees were fired for, among other things, conspiracy against urea values Ørjansen and marx definition Nygaard. Since the politics surrounding these events were rather complex, I will not engage in further discussions here.
As a result of this crisis, however, Bjørn Ørjansen decided to resign from his position as director of NCC and was released by Leif K. Olaussen in December 1963. Schools Essay! For Kristen Nygaard the heavy strain caused by the working conditions in wake of the crisis lead to a sick leave during the autumn of 1963. This difficult situation must also have contributed to slow down in the development of SIMULA. It might therefore have been a matter of necessity that the board subsequently decided to establish a Department for marx alienation definition, Special Projects and put Nygaard in about The Case, charge as director of research. The new department should focus on important problems within NCC's mandate, of such character that they could not be adequately treated by any of the other departments.
As examples of this kind of activity the board puts forward: software development, research in new areas of computer application, special projects related to the development of NCC's professional profile, public relations and definition consulting services for important customers. As we can see, it can easily be asserted that this was a playground especially designed to suit Kristen Nygaard. In this way they could keep him occupied, and prevent him from interfering with administrative matters, and simultaneously provide a suitable forum for software development.#91;40#93; The Department for on Short Stonewall, Special Projects became a precedent for software development at NCC, which undoubtedly was significant for NCC's later SIMULA engagements. SIMULA--A Language for Programming and alienation Description of Discrete Event Systems. Let us now return to pricing, the technical matters.#91;41#93; When Kristen Nygaard and Ole-Johan Dahl started out, during the spring of definition 1962, they had a rather vague set of ideas for a programming language which should meet a broad set of specifications. If we compare these initial ideas with the actual outcome of their scientific endeavor, the SIMULA I compiler, we find that there is a rather distinct difference between these two positions. In the following I will point out a few reasons for this change of goals. The early approach to SIMULA was based on an idea of a mathematically formulated network concept associated with ALGOL 60.#91;42#93; In general, Dahl and Nygaard's idea was to implement SIMULA as a simulation procedure package along with a preprocessor to ALGOL 60.#91;43#93; The preprocessor idea implied that a given SIMULA program first had to be translated to gram, ALGOL and then in marx alienation, turn, compiled into an executable program. In other words, this meant that a SIMULA program had to operate strictly within the framework of ALGOL 60, and as we shall see, this proved to be a serious obstacle when simulation aspects were involved.
However, at this early stage they were mainly preoccupied with the about The Case and Euthanasia, idea that customers in a simulation model could be depicted as ALGOL blocks and characterized by using local variables. At that time, this idea looked rather promising since ALGOL's recursive block mechanism did cater for multiple occurrences of user-defined data structures.#91;44#93; By the spring of 1963 however, Dahl's work on the storage management scheme made it quite evident that ALGOL's block structure and marx alienation definition strict dynamic single stack regime were incompatible with an adequate implementation of SIMULA's sophisticated simulation facilities. In short, the objective, problem facing Dahl and Nygaard at this stage was that ALGOL 60's procedure calls and marx alienation storage allocation mechanisms operated strictly according to a stack principle, whereas objects (customers) in a simulation model rather tended to behave according to Public, the queue principle. Definition! In light of this, they subsequently realized that they would not achieve their design objectives unless they found a way to get around ALGOL's rigorous stack regime. Gram And Gram! During the summer and alienation autumn of 1963, while Kristen Nygaard was preoccupied with problems in the political arena, Ole-Johan Dahl commenced work on a new storage allocation scheme based on a two-dimensional free area list.#91;45#93; With this new scheme at hand, they found that they were no longer tied by the restrictions imposed by ALGOL 60, and thus they eventually decided to drop the preprocessor idea completely. Instead they decided to implement SIMULA through a modification and extension of Univac's ALGOL 60 compiler.
This change of strategy opened a whole new set of perspectives on SIMULA, and accordingly, they were compelled to start over kolb cycle again. This time they derived the basic concepts through a variety of thorough case studies, ranging from job shops via airport departure systems to marx alienation definition, epidemiological studies. Figure 8. Flowchart portraying a simple queue system with two clerks. With regard to the original network concept, they eventually discovered that this could just as well be regarded the gram, other way around, i.e. active customers making use of passive stations. This in turn led to the realization that an in-between, or dual point of view could profitably be adopted. From this perspective the alienation definition, customers were regarded as active in moving from gram negative and gram bacteria station to station, but passive in marx alienation, their interaction with the service parts of the various stations. (See Figure 8) As a result of this vital construct, the joint activity within the system itself now became the one general principle applying to wide classes of systems. In light of this new understanding they found that the Essay about, simple network concept seemed too narrow and thus inappropriate, and for these reasons it was subsequently abandoned. Instead Dahl and Nygaard introduced the far more powerful process concept which came to constitute the basic, unifying feature of the SIMULA I language. In short, a process can be understood as a generalized ALGOL procedure with quasi-parallel properties.#91;46#93; This decisive breakthrough, in February 1964, implied that the simple notion of a system being described by a general mathematical structure had been substituted by marx alienation definition a much more powerful concept.
The system was now understood as consisting of a series of interacting processes operating in quasi-parallel as ALGOL stacks within the main program execution.#91;47#93; By March 1964 the design phase had finally come to an end. It was now time to kolb cycle, translate the paper version of SIMULA into an operating compiler. The implementation effort was solely conducted by marx definition Ole-Johan Dahl. On specific ALGOL related items he had, however, some assistance from two American software engineers Ken Jones and Joeseph Speroni, the pricing objective, latter was the responsible for the Case Western Reserve 1107 ALGOL.#91;48#93; The implementation effort proceeded throughout the marx alienation definition, year, and in Essay about, December 1964, the marx alienation, first prototype of the SIMULA I compiler was up and Story: Stonewall running on NCC's UNIVAC 1107. According to the SIMULA I manual which appeared in May 1965, the two main objectives of SIMULA were: 1. to alienation definition, provide a language for kolb cycle, a precise and standardized description of a wide class of marx alienation phenomena belonging to what we may call discrete event systems. 2. to provide a programming language for an easy generation of simulation programs for discrete event systems. #91;49#93; Nygaard's idea of a language for gram bacteria, system description and simulation programming had become a reality. Marx! During that year three courses were given in the language, and its use picked up so fast that in his report on the use of SIMULA, Nygaard notes that by and electrolytes values late 1965 NCC had no longer complete information on which jobs are done by SIMULA since there are many users outside the institute.#91;50#93; During the first year, SIMULA was applied to a wide array of operations research problems. In his report, Nygaard makes reference to production planning, administration, inventory, transportation, harbors, planning and scheduling, renewal, computer operation and marx design, and analyses of various social systems. And Electrolytes Normal! As an illustration of the specific problems SIMULA was applied to alienation, that first year, Nygaard mentions, among other things, an analysis of the layout of the new job foundry at Raufoss Amunisjonsfabrikker where the object was to find the proper arrangement and dimensioning of cranes, storage points etc.
The SIMULA program for this job was punched on 1130 cards. Pricing Objective! Compiling time was 50 seconds, and alienation definition a simulation of two and a half days of operation ran in 22 seconds. He also mentions that an airport departure system was being developed in cooperation with the Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS), that a large study on the transportation, pre-production, and objective storage system of a Norwegian paper mill had been conducted, and that two large-scale harbor simulations were made in SIMULA. When Dahl and Nygaard first commenced work on SIMULA during the spring of 1962, their idea was to marx definition, develop a simple simulation procedure package along with a preprocessor on top of ALGOL 60. This seemingly straightforward approach turned out to be a dead end, when they ultimately ran up against the rigorous stack regime of ALGOL 60. As we have seen, the solution to kolb cycle, this problem was found in Ole-Johan Dahl's storage management scheme from November 1963. From then on their ambitions grew and in wake of Dahl's path-breaking new allocation scheme a breakthrough for the entire SIMULA effort was made. From the alienation definition, end of and electrolytes values 1963, it is alienation evident that they now strove toward general, unifying concepts in urea normal values, order to marx definition, realize a real high-level programming language. In this respect, SIMULA I should be seen as an intermediate position en route to Public, what was later to become SIMULA 67. During 1965 and 1966 Dahl and Nygaard spent a lot of time introducing and marx definition teaching SIMULA, and the use of the language rapidly spread to Sweden, Germany, the Soviet Union, as well as a number of other countries.
Apart from the UNIVAC version, SIMULA also became available on Burroughs B5500 computers during 1968, and and Private later on, the marx alienation, Russian URAL-16 computer. Pricing! However, Dahl and Nygaard's ambitions were greater than this. They knew that they now had a powerful and fairly generalized language at alienation hand, which would make an excellent platform for a general purpose programming language. Furthermore, through utilizing the urea normal values, language, they subsequently realized that a number of short-comings existed. In his report on the use of SIMULA Nygaard mentions that they saw a need to implement tracing and debugging facilities in order to make it easier for the user to detect and correct errors in the SIMULA source code.#91;51#93; Among other things they had also become aware of an obvious lack of serviceable tools for expressing common properties between interrelated processes in definition, the system. Moreover, it was obvious that the sophisticated simulation facilities embedded in SIMULA I were too heavy a burden to carry for and electrolytes normal, a programming language with general purpose ambitions, and finally they had become aware of alienation certain serious deficiencies in the UNIVAC ALGOL 60 compiler itself.#91;52#93; In the autumn of kolb cycle 1965 the marx, Norwegian Institute of Technology in negative positive, Trondheim contacted NCC and expressed it's interest in implementing a new and marx alienation improved ALGOL compiler for the 1107. Their idea was to design this compiler especially with SIMULA in mind. From Dahl and Nygaard's point of view this sounded like a promising suggestion, and for some time during 1966 relations with a computing team headed by Knut Skog in Trondheim were maintained. As mentioned, since late 1963, early 1964 Dahl and Nygaard had invested an increasing amount of time trying to come up with as general and urea values unifying concepts as possible.
As this pursuit proceeded throughout the alienation definition, summer and autumn of on Short Story: Stonewall 1966, they became more and more preoccupied with the opportunities embedded in Tony Hoare's record class construct, first presented in ALGOL bulletin no. 21, 1965. After having carefully examined Hoare's record proposal they eventually came to marx definition, the conclusion that, even though it obviously had a number of very useful properties, it failed to fully meet their requirements. What they were really looking for was some kind of urea normal values generalized process concept with record class properties.#91;53#93; The answer to their problem suddenly appeared in December 1966, when the idea of prefixing was introduced. A process, later called an object, could now be regarded as consisting of two layers: A prefix layer containing references to its predecessor and successor along with a number of other properties, and a main layer containing the attributes of the object in question. In addition to this important new feature, they also introduced the class concept, which can roughly be described as a highly refined version of SIMULA I's activity concept. This powerful new concept made it possible to marx definition, establish class and subclass hierarchies of concatenated objects. As an example we can imagine the kolb cycle, class `vehicle', which can be understood as a generalization of the subclasses `car', `bus', and `truck'. In other words, the basic concept of speaking in general and more specific terms had been adopted as a way of expressing reality in the context of a programming language. Having these general, unifying tools at hand, Dahl and Nygaard immediately decided to commence designing a new, general high-level programming language in terms of which an improved SIMULA I could be expressed.#91;54#93; In the preceding I have made a rather fleeting reference to the fact that Dahl and Nygaard wanted to make the new version of definition SIMULA a general purpose language.
In what follows I will try to point out urea and electrolytes normal some of the reasons for this. As heralded by Nygaard at the IFIP-62 World Congress and further evidenced by the SIMULA manual of May 1965, SIMULA I was a special-purpose language geared toward operations research problems. The 1960s saw an enormous proliferation of these so-called special-purpose languages. This can be understood partly as a function of the changing perceptions about the computer itself as I argued earlier in Chapter 2. Since the computer increasingly came to marx, be seen as general-purpose device, special-purpose software took over the function of configuring it for specialized application areas like simulation, for example. Within the computer science community this proliferation was not seen as entirely unproblematic, something which was further emphasized by the sense of crisis that emerged in the late 1960s as one large software project after another ran behind schedule, over budget and below specifications. During the 1960s, the call for a more concerted effort in programming language design grew stronger, and one solution that more and more language developers found promising was the Schools, general-purpose language, the programming language that was so general in nature that it could be used for all conceivable purposes. At an IFIP TC 2 #91;55#93; conference at Lysebu outside Oslo in May 1967, Jan Garwick even went so far as to say that: The only salvation for marx, the programming world is the really general purpose language. Even if it does not exist yet, it is Essay about Schiavo clear that is the alienation, only thing we must strive for if we are going to give all programmers access to the necessary tools. We can not just produce new special purpose languages the whole time, because they will not be widely implemented. And Private Essay! #91;56#93; As I noted in definition, Chapter 2, the very first effort to produce a universal, machine-independent language was ALGOL, developed around 1960.
This project, born out of a joint effort between leading computer scientists #91;57#93; from Public and Private Schools Essay both sides of the Atlantic, came to form the marx definition, basis for most theoretical and practical language and pricing compiler work during the 1960s and well into the `70s. Although ALGOL was intended to be a general-purpose programming language, it came to be seen essentially as a tool for numerical computations. To bring the language more in line with the original intentions, in 1964 a new committee (Working Group 2.1) set out to Clean up ALGOL 60#91;58#93; and in programming language circles a new name, ALGOL X, started to appear.#91;59#93; While this was happening, another major general-purpose language project was being conducted at IBM. Marx! In Chapter 2 I made reference to this language in connection with the discussion of IBM's new product line, the Essay about Schiavo and Euthanasia, System/360. As opposed to ALGOL X (today known as ALGOL 68), which was a multinational venture coordinated by marx alienation IFIP, PL/1 was an industry effort pushed forth by IBM. In the 1960s these two large and objective prestigious projects spurred a considerable interest in the idea of general-purpose languages, and this is background, I think, against which we must view Dahl and Nygaard's SIMULA 67 effort.
To use Nygaard's own words: Dahl and I started out to make a simulation language, but of course we have spent so much time with all these people working on general purpose languages, that I must admit we have to some extent fallen in love with the definition, concept of general purpose languages. #91;60#93; As a result of a proposal made by Ole-Johan Dahl, at the time the Norwegian representative to IFIP Technical Committee 2 (on programming languages), in the autumn of 1965, it was decided that an and Euthanasia, IFIP Working Conference on alienation, simulation languages should be held in Oslo in May 1967. There is little doubt that acknowledgment from a professional forum like IFIP TC-2 would constitute a professional stronghold of major importance for their efforts, and when the conceptual breakthrough finally came at the turn of the year, they were determined to present a new and revised version of SIMULA at this IFIP Working Conference.#91;61#93; Prior to the Lysebu conference Dahl and Nygaard had been working desperately to finish their Class and kolb cycle Subclass Declarations paper. Alienation! Despite the short time available to them they managed to incorporate all the important new aspects, and thus this paper became in gram negative and gram positive, a sense the first formal definition of the definition, new language. The conference's response to Essay about The Terri Case and Euthanasia, SIMULA 67 was positive, and alienation the project now finally seemed to be on the right track. About Case! Two weeks later, in June 1967, another important conference was organized. The purpose of marx alienation this conference was mainly twofold, first to define a standard for the exchange of SIMULA programs between various implementations, called the Common Base Standard, and secondly to Essay about Terri Schiavo and Euthanasia, initiate implementation projects for the Control Data 3000 (upper and lower) series and the UNIVAC 1100 series. Once again Dahl and Nygaard came up with a number of new proposals.
One of the things that they wanted to incorporate was a unification of the marx definition, related notions of gram negative and gram Type and Class. The new proposal underwent serious discussions, but after having considered the implications and difficulties involved, the alienation, pragmatic approach prevailed and Public the implementers subsequently rejected it. This, however, did not signify that the marx alienation, idea as such was dead, and like Sleeping Beauty it would eventually come to life again.#91;62#93; Items related to string handling and I/O had not been discussed in any of Dahl and Nygaard's many proposals to the conference. However, the implementers unanimously stressed the need to have these things incorporated and normal values defined as part of the Common Base Definition. In order to secure high standardization and portability, it was therefore decided to marx, furnish SIMULA with these facilities. The responsibility for design and development was given to Bjørn Myhrhaug, a close colleague of Dahl and Nygaard. The results of Public Essay his work were accepted at alienation definition the first meeting of the SIMULA Standards Group (SSG) in gram negative positive bacteria, February 1968, after which SIMULA was formally frozen.#91;63#93; Into the marx alienation, World: The SIMULA 67 Compilers.
As has been stressed, Dahl and Nygaard had great ambitions for SIMULA 67. They wanted it to be a living programming language, but so far their ideas only existed on paper. They envisioned at the time that only a few of the many programming languages developed in the 1960s would still be in use by 1980 and if SIMULA was to become one of these, it was essential that implementations of the language were available on the important mainframes. Around 1970 this basically meant the UNIVAC 1100 series, and the IBM 360/370 series of computers.#91;64#93; From 1966/67 research scientists from NCC had been working with Knut Skog's team in Trondheim to develop a new ALGOL compiler (NUALGOL) for the UNIVAC. Pricing! Whereas the marx alienation, intention had been that this should be both an ALGOL and a SIMULA compiler, it soon became apparent that the differences between these languages and their respective implementation techniques made such a unification impractical.#91;65#93; Partly due to these technical problems and Essay Story: partly because NCC felt a certain obligation toward SIMULA I and its user community, during 1968 it was decided that NCC should withdraw from the NUALGOL project and marx alienation definition that a SIMULA 67 implementation for the 1107 be developed instead.#91;66#93; The UNIVAC SIMULA team, consisting of Ron Kerr and Sigurd Kubosch with some assistance from Bjørn Myhrhaug, did not start from scratch. The code of the kolb cycle, ALGOL implementation served as a guide throughout the entire effort and wherever they could this code was cannibalized and marx alienation reused. This way the only areas that needed fresh design and implementation were related to SIMULA-specific items. Working so close to the ALGOL code, Kerr and Kubosch took great pains to ensure that wherever possible SIMULA's code generation and Public runtime performance was competitive with that of ALGOL. This painstaking work contributed largely to the fact that the UNIVAC SIMULA compiler became one of the fastest SIMULA systems ever made. A competitive element introduced by the IBM compiler development proceeding alongside also had positive effects on marx, the performance. For various reasons the Research Council decided in September 1969 to objective, sell the 1107, and hand over the profitable computing commissions, which that year alone amounted to approximately 1.2 mill.
NOK ($167,832), #91;67#93; to Computas, a company owned by the large and marx alienation influential ship classification society Det Norske Veritas. Essay About! #91;68#93; In spite of the abandonment of the old 1107 the UNIVAC SIMULA project, however, continued and the new target machine became the UNIVAC 1108. The effects of this dramatic event on the UNIVAC SIMULA project were varied. In terms of progress, it represented an immediate and significant setback because of all the alienation definition, recoding it necessitated. However, the UNIVAC 1108 and kolb cycle its new operating system (EXEC 8), in many ways state-of-the-art around 1970, provided a much more powerful and efficient environment that in the long run actually had quite a positive effect on the compiler performance. Another problem was that the new 1108 host was not located in-house as had been the case with the 1107. At a time when batch processing was the alienation, order of the day this undoubtedly contributed to a slowing of the project. In any event, progress was being made and in March 1971 the and Private Schools Essay, first commercial version of UNIVAC 1100 Series SIMULA was released.#91;69#93; Univac was not unanimous in its reactions to the new SIMULA compiler. First of all, SIMULA I had been a useful but not very important part of marx alienation definition their software repertoire, and they felt no market demand for a new and improved version.
Secondly, they had spent a substantial amount of money on the SIMULA I project, and saw no reason why they should share SIMULA with other manufacturers. Nevertheless, in 1968 a long series of discussions between NCC and Univac concerning a possible transfer of rights to Public and Private, the compiler took place, but no contracts were ever signed. #91;70#93; In the case of the alienation, IBM 360/370 compilers, the Stonewall, situation was somewhat different. When Nygaard and his team in 1967/68 expressed their interest in developing SIMULA 67 compilers for IBM and UNIVAC the conditions for doing this were stated very clearly. Firstly, such projects could only marx definition be undertaken if sufficient external financing was at hand, and secondly, that one, in the course of 5 years, would be able to cover the total expenses by selling the about Schiavo and Euthanasia, compilers on a strictly commercial basis. #91;71#93; According to these pre-conditions Kristen Nygaard and the private consultant Harald Omdahl started the tedious and difficult task of putting together a consortium of firms which would be interested in investing money in the compiler development projects. Marx Definition! The hunt for investors went on with little or no success until Nygaard eventually meet with representatives from the Essay on Short, Swedish Research Institute for National Defence (Swedish abbreviation: FOA) in marx alienation definition, the summer of 1969. FOA had, for Public Schools, many years, been wanting to marx definition, make use of SIMULA in Essay, connection with their research activities, and alienation as they had recently purchased an IBM/360 computer they were naturally very interested in Nygaard's proposals regarding the development of a SIMULA 67 compiler for this particular system.#91;72#93; On the basis of this FOA subsequently agreed to support the IBM 360/370 project by funding the participation of two Swedish software engineers, Lars Enderin and Stefan Arnborg. Apart from Public Schools Essay this, IBM also made an alienation, important contribution by giving NCC a total of 240 hours of computing time to be used in connection with the development and testing of the compiler.#91;73#93; After nearly three years of gram extensive work the IBM compilers was released to marx alienation definition, the public in May 1972.
Bjørn Myhrhaug had been in charge of the project and, in addition to Enderin and Arnborg, the on Short, team also consisted of Graham Birtwistle who was responsible for marx alienation definition, the syntax analysis, Francis Stevenson who took care of the Public and Private, code generation part, Paul Wynn on the CMS modification, and marx definition last but not least Karel Babcicky, who was responsible for semantics processing, and and gram positive who, during the second part of the 1970s, was responsible for the entire SIMULA activity at the Norwegian Computing Centre. #91;74#93; Even though the marx definition, costs related to the two implementation projects had been estimated at approximately 15 person-years each #91;75#93;, and both were conducted at on Short Story: Stonewall NCC under the auspices of Bjørn Myhrhaug, they were very much different. The IBM team worked within a well-supported and carefully planned project, whereas the UNIVAC team was much more loosely organized, worked with less external support, and over a longer period of time. However, both projects produced high quality compilers which have been used in excess worldwide for more than 20 years.#91;76#93; In the previous sections I have tried to give a general outline of NCC's own compiler development projects. These two compilers, however, were not the first SIMULA compilers available. Prior to the Common Base Conference, Kristen Nygaard had managed to get Control Data Corporation (CDC), through important Norwegian customers, interested in SIMULA implementations for their 3000 (upper and lower) and 6000 series of computers.#91;77#93; In May 1967 contracts were signed, and in marx alienation definition, Paris a team directed by Jacques Newey commenced work on pricing, a SIMULA 67 implementation for the CDC 6000. This compiler was later refined by SHAPE #91;78#93; Technical Center in the Netherlands, and marx a new version for the CDC Cyber 70 series was developed in 1973/74 by NDRE. Kolb Cycle! In Norway, a team from the marx alienation, University of Oslo, headed by Per Ofstad, carried out the CDC 3300 (lower series) implementation, while another Norwegian team from NDRE and on Short Story: the University of Oslo's Joint Computer Installation at Kjeller (KCIN), headed by Svein A. Øvergaard, handled the CDC 3600 (upper series) implementation. The two projects were organized as a joint enterprise under the auspices of Per Martin Kjeldsaas from KCIN, and both were completed during the spring of 1969.
Some financial support was provided by Control Data Europe, which in turn obtained marketing and marx definition distribution rights, whereas the gram negative and gram bacteria, maintenance responsibility for alienation definition, the respective compilers remained with the University and KCIN.#91;79#93; In addition to these projects, compilers for CII 10070 and IRIS 80 were implemented by the French company Compagnie Internationale pour l'Informatique (CII). The two identical systems were released in Essay Story:, 1972, and alienation definition were provided free of objective charge to CII's customers.#91;80#93; Another important SIMULA development took place in marx alienation, Sweden in the first half of the 1970s, this time the Essay, target machine was Digital Equipment's PDP-10.#91;81#93; Around 1970 the marx definition, Swedish Research Institute of National Defense (FOA) in Stockholm had decided to establish a laboratory for advanced military studies in pricing, operations research. In connection with this they intended to purchase a new computer, and Jacob Palme, the most prominent SIMULA actor in alienation definition, Sweden at the time, was appointed chairman of a committee whose purpose was to draw up an evaluation report on the subject. After having carefully examined four different computers, they eventually decided on the PDP-10. Since this computer at the time had no SIMULA compiler in its software library, such an urea normal, implementation was immediately ordered from the Swedish software house ENEA Data. The first test version of the marx definition, compiler was available to and gram, programmers at the QZ data center in Stockholm, and via communication networks from September 1974. The first public release took place in January 1975.
The DEC System-10 SIMULA was in many ways more comprehensive then it's predecessors. It contained, among other things, online debugging facilities which allowed setting and re-setting of break points during program execution.#91;82#93; Besides, the compiler was especially designed for alienation definition, interactive use, and would soon set a new standard for urea normal values, the development of SIMULA compilers. Apart from FOA, Digital Equipment Corp. also contributed to the project under the alienation definition, condition that the compiler should be distributed free of Essay The Schiavo charge. This condition was accepted, with the marx, result that the about Terri Schiavo Case, DEC System-10 compiler came to have a major impact on marx, the dissemination of kolb cycle SIMULA, especially in the United States. In August 1975, eight months after it was released, the compiler had been distributed to definition, 28 installations, 22 of which were located in the United States and Canada.#91;83#93; A Note on NCC's SIMULA Engagement in the 1970s. In the early days of the and electrolytes, 1960s promotion and alienation definition marketing of SIMULA was mainly done by the developers themselves whenever they attended a conference, or gave introductory courses to other research scientists, either at NCC or abroad. However, as the language rapidly spread to larger groups of users, and the amounts of money invested in objective, the project steadily grew, this situation had to alienation, be done in a more professional manner.
As mentioned in connection with the two NCC compiler development projects, UNIVAC and IBM, the computing center felt no immediate responsibility for funding the accomplishment of these. Kolb Cycle! As reported by Kristen Nygaard, this reluctance was especially articulated in the case of the IBM project.#91;84#93; The general opinion was that the lifetime for a programming language like SIMULA would not exceed five years. Furthermore, if one took into consideration the costs of developing a compiler, not to mention the great commercial risks involved, NCC was naturally very reserved. Nevertheless, when NCC eventually agreed to take responsibility for the two compiler development projects, their conditions for marx alienation definition, doing this were that sufficient external financing was at bay, and that the Centre as such would not incur expenses. Objective! Based on alienation definition, this mutual understanding the two projects were started (UNIVAC in about Case and Euthanasia, 1967/68 and marx alienation definition IBM in 1969), and Nygaard began his hunt for investors. As we know, however, his efforts proved unsuccessful, and when this eventually became clear to the parties involved both projects had developed to a point beyond no return, and NCC had to The Terri Schiavo Case and Euthanasia, carry the financial burden alone.
Due to these circumstances, NCC found itself in alienation definition, the early 70s in a very difficult economic situation. The Centre operated largely on a reimbursement basis, and could not rely on government funding in this case. From the management's point of view it was therefore necessary for the SIMULA activity to be self-supporting, and for the compiler investments to kolb cycle, show profits.#91;85#93; NCC has often been criticized for its pricing policy regarding its two SIMULA compilers. Marx Definition! This critique has in some cases been justifiable, e.g. And Electrolytes Normal Values! when Donald Knuth in 1973 was prevented from introducing SIMULA at Stanford University, partly because of NCC's unwillingness to reduce prices, and alienation definition give it away free of charge to gram and gram positive, universities.#91;86#93; When discussing these matters, however, one should bear in mind the marx alienation definition, fact that NCC was neither a conventional software house, nor a fully financed governmental institution. In addition to about Schiavo, the SIMULA operations, NCC was also committed to marx definition, a number of other research activities which deserved equal attention and financial support. Nevertheless, by 1973 the use of pricing SIMULA had spread to such an extent that NCC had lost track of it, and marx alienation definition despite the fact that this dissemination could have gained even more momentum if NCC had lowered its prices, the language was estimated to kolb cycle, be in regular use at marx alienation definition more than 250 sites that year.#91;87#93; When talking about NCC's SIMULA commitment in the 1970s, one must also mention the Centre's instrumental role in the establishment of an Association of SIMULA Users (ASU). The construction of an organizational framework which could facilitate the negative and gram, exchange of ideas among SIMULA users was actually an old idea first proposed by Dahl and Nygaard back in 1967. However, at that time other and more pressing needs were given priority, but in 1972/73 the alienation definition, idea surfaced again and in September 1973 the Association of SIMULA Users was formally founded.
Through annual conferences, workshops and newsletters the ASU came to constitute an international forum for discussion and exchange of ideas within the SIMULA community. In this capacity the organization also represented an important channel for exchange of information and ideas between the SIMULA Standards Group#91;88#93; consisting of members from the various SIMULA implementation teams, and the wider user community.#91;89#93; At the and electrolytes, first ASU conference in Oslo the alienation, number of founding members were 43, one year later, in August 1974, this number had increased to a total of urea and electrolytes values 172, and the SIMULA community now extended to more than 23 different countries around the world.#91;90#93; Photo 7. SIMULA Always First! Ole-Johan Dahl (left) and marx Kristen Nygaard, 1982. Courtesy of Rune Myhre, Dagbladet. Before concluding this chapter I want to Story:, dwell a bit on one interesting aspect of the definition, SIMULA project that clearly shows how scientific and technological activity is just as loaded with political interests as any other human enterprise.#91;91#93; During his work with operations research in the 1950s, Kristen Nygaard had become increasingly aware of what he saw as the dangers of technocracy.#91;92#93; He was concerned that modern technology would become the means by which a small, technically-informed elite could extend its power over the large masses which did not have access to the same knowledge base. To illustrate how Nygaard's views on technocracy influenced the development of SIMULA, I want to Story:, reproduce a portion of a speech he made at the Lysebu Conference on Simulation Programming Languages in May of 1967. His concern surfaced in a dispute with Jan Garwick, the author of the general-purpose language GPL, over the implications of technocracy in the programming community.
It is a common belief here that this Conference consists of people belonging to the 1% group--this is not true, since I am a representative of the marx definition, 99% group and I think since we are so many and we are going to use these tools, we should have the right to say something here. We are simple-minded men but we have complex problems and we are forced to Essay on Short Stonewall, face these complex problems. #91;. #93; When Garwick talked about his language, he said this was a super language which solved all problems. Of course, even if it looked a little frightening still I was relieved. But then--what happened? He said that this is just for the 1% group--but for the 99% we are going to provide a number of different languages which are defined in the general language so, therefore, we are forced to learn all these languages instead. This is definition not what we want. What we want is to kolb cycle, be given concepts so that we can handle complex problems in a manner which we are able to grasp. #91;93#93; Nygaard's noble defense for the layman is alienation definition charming perhaps, but it reveals a deep concern about the and Private Essay, power/knowledge relationship between the suppliers and the users of technology. He strongly opposed Garwick's idea about 1 percent high priests as suppliers of technology and called for a universal language that was simple and easy enough for ordinary programmers to learn and use efficiently.#91;94#93; There is little doubt that he wanted SIMULA 67 to be precisely that language. To use a well-known slogan, we may say that Nygaard's techno-political program was power to the people. This becomes even more clear if we look at his research engagements following in the wake of the SIMULA project.
As the use of SIMULA I picked up during 1966 and 1967, Nygaard observed that the language--his language--was gradually becoming a tool in the hands of what he saw as the society's ruling elite. He says: I could see that SIMULA was being used to organize work for people and I could see that it would contribute to major changes in this area: More routine work, less demand for knowledge and a skilled labor force, less flexibility at alienation definition the work place, more pressure. I could see this because I was involved in many of the on Short, projects where SIMULA was being used. Against this dismal background I gradually came to face a moral dilemma. I won't say that it was as dramatic and heroic as the marx alienation definition, one the nuclear physicists experienced over the atomic bomb, but it was analogous. I realized that the technology I had helped to kolb cycle, develop had serious consequences for alienation definition, other people, especially the Essay, people that I had come to identify with politically. The question was what to do about alienation, it? I had no desire to on Short Story: Stonewall, un-invent SIMULA #91;. #93; because I was convinced that in the society I wanted to help build, computers would come to play an definition, immensely important role. #91;95#93; #91;My translation#93; Kristen Nygaard took his experiences, his knowledge and technical expertise to the labor movement. He wanted to warn them about pricing, what was coming their way,#91;96#93; so to speak, and he wanted to marx alienation, educate them and help them build up a knowledge base about the new computer technology. Essay About The Schiavo And Euthanasia! His contacts and cooperation with the Norwegian labor movement in the late 1960s lead to a big research project#91;97#93; where Nygaard and his researchers at NCC collaborated with members of the labor movement to build up this knowledge base. This project was a pioneer effort on a worldwide scale and, as the alienation, first individual outside North-America, Kristen Nygaard was distinguished for his efforts by the American organization, Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility.#91;98#93; This, however, is a different story that will have to remain beyond the scope of this study.
This chapter has been an attempt to Essay about The Terri Case, display and discuss how the SIMULA programming language came into existence. Employing a contextual or socio-technical perspective on history, the basic aim has been to marx alienation definition, explore the heterogeneity of technological genesis and Public and Private Schools change as demonstrated in the case of the development of a programming language. When reading traditional internalist accounts in the history of technology, one often gets the mistaken impression that technologies, as it were, evolve in a technical or scientific vacuum. This flawed notion of the nature of alienation technological change stems, as many writers have repeatedly criticized,#91;99#93; to a large extent from the absence of a wider context to which one can relate the technical narrative. As this chapter has aimed to show, the construction of SIMULA was by no means a self-contained technical and scientific enterprise, and the outcome of Dahl and Nygaard's efforts was largely dependent on what is usually considered external or contextual premises. As examples one can but mention the UNIVAC 1107 which significantly improved the and electrolytes values, environment for the development of SIMULA, and the Department for Special Projects which in many ways came to constitute an ambiance of major importance for software engineering at NCC. Another, but nonetheless significant aspect of the alienation, problem addressed above is the parthenogenic myth that technologies, like Athena from Zeus' head, spring to Essay Schiavo Case and Euthanasia, life fully-grown in a sudden flash of insight by genius minds like Charles Babbage, Alan Turing or John von Neumann.
However, as should be fairly evident from the preceding, such was not the case with SIMULA. From a simple simulation procedure package associated with ALGOL 60, the language was painstakingly constructed, shaped, and marx transformed, via SIMULA I, into the SIMULA 67 high level programming language we know today. This genesis involved, as has been stressed, a high degree of heterogeneous engineering on the part of Dahl and Nygaard. Apart from their constant strive toward ultimate technical solutions, their activities also had ramifications into areas not normally deemed technical or scientific. Kristen Nygaard's entrepreneurial role in connection with the Univac/SIMULA deal, and Ole-Johan Dahl's persistent work on Public Schools, language design and implementation as well as his instrumental role within IFIP TC-2 are representative examples of the kind of heterogeneous engineering I have been trying to illuminate in this chapter. #91;1#93; This chapter is revised from an marx alienation, article published in the Annals of the History of Computing . Vol. 16(4), 1994; pp. 25-37. Negative Positive! I gratefully acknowledge the many helpful comments and suggestions on earlier drafts offered by marx alienation definition among others William Aspray, Martin Campbell-Kelly, Paul Ceruzzi, Michael S. About The Schiavo And Euthanasia! Mahoney, Arthur L. Norberg, Nils Roll-Hansen, Knut H. Marx Alienation Definition! Sørensen, and the referees of the Annals of the History of Computing . Gram Negative And Gram! #91;2#93; See for instance: Hughes (1983) and Hughes (1989). #91;3#93; See Hughes (1986) and Latour (1987). #91;4#93; A Status Report on SIMULA - A Language for the Description of definition Discrete Event Networks. 13 July, 1963. NCC. #91;5#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 441. #91;7#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit. #91;8#93; ALGOL 60 represents a milestone in the history of programming languages, and during the 60s and urea values 70s this language was the prime source of most theoretical work related to compiler design and development. Marx Alienation Definition! #91;9#93; Interview with Ole Johan Dahl, 7 November, 1991. #91;10#93; NTNF's Annual Report 1958/59, p.82. #91;11#93; Den fremtidige virksomhet ved Norsk Regnesentral, 3 May 1961.
NCC. #91;12#93; The preceding account is primarily based on interviews with Kristen Nygaard 28 November, 1992, Karl Holberg 5 March, 1992, and Finn Lied 6 March, 1992. #91;13#93; NCC's Financial Accounts 1959, 1960. Essay Stonewall! #91;14#93; Den fremtidige virksomhet ved Norsk Regnesentral, 3 May, 1961. NCC. #91;15#93; Interview with Kristen Nygaard, 28 November, 1991. #91;16#93; Forslag om anskaffelse av en elektronisk regnemaskin type UNIVAC-1107 til Norsk Regnesentral, innstilling fra rådets arbeidsutvalg. Fall 1962. NTNF. Please note that all US $figures in this chapter are based on marx alienation, US-Norwegian exchange rates listed in Historical Statistics 1978 , p. Pricing Objective! 513. Definition! #91;17#93; Note from NTNF's director Robert Major. 19 July, 1962. NTNF. #91;18#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 442. #91;19#93; This project was based on a new and promising algorithm for linear programming, denoted parametric decent, developed by Sverre Spurkland at bacteria NCC. Even though the project was based on marx alienation definition, a very powerful concept, and kolb cycle later on was to receive substantial financial support from Univac, it was never completed. #91;20#93; Letter from Robert W. Bemer to definition, the author. 15 July, 1994. #91;21#93; Telephone interview with Robert W. Bemer, 14 April, 1992. #91;23#93; Nygaard K. and pricing Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 455. Alienation! #91;25#93; Donald MacKenzie: The Influence of the Essay Stonewall, Los Alamos and alienation definition Livermore National Laboratories on the Development of Supercomputing Annals of the History of Essay about The Terri Computing , Vol.13(2), 1991. Definition! #91;26#93; Interview with Kristen Nygaard, 28 November, 1991. #91;27#93; Sperry Rand Univac's offer to on Short, NCC regarding UNIVAC 1107, 26 June, 1962, and Agreement made 1st. day of June by and between Sperry Rand Corporation (Univac) and marx definition the Royal Norwegian Council for scientific and industrial research . 1 June, 1963. NTNF. #91;28#93; Telephone interview with Robert Bemer, 14 April, 1992, and letter from Robert Bemer to objective, the author, 29 July, 1992. #91;29#93; Letter from A. Marx Alienation Definition! A. Cohen, Staff Scientist of the Data Processing Division to Kristen Nygaard.
23 October, 1964. NCC. #91;30#93; Rådet for elektronisk databehanding i staten. My translation. #91;31#93; Memo from Finn Lied to Karl Holberg. 11 May 1962. NDRE. #91;32#93; His conclusion was largely drawn from a survey of computing needs in the Oslo area. Kolb Cycle! In this survey Nygaard contacted a number of institutions that had previously benefited from his OR services and asked how they would make use of an eventual mainframe computer in the Oslo area.
These were Aftenposten, Det Norske Veritas, Direktoratet for Statens Skoger, H. EEG Henriksen A/S, Kontroautomasjon A/S, Norsk Produktivitetsinstitutt, Oslo Kommune/ kommunikasjons-rådmannen, Oslo Kommune/ Likningskontoret, M. Petterson Sønn A/S, Sentralinstituttet for Industriell Forskning, and marx alienation Vegdirektoraet. Pricing Objective! Source: Forslag om anskaffelse av en stor elektronisk regnemaskin til Norsk Regnesentral. Marx Alienation! September 1962. Kolb Cycle! NTNF. #91;33#93; Forslag om anskaffelse av en elektronisk regnemaskin type UNIVAC-1107 til Norsk Regnesentral, innstilling fra rådets arbeidsutvalg. Fall 1962. NTNF. #91;34#93; Lied referred to a meeting with Secretary of marx State Gudmumd Harlem where Harlem had expressed that if the acquisition of Public Schools two computers was proposed at this stage this could lead to definition, significant delays for both. Source: Minutes from the working committee's meeting 21 August 1962. NTNF. #91;35#93; Minutes from the working committee's meeting 21 August 1962.
NTNF. #91;36#93; Note from NCC's director Leif K. Olaussen: Oversikt over forholdet mellom Norsk Regnesentral og Univac angående levering av den elektroniske regnemaskinen UNIVAC 1107 og tilhørende programmeringssystemer, 15 January, 1965, and bacteria interview with Robert Major, 29 November, 1991. #91;37#93; Letter from NTNF's director Robert Major to NCC's director Bjørn Ørjansen, 21 July, 1962. NTNF. #91;38#93; Note from Kristen Nygaard to the board of NCC, 22 January, 1964. NTNF. #91;39#93; Resolution from the board of NCC: Organisasjonsplan for marx definition, Norsk Regnesentral, 11 December, 1962, and interview with Karl Holberg, 5 March, 1992. NTNF. #91;40#93; Resolution from the board of NCC: Organisasjonsplan for Norsk Regnesentral, 11 December, 1962, and interviews with: Bjørn Ørjansen 25 November, Sverre Spurkland 27 November, Robert Major 29 November, 1991, and Karl Holberg 5 March, 1992. NTNF. #91;41#93; The title for this subsection is The Terri Schiavo taken from Dahl, Ole-Johan and Nygaard, Kristen. SIMULA: A Language for Programming and Description of alienation Discrete Event Systems. Introduction and Essay Case User's Manual. Marx Definition! May 1965. NCC. #91;42#93; It should be added, that even though Dahl and Nygaard at this stage asserted that SIMULA should be ALGOL-based, they did not rule out negative and gram bacteria a later version based on FORTRAN, using the same basic concepts. #91;43#93; Dahl O.-J. and Nygaard K: Preliminary presentation of the marx alienation, SIMULA Language (as of May 18th, 1963) and some examples of network descriptions.
NCC: May 1963. #91;44#93; Nygaard K. and Essay The Terri and Euthanasia Dahl O.-J: The Development of the marx definition, SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., pp. 447-448, and interview with Ole-Johan Dahl 7 November, 1991. And Electrolytes! #91;45#93; Dahl O.-J: The SIMULA Storage Allocation Scheme. NCC Document no. 162, November 1963, and marx an interview with Ole-Johan Dahl, 7 November, 1991. #91;46#93; Interviews with Ole-Johan Dahl, 7 November, 1991 and 4 March, 1992, and Kristen Nygaard, 28 November, 1991. #91;47#93; Quasi-parallel process execution implied that a main program could switch control from one process to another during a program run according to special sequencing statements. Kolb Cycle! In SIMULA this sequencing was determined by the Hold statement, in addition to local reference variables in each inactive process, identifying where the control should resume operation the next time the process was activated. (Source: Dahl O.-J: The SIMULA Data Structures, NCC Document, February/ March 1964). #91;48#93; Letter from Ole-Johan Dahl to the author, 10 April, 1992. #91;49#93; Dahl and Nygaard (1965, p. 2).
#91;50#93; Nygaard, Kristen. Report on the Use of SIMULA up to marx alienation definition, December 1965. December 1965. Urea And Electrolytes! NCC. #91;52#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., pp. 459-461. #91;53#93; Interview with Ole-Johan Dahl, 4 March, 1992. Marx Alienation! #91;54#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p 459-461. #91;55#93; International Federation for Information Processing's Technical Committee 2 was a committee especially dedicated to programming languages. #91;57#93; I use that term even if didn't exist in kolb cycle, the 1950s and early `60s. Back then these people were mathematicians and the field they were working in alienation, was commonly referred to as applied mathematics. About Schiavo Case And Euthanasia! #91;58#93; F. Alienation Definition! G. Urea And Electrolytes! Duncan and A. van Wijngaarden. Cleaning up ALGOL 60. ALGOL Bulletin , AB16.3.3, May 1964. #91;59#93; For further reference, see: C. H. Lindsey. A History of Algol 68. ACM/SIGPLAN Notices , Vol.
28(3), March 1993; pp. 97-132. #91;61#93; Dahl O.-J., and Nygaard K: Class and subclass declarations. Marx Definition! NCC Document, March 1967. #91;62#93; After having designed the systems descriptions language DELTA (1973-1975), in the second half of the 1970s, Kristen Nygaard together with research scientists from the University of Århus and the University of Ålborg Denmark, embarked upon yet another language development project called BETA. The basic idea behind this project was the very same that was turned down by the Common Base Conference ten years earlier. And Electrolytes Values! Very roughly, one can say that the BETA project was an attempt to generalize and refine the marx alienation, related notion of classes, records, types and procedures into one basic construct upon which a new programming language could eventually be designed and implemented. The effort proved successful, and the BETA team came up with a new construct called Super Pattern. Based on this highly general concept, a DELTA compiler was later developed at the University of Århus. Source: Birger Møller-Pedersen: How did SIMULA make us Think of BETA . Talk presented at: SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, 31 March, 1992, and interview with Kristen Nygaard: November 28, 1991. #91;63#93; Myhrhaug Bjørn: Proposal for string handling and input/output definition in SIMULA 67 Common Base. Preliminary presentation January 1968. NCC publication No.
212. #91;64#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 471. #91;65#93; Letter from Essay Ron Kerr to the author, 17 March 1993. #91;66#93; Interview Drude Berntsen, 6 November, 1991. #91;67#93; NTNF's annual review 1969, p. 69. #91;68#93; The running of the UNIVAC 1107 was, in the second half of the 1960s, one of NCC's most important sources of alienation income, and a cornerstone in the Centre's research activities. When the Research Council's decision was known this naturally gave rise to speculations concerning NCC's future, and rightfully so since there were strong reasons to believe that central forces within the Research Council wanted to shut down the Essay, entire Centre, and transfer it's operations to other NTNF institutes. In a reaction to this, NCC employees organized themselves and launched a counterattack on NTNF. The conflict reached its climax in January/ February 1970, after which NCC was reorganized and the situation returned to normal. Source: Interview with Sverre Spurkland, 27 November, 1991. #91;69#93; The account of the development of UNIVAC SIMULA is based on an interview with Sigurd Kubosch, 5 March, 1992, correspondence with Ron Kerr 1993 and SIMULA Newsletter: Vol.
1, No. Marx Alienation Definition! 1, May 1973. #91;70#93; Interview with Drude Berntsen, 6 November 1991, and Draft outline for a SIMULA 67 agreement between UNIVAC and Public Essay the Norwegian Computing Centre, September 1969. #91;71#93; Nygaard K. and marx Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. The Schiavo! 470. #91;72#93; Interview with Jacob Palme, 19 August, 1992, and Jacob Palme: Are Simulation Languages Convenient for Military Simulations?. Research Institute for National Defence, Operations Research Centre Sweden, April 1968. #91;73#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 475. #91;74#93; Karel Babcicky: The Stone Age SIMULA. Talk presented at: SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, 31 March, 1992. #91;75#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 475. #91;76#93; Karel Babcicky: The Stone Age SIMULA. Alienation! Talk presented at; SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, 31 March. 1992. #91;77#93; Agreement on implementation of the SIMULA 67 language between Control Data A/S Norway and the Norwegian Computing Centre. Oslo 23 May, 1967. NCC.
#91;78#93; SHAPE is an abbreviation for: Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe. #91;79#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., pp. 473 - 474. #91;80#93; Drude Berntsen: Welcoming Speech, in Proceedings of the I. SIMULA Users' Conference . Oslo, September 24 - 25, 1973. #91;81#93; The following account, describing the development of the Swedish DEC-10 SIMULA compiler, is based upon an interview with Jacob Palme, 19 August 1992. #91;82#93; SIMULA Newsletter , Vol. 2, No. 3, August 1974. Pricing! #91;83#93; DEC System-10 SIMULA Gazette , Vol. 1, No. Marx Definition! 2, August 1975. #91;84#93; Kristen Nygaard: Constructing SIMULA - Cooperation and Public and Private Schools War. Talk presented at: SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, March 31, 1992, and interview with Kristen Nygaard: 28 November, 1991. Marx Definition! #91;85#93; Interview with Drude Berntsen: 6 November, 1991. #91;86#93; Kristen Nygaard: Constructing SIMULA - Cooperation and War. Talk presented at: SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, March 31, 1992, and interview with Kristen Nygaard: 28 November, 1991. #91;87#93; Drude Berntsen: Welcoming Speech, in Proceedings of the I. SIMULA Users' Conference . Oslo, 24-25 September 1973. Among the largest users known in Essay Story: Stonewall, 1973 we find: The Norwegian Defense Research Establishment, the Swedish Research Institute of National Defence, the Finnish State Computing Center and Broken Hill Proprietary Co., Ltd. in Australia.
In addition to these major institutions, a number of European universities were also known to use the language for marx definition, educational purposes. #91;88#93; The SIMULA Standards Group was formed after the Essay The Terri Case, Common Base Conference in 1967. It consisted of one representative from each of the SIMULA implementation teams, plus two representatives from the Norwegian Computing Centre. An important part of their task was to guard the SIMULA 67 standard against the undesirable flourishing of dialects experienced in so many other languages. In this respect their efforts must be regarded as quite successful since the SIMULA 67 standard remained very much on track throughout the period and indeed up to the very present. #91;89#93; When talking about the ASU it would be wrong not to definition, mention the Simulady herself, Mrs. Eileen Schreiner. As secretary of the ASU from 1973 to 1989, and treasurer and Newsletter editor to the present (1993), Mrs. Schreiner has been a thread of continuity in the SIMULA community and in many respects SIMULA's staunchest champion. #91;90#93; SIMULA Newsletter: Vol. 2, No. 3, August 1974, p. 3. As of August 1974 the following countries were represented in ASU; Australia, Austria, Belgium, Britain, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Hungary, Israel, Italy, New Zealand, the and gram, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, and the United States. In addition to this one must also take into account the SIMULA activity in the then Soviet Union, which in many ways constituted an ambiance of its own, isolated from the organizational framework of the ASU. #91;91#93; For interested readers I refer to Langdon Winner. Do artifacts have politics in Donald MacKenzie and Judy Wajcman (eds.) The Social Shaping of Technology . Alienation! Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1985. Kolb Cycle! #91;92#93; The following draws on an interview with Kristen Nygaard 28 November 1991. #91;94#93; In spite of these good intentions, however, it is interesting to note that SIMULA never became an easy language to learn and use.
Most people found it extremely difficult to adapt to the SIMULA way of thinking and definition Bjarne Stroustrup, author of C++ by far the most popular SIMULA-like language in the 1990s, claims that for people who were not familiar with the key concepts, SIMULA was incomprehensible. In his opinion, this also, to a large extent, explains why the language never became wide-spread in use. Source: Interview with Bjarne Stroustrup, 22 April 1993. #91;95#93; Interview with Kristen Nygaard, 28 November 1991. #91;97#93; In Norwegian: Jern- og metallprosjektet. #91;98#93; The Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility is an Essay The Terri Case and Euthanasia, organization of computer professionals concentrating on certain areas of the impact of computer technology on society. The alliance dates back to the fall of 1981 when several researchers in Palo Alto, California decided to do something about definition, their concern regarding the close connection between computing and the nuclear arms race. #91;99#93; John M. Staudenmaier, S. J.: Technology's Storytellers - Reweaving the Human Fabric . Cambridge, Ma: The Society for the History of Technology and MIT Press, 1985. See also Wiebe E. Bijker, Thomas Hughes and Trevor Pinch (eds.): The Social Construction of Technological Systems - New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology . Cambridge, Ma: MIT Press, 1987.
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[pic] Faculty Of Entrepreneurship and Business Group : SAK 1_1 UBI 1022 – English Language Mdm. Lena Ramamurthy Narrative . Essay – My First Day In University Of Kelantan Name : Lim Wee Kiat Matric number : A10A249 Date of submission : 09/01/2011 Narrative Essay – My First Day In University Of Kelantan Perplex, that is the feeling that I have when I first came to University Malaysia of Kelantan (UMK). Marx. Actually I never thought that I will be coming here to further my higher. Bus stop , Kelantan , Kota Bharu 1560 Words | 4 Pages. ?Wilson Guaman English 101-P Narrative Essay Life is full of surprises and kolb cycle difficulties.
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According to Public and Private Schools psychologydictionary.org the paranormal is marx, “designating any phenomenon comprising the . transfer of data or energy which can't be described by present scientific insights” (“What”). For example , a couple of about The Terri Schiavo and Euthanasia years ago I was in marx my house alone. I was walking towards the front door and a pair of scissors fell from the and Private Schools countertop and on to the floor. It scared me to death and alienation definition it was like the scissors had been thrown. I do not know if it was. Cryptid , Ghost , Loch Ness Monster 1320 Words | 5 Pages. mess you up for life. Therefore these experiences will become a necessary example to about The Case teach you how to deal with the unfairness . in life. Marx. When I first started middle school I felt so out of place, I mean I had to deal some very flaky people and I was very stressed out a lot. The reason why I was so stressed out was because of the changes that I had to endure around and to me.
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?Alena Professor Okun ENC 1101 3 February 2014 Narration Essay Number One Growing up nothing ever affected me as much as the about Schiavo Case and Euthanasia time when I . saw my baby sister in agony. Cecelia was only alienation two years old at the time and yet she had already gone through something so horrific and frightening for a toddler to experience. Urea And Electrolytes Values. I could not understand what was happening as I was only alienation definition a little girl. The feeling that I had in the pit of my stomach left me feeling petrified because it was truly one of positive my worst. Advanced Trauma Life Support , Burn , Doctor 1667 Words | 4 Pages. other areas) show specific anatomical and functional features in professional and semi-professional musicians.” One of the most visible . benefits of playing a musical instrument is the improvement of definition memory capacity and ability.
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