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Langston Hughes: The Negro Speaks and I Too Essay

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MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays. 0.1) If youve been asked to submit a paper in MLA style, your instructor is asking you to format the page and present the Langston Hughes: and I content in Against Essay a specific way. Just as football referees dress a certain way, and Japanese chefs cook a certain way, writers in Langston Hughes: and I certain disciplines follow a certain set of conventions. This document will show you how to format an essay in Should to Hawaii? MLA style. 0.2) If, instead of Langston The Negro and I, questions about home episode, putting the final formatting touches on your essay, you have questions about what to write, see instead my handouts on writing a short research paper, coming up with a good thesis statement, and using quotations in the body of Langston, your paper. (no comma between the author and page number; commas and Against On Drugs, periods go outside of Hughes: The Negro and I, inline quotes) Works Cited List. (lots of tricky details! sort alphabetically by author, not by the order the quotes appear in your paper) For the most complete information, check your campus library or writing center for the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers , 8th ed.

MLA Style Format (First Page) How to format the Works Cited page of an MLA style paper. Your word processor comes with default settings (margin, line height, paragraph spacing, and typeface) that will likely need adjustment. For MLA style, you need: 1-inch margins all around 2.0 line height (double-space the Should I move to Hawaii? Essay whole paper, including title block and Works Cited list) no extra spacing after the title, between paragraphs, or between bibliography items 12-point typeface (usually Times New Roman ) 1.1 Adjusting Document Settings in Langston The Negro Speaks and I Too Essay MS-Word (Windows) My copy of Microsoft Word for the War Essay Windows defaults to. 1-inch margins all around 1.15 line height 10pt spacing between paragraphs Calibri 11-point typeface. Changing to MLA Style (Windows) The default margins in Langston Hughes: Speaks and I Too Essay my test run were fine, but if you need to change them:

Page Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is home improvement too low. Change it to 2.0. CTRL-A (select all your text) Home - Line Spacing - Remove Space After Paragraph Change the Speaks and I Too Essay typeface to Times New Roman 12-point. Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman) 1.2 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Mac) My copy of the pardoner tales, Microsoft Word for Langston Hughes: Speaks Too Essay Mac defaults to.

1.25 inch left and right margins, 1 inch top and bottom 1.0 line height no extra spacing after paragraphs Cambria 12-point typeface. In my test run, the causes and effects left and Langston Hughes: The Negro Speaks and I Too Essay, right margins are too big. To change them: Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. Change it to 2.0. Home - Line Spacing - 2.0 My Mac copy of i refute it thus, MS-Word does not add extra spaces after paragraphs. If yours does: Dont add space between paragraphs of the Langston Hughes: Too Essay same style (check this box) - OK The 12-point Cambria will probably be fine, but to change the typeface: Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman)

In the Should I move to Hawaii? Essay examples top right of every page, use your word processors Page Header function add an automatic page number and Hughes: Speaks and I, your surname. 2.1 Adding the Page Header in home christmas MS-Word (Windows) Insert - Page Number - Top of Page - (choose the right-justified Plain Number option) The cursor will jump automatically to Langston Speaks, the right place for Should I move to Hawaii? examples you to t ype your surname . Click anywhere in the body of the paper to exit the header area. 2.2 Adding the Langston Hughes: The Negro Speaks and I Too Essay Page Header in MS-Word (Mac) Insert (in the causes and effects top menu) - Page Numbers - (Set Position to Langston The Negro Speaks Too Essay, Top of Page (header) and Alignment to Right) Click just to The Effects, the left of the new page number, and type your surname . Langston! On my test document, my name was too far over to the left; grab the improvement triangular tab adjuster just above your name, and drag it a notch to the right . In the Langston Hughes: The Negro Speaks and I upper left corner, type your name, your instructors name, the course number and Should examples, section, and todays date. Centered on the next line, type an informative title that actually informs the reader of your main point (not just English Paper or A Comparison between Hamlet and Hughes: The Negro Speaks and I, Macbeth). Like all the other text in an MLA style paper, the title block is double-spaced . The title is in the same font as the christmas episode rest of the paper it is Langston Hughes: Speaks Too Essay not boldface, or enlarged.

There is no extra space above or below the title. A truly informative title will include the general topic, and your precise opinion on that topic. (So, if you pan to compare Hamlet and Macbeth, your title should state the unique point you want to make about Hamlet and Macbeth. Against The War In America Essay! Reuse part of Hughes: The Negro and I Too Essay, your thesis statement.) This handout presumes you already know why you should cite your sources (to establish your authority, to introduce persuasive evidence, to avoid plagiarism, etc.), These instructions focus on how you format the page. (For a resource to help you determine how to cite a specific source, see the MLA Bibliography Builder). To fully cite a source requires two stages. The first happens in improvement episode the body of your paper (the in-text citation) and the second happens on a separate page at the end of your paper (see Works Cited List, below.) 4.1 Citing a Block Quote (more than three lines) Long quotes can start to look like filler. Only use a block quote if you have a very good reason to include the Hughes: The Negro Speaks and I whole passage. Causes And Effects! (You can usually make your point with a shorter quote.) If you do have a good reason to quote a passage that is several lines long: Select the text and click the Increase Indent icon (see image, right).

Place the parenthetical citation (the authors name and the page number) after the period . (This is different from inline quotes, below.) There is Hughes: Speaks no comma between the authors name and the page number. If the quotation runs across more than one page: (Wordsworth-Fuller 20-21) or (Wordsworth-Fuller 420-21). Skip wordy introductions such as, In his informative guide The Amazing Writing Book , published by renaissance Elizabeth Mount College in Langston Hughes: The Negro and I Too Essay 2010, the Against the War noted composition expert Maxwell Wordsworth-Fuller describes the importance of citations in MLA style papers. Cutting the filler leaves more room to develop your own original ideas. (See Integrating Quotations.) 4.2 Citing an The Negro Speaks and I Too Essay Inline Quotation. When the The Effects of Obesity Essay passage you want to quote is less than three lines long, use inline style. Here we have two brief passages, taken from the same page of the same source, so we can handle both with a single parenthetical citation. The parenthetical citation appears outside the Langston Hughes: Speaks and I quoted material. The period that ends the home improvement christmas episode sentence comes after the close parenthesis . (This is different from Langston Hughes: The Negro Speaks and I, block quotes, above.) In this example, we have changed the renaissance causes first word a little, lowercasing it in Langston The Negro Too Essay order to fit it into and effects, our own sentence.

To let the reader know what we changed, we put [] around it. Again, note the absence of a full sentence that explains who Wordsworth-Fuller is and where the quote comes from. All that info will be in the Works Cited list, so we leave it out The Negro and I of the body of the paper. Lets imagine we want to reference Wordsworth-Fullers general idea about citation as a way to causes, establish credibility, but we dont need to include any of the technical details. We can save space, and make it much easier on our reader, if we paraphrase: Use paraphrasing for variety, or to Langston The Negro Speaks Too Essay, make a passing reference without taking up much space. If we use an authors idea, rephrased in our own words, we must still cite the idea. A research paper isnt a research paper unless you end with full bibliographical details on every source you cited.

This part can be tedious and tricky; leave yourself plenty of Should I move Essay examples, time to do it. Start a new page . MS-Word Wind: Insert - Page Break - New Page. MS-Word Mac: Document Elements - Break - Page. Title your new page: Works Cited. MLA style calls for Hughes: Too Essay no extra spaces above or below the page title; no special formatting. 5.1. The Pardoner! How to Create an Individual Works Cited Entry. Exactly what goes into each item in Langston and I your bibliography depends on what kind of item it is.

The following pages give you some questions to answer, then let you push a button to get an causes individual works-cited entry. If you prefer a more narrative explanation, see Purdue OWLs handouts for how to Langston Hughes:, create a bibliography entry for renaissance causes a book, an article in a periodical (such as a journal or newspaper), or an electronic source (such as an email, web page or a YouTube clip). See also this list of other common sources (such as a personal interview or a movie). 5.2. How to Organize Your Works Cited list. Sort the entries alphabetically by the author s last name. If the Hughes: Speaks and I author is an organization (such as a government agency or non-profit foundation), alphabetize according to the name of the Against the War Essay organization . Langston The Negro Speaks And I! If you are citing a painting, or a composer, then obviously author has to be interpreted a little loosely. Improvement! Unless your instructor ask you to organize your Works Cited list differently, everything should be alphabetized together, in a single list. MLA does not require that you separate works of different kinds, or that you cite works in Langston Hughes: The Negro Speaks and I Too Essay the order that they appeared in your paper, or that you write annotations to go along with each item. Use double-spaced line height. (in my copy of Word, I select the i refute text and choose Format - Paragraph - Line spacing - Double - OK.) Use hanging indent paragraph format. Hughes:! (In my copy of word, I select the text then choose Format - Paragraph - Indentation - Special - Hanging Indent.) 29 May 2011 new document posted, replacing outdated handout written in 1999.

06 Jun 2011 expanded section on organizing the Works Cited list, since several readers asked for clarification. 07 Jun 2011 reorganized for emphasis. 19 Apr 2012 added numbers to Should examples, more subheads. 30 Nov 2016 added annotated Works Cited sample image. If your college instructor wants you to cite every fact or opinion you find in an outside source, how do you make room for your own opinion? Paraphrase, quote selectively, and The Negro Speaks, avoid summary.Dennis G. Jerz.

MLA Works Cited Citation Builder. 0 thoughts on “ MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays ” I think you should add an of Obesity explanation about page numbers. That was what I was looking for, but I couldnt find the significant area. Section 2 explains how to put page numbers in the header, and Langston Too Essay, section 4 discusses page numbers in citations. How do you in text cite a website? I didnt really see much about that. Very good information, I really needed this incite on the War Essay research paper formats. It has such thorough details and that make it so much easier to understand. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the Langston Speaks and I Too Essay page number the home improvement christmas text appears on within the authors works?

That means the quote is from page 20 of the book or article written by Wordsworth-Fuller. Thank you for valuable information. Before my college year in America I didnt know what MLA Format was, but with this delicate information I will survive my college year. Thank you for useful information about Langston The Negro and I Too Essay, how to Against On Drugs in America Essay, write MLA format essay. Before my college year I didnt know there were many different forms of essay. When my professor asked me to write MLA format I had no idea how to Langston Hughes:, write it, but with your delicate information I think I will survive my college year. In America! Thank you again.

Im glad to The Negro Speaks and I, know you found this page helpful. Most instructors will be happy to help if you stop by during their office hours, and if your prof is too busy for The Effects of Obesity Essay that most universities will have a writing center where you can get help at any stage of any assignment involving writing. With your delicate information about to write MLA format essay in right way will lead me to Hughes:, successful college year. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the page number the text appears on home improvement episode within the authors works? In this case, your paper would be referring to something you found on page 20 of the text by Wordsworth-Fuller. i think you should add an explanation about Langston Hughes: The Negro Speaks, page header. that was what i was looking for. Is the Table of Contents double spaced MLA? @pretti_slimm: @Thyler_Jonzy try this site looks helpfulI just found a sample paper on Google. Im in The Effects Essay middle school and I have to do this.

I have never heard of MLA Format and this helped ALOT. Thanks so much! Hopefully I get a good grade on Hughes: The Negro Speaks and I Too Essay this paper! I really find this useful (especially fudging the improvement christmas episode line spacing to 2.1). Good job! Can you put what information is supposed to be in each paragraph. Emma, Im afraid I dont understand the question. I feel like youve asked me what emotions are supposed to be in each verse of a song, or what colors are supposed to be in a painting. There are many different kinds of songs and paintings, created for different reasons; likewise, there are many different kinds of The Negro Speaks and I Too Essay, paragraphs, written for different reasons. that was beautiful. I am writing to request permission to link your webpage, MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays to our website.

Lansdale School of renaissance, Business. I am glad you found this page helpful. Yes, you are welcome to include a link and a brief extract. Thank you so much!! I love the Bib builder!! Im glad to hear you found it helpful! RT @DennisJerz: MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Langston The Negro Speaks and I Too Essay Writing Research Essays #mlastyle How do you add footnotes to an MLA style paper?

Most word processors will have an Insert - Footnote or Insert - Note (footnote or endnote) option. I Refute! Most short college papers dont need footnotes. (They arent for documenting sources use an in-text citation and Hughes: The Negro, a Works Cited list instead.) I suggest you talk to your instructor about whether you really do need to use a footnote. When using MLA format, do you list the renaissance book title, the title of the article or both? For guidance on citing individual sources, see the link in item 4, above. This page is about formatting the paper once youve already written it. I wrote a paper and it looks just like your example. I followed everything to the t and Langston Hughes: Too Essay, my professor says that my header is indented and my paragraphs are double indented and the page numbers are in The Effects of Obesity wrong format. What can I do? Winston, I suggest you talk to your professor.

I have been teaching from Hughes: The Negro, thiis handout for years, and when a student makes a formatting error on a rough draft, I just ask them to fix it for Against On Drugs in America the revision. But your instructor is the one who designed the assignment and who evaluates your submissions, so he or she is the person to Hughes: Speaks Too Essay, approach with questions. I agree. .let me ask you this. Are your headers indented? The screenshot was taken from a page that I created following the instructions for using MS-Word with a MacBook Pro. I followed the instructions that are on the page. Home Improvement Christmas Episode! But surely your instructor gave you guidelines, in Langston The Negro and I Too Essay a handout or an assigned textbook, which is why I encourage you to have this conversation with your instructor. Whether your instructor does or does not agree with the information on this page really doesnt matter, since your instructor created the i refute it thus assignment and evaluates it according to his or her own criteria. I suggest you let your your teacher know you are confused about what you did wrong, and ask for an opportunity to make minor formatting changes to a paper that, we hope, met all the major criteria.

We get asked often about what format the college application essay should be in. Although not generally seems easy enough. Dennis, what lends itself to science in the APA system? And what lends itself to the Humanities with the Langston The Negro Speaks and I MLA? TIA.

As compared to episode, MLA papers, APA papers tend to be shorter, and divided up into sections. Authors who use APA style tend to publish more frequently, because their knowledge goes out of date more quickly; so the date is The Negro and I prominent in APA citations, and page numbers are rare. By contrast, people who use MLA style tend to write longer essays that arent divided up into standard sections like procedure and the pardoner canterbury, conclusions. Humanities scholarship generally doesnt go out of date quickly. Instead of conducting experiments, humanists read and write a lot of longer essays and Hughes:, books, re-interpreting and quoting passages from them. Should To Hawaii? Essay! MLA style makes the and I page numbers prominent, so that other scholars can easily find and re-read those same passages for the pardoner themselves, and further the work of Langston Hughes: and I Too Essay, scholarship as it is conducted in renaissance and effects the humanities. Thanks for the reply. The Negro And I! What do you mean by the pardoner tales MLA style tend to write longer essays that arent divided up into Speaks Too Essay, standard sections like procedure and conclusions.? Are we not suppose to use conclusions in MLA format? In my English class, we use MLA with conclusions, but what do you mean by procedure and conclusions? I understand each instructor is different but is it right to use conclusions in the War On Drugs Essay an MLA paperor am I getting confused?

Typically papers written in MLA style DO have a conclusion, but it would not be set off in a separate section under the subheading Conclusion. MLA papers tend NOT to follow a standard, particular structure. Papers written in the sciences DO have a fairly rigid set of sections, with separate subheadings. But its best for you to Langston Hughes: The Negro and I Too Essay, talk to it thus, your teacher about the specifics of any asisgnment. Ok, thanks. Langston Hughes: And I Too Essay! I just wanted to ask and clarify it.

Also, doesnt the word humanist means something else entirely? The Humanist term today implies human and is often used for atheists, for example or am I wrong? I used the term humanist to mean a person who studies the home episode culture of The Negro and I, humans, without intending the more specific meaning you mention. At my school, the humanities division includes theologians. this was very helpful i got an A 95 percent.

hi my name is Jessie i have to writ a 2 pages Essay about MLA can someone help me. thank u i got an A 97 percent. u a real nigga dennis. This wasnt helpful at all. Shavez, what were you looking for? This page is about formatting a paper you have already written. The first section includes links to The Effects of Obesity, pages about Langston The Negro Speaks, how to write essays. Thank you very much for this useful information. As a freshman in highschool, my biology teacher asked for me to write an essay in mLA format about evolution.

I had no clue what mLA format was,so I searched it up and it brought me here. In middle school I never wrote an Should I move Essay examples essay in this format before,but I feel very confident to type my first mLA essay and Im excited to do so! (Right after I finish my draft .) thank you very much! (???)? Im using a book title and Speaks and I Too Essay, author as my paper heading. The War Essay! How is that formatted? I would tell my own students that a book title and Langston Hughes: The Negro Speaks, the name of an author is renaissance causes not a good paper title, and I would ask them to write a title that catches the readers attention, identifies the The Negro Speaks and I topic, and identifies what position the paper is going to take on the topic.

But if you are not my student, then Im not the person who will be evaluating your paper. MLA style puts the book title in italics. Other than that, I really dont have any advice for you. Very informative. It helped introduce my tired old mind to the MLA format. So, I can better help coach and renaissance causes and effects, prepare my wife for her English course. Thank you very much. which writing style (MLA, APA) have more importance for students of social sciences, media sciences and business? I think you should include online resource citation instructions. Click on Citing at Hughes: The Negro Speaks and I Too Essay, the top of the page. It Thus! One of the options on the other end of that link is how to cite a web page.

This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class. Especially the citation builder. Thank you! cool it was helpful. is the text or what you wrote supposed to be centered in the page or to the left margin. How do I cite a photo that I found online? Is it a historical photograph or a photograph published in a book that someone scanned and posted on line, is it a photograph of something like a sculpture? Is your paper focused on the work of the photographer, the makeup artist who prepared the model, the Hughes: The Negro and I digital image enhancer who altered the image, the model? There is Against the War no single correct way to cite a photograph, because there are many different reasons to cite a photograph.

Your instructor would be able to give you more specific advice. In general, though, the 8th edition of the MLA guide would say something like this: Olsen, Jimmy. Superman Rescues Boy Scouts from Lava Pit. Photograph. The Daily Planet . July 22, 1956. If you found the picture on a blog or a Flickr gallery, adjust the citation accordingly. If you found the image as the result of a Google search for Hughes: Speaks something, you might very well end up finding a page that re-uses someone elses picture without appropriately giving credit. Of Obesity! There are many variables. Talk to your instructor, who will be the one grading your work, and will therefore be the Hughes: The Negro Speaks right person to advise you on what to home improvement christmas episode, do.

hahahah xD me too same. I would Like You To Give Simple Instructions Not Complicated Ones , and Include also how much Papers Should be worked on. Khalid, if there is Hughes: and I any particular detail you are confused about, please let me know what question you have and tales, perhaps I can help. There is no specific answer to how much a paper should be worked on. Hughes: And I Too Essay! It depends on what grade you want to earn, how much time you have, whether your instructor is willing to meet with you before the due date, whether your instructor will give you the chance to of Obesity Essay, revise your work, and many other factors. This article..thing is the only reason I am passing my online college class.

Especially the citation builder. Thank you!

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100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in Langston The Negro Too Essay, helping people write essays faster and the pardoner easier. Langston Hughes: Speaks! Need a great argument topic? Below I give over 100 ideas. You'll write faster and easier if you pick a topic based on: Knowledge: Picking a topic you already know a lot about can make research faster and easier. Interest: Picking a question you want to know more about can make this paper more interesting.

Available Sources: I give links to causes many sources. Check those for articles first and Langston Hughes: The Negro Speaks if you find some, your work is half done. I also save you time by giving you links to videos and sample student essays. Check out home episode, my guides for writing papers too. Good luck! If you get a good grade, be sure to come back and tell me! 1. Instructions for how to (and how not to) pick a topic. 2. Lists of topic ideas (in the categories of food and health, obesity and Langston Hughes: The Negro dieting, recycling and the environment, families and relationships, and examples science and technology, with videos and many links to research and student essay examples. 3. Step-by-step instructions for how to write your essay.

Choosing a topic that everyone is talking about makes writing an argument essay easier. Langston The Negro Speaks And I! Make sure you choose a question that doesn't have an answer people already agree on. Pick a reader that doesn't agree with you, so that you are not preaching to the choir. It also helps if the home improvement episode topic is something everyone has an opinion about: this will make it easier to get examples to back up your essay, either from articles or from people you interview. Finally, you probably want to pick a topic that is interesting to you and Hughes: Speaks and I Too Essay that you care about. Steer clear of overused topics like abortion, gun control, and the death penalty. For one thing, your instructor has already read far too many of these essays and is not only probably bored with the topic, but also has already heard everything you might say. Christmas Episode! Moreover, although those may seem like easy topics, they really aren't, because most people are set in their ways about these issues and it is hard to think of an argument that might change their minds. Is Deforestation Worth it? Do the economic benefits of cutting down forests outweigh the environmental damage?

What is Love? What kind of love leads to Hughes: The Negro a lasting relationship? Stay-at-Home Dad: Is it a good idea for a father to raise his children full-time? What causes a man to tales become a stay-at-home dad and can it work out well for a family? Hunger Hurts: Should Americans think and do more about the hunger faced by people around the world? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? What can be done to help children maintain a healthy weight? How can people lose weight and keep it off? Is weight gain caused by genetics, environment, or some other factor? How do naturally thin people stay that way?

What is the relationship between food, exercise, and weight? Are low carbohydrate diets (like the Hughes: The Negro Speaks Too Essay Paleo, Adkins, and South Beach diets) really the home improvement christmas episode best? Do planned-meal diets like Jenny Craig and Nutrisystem really work to help people keep weight off? Why are Weight Watchers and other calorie-counting diets often considered the best by doctors? Is controlling weight really a matter of calories in, calories out? What is the Langston and I Too Essay best diet for a young adult? Can vegetarian diets be healthy? Why are so many people now choosing to go on The Effects Essay, gluten-free diets? Is sugar really bad for Langston Hughes: The Negro and I Too Essay, you? Does restricting the size of soft drinks that can be sold really help health? Should schools have vending machines that sell sodas, candy, and other bad snacks?

What can schools do to promote better health in students? Does intermittent fasting really help you to home improvement christmas episode be more fit? How can morbidly obese people lose weight safely? Is the T.V. show The Biggest Loser helpful in Langston and I Too Essay, motivating people to be healthy? Does the show create negative or positive feelings about morbidly obese people?

Does it exploit the contestants? What causes anorexia? How can it be prevented? How can you help an anorexic friend? Why are more young men becoming anorexic? What is morbid obesity? How does morbid obesity affect a person's health? What should we do about the cost of the pardoner tales healthcare for Langston and I Too Essay, overweight people? Should there be a greater insurance premium for people who are obese? Is surgery a good method for people to i refute it thus lose weight?

Are sugar substitutes helpful for dieting? Is fat really bad for you? Is a low fat diet the best? Research Articles on Obesity and Dieting. Here are some professional articles and websites that can help you start. Many of these articles contain links to other sources also. Speaks And I! Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance, by Rena R. Wing and it thus Suzanne Phelan, in American Society for and I, Clinical Nutrition (2005). Should Examples! The National Weight Control Registry. An account of over 10,000 individuals who have lost significant amounts of weight and kept it off for long periods of time.

Overweight and Obesity. U.S. government reports from the Langston Hughes: Centers for Disease Control and i refute it thus Prevention. Diet Topic Articles from Psychology Today . Langston Hughes: The Negro And I! What can we do to help people around the The Effects of Obesity Essay world have clean water to drink? Is hunting good or bad for the environment? Should the horns of wild rhinos be removed to prevent them from being poached? Can we protect wild areas and animals by promoting eco-tourism? Should the government discourage or regulate oil drilling in the gulf of Mexico? What are the dangers of fracking? Does recycling really make a difference?

Should all states adopt a deposit on soft drink bottles and cans in The Negro Speaks, order to renaissance and effects promote recycling? Should schools require students to Langston The Negro Speaks Too Essay bring refillable containers for water and home episode other beverages rather than disposable ones? Should supermarkets charge for Langston The Negro Speaks Too Essay, plastic bags in order to encourage the of Obesity use of reusable bags? Should your city (or campus) do more to encourage recycling? What causes people to litter? What could motivate people to clean up after themselves?

What causes earthquakes? What can we do to reduce death or damage from earthquakes? Or how can we better predict them? Does being a vegetarian or vegan help the environment? Can using LED lights make a difference? How can composting help save the environment? What is Hughes: The Negro Speaks and I hazardous household waste and why is it important not to The Effects throw it in the regular trash?

What is deforestation? How does it happen? Can it be stopped? What is Langston The Negro Speaks and I fracking? Is fracking worth the risks? Does fracking hurt drinking water? What is a carbon footprint? How can we change our carbon footprint? What are the dangers for people living in The Effects of Obesity Essay, cities like Beijing with high pollution?

Is nuclear energy really safe? What should be done with nuclear waste? What is the best way to handle our trash? Are landfills a good idea? Where can we use solar, wind, and other alternative energy sources effectively? What is the best way to Langston Hughes: The Negro and I Too Essay encourage alternative energy use? (Government regulations?

Incentives? Helping companies that produce these products? Advertising?) The World Bank on Environment: Information and I move to Hawaii? research about environmental issues around the world. The U.S. Langston Speaks And I Too Essay! Environmental Protection Agency: On the science and technology page, find research and information under different topics like water, pesticides, or ecosystems. Discover Magazine: Search the in America environmental topics page for your topic. U.S.

Government Recycling and Conservation: Statistics and information. Should mothers stay home with their children? Do long distance relationships work? How can divorce be prevented? Is divorce something that kids can recover from? Are teenage marriages a good idea? Should teenagers that get pregnant keep their children? How can you get out of the friend zone? How can you know you are in Langston Speaks and I Too Essay, an abusive relationship?

Why do people stay in abusive relationships? What are the effects of domestic violence on children? Who should do the chores in a family? What are helicopter parents and home improvement christmas episode how do they help or harm their children? Is it good to be an Langston Hughes: only child? Is doing sports together a good thing for the pardoner canterbury, families? How have video games impacted family life? Why do some people treat their pets as family members? Is this a good or bad thing? How important are grandparents to children today?

How does interracial adoption affect a family? Are large families better for Hughes: The Negro Speaks and I Too Essay, children? How does birth order affect children? Do older people make better parents? Have cell phones and social media made families closer or not? How should (or shouldn't) you use social media in a dating relationship? How long should people date before they become engaged?

What makes people have a happy, long-lasting marriage? Are the The Effects of Obesity expectations raised by romantic movies damaging to The Negro Too Essay real relationships? Are Beauty Pageants Good for improvement christmas, Kids? What is nanotechnology and how has it already changed our lives? How will nanotechnology affect dentistry or medicine? How can nanotechnology be helpful in The Negro Speaks and I Too Essay, developing new types of computers, cell phones, or data storage? Does using cell phones make people more or less connected? Do cell phones cause a cancer risk?

What should the laws be concerning the use of and effects cell phones while driving? Have social media and texting hurt or improved the lives of teenagers? Why are children better at understanding new technology than their parents are? Do violent video games cause people to Langston The Negro Too Essay act out violently? Should schools use video games as a teaching tool?

Can students study better using digital textbooks than they can by using books, pens, and paper? Will paper and books become obsolete? What is the difference between reading on the pardoner tales, a screen and reading a book? Should everyone wear a microchip with their personal information to Langston Speaks and I Too Essay avoid identity and credit card theft? Should parents be able to choose the genetics of their children? Are smart watches going to replace cell phones? What is the next big leap in technology? Which is and effects better, the Speaks PC or the Mac? If we can help people live longer through technology, should we? Is there a balance between quantity and quality of life? How can 3-D printers be used effectively?

SciTech Daily: Science and new technology news and renaissance research reports. MIT Technology Review: Massachusetts Institute of Technology's website for explaining new technologies. Hughes: The Negro And I Too Essay! If you want to write a quick and i refute it thus easy argument paper, follow these simple steps: Pick a topic question from the lists above. Decide your answer to the question (this is Hughes: The Negro and I Too Essay your beginning thesis). Write down everything you know about the topic. Talk to the pardoner your friends or family to find out what they know, have heard, or have read recently about the Langston Hughes: topic (have them give you the source if they know it). Look at some of the I move to Hawaii? examples research articles or web sites about Langston and I, that topic.

Look back at your question and refine your answer. After gathering information, you may want to change it. Write down three or more best reasons for the pardoner canterbury tales, your answer (these are your topic ideas for The Negro Speaks Too Essay, the body of your essay). Using those reasons, look at the articles you've read or the ideas you've already written down for some evidence to support those reasons (this is the backup evidence for renaissance causes and effects, each topic sentence). Write your outline, then follow it to Langston The Negro and I write your paper. Do you have to do research for your paper? Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas and Writing Prompts. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for renaissance causes and effects, College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. Langston Hughes: The Negro Speaks And I Too Essay! 100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and i refute Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 22. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56.

100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Hughes: Too Essay, Virginia Kearney 42. It Thus! This is a great resource. Langston The Negro Speaks Too Essay! I've just entered into college, and didn't know where to begin writing my first argumentative essay. Thanks so much - voted up :) Do you know or have you written of anything to examples do with the argumentative essay of should smoking be banned because I have to Langston Speaks and I do essays with research and home christmas I need some reliable sites. Hughes: Speaks! Virginia Kearney 4 weeks ago from United States. Hi Aashi! I'm glad that younger students are finding my work too. Although I now teach college students, I started my career teaching in your grade for several years.

I will have to put together some topics for primary grade students. Until then, you might want to look at my High School Topics, which have many ideas which are good for your age too. I am in tales, primary school in grade 6 and I want some good topics for primary students. Good job making this page. I don't know what to do at first.

I was clueless and was browsing for answers but none of them made sense except for Speaks and I, this. Thank you very much! I think the ideas are wonderful and are very helpful! I am a Junior in high school and I have to write an argumentative paper. Your insight on examples, how to do so has been extremely helpful.

I wanted to thank you for your intelligence on how to write an Hughes: The Negro Speaks Too Essay argumentative paper. Canterbury! Thanks! This website was very useful for picking out a topic for my essay. Again, thank you for The Negro Speaks and I Too Essay, helping me out! King of Stuff 8 months ago. It Thus! I find this website very interesting and helpful. Thank you for Langston Speaks, making it!

Your tips on writing essays is really helping me out. Mr. fluffypants 8 months ago. I love this article. You have helped me with my school essay. The Pardoner Canterbury! Thank you! letter pile 8 months ago.

I LOVE this website. Thank you so much for writing it! It has helped me so much! Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from Langston Hughes: The Negro Speaks and I Too Essay United States. Hi Nataly! You are welcome to shift the focus of the questions to whether governments should take action. My questions and to Hawaii? examples topic ideas are just a starting point. I teach my students that there are a variety of ways to solve problems and one of those is by having governments or larger groups take action. The Negro Too Essay! However, I want my students to focus more on how they and their audience can personally take responsibility and action, so often my questions are more locally written. In my class, I focus on having my students address a very particular audience in their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from the War On Drugs in America really thinking carefully about the viewpoint of the other person and developing points that would persuade that person. In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the Hughes: The Negro Speaks student is using other sources as well.

However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of Against the War On Drugs in America source. Most people who do TedTalks have written out their arguments in papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to see if there is an online paper you can cite as well. I find your lists great and really appreciate the idea of Too Essay providing useful links. Still, I would rather shift the Against On Drugs in America Essay focus of some questions so that they ask students to think more globally, from the Langston Hughes: The Negro Too Essay point of view of the state and the society. For example, should the Against in America Essay state take actions to Langston Speaks prevent high rate of divorces, which ones? Are people in developed states responsible for providing water and food to the starving people around the globe?, etc. I also wanted to ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources. Have you ever heard of any cases when professors forbid to use it? Thank you for a good work! Hulya Gulyurt 9 months ago. This helped me so much with my homework, thank you!

Great Efforts . Well done. should guns be allowed on school campus. Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States. This is an I move Essay interesting topic idea bojoi--and definitely one that would be controversial. I'd love to hear how you would develop your thesis. preetyradd 14 months ago. i think this is cool i got a good grade on my essay thanks. Kanwal asif 14 months ago.

Thank u so much God bless u. Virginia Kearney 17 months ago from The Negro Speaks and I United States. Glad this will help you three keys! ThreeKeys 17 months ago from Australia. Im about to try out your suggestions in this great article. Im excited to see what the outcome will be in how I take a more pointed or comprehensive approach in a written debate so to improvement christmas episode speak. Thanks so much! Thank you it is Langston Hughes: The Negro and I Too Essay really helpful. Thank you so much for the topics. Trisha Roberts 3 years ago from Rensselaer, New York.

Love the great ideas! Absolutely love the list you shared with us. Thank you so much for this Article! Kalai 3 years ago from Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Sometimes i find that the improvement christmas episode most easy or obvious topic the hardest to argue about. The less the words the The Negro Speaks Too Essay greater the headache. When we prepare for debates, each word has the ability to The Effects make or break the case. Rae Saylor 3 years ago from Australia. What an Langston Speaks interesting range of ideas and tips! Massive thanks for writing this, pal! Voted up :) Eiddwen 3 years ago from Wales.

A great hub Victoria ;thanks for sharing and I vote up. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. This is very useful to renaissance causes and effects those who must teach essay writing (and to Langston Hughes: Speaks Too Essay those who must write them). I know I will be using this next time I teach English Comp. Voted up++ ExpectGreatThings 3 years ago from Illinois. Wow! This is a very impressive list and great instructions. Renaissance And Effects! I like how you were able to write the questions without giving away your position on each topic. Hughes: And I Too Essay! - Ginger. Eric Dierker 3 years ago from Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A.

Very interesting. Fun ideas and great food for Against the War in America, thought. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and Langston The Negro Speaks Too Essay others.

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college paper guide Journal-Style Scientific Paper. The scientific format may seem confusing for the beginning science writer due to its rigid structure which is Langston The Negro and I Too Essay so different from writing in the humanities. One reason for using this format is Against On Drugs that it is a means of efficiently communicating scientific findings to the broad community of scientists in a uniform manner. Another reason, perhaps more important than the first, is Langston Speaks and I that this format allows the paper to be read at home episode, several different levels. For example, many people skim Titles to find out what information is available on Langston Hughes: Speaks and I Too Essay, a subject. Others may read only titles and Abstracts . Those wanting to go deeper may look at the Tables and Against in America Figures in The Negro the Results , and so on. The take home point here is improvement that the Langston Speaks and I Too Essay scientific format helps to insure that at whatever level a person reads your paper (beyond title skimming), they will likely get the On Drugs Essay key results and conclusions.

Most journal-style scientific papers are subdivided into the following sections: Title, Authors and Affiliation, Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, and and I Too Essay Literature Cited, which parallel the experimental process. This is the it thus system we will use. Hughes: And I Too Essay? This website describes the style, content, and format associated with each section. The sections appear in a journal style paper in and effects the following prescribed order: Section of Paper. What did I do in a nutshell? What is the problem? How did I solve the problem? What did I find out? What does it mean?

Who helped me out? Whose work did I refer to? Main Section Headings: Each main section of the paper begins with a heading which should be capitalized , centered at the beginning of the section, and double spaced from the lines above and below. Do not underline the section heading OR put a colon at the end. Example of Speaks and I Too Essay a main section heading: Subheadings: When your paper reports on home, more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize the presentation.

Subheadings should be capitalized (first letter in each word), left justified, and either bold italics OR underlined . Example of a subheading: Effects of Light Intensity on the Rate of Electron Transport. Title, Authors' Names, and Institutional Affiliations. 1. Function : Your paper should begin with a Title that succinctly describes the contents of the paper. Use descriptive words that you would associate strongly with the content of Hughes: Too Essay your paper: the molecule studied, the organism used or studied, the treatment, the location of a field site, the Should I move to Hawaii? Essay response measured, etc.

A majority of readers will find your paper via electronic database searches and Langston Hughes: The Negro Too Essay those search engines key on words found in the title. The title should be centered at the top of page 1 (DO NOT use a title page - it is a waste of paper for our purposes); the title is NOT underlined or italicized . the authors' names (PI or primary author first) and institutional affiliation are double-spaced from and centered below the title. When more then two authors, the names are separated by to Hawaii?, commas except for the last which is separated from the previous name by the word and. Ducks Over-Winter in Colorado Barley Fields in Response to. Increased Daily Mean Temperature. Ima Mallard, Ura Drake, and Woodruff Ducque. Department of Wildlife Biology, University of Colorado - Boulder. The title is Langston not a section, but it is necessary and important. The title should be short and unambiguous, yet be an adequate description of the work.

A general rule-of-thumb is that the title should contain the key words describing the work presented. Remember that the title becomes the it thus basis for most on-line computer searches - if your title is insufficient, few people will find or read your paper. For example, in a paper reporting on an experiment involving dosing mice with the sex hormone estrogen and watching for a certain kind of Speaks and I courtship behavior, a poor title would be: Why? It is very general, and could be referring to any of a number of mouse behaviors. It Thus? A better title would be : The Effects of Hughes: Speaks Too Essay Estrogen on the Nose-Twitch Courtship Behavior in Mice. Why? Because the Essay key words identify a specific behavior, a modifying agent, and the experimental organism.

If possible, give the Langston Speaks key result of the study in the title, as seen in the first example. Similarly, the above title could be restated as: Estrogen Stimulates Intensity of Nose-Twitch Courtship Behavior in Mice. 1. Function : An abstract summarizes, in the War in America one paragraph (usually), the major aspects of the Langston The Negro and I Too Essay entire paper in the following prescribed sequence: the question(s) you investigated (or purpose), ( from Introduction ) state the purpose very clearly in the first or second sentence. the experimental design and methods used, ( from the pardoner tales, Methods ) clearly express the basic design of the study. Name or briefly describe the basic methodology used without going into excessive detail-be sure to indicate the key techniques used. the major findings including key quantitative results , or trends ( from Results ) report those results which answer the Langston The Negro and I questions you were asking identify trends, relative change or differences, etc. a brief summary of your interpetations and conclusions . (from Discussion ) clearly state the the pardoner implications of the answers your results gave you. Whereas the Langston Hughes: The Negro Speaks Title can only home christmas episode, make the Langston Hughes: Speaks Too Essay simplest statement about the content of your article, the Abstract allows you to elaborate more on each major aspect of the paper. The length of your Abstract should be kept to about 200-300 words maximum (a typical standard length for journals.) Limit your statements concerning each segment of the paper (i.e. purpose, methods, results, etc.) to of Obesity two or three sentences, if possible. The Abstract helps readers decide whether they want to read the rest of the paper, or it may be the only part they can obtain via electronic literature searches or in published abstracts. Therefore, enough key information (e.g., summary results, observations, trends, etc.) must be included to make the Hughes: The Negro Too Essay Abstract useful to someone who may to reference your work. How do you know when you have enough information in your Abstract? A simple rule-of-thumb is to imagine that you are another researcher doing an study similar to the one you are reporting.

If your Abstract was the only part of the of Obesity Essay paper you could access, would you be happy with the Langston Hughes: Too Essay information presented there? 2. Style : The Abstract is ONLY text. Use the active voice when possible, but much of it may require passive constructions. Should I Move Essay Examples? Write your Abstract using concise, but complete, sentences, and get to the point quickly. Use past tense . Hughes:? Maximum length should be 200-300 words, usually in a single paragraph. The Abstract SHOULD NOT contain: lengthy background information, references to other literature, elliptical (i.e., ending with . ) or incomplete sentences, abbreviations or terms that may be confusing to readers, any sort of illustration, figure, or table, or references to them. 3. Strategy : Although it is the first section of your paper, the Abstract, by definition, must be written last since it will summarize the paper. I Refute It Thus? To begin composing your Abstract, take whole sentences or key phrases from each section and put them in a sequence which summarizes the paper.

Then set about revising or adding words to make it all cohesive and Hughes: Speaks Too Essay clear. As you become more proficient you will most likely compose the Abstract from scratch. 4. Check your work : Once you have the completed abstract, check to make sure that the information in the abstract completely agrees with what is written in the paper. Confirm that all the information appearing the abstract actually appears in On Drugs the body of the paper. 1. Function : The function of the Introduction is to: Establish the context of the work being reported. And I? This is accomplished by discussing the christmas relevant primary research literature (with citations) and summarizing our current understanding of the Langston Hughes: and I problem you are investigating; State the The Effects purpose of the work in the form of the hypothesis, question, or problem you investigated; and, Briefly explain your rationale and approach and, whenever possible, the possible outcomes your study can reveal. Quite literally, the Introduction must answer the questions, What was I studying ? Why was it an important question? What did we know about it before I did this study? How will this study advance our knowledge? 2. Style : Use the active voice as much as possible.

Some use of first person is okay, but do not overdo it. 3. Structure : The structure of the Introduction can be thought of Langston Hughes: as an inverted triangle - the home episode broadest part at the top representing the most general information and focusing down to the specific problem you studied. Hughes: Speaks Too Essay? Organize the information to present the more general aspects of the topic early in the Introduction, then narrow toward the more specific topical information that provides context, finally arriving at your statement of the War On Drugs in America Essay purpose and rationale. A good way to get on track is to sketch out the Introduction backwards ; start with the specific purpose and then decide what is the scientific context in which you are asking the Too Essay question(s) your study addresses. Of Obesity Essay? Once the scientific context is Langston Hughes: Speaks and I decided, then you'll have a good sense of what level and type of general information with which the to Hawaii? Introduction should begin. Here is the information should flow in Langston Hughes: and I Too Essay your Introduction: Begin your Introduction by clearly identifying the subject area of interest. Do this by using key words from your Title in the first few sentences of the Introduction to get it focused directly on Essay, topic at the appropriate level. Langston Hughes: Too Essay? This insures that you get to the primary subject matter quickly without losing focus, or discussing information that is too general. For example, in the mouse behavior paper, the words hormones and behavior would likely appear within the first one or two sentences of the Introduction. Establish the context by providing a brief and balanced review of the pertinent published literature that is available on Should I move to Hawaii? examples, the subject.

The key is to summarize (for the reader) what we knew about the specific problem before you did your experiments or studies. This is accomplished with a general review of the primary research literature (with citations) but should not include very specific, lengthy explanations that you will probably discuss in Langston The Negro and I Too Essay greater detail later in Against the Discussion. The judgment of Langston The Negro and I what is Should to Hawaii? Essay examples general or specific is difficult at first, but with practice and Langston The Negro and I reading of the scientific literature you will develop e firmer sense of your audience. In the mouse behavior paper, for example, you would begin the Introduction at the level of mating behavior in general, then quickly focus to mouse mating behaviors and then hormonal regulation of behavior. Lead the reader to your statement of purpose/hypothesis by episode, focusing your literature review from the more general context (the big picture e.g., hormonal modulation of behaviors) to the more specific topic of interest to you (e.g., role/effects of reproductive hormones, especially estrogen, in modulating specific sexual behaviors of mice.) What literature should you look for Langston The Negro Speaks Too Essay in your review of what we know about the problem? Focus your efforts on the primary research journals - the journals that publish original research articles. Although you may read some general background references (encyclopedias, textbooks, lab manuals, style manuals, etc.) to get yourself acquainted with the it thus subject area, do not cite these, becasue they contain information that is considered fundamental or common knowledge wqithin the discipline. Cite, instead, articles that reported specific results relevant to your study. Learn, as soon as possible, how to Langston Hughes: Too Essay find the primary literature (research journals) and review articles rather than depending on reference books.

The articles listed in the Literature Cited of relevant papers you find are a good starting point to move backwards in a line of inquiry. Most academic libraries support the Citation Index - an index which is useful for tracking a line of inquiry forward in time. Some of the newer search engines will actually send you alerts of new papers that cite particular articles of i refute interest to you. Hughes: The Negro Too Essay? Review articles are particularly useful because they summarize all the research done on a narrow subject area over Against the War On Drugs in America Essay a brief period of time (a year to a few years in most cases). Be sure to The Negro clearly state the purpose and /or hypothesis that you investigated. When you are first learning to write in this format it is okay, and actually preferable, to I move to Hawaii? use a pat statement like, The purpose of this study was to. Speaks? or We investigated three possible mechanisms to explain the and effects . (1) blah, blah..(2) etc. Langston Speaks And I Too Essay? It is most usual to place the statement of purpose near the end of the Against the War Introduction, often as the topic sentence of the final paragraph. It is not necessary (or even desirable) to use the words hypothesis or null hypothesis, since these are usually implicit if you clearly state your purpose and expectations. Provide a clear statement of the rationale for your approach to the problem studied. For example: State briefly how you approached the problem (e.g., you studied oxidative respiration pathways in isolated mitochondria of cauliflower).

This will usually follow your statement of purpose in the last paragraph of the Introduction. Why did you choose this kind of experiment or experimental design? What are the scientific merits of this particular model system? What advantages does it confer in answering the particular question(s) you are posing? Do not discuss here the The Negro and I actual techniques or protocols used in causes and effects your study (this will be done in the Materials and Langston Speaks Too Essay Methods); your readers will be quite familiar with the usual techniques and approaches used in your field. If you are using a novel (new, revolutionary, never used before) technique or methodology, the merits of the new technique/method versus the previously used methods should be presented in the Introduction. This section is variously called Methods or Methods and Materials . 1. Function : In this section you explain clearly how you carried out the pardoner canterbury tales, your study in the following general structure and organization (details follow below): the the organism(s) studied (plant, animal, human, etc.) and, when relevant, their pre-experiment handling and care, and Langston Hughes: The Negro and I when and where the study was carried out ( only causes and effects, if location and time are important factors); note that the term subject is used ONLY for human studies. if you did a field study , provide a description of the study site , including the significant physical and biological features, and the precise location (latitude and longitude, map, etc); the experimental OR sampling design (i.e., how the experiment or study was structured.

For example, controls, treatments, what variable(s) were measured, how many samples were collected, replication, the final form of the data, etc.); the Hughes: and I protocol for collecting data , i.e., how the experimental procedures were carried out, and, how the data were analyzed (qualitative analyses and/or statistical procedures used to determine significance, data transformations used, what probability was used to decide significance, etc). Organize your presentation so your reader will understand the logical flow of the experiment(s); subheadings work well for this purpose. Each experiment or procedure should be presented as a unit, even if it was broken up over time. The experimental design and procedure are sometimes most efficiently presented as an I move Essay examples, integrated unit, because otherwise it would be difficult to split them up. Hughes: The Negro Speaks? In general, provide enough quantitative detail (how much, how long, when, etc.) about your experimental protocol such that other scientists could reproduce your experiments.

You should also indicate the statistical procedures used to analyze your results, including the causes probability level at which you determined significance (usually at 0.05 probability). 2. Style : The style in this section should read as if you were verbally describing the conduct of the Langston The Negro Speaks and I experiment. You may use the active voice to a certain extent, although this section requires more use of third person, passive constructions than others. Avoid use of the first person in this section. Remember to use the past tense throughout - the work being reported is renaissance causes and effects done, and Langston The Negro and I was performed in the past, not the future. Against The War On Drugs? The Methods section is not a step-by-step, directive, protocol as you might see in Speaks and I your lab manual.

Describe the organism(s) used in the study. Of Obesity? This includes giving the Langston Speaks (1) source (supplier or where and how the orgranisms were collected), (2) typical size (weight, length, etc) , (3) how they were handled, fed, and housed before the to Hawaii? examples experiment, (4) how they were handled, fed, and housed during the experiment. Too Essay? In genetics studies include the strains or genetic stocks used. For some studies, age may be an Against the War On Drugs in America, important factor. For example, did you use mouse pups or adults? Seedlings or mature plants? FOR FIELD STUDIES ONLY : Describe the Langston Hughes: site where your field study was conducted. To Hawaii? Essay Examples? The description must include both physical and biological characteristics of the site pertinant to Speaks and I Too Essay the study aims. Home Improvement? Include the date(s) of the study (e.g., 10-15 April 1994) and the exact location of the study area.

Location data must be as precise as possible: Grover Nature Preserve, ½ mi SW Grover, Maine rather than Grover Nature Preserve or Grover. Langston Hughes: Speaks And I Too Essay? When possible, give the actual latitude and longitude position of the site: these can be obtained using handheld GPS units, OR, from web resources such as Google Earth( TM ) and MapQuest( TM ). It is often a good idea to include a map (labeled as a Figure) showing the renaissance causes study location in relation to some larger more recognizable geographic area. Someone else should be able to go to the exact location of your study site if they want to repeat or check your work, or just visit your study area. NOTE: For laboratory studies you need not report the Langston Hughes: Speaks Too Essay date and location of the study UNLESS it is necessary information for i refute it thus someone to have who might wish to repeat your work or use the same facility. Hughes: The Negro Speaks? Most often it is not . If you have performed experiments at a particular location or lab because it is the only place to do it, or one of a few, then you should note that in your methods and identify the renaissance and effects lab or facility. Describe your experimental design clearly. Be sure to include the Speaks hypotheses you tested, controls , treatments , variables measured, how many replicates you had, what you actually measured , what form the data take, etc. Always identify treatments by the variable or treatment name, NOT by an ambiguous, generic name or number (e.g., use 2.5% NaCl rather than test 1.) When your paper includes more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize your presentation by The Effects Essay, experiment. Langston The Negro And I Too Essay? A general experimental design worksheet is available to help plan your experiments in the core courses.

Describe the procedures for your study in sufficient detail that other scientists could repeat your work to verify your findings. Foremost in your description should be the quantitative aspects of your study - the masses, volumes, incubation times, concentrations, etc., that another scientist needs in order to duplicate your experiment. When using standard lab or field methods and instrumentation, it is of Obesity not always necessary to Langston The Negro Speaks and I explain the procedures (e.g., serial dilution) or equipment used (e.g., autopipetter) since other scientists will likely be familiar with them already. You may want to identify certain types of equipment by vendor name and brand or category (e.g., ultracentrifuge vs. prep centrifuge), particularly if they are not commonly found in most labs. It is the pardoner appropriate to report, parenthetically, the source (vendor) and catalog number for reagents used, e.g., . poly-L-lysine (Sigma #1309) . When using a method described in another published source, you can save time and words by providing the relevant citation to the source.

Always make sure to describe any modifications you have made of a standard or published method. NOTE : Very frequently the experimental design and data collection procedures for Langston Hughes: Speaks Too Essay an experiment cannot be separated and must be integrated together. Should? If you find yourself repeating lots of information about the experimental design when describing the data collection procedure(s), likely you can combine them and be more concise. NOTE : Although tempting, DO NOT say that you recorded the data , i.e., in your lab notebook, in the Methods description. Of course you did , because that is what all good scientists do, and it is a given that you recorded your measurements and observations. Describe how the data were summarized and analyzed. Langston Hughes: The Negro Speaks Too Essay? Here you will indicate what types of descriptive statistics were used and which analyses (usually hypothesis tests) were employed to answer each of the questions or hypotheses tested and determine statistical siginifcance. The information should include:

Statistical software used : Sometimes it is necessary to causes report which statistical software you used; this would be at the discretion of your instructor or the journal; how the data were summarized (Means, percent, etc) and how you are reporting measures of Hughes: and I variability (SD,SEM, 95% CI, etc) this lets you avoid having to repeatedly indicate you are using mean ± SD or SEM. The Effects Of Obesity Essay? which data transformations were used(e.g., to correct for normal distribution or equalize variances); statistical tests used with reference to the particular questions, or kinds of questions, they address. For example, A Paired t-test was used to The Negro compare mean flight duration before and after applying stablizers to the glider's wings. One way ANOVA was used to compare mean weight gain in weight-matched calves fed the three different rations. Comparisons among the three pH treatment groups for each variable were done using one way ANOVA (with Tukey's post hoc test) or a Kruskal-Wallis Test (with Dunn's post hoc test).

any other numerical (e.g., normalizing data) or graphical techniques used to it thus analyze the data what probability ( a priori ) was used to decide significance ; usually reported as the Greek symbol alpha. NOTE: You DO NOT need to say that you made graphs and Langston Hughes: and I tables. Here is some additional advice on particular problems common to new scientific writers. Problem : The Methods section is prone to being wordy or overly detailed. Avoid repeatedly using a single sentence to relate a single action ; this results in very lengthy, wordy passages. Home Improvement Christmas Episode? A related sequence of actions can be combined into one sentence to improve clarity and readability: Problematic Example : This is and I a very long and wordy description of a common, simple procedure. It is characterized by episode, single actions per sentence and lots of unnecessary details.

The petri dish was placed on the turntable. The lid was then raised slightly. The Negro Speaks? An inoculating loop was used to transfer culture to the agar surface. Causes And Effects? The turntable was rotated 90 degrees by hand. The Negro Speaks And I Too Essay? The loop was moved lightly back and forth over the agar to spread the culture. The bacteria were then incubated at 37 C for 24 hr. Improved Example : Same actions, but all the important information is given in a single, concise sentence. Note that superfluous detail and otherwise obvious information has been deleted while important missing information was added. Each plate was placed on a turntable and streaked at opposing angles with fresh overnight E. Examples? coli culture using an inoculating loop. Langston Hughes: Speaks Too Essay? The bacteria were then incubated at 37 C for 24 hr. Best: Here the author assumes the reader has basic knowledge of microbiological techniques and has deleted other superfluous information.

The two sentences have been combined because they are related actions. Each plate was streaked with fresh overnight E. coli culture and i refute incubated at 37 C for 24 hr. Problem : Avoid using ambiguous terms to identify controls or treatments, or other study parameters that require specific identifiers to be clearly understood. Designators such as Tube 1, Tube 2, or Site 1 and Site 2 are completely meaningless out of context and difficult to follow in context. Problematic example : In this example the reader will have no clue as to what the various tubes represent without having to constantly refer back to Langston Hughes: The Negro and I some previous point in the pardoner tales the Methods. A Spec 20 was used to Speaks and I Too Essay measure A 600 of Tubes 1,2, and 3 immediately after chloroplasts were added (Time 0) and every 2 min. thereafter until the DCIP was completely reduced. Tube 4's A 600 was measured only at Time 0 and at the end of the experiment. Improved example: Notice how the substitution ( in canterbury red ) of treatment and control identifiers clarifies the Langston Hughes: and I passage both in Essay examples the context of the paper, and if taken out of context. A Spec 20 was used to measure A 600 of the reaction mixtures exposed to light intensities of 1500, 750, and 350 uE/m2/sec immediately after chloroplasts were added (Time 0) and every 2 min. thereafter until the DCIP was completely reduced. The A 600 of the no-light control was measured only at Time 0 and at the end of the experiment. 1. Function : The function of the Results section is to objectively present your key results, without interpretation, in Hughes: Speaks an orderly and logical sequence using both text and illustrative materials (Tables and Figures).

The results section always begins with text, reporting the key results and referring to Should I move to Hawaii? Essay your figures and The Negro and I Too Essay tables as you proceed. Summaries of the statistical analyses may appear either in the text (usually parenthetically) or in the relevant Tables or Figures (in the i refute legend or as footnotes to the Table or Figure). Langston Hughes: Speaks Too Essay? The Results section should be organized around Tables and/or Figures that should be sequenced to present your key findings in a logical order. The text of the Results section should be crafted to follow this sequence and highlight the of Obesity evidence needed to answer the Langston Hughes: The Negro and I questions/hypotheses you investigated. Important negative results should be reported, too. Authors usually write the text of the to Hawaii? Essay examples results section based upon the sequence of Tables and Hughes: and I Too Essay Figures. 2. Style : Write the text of the Results section concisely and objectively. The passive voice will likely dominate here, but use the active voice as much as possible. Home? Use the past tense . Avoid repetitive paragraph structures. Do not interpret the data here. Langston Hughes: The Negro? The transition into interpretive language can be a slippery slope.

Consider the following two examples: This example highlights the trend/difference that the author wants the reader to The Effects of Obesity focus: The duration of exposure to running water had a pronounced effect on cumulative seed germination percentages (Fig. 2). Seeds exposed to the 2-day treatment had the highest cumulative germination (84%), 1.25 times that of the 12-h or 5-day groups and 4 times that of controls. In contrast, this example strays subtly into interpretation by referring to optimality (a conceptual model) and tieing the observed result to The Negro Too Essay that idea:

The results of the germination experiment (Fig. 2) suggest that the optimal time for to Hawaii? Essay running-water treatment is 2 days. Hughes: The Negro Speaks And I? This group showed the highest cumulative germination (84%), with longer (5 d) or shorter (12 h) exposures producing smaller gains in germination when compared to renaissance the control group. Things to consider as you write your Results section: What are the results? : When you pose a testable hypothesis that can be answered experimentally, or ask a question that can be answered by collecting samples, you accumulate observations about Hughes: and I Too Essay, those organisms or phenomena. To Hawaii?? Those observations are then analyzed to Langston The Negro Speaks and I yield an Should, answer to Langston Hughes: The Negro Speaks Too Essay the question. In general, the answer is the key result. The above statements apply regardless of the complexity of the analysis you employ. Episode? So, in an introductory course your analysis may consist of visual inspection of figures and simple calculations of means and standard deviations; in a later course you may be expected to apply and interpret a variety of statistical tests. Too Essay? You instructor will tell you the level of analysis that is expected. For example, suppose you asked the question, Is the average height of male students the same as female students in a pool of Essay randomly selected Biology majors ? You would first collect height data from large random samples of The Negro male and canterbury tales female students.

You would then calculate the Langston Speaks and I Too Essay descriptive statistics for those samples (mean, SD, n, range, etc) and plot these numbers. In a course where statistical tests are not employed, you would visually inspect these plots. I Move? Suppose you found that male Biology majors are, on Langston Hughes: Speaks and I Too Essay, average, 12.5 cm taller than female majors; this is the answer to renaissance the question. Notice that the outcome of a statistical analysis is not a key result, but rather an analytical tool that helps us understand what is our key result. Differences, directionality, and magnitude : Report your results so as to provide as much information as possible to the reader about the nature of differences or relationships. Speaks And I? For eaxmple, if you testing for differences among groups, and you find a significant difference, it is not sufficient to simply report that groups A and B were significantly different. How are they different? How much are they different? It is much more informative to say something like, Group A individuals were 23% larger than those in Group B, or, Group B pups gained weight at twice the rate of Group A pups.

Report the direction of differences (greater, larger, smaller, etc) and the magnitude of differences (% difference, how many times, etc.) whenever possible. See also below about canterbury tales, use of the word significant. Organize the results section based on the sequence of Table and Figures you'll include. Prepare the Tables and Figures as soon as all the data are analyzed and arrange them in the sequence that best presents your findings in Hughes: a logical way. A good strategy is to renaissance and effects note, on a draft of each Table or Figure, the Hughes: The Negro Speaks and I Too Essay one or two key results you want to addess in the text portion of the Results.

Simple rules to canterbury follow related to Tables and Figures: Tables and Figures are assigned numbers separately and in Langston The Negro and I the sequence that you will refer to to Hawaii? them from the text. Langston Hughes: The Negro And I Too Essay? The first Table you refer to I move to Hawaii? Essay is Table 1, the next Table 2 and so forth. Similarly, the first Figure is Figure 1, the Hughes: The Negro Too Essay next Figure 2, etc. Each Table or Figure must include a brief description of the results being presented and other necessary information in a legend. Table legends go above the Table ; tables are read from top to bottom. Figure legends go below the figure ; figures are usually viewed from the pardoner, bottom to top. Fig. 1 . Hughes: The Negro Speaks And I Too Essay? Table is never abbreviated, e.g., Table 1 . The body of the Results section is a text-based presentation of the key findings which includes references to the War each of the Tables and Langston Hughes: The Negro Speaks and I Too Essay Figures. The text should guide the reader through your results stressing the key results which provide the answers to the question(s) investigated. A major function of the text is to provide clarifying information.

You must refer to each Table and/or Figure individually and in christmas episode sequence (see numbering sequence), and clearly indicate for the reader the key results that each conveys. Key results depend on your questions, they might include obvious trends, important differences, similarities, correlations, maximums, minimums, etc. Some problems to avoid : Do not reiterate each value from a Figure or Table - only the key result or trends that each conveys. Do not present the same data in both a Table and Figure - this is considered redundant and Langston Hughes: The Negro and I Too Essay a waste of Against the War in America space and energy. Decide which format best shows the result and Langston Hughes: Speaks and I go with it. Do not report raw data values when they can be summarized as means, percents, etc. Statistical test summaries (test name, p- value) are usually reported parenthetically in conjunction with the and effects biological results they support. Always report your results with parenthetical reference to the statistical conclusion that supports your finding (if statistical tests are being used in Langston The Negro and I your course).

This parenthetical reference should include the the War On Drugs statistical test used and the level of significance (test statistic and DF are optional). For example, if you found that the mean height of The Negro Too Essay male Biology majors was significantly larger than that of renaissance and effects female Biology majors, you might report this result (in blue) and your statistical conclusion (shown in red) as follows: Males (180.5 ± 5.1 cm; n=34) averaged 12.5 cm taller than females (168 ± 7.6 cm; n=34) in Hughes: and I Too Essay the AY 1995 pool of causes and effects Biology majors (two-sample t-test, t = 5.78, 33 d.f., p 0.001) . If the summary statistics are shown in Langston The Negro Speaks and I Too Essay a figure, the i refute sentence above need not report them specifically, but must include a reference to the figure where they may be seen: Males averaged 12.5 cm taller than females in the AY 1995 pool of Hughes: The Negro Speaks and I Biology majors (two-sample t-test, t = 5.78, 33 d.f., p 0.001; Fig. 1) . Note that the report of the key result (shown in blue) would be identical in i refute it thus a paper written for a course in which statistical testing is not employed - the section shown in red would simply not appear except reference to the figure. Avoid devoting whole sentences to Hughes: Too Essay report a statistical outcome alone. Use and over-use of the word significant : Your results will read much more cleanly if you avoid overuse of the word siginifcant in any of The Effects of Obesity its forms. In scientific studies, the use of Langston Hughes: and I Too Essay this word implies that a statistical test was employed to make a decision about the canterbury tales data; in this case the Langston and I test indicated a larger difference in home christmas mean heights than you would expect to Speaks and I get by and effects, chance alone.

Limit the use of the word significant to Langston Speaks and I this purpose only. If your parenthetical statistical information includes a p-value that indicates significance (usually when p 0.05), it is unncecssary (and redundant ) to use the word significant in the body of the sentence (see example above) because we all interpret the p-value the same way. Likewise, when you report that one group mean is somehow different from another (larger, smaller, increased, decreased, etc), it will be understood by your reader that you have tested this and found the difference to be statisticallysignificant, especially if you also report a p-value 0.05. Present the results of your experiment(s) in a sequence that will logically support (or provide evidence against) the hypothesis, or answer the question, stated in the Introduction. For example, in i refute it thus reporting a study of the effect of an experimental diet on the skeletal mass of the Too Essay rat, consider first giving the data on skeletal mass for the rats fed the control diet and the pardoner then give the data for the rats fed the experimental diet.

Report negative results - they are important! If you did not get the Langston Speaks and I Too Essay anticipated results, it may mean your hypothesis was incorrect and needs to be reformulated, or perhaps you have stumbled onto i refute, something unexpected that warrants further study. Moreover, the Langston Hughes: The Negro Speaks Too Essay absence of an effect may be very telling in many situations. In any case, your results may be of importance to others even though they did not support your hypothesis. Do not fall into of Obesity Essay, the trap of Langston The Negro Speaks and I Too Essay thinking that results contrary to what you expected are necessarily bad data. If you carried out the to Hawaii? Essay work well, they are simply your results and need interpretation. Many important discoveries can be traced to bad data. Always enter the Hughes: and I Too Essay appropriate units when reporting data or summary statistics.

for an Against the War On Drugs Essay, individual value you would write, the mean length was 10 m , or, the maximum time was 140 min. When including a measure of variability, place the unit after the error value, e.g., . was 10 ± 2.3 m . Langston The Negro Speaks And I? Likewise place the unit after the Against On Drugs Essay last in a series of numbers all having the same unit. For example: lengths of 5, 10, 15, and 20 m , or no differences were observed after 2, 4, 6, or 8 min. of incubation . 1. Function : The function of the Discussion is to interpret your results in light of The Negro and I Too Essay what was already known about the subject of the investigation, and to explain our new understanding of the problem after taking your results into consideration. Renaissance And Effects? The Discussion will always connect to the Introduction by way of the question(s) or hypotheses you posed and the literature you cited, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the Langston The Negro Speaks and I Introduction. Instead, it tells how your study has moved us forward from the place you left us at the end of the Introduction. Fundamental questions to Against the War Essay answer here include: Do your results provide answers to your testable hypotheses?

If so, how do you interpret your findings? Do your findings agree with what others have shown? If not, do they suggest an alternative explanation or perhaps a unforseen design flaw in your experiment (or theirs?) Given your conclusions, what is Langston Hughes: Speaks Too Essay our new understanding of the problem you investigated and outlined in the Introduction? If warranted, what would be the next step in your study, e.g., what experiments would you do next? 2. Style : Use the active voice whenever possible in this section. Watch out for wordy phrases; be concise and make your points clearly. Use of the first person is okay, but too much use of the Against in America Essay first person may actually distract the reader from the main points. 3. Approach : Organize the Discussion to Langston address each of the the War in America experiments or studies for which you presented results; discuss each in and I the same sequence as presented in the Results, providing your interpretation of what they mean in home the larger context of the problem. Do not waste entire sentences restating your results; if you need to Langston Speaks and I remind the the pardoner canterbury tales reader of the result to Hughes: Speaks and I be discussed, use bridge sentences that relate the result to the interpretation:

The slow response of the lead-exposed neurons relative to controls suggests that. [ interpretation ]. You will necessarily make reference to the findings of others in order to support your interpretations.Use subheadings, if need be, to help organize your presentation. Home? Be wary of mistaking the reiteration of The Negro and I a result for an interpretation, and make sure that no new results are presented here that rightly belong in the results. You must relate your work to the findings of i refute other studies - including previous studies you may have done and those of other investigators. As stated previously, you may find crucial information in someone else's study that helps you interpret your own data, or perhaps you will be able to reinterpret others' findings in light of yours. In either case you should discuss reasons for Langston Hughes: The Negro Speaks similarities and differences between yours and others' findings. Consider how the results of other studies may be combined with yours to derive a new or perhaps better substantiated understanding of the problem. Be sure to state the conclusions that can be drawn from i refute, your results in light of these considerations.

You may also choose to Langston The Negro Speaks briefly mention further studies you would do to clarify your working hypotheses. Make sure to reference any outside sources as shown in to Hawaii? Essay examples the Introduction section. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (include as needed) | FAQs | If, in your experiment, you received any significant help in thinking up, designing, or carrying out the work, or received materials from and I Too Essay, someone who did you a favor by supplying them, you must acknowledge their assistance and the service or material provided. Christmas? Authors always acknowledge outside reviewers of their drafts (in PI courses, this would be done only if an instructor or other individual critiqued the draft prior to evaluation) and any sources of funding that supported the research. Langston Hughes: And I Too Essay? Although usual style requirements (e.g., 1st person, objectivity) are relaxed somewhat here, Acknowledgments are always brief and never flowery. Place the the pardoner tales Acknowledgments between the Discussion and the Literature Cited. 1. Function : The Literature Cited section gives an Langston Hughes:, alphabetical listing (by first author's last name) of the references that you actually cited in Should I move examples the body of your paper. Instructions for writing full citations for various sources are given in on separate page.

A complete format list for virtually all types of publication may be found in Huth and Hughes: Too Essay others(1994) . NOTE : Do not label this section Bibliography . A bibliography contains references that you may have read but have not specifically cited in the text. Bibliography sections are found in books and other literary writing, but not scientific journal-style papers. Function : An Appendix contains information that is non-essential to i refute it thus understanding of the paper, but may present information that further clarifies a point without burdening the body of the presentation. An appendix is an optional part of the paper, and is only rarely found in published papers. Headings : Each Appendix should be identified by a Roman numeral in Langston Hughes: The Negro sequence, e.g., Appendix I, Appendix II, etc. Each appendix should contain different material. Some examples of material that might be put in Against the War in America an appendix (not an exhaustive list) : raw data maps (foldout type especially) extra photographs explanation of formulas, either already known ones, or especially if you have invented some statistical or other mathematical procedures for data analysis. The Negro? specialized computer programs for a particular procedure full generic names of chemicals or compounds that you have referred to in somewhat abbreviated fashion or by some common name in the text of your paper. diagrams of specialized apparati. Figures and Tables in Appendices. Figures and Tables are often found in an appendix. These should be formatted as discussed previously (see Tables and Figures), but are numbered in a separate sequence from those found in the body of the paper.

So, the Should to Hawaii? examples first Figure in the appendix would be Figure 1, the first Table would be Table 1, and so forth. In situations when multiple appendices are used, the Table and Figure numbering must indicate the appendix number as well (see Huth and others, 1994). Department of Biology, Bates College, Lewiston, ME 04240.

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Custom Law of Evidence essay paper writing service. In the law of evidence, the Langston Hughes: Too Essay burden of proof refers to the duty that is placed on a party to the pardoner tales either prove or disapprove the allegation or a disputed fact by admissible evidence. Burden of proof can also define the party that bears this burden. Also, it can be defined as the required evidence to determine the basis for filing a lawful action with a court of law. The burden of proof in the cases that fall under the category of Langston Speaks, criminal cases is improvement episode, placed on the side of the prosecution, where the prosecutor gets charged with the responsibility of revealing that the The Negro Too Essay defendant is guilty of a specific crime before the the pardoner tales judges may convict him/her.

In some cases, the defendant may have the Hughes: Speaks and I Too Essay burden of Against in America Essay, ascertaining the existence of particular facts that can give rise to a defense, for instance insanity plea. On the other hand, in civil cases, the burden of Hughes: and I Too Essay, proof is to Hawaii?, placed on the plaintiff, but the defendant can still be required to ascertain some defenses. Burden of proof can also be described as the quantum of proof or burden of persuasion, where the party that has the burden of proof must endeavor to establish or disprove factual issue. In criminal cases, the The Negro Too Essay prosecution is expected to give proof which is beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant is guilty of it thus, certain offence. This means that, in cases that fall under the category of criminal cases, the standard of proof should be beyond a reasonable doubt to Hughes: Too Essay ensure fair treatment of both parties. Standard of proof can be defined as the degree of evidence that a prosecuting attorney in a criminal case or plaintiff in a civil case must submit in a trial so as to win. Different cases require different standards of proof depending on the nature and seriousness of the case in the War On Drugs, question. The most common standards of proof comprise of: Beyond a reasonable doubt.

Normally, this standard is applied in criminal cases, whereby the prosecutor is expected to provide adequate proof on the case in question to the extent that the jury have no reasonable doubts that the accused person (defendant) did exactly what he/she is being charged with having done. Langston The Negro Speaks And I Too Essay. Balance of probabilities. This standard is applied in civil cases. For any party to prove a case applying this standard, it must reveal that it is more probable than not, or it is more likely that his/her argument is true. For example, this standard can be applied in fault divorces cases. Clear and convincing evidence. This standard can also be used in civil cases, for example, in cases that involves the termination of parental rights. Essay. For any party to prove a case using this standard, he/she must reveal something more probable than not, although not as much as beyond a reasonable doubt as in the criminal cases. In civil cases, the standard of proof applied is balance of probabilities.

This implies that if one party is in a position to prove that something is more probable to be true than not, then the party will be successful in asserting what it seeks to prove before the court. Therefore, in proving any facts the Langston Hughes: The Negro Speaks burden of proof will undoubtedly be discharged as long as the jury is convinced that it is more likely than not. In case the probabilities from both parties are equal, then the jury will not discharge the burden of proof. Additionally, in civil cases the burden of proof is applied to the party that seeks to affirm the existence of the fact. For example, if a party is trying to affirm the existence of an I move, oral contract, then the party will normally have to prove that there was an oral contract.

In case the other party denies the Langston Hughes: Speaks Too Essay existence of such a contract, it will not be their responsibility to i refute it thus prove that there was no oral contract, unless they are trying to affirm the existence of additional facts. In criminal cases, the Langston Hughes: and I judges in home, a court clarify the standard of reasonable doubt to jurors in several ways. Instructions by the federal judges state that proof beyond a reasonable doubt refers to a proof that provide a convincing character, and that a rational person would not vacillate to act upon. Langston Hughes: The Negro Speaks. Also, state jury normally describe the standard of proof by informing the jurors that they have a reasonable doubt about the guilt of the defendant if, based on the entire evidence in a case, they will certainly not be comfortable with a criminal conviction. In providing the reasonable doubt directive, the judges often remind the jurors that a criminal conviction inflicts various hardships on a defendant, like incarceration, fines, public humiliation and sometimes the to Hawaii? Essay forfeiture of property. Reasonable doubt is Langston Hughes: and I, undoubtedly the highest standard of proof applied in it thus, all judicial proceedings. In civil proceedings, the Langston The Negro Speaks Too Essay standard of proof can be either proof by means of preponderance of the evidence or through clear and convincing evidence. Renaissance And Effects. Both standards are lower burdens of proof compared to Langston Speaks reasonable doubt. Improvement Christmas Episode. A preponderance of the evidence implies that one party in a case has more evidence in its favor than the Langston Hughes: The Negro Speaks Too Essay other party, even if it is by smallest degree. Against The War. On the other hand, clear and convincing evidence is the evidence that sets up the truth of a disputed fact or issue by Langston The Negro Speaks Too Essay, a high probability.

Contrary, criminal litigation applies a higher standard of proof since defendants in criminal cases regularly face the deprivation of life or lack liberty if convicted, whereas defendants in civil cases are usually liable to improvement episode a fine equal to the sum of money necessary to compensate the damages if the plaintiff wins the case. Furthermore, in criminal litigation, the Speaks and I legal burden of proof remains on the prosecution side for the entire period of the trial. Of Obesity. This implies that the defendant has no legal burden in relation to the significant components of the offence during court proceedings. The logic behind this is the fact that all individuals are entitled to a fair and Hughes: Too Essay, just trial in a situation where presumption of innocence happens to be a basic right. For example, in legal proceedings, it would not be fair to The Effects make an individual accused of a particular crime refute the accusation, and convict and punish him/her if he/she is unable to do it. This rule can be explained through Woolmington v DPP case which involved Reginald Woolmington, a farm labourer, who had been accused of killing Violet who was his wife. The Negro Speaks. In this case, it was evident that after three months of causes and effects, their marriage, Violet left Woolmington and went to live in her mother’s house. Not long after Woolmington took a shotgun and Langston and I Too Essay, went to the Violet’s mother house where he shot and killed his wife. When Woolmington was taken to Against Essay court, he argued that the killing was accidental and his intention was only to scare his wife so that she would think that he was going to kill himself. Woolmington was arrested and charged with willful murder.

At the initial hearing in court, the Hughes: and I jury was directed that if, due to “dispassionate survey”, they had a reasonable doubt, they bore the On Drugs in America Essay responsibility to set the Langston Speaks and I Too Essay defendant free. However, if the jury had no doubt that the killing was intentional it was their obligation to convict. Despite the fact that this direction appeared as perfect and was even commended by the Lords later, the jury did not agree on this. On the other hand, during the trial followed by the hearing in the House of Lords originated, the judges received the following directions: in all charges of murder where there is adequate proof of the fact of killing, any situations of mitigation, justification or excuse that the accused (defendant) wants to rely on must be provided by him/her unless they arise from the evidence produced at the trial. In Woolmington’s case, there was a presupposition of malice unless proof of the contrary arose, and Against Essay, this became a law. Langston And I. Additionally, an individual guilty of offense that caused death has an obligation of convincing the judges that the incident was not murder in fact. In case the defendant (accused) was not able to do this, and the judges were content that the wife died due to the injuries caused by the defendant, the defendant would be found guilty of murder. The jury found Woolmington guilty of intentional murder of his wife (Violet). Later, Woolmington appealed this case on the basis that the of Obesity Essay judge who made the ruling during his trial had misdirected the jury, but his request was not accepted. However, because this decision entailed a point of law of public importance, the Attorney General accepted the case to be brought in the House of Lords, which reversed the conviction.

The House of Lords decided that it is the responsibility of the prosecution to Langston Hughes: The Negro Speaks Too Essay provide proof of both death due to voluntary act by the accused person (defendant) and the malice of the defendant. On the other hand, the defendant was allowed to give evidence or explanation in relation to the events. In case the jury is contented with his explanation or on evaluation of all the the pardoner tales evidence provided by the parties involved is in a state of doubt whether or not the act was not intentional or provoked, the Langston The Negro and I defendant is at liberty to renaissance causes and effects be acquitted (even if his explanation is Langston Hughes: The Negro Speaks Too Essay, unacceptable). Therefore, it was the duty of the prosecution to provide proof that Mr. Woolmington killed his wife intentionally, rather than obligation of the defendant to prove that he had some explanation, excuse or justification for the killing. In a criminal case like that of Woolmington, the prosecution should produce a standard of The Effects Essay, proof which must be beyond a reasonable doubt. This kind of standard does not require complete certainty, but must have a high degree of probability. Additionally, the ruling of this case is subject to some exceptions, and in this case, the rules of substantive law establish the party that carries the burden of proof in Langston Hughes: Speaks and I Too Essay, relation to the case proceedings. In America Essay. For instance, if the defendant comes up with the defense of insanity, he/she will have the legal burden to prove it. In a situation where it is suspected that the The Negro Speaks defendant suffers from a certain disability that render him/her not unable to stand trial or plead, the matter can be raised by either side, the defense or the prosecution. In case the prosecution raises the home improvement christmas episode issue, it is mandatory for them to prove the matter is beyond a reasonable doubt.

On the other hand, if the Langston and I Too Essay defense raises that issue, it must prove the matter is on balance of probabilities. An additional exception to the ruling in Woolmington’s case arises in christmas episode, a situation where the statute specifically places the burden of providing particular issues on The Negro and I the defendant, even though the legal burden for all other matters remains with the prosecution. A precise example can be traced in Section 2(2) of the Homicide Act 1957. The example in this section places the burden of determining the defense of diminished responsibility on the pardoner canterbury tales murder charge on the defendant. Statutes can still put the legal burden of proof on the side of the defendant. Magistrates Court Act 1980 Section 101 states that in case a defendant relies on any proviso, excuse, qualification or exception, the legal burden of proving it shall be placed on him. Additionally, this must focus on the Human Rights Act 1998. It only applies to the statutes containing exceptions like “provided that”, “unless” and “except where”. This is explained in the Gatland’s case which entailed application of Highways Act 1980 Section.161 (1). This Act states that any person who deposits anything on the highway with no legal authority or excuse will be perceived as guilty of an offence. In Gatland’s case, the duty of Langston Hughes: The Negro, providing proof that the defendant actually placed something on the highway was imposed on the prosecution.

Furthermore, it was the responsibility of the Essay defendant to provide proof that they had legal authority or excuse pursuant to Hughes: and I Too Essay Magistrates Court Act 1952 Section. 81 (which is now Section. 101). In the ruling of Woolmington’s case, these exceptions were described as reverse onus provisions. The literary meaning of “onus” is “burden of proving”. Since such provisions pose a threat to undermine the universal presumption of innocence, they are subject to restrictions. This means that they must not exceed what is essential to christmas attain their legal aim. In Sheldrake v DPP [2004] UKHL 43 case which concerned the The Negro Too Essay application of the Road Traffic Act 1988, the House of Lords scrutinized the nature of the burden of proof. The case was about a defendant accused of driving while intoxicated.

With respect to Section 5(2) of the Road Traffic Act 1988, the burden of proof is placed either on the defense or prosecution. The defense side was expected to prove that there was no probability of the defendant driving his own car. Episode. In giving his judgment, the burden of proof was placed on the defendant. In relation to David’s case, he was arrested participating in London-Brighton Super Car Rally, and The Negro Speaks and I, was accused of going against Road Traffic Act 1998 Section 13. This section prohibits any person from participating in any form of competition or trial using a vehicle on a public road unless authorized by the Secretary of and effects, State. David denies the charges claiming that his participation in the car rally was authorized. On the other hand, the prosecution strongly believes that David violated the law. Although David has a document to Langston The Negro Speaks and I Too Essay prove that London-Brighton Super Car Rally was legal, such document is not available in the register of the Secretary of State who authorizes such car rallies. Therefore, if the court places the burden of proof on David, he has to prove to the jury that the car rally was authorized by the Secretary of State.

The fact that he has the letter which shows that Andrews Elite Rally Ltd was authorized to Against the War On Drugs participate in the rally can help him to Langston Hughes: The Negro Speaks and I convince the jury that there was a probability that the the pardoner tales Secretary of State authorized that car rally. Despite the fact that the Hughes: The Negro and I name Andrews Elite Rally Ltd was missing in the register of the Secretary of State, David can still convince the jury that there was the possibility that a copy of authorization document might have been misplaced in the Secretary of State’s office. In this case, the Should I move to Hawaii? standard of proof to be applied by the defendant is the balance of probabilities. This means that David must endeavor to reveal that it is more probable that the Speaks rally was authorized by the Secretary of State than not. In case David manages to home improvement episode give concrete evidence to prove to Hughes: The Negro Speaks and I the jury that the car rally was authorized he will be set free. On the other hand, if by any means the jury put the legal burden of proof on the part of the pardoner, prosecution, the prosecution must provide adequate proof to convince the Langston Hughes: Too Essay jury that the car rally was not authorized by improvement episode, the Secretary of State as claimed by the defendant. This means that the prosecution must prove that the Langston The Negro Speaks defendant is guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. Therefore, the standard of proof on the side of prosecution must be beyond a reasonable doubt.

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