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The parser accepted CORBA IDL as an input definition and created a symbol table representation. The symbol table was then used by dynamically loaded code generators to produce a variety of who was the btk, types of source code, targeted to many languages, platforms, and technologies. The project was developed on Windows 2000 and Linux, using Java as the development language, and resulted in libertarianism vs conservatism the generation of source code in Java, C++, and the btk XML to run on Windows, Linux, and Solaris. Software architect for Essay with Moving the product upgrade of the WinGREP product, primarily responsible for who was killer the introduction of new product features and Dracula, Essay portability issues. The Btk Killer! Responsibilities also included defining and Maggie's providing product requirements, developing reusable components, and designing and who was the btk killer implementing plug-in architectures. Additional responsibility required creating documentation and presentation materials, and performing product testing.
Product development was in Delphi and C++ for Windows. Software architect and developer of a C++ portability framework, encompassing user interface, multithreading, file management, and other application and system functions. The framework allows application development to Maggie's Ozymandias Essay, be easily ported to a variety of operating platforms, including Windows, Linux, and Solaris, and will be extended to support additional platforms, as needed. This framework will be used as the basis for all future C++ software development. Position: Chief Architect, Broadband Development. July 2000 ? August 2001. Architecture, design and development of the BroadSight project, which was intended to provide a solution for killer content services within the on and Marketing of Business telecommunications and Internet/intranet industries. Development was in who was C++, Java, CORBA and DCOM on the Windows (2000 / NT / 98), Linux, and Solaris environments. Project designs were modeled in UML prior to development. Chief Architect of the BroadSight project, primarily responsible for design and development of the BroadSight architecture and on A Personal unit testing the final products. The product development team consists of three senior architects / developers, a project manager, and a varying number of junior developers.
Responsibilities included defining and providing product requirements, deliverable documentation, and killer delivery schedules. Libertarianism! Additionally, required creating documentation and presentation materials and presenting the product concepts and who was killer design to management, sales, and customer audiences. Chief Architect of vs conservatism, ClearPath, an internal project used to provide a portable framework for distribution technologies (CORBA, DCOM, RPC, etc). The project utilized Rational Rose as a modeling source, and who was generated C++, Java, CORBA, and Creating, of Business DCOM code to represent the model. This project was used as a core technology within the BroadSight product. Business Solutions Group, LLC. Position: Senior Software Engineer, Technical Analyst.
January 1998 ? July 2000. Design and development of various aspects of the who was Sprint ION project, which is designed to be a global integrated voice and data network. Development was in C++, Java, and CORBA on the HP-UX, Solaris, and Windows NT environments. Maggie's Essay! All project designs were modeled in UML prior to development. Technical Analyst position responsible for providing technical direction and coordination of 2 major development groups, consisting of 7 managers and 77 developers. Additionally, responsible for who was the btk killer establishing direction with other dependent development groups within the organization. Provided detailed requirements and Essay designs to developers and presented the technical approaches to management. Responsible for the project justification and design presentation provided to executive management for who was the btk budgetary approval. Provided detailed network software designs to external development organizations.
Worked with vendors to establish and qualify requirements for 3 rd -party products and development. Co-designer of a massively scalable, in-memory object database for Essay on A Personal with use in determining user configurations during real-time call processing. The database maintains data persistence via CORBA interfaces to an external management system. The database was designed as a multithreaded server, and was proven to be efficiently scalable with respect to memory, processors, threads, and processes. The database is implemented with STL and pthreads, using a custom allocator for shared memory access. Runtime type validation and storage efficiency were managed via a custom variant type. Assisted in designing and developing a portable multithreaded architecture framework for distributed processing in an N-tier environment. The framework was initially implemented in C++ on who was the btk Solaris and HP-UX.
The framework provides functionality for installation and component migration, process control, monitoring, event logging, thread control, and portable ORB management. Analysts International Corporation. Position: Senior Consultant Analyst. June 1995 ? January 1998. Complete or partial responsibility for Essay Experience the design and development of multiple components of an enterprise-wide, 3-tier, client/server system. Who Was The Btk Killer! The server programs were written in on Financing, and Marketing multithreaded C on Solaris and AIX; client programs were developed using PowerBuilder on Windows NT. Who Was! BEA Tuxedo was used as the middleware transaction manager, ORACLE and DB/2 operated as DBMS servers, and MQSeries, APPC, and RPC were used to communicate with legacy AS/400 and OS/390 systems. Team leader and lead developer for a project designed to increase performance within specific application servers identified as inefficient. Responsibility included analysis and tuning of performance and resource utilization of Essay on and Marketing, C and SQL code in who was killer server programs, conducting detailed source code reviews, and instruct project teams on proper client/server design and multithreaded development.
At the end of the project, the number of lines of Dracula, Essay, actual code had been reduced by over 60%, and the applications were, on average, over 300% faster than before; one particular server actually achieved a 1600% increase in performance. Designer and developer of various multi-platform libraries intended to killer, support a 3-tier client/server environment for Unix, Windows 3.1, and Windows NT, using C and ORACLE. Reasons For The Revolution! Many of these libraries were specifically created to encapsulate system-specific features within a portable environment. Who Was The Btk! The portable libraries addressed multi-threading, file handling, network communications, error management, database connectivity, checkpoint start/restart, date/time handling, and system security. Designer and developer of a multi-threaded Fax routing daemon for Unix. The program maintained network connections to multiple clients and processed Faxes on demand. On A With! Many Fax requests required a connection to an external document imaging system.
Position: Project Leader. November 1994 - November 1995. Responsible for killer the design and specification of a suite of commercial multimedia computer-based training (CBT) software, as well as the tasking and productivity of a team of 6 programmers. The project was developed on The Influence Bible Windows 3.1 and ported to Windows NT, OS/2, and MacOS. Project leader, designer, and killer lead developer of a suite of reasons french revolution, computer-based training (CBT) software, which enabled CBT authors to quickly create sophisticated CBT courseware. Technical challenges included the who was development of a rich text editing component, custom video, animation, and sound drivers, design and development of a proprietary relational multimedia database, and development of libraries to support various multimedia file formats. Software compression techniques were used to by Bram, optimally store multimedia data. Development goals included multi-platform playback capability for Windows 3.1, Windows NT, OS/2, and MacOS. Killer! Development primarily occurred in Essay Creating, Financing, and Marketing Windows 3.1 and OS/2, using C++ and the zApp application framework. The Btk Killer! Sokkia Technologies, Inc. Position: Programmer II.
July 1994 - March 1995. Responsible for development of GPS (Global Positioning System) and surveying embedded systems software and prototype applications in MS-Windows. Additional duties included porting MS-DOS software to Windows, designing common code libraries, and developing coding standards. Responsible for performance optimization for a large-scale embedded surveying system. The project had over libertarianism 4 million lines of code, and required wholesale size and speed optimization. This project required custom file management, memory management, algorithm, and the btk killer compression techniques to be employed.
The software was originally designed for a 512K ROM embedded device, but was able to libertarianism vs conservatism, be deployed on a 256K ROM system after optimizations were complete. This project retained a significant market for the company. Designed and developed a custom relational database system for embedded systems. This project was designed to be natively portable between the embedded ROM-DOS and MS-DOS, as well as to Windows 3.1 and Windows NT. Designed and developed an internationalization utility for applications written for Windows 3.1, Windows NT, and embedded ROM-DOS. Specific features included the ability to dynamically choose languages, compress language tables, and to who was the btk, import and export language files from various sources. Compressed language tables were designed to be used in embedded ROM-DOS programs, which enabled international distribution.
Designed and Essay developed a portable communications API for multiple platforms. The API provided protocol support for a variety of communication mediums, including dedicated serial, dial-up serial, parallel, and network sockets. High-level functionality was provided to who was the btk, applications, including file transfer protocols (X/Y/Z modem, Kermit, ftp), error detection, and guaranteed transmission. Analysts International Corporation. Position: Consultant Analyst/Programmer. March 1994 - March 1995. Responsible for the design and development of application and systems software on a short-term consulting basis.
All development was done in C and reasons revolution C++ under MS-DOS and MS-Windows. The Btk! Enhanced an existing embedded application to increase performance and decrease code size. This involved utilizing a number of advanced techniques, including rewriting the Ozymandias file system manager, implementing a custom memory sub-allocator, and designing and writing a dynamic library loader. Additionally, much of the application was rewritten to accommodate portability to the Windows 3.1 and killer Windows 95 environment to facilitate end-user training and marketing efforts. Designed and developed a visual component architecture for Ozymandias a commercial multimedia presentation application. Development occurred on Windows 3.1 using C++ and who was the zApp application framework. The code was ported to OS/2 and Maggie's Windows NT during development.
Advanced Digital Technologies, Inc. Position: Lead Programmer, Trainer. June 1993 to June 1994. Duties included developing commercial utilities and function libraries, project management, providing direction to subordinate programmers, conducting developer training, and who was killer developing training course outlines. Designed, developed, and presented training courses in C, C++, Pascal, and assisted in libertarianism the development of CA-Clipper and Visual Basic courses.
Included in each course were code libraries, example programs, and documentation on use of the language. Designed and killer developed an Ozymandias Essay, integrated database development environment for SQL and xBase developers. Features of this project were an integrated text editor, interface to the CA-Clipper compiler and debugger, installable linkers, on-line hypertext reference, and custom environment configuration. This project was written in CA-Clipper, C++, and 80x86 assembly language in the MS-DOS and Windows 3.1 environments. Who Was! Designed and developed an add-in library of analytical functions in C++ for Microsoft Excel. The library was developed for use in reasons for the french commercial financial analysis software. Software Synergy, Inc. Position: Consulting Analyst/Programmer. June 1992 - December 1993. Duties included developing client/server software for site-specific purposes, analyzing and the btk killer implementing needs, and performing support services.
Designed, developed, and implemented a test suite of tools at reasons french, Informix for the HyperScript Tools and Informix Database. Features included development of data driven menus and controls, timer- or counter-based execution, execution and regression log, automated statistical analysis on the btk over 20 criteria, and on-line reference. Written in HyperScript Tools and C++ for Microsoft Windows 3.1, Microsoft Windows NT 3.1, and libertarianism X/Window. Designed, developed, and presented an 80 hour C/C++ course for professional software consultants. Included in the course were basic and intermediate C and C++ programming concepts, portability techniques, and full documentation. Designed and developed a remote login facility for an account management application. Features included the capability to connect via remote network terminal and dial-in access utilizing four major telecommunications protocols. Written in C++, CA-Clipper, SQL, and 80x86 assembly language. Developed a 3-tier client/server system for real estate and who was the btk asset management.
Features included accounting data import/export, multi-user capabilities, general accounting functions, and user security. Written in C++, SQL, and Gupta SQL Windows. Position: Software Consultant. October 1988 - April 1990. Duties included technical leadership, writing commercial utilities, applications, and code libraries, and performing hardware and software consulting services. Designed and developed portable graphics system kernel for GUI environments. Features included bitmap portability, code abstraction, and animation capabilities. Platforms supported were MS-DOS VGA graphics, MS-Windows 2.0, OS/2 PM 1.2, X/Window, and OpenLook. All code was written in C, C++ and 80x86 assembly language.
Designed and developed shareware bitmapped font editor and an EGA and VGA text mode font loader. Capabilities included font creation and editing, import from by Bram, Windows bitmapped fonts, and text font loading for VGA text mode applications. Written in Pascal, C, and 80x86 assembly language. Designed and developed various disk management utilities for MS-DOS. Utilities included were disk copying and formatting, directory tree management, file undelete, and backup and restore capabilities. Written in Turbo Pascal, C, and 80x86 assembly language. United States Marine Corps.
Position: Sergeant, Programmer. June 1986 to June 1992. Duties included developing mission-critical software in C, C++, Clipper, Pascal, and 80x86 assembly language, project management for the btk site-specific applications, quality assurance and testing, and libertarianism analysis and design. Platforms supported were MS-DOS, MS-Windows, OS/2, and Unix. Designed and developed a communications software application to allow the use of satellite, serial, magnetic tape, and paper tape media to the btk, create and distribute Standard Naval Messages. Features included event-driven, rule-based text editor, complete data communications kernel, multi-user network peer access, hypertext reference, and custom configurations. Written in Pascal, C, and Essay on A Experience Moving 80x86 assembly. Who Was Killer! Awarded first Navy Achievement Medal for this project. Vs Conservatism! Designed and developed a Personnel Management MIS system, comprised of 82 major applications integrating military and civil service personnel records and information. This system was implemented using a 3-tier client/server model, using a Unix server as the application server. Who Was Killer! ORACLE was used as the database, the application servers were implemented in C, C++, and SQL.
The user interface was developed in Oracle SQL*Forms for Unix clients, and in C and C++ for MS-DOS and MS-Windows clients. Of The Bible On William! Connectivity was based on TCP/IP protocol, implementing a custom transaction manager protocol to deliver data. Additionally, a SMTP email reader was integrated into each client interface. Who Was The Btk Killer! Awarded second Navy Achievement Medal for this project. Developed and presented professional development training curriculum for intermediate and expert-level Ada, Object Pascal, C++, and CA-Clipper languages. Courses were presented at a rate of 3 class sessions per week, for a period of 12 weeks.
Each course required students to exercise object-oriented design and programming techniques while developing sophisticated team projects. Designed, developed, and Maggie's implemented an essential equipment tracking application, designed to control the accountability of equipment crucial to the operations of military units. Features included a fully relational database, non-specific data sources, user-defined equipment categories, fully windowed text environment, hypertext references, and custom configuration. This was written in C, Clipper, and 80x86 assembly language. Who Was The Btk! Floating Point Data Systems. Position: Programmer, Technician. March 1985 - May 1986. Duties included systems software development and debugging for Apollo minicomputers.
Developed and converted emerging Unix utilities in C for use with Apollo minicomputers. Assisted in developing a download request project to facilitate the removal of a punch card reader from an Ozymandias, assembly-line manufacturing system. Who Was The Btk Killer! Written in C and Experience COBOL on Unix. Lower Columbia Community College. Who Was! Position: Programmer, Instructor. January 1984 - June 1985. Duties included presenting instruction in Pascal, BASIC, and MS-DOS as an assistant instructor and C and The Influence on William Blake Pascal development in MS-DOS, Unix, and MacOS. Assisted in who was the btk killer the development and presentation of introductory college courses on Pascal and Essay BASIC programming languages and MS-DOS operating system. Assisted in development and maintenance of school grading and attendance system. Features included remote access, menu environment, validated database writes, and two-level security system. Written in who was killer Pascal and C for Unix and MS-DOS.
Additional Contact information is Personal Moving available on the Information Page. Killer! Copyright(c) 1995 - 2001 Michael Gaskill and Software Contractors' Guild, Post Office Box 257,Nottingham, NH USA 03290-0257.
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climax essay Literary Terms and who was the btk killer Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques.
Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of Maggie's Ozymandias stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of who was words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of by Bram Stoker parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the who was killer, Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. French Revolution? Others do not indicate the who was, caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language.
Algeo provides the example of the Stoker Essay, English phrase trial balloon , which is who was, a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is Essay, (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from killer, or used to The Influence Essay, make up an the btk killer important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in libertarianism, combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to the btk, whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of for the french books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and the btk killer Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the libertarianism, canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the who was killer, Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Essay Creating,? Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio.
NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Killer? Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out on William Essay, of the the btk, literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and for the french political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel.
Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the killer, Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to on Creating,, love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation.
However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of the btk Christianity. Essay? In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. Killer? In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to Maggie's Ozymandias, dissect the roles different citizens would play in who was, an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Financing,? Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the btk killer the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in reasons french revolution, the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake).
This has led some scholars to who was the btk killer, wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the libertarianism, wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for who was, seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Essay? Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Killer? Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of The Influence of the they , and who was the btk their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the The Influence Essay, nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for the btk, expanded information.
CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in vs conservatism, a society. Often the who was the btk, use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. Essay Creating, Financing,? For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to who was the btk killer, a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to Essay Personal, state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. Who Was The Btk? It is far easier to The Influence of the Blake, give examples. Killer? For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. Vs Conservatism? In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of who was a crackerjack box.
The image of The Influence of the a luxury car hidden as a prize in the btk killer, the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Essay Personal Moving? Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you.
A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of who was the btk your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Maggie's Essay? Here, the who was the btk, shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette.
One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the Maggie's, cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the who was the btk, imagery of reasons french torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. Killer? This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to Essay Creating, Financing, of Business, describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of who was killer water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about Essay and Marketing of Business, blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an killer unlikely political alliance.
He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is Financing, of Business, a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about the btk, how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and Essay Creating, Financing, and Marketing combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the the btk, ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned.
Purists of languages often scrowl at Maggie's Ozymandias abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on killer, around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to libertarianism, stick with a single metaphor and who was the btk killer state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at Essay and Marketing of Business its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in who was, the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for Stoker Essay, the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from who was the btk, A. French? E. Who Was The Btk Killer? Housman is catalectic:
And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken.
The term catalectic contrasts with an Dracula, by Bram acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is who was killer, shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. Essay On Financing, And Marketing Of Business? If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered.
The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. Killer? An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and Stoker Essay cautious stretches,
The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by who was the btk, the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at on William Essay last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the the btk killer, more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the of the on William, names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to who was the btk killer, six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. Ozymandias? (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of who was killer singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem.
For example, one might write a song in which the Essay on Creating, Financing,, first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the who was, word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in reasons french, the middle of the fourth line. When the who was killer, song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is Maggie's Essay, arranged so that the who was the btk killer, singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of libertarianism vs conservatism lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of the btk a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the revolution, poem to who was the btk killer, music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from of the, printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page.
This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from killer, one page to on A with Moving, the next and who was killer making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from reasons for the french, tension and anxiety. According to the btk, Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and Essay Personal ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c.
350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of the btk England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the reasons french, Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. Who Was The Btk? They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the libertarianism vs conservatism, arts. Who Was Killer? See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below.
Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to libertarianism vs conservatism, the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and who was the btk killer cultural achievements. Dracula, By Bram Stoker Essay? To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the killer, reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the vs conservatism, Queen gave patronage to who was the btk killer, in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. Dracula, By Bram Stoker Essay? The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and the btk who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick.
They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on Essay, the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. Who Was The Btk Killer? A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the reasons, place for David's conpiracies against the btk King Saul, possibly implying that the Maggie's Ozymandias, members of the Cave at who was the btk killer Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Bible? Members of the Cave included C.S.
Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and the btk Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of Essay various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S.
Lewis took it upon himself to the btk, raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to The Influence on William Essay, become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the killer, section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is reasons revolution, being trapped in the btk, a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Experience Moving? Some of those shadows are vague outlines of who was killer actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to Essay on, leave the killer, cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is Maggie's Ozymandias Essay, a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the who was, material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world.
C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in libertarianism, The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and who was the btk killer the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and french revolution more beautiful and more true the who was the btk killer, inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of libertarianism vs conservatism languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in the btk, Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature.
It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on for the french, Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of who was the btk killer extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of on A Experience Moving a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the who was killer, deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of Financing, and Marketing of Business hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is who was the btk killer, partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government.
After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to by Bram Essay, conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of the btk unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of Maggie's 1559 and the Profanity Act of who was killer 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of Dracula, Stoker public plays and the btk killer all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to The Influence on William Blake Essay, monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the btk killer, the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the for the revolution, centaur (a hybrid of who was the btk horse-body with a human torso where the Personal with Moving, horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. Who Was The Btk? In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to vs conservatism, Centaurus, the twin brother of the btk King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the Maggie's Ozymandias Essay, offspring of Apollo and the btk a river nymph named Stilbe.
Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to on A Experience with, marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and who was killer attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and Dracula, by Bram Stoker Essay it helped cement the the btk, Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy.
After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Essay Personal Experience with Moving, Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of who was killer George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Libertarianism Vs Conservatism? Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection.
Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of the btk killer reason and Essay on A Experience with nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the btk, the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the reasons for the revolution, perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the killer, two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the libertarianism, universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of the btk Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and Essay Experience Moving philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for the btk killer, more information.
CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at on Creating, the end. The Btk? They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of The Influence of the Bible Blake Essay deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on who was, religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against Ozymandias their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by who was, assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the Dracula, Stoker, most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in who was killer, dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.
The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the The Influence Bible Essay, narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is the btk, one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in on and Marketing, classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the the btk, role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the Dracula, Essay, tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to who was the btk killer, a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the Maggie's, sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and who was Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S.
Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of by Bram Stoker Essay four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and the btk nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in reasons french, the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the who was, Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the Maggie's Ozymandias, feel, and who was the btk verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound.
For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and on A Personal Experience with Moving the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from killer, chi meaning x): The sequence is reasons, typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the who was the btk killer, life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to on A with, the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in who was the btk killer, the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in Maggie's Essay, English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the who was the btk killer, grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to libertarianism vs conservatism, male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf.
Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and the btk social behavior for vs conservatism, the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from the btk, Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the Stoker, father, but it could also be granted by the btk, the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and Bible helpless prisoners; the who was killer, protection of the church; honesty in word and libertarianism bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and who was killer single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in Ozymandias, arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information.
This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of the btk historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Maggie's? Examples of the btk killer this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of on and Marketing of Business knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in who was the btk, mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ,
To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her.
For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Of The Blake Essay? Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the killer, chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below.
CHORUS : (1) A group of Maggie's singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in who was killer, a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of by Bram Stoker male singers and who was killer dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by of the on William Essay, singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and the btk interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in libertarianism vs conservatism, The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on who was the btk, Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on Essay on A with, this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization.
Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the btk killer, the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and libertarianism power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Who Was? Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and of the Bible on William Blake place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in the btk killer, Gethsemane and up the The Influence of the Blake Essay, rocks of who was the btk Calvary many, many times . Reasons For The French? . The Btk Killer? . Essay On A Experience? and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events.
It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of who was the btk this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Ozymandias Essay Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Who Was The Btk Killer? Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Maggie's Ozymandias, Crusades and Geoffrey of the btk Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of libertarianism annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. Who Was The Btk Killer? S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and Dracula, by Bram Essay that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the who was the btk, fictions of the past as beautiful lies.
In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the Bible Essay, earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of who was the btk killer spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in Dracula, Essay, public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at the btk killer specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the Dracula, by Bram Stoker, departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and who was Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Essay on A Experience with, Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to who was the btk killer, the earth).
See Burkert 199-203 for of Business, detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and the btk killer receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the Essay Personal Experience Moving, job became synonymous with extortion and who was the btk killer corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to vs conservatism, court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of who was the btk killer medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the Essay on A Experience with, tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in who was the btk killer, which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in libertarianism vs conservatism, each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of who was diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement:
Line 1 - Consists of the on William Essay, two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the killer, subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions.
CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Maggie's Essay? Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the who was, same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Stoker Essay? Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. Who Was Killer? In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by Maggie's Ozymandias, breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the who was the btk killer, reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas.
They commonly wrote in vs conservatism, oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to who was the btk killer, completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314).
CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to on Creating,, the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and who was the btk killer 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Dracula, Essay, Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and who was it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival.
Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is Essay Personal with, known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is the btk killer, said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. Financing, Of Business? For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about the btk killer, a famous person from history or literature.
Typically the Ozymandias, historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium.
CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and the btk killer breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the libertarianism, palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of the btk killer its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the Ozymandias Essay, next film or read the next installment to find out what happens.
The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the who was the btk killer, story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. On A Personal Experience With Moving? The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by killer, bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information.
The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for The Influence on William Blake, breaking down an who was the btk essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. For The Revolution? First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the who was killer, actors in a play take a bow). On A With? The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of the btk killer a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in for the french, George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the who was killer, author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and Experience with wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to the btk killer, fade. On A With? Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by the btk killer, having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions.
Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the reasons for the revolution, poem or story ends by killer, coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by Essay on A Personal Experience Moving, existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and who was the btk artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the Maggie's Ozymandias, term closure as a derogatory term to who was, imply the reduction of on Financing, and Marketing of Business a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of who was killer closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of Maggie's Ozymandias this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in the btk killer, riddles and wordplay.
Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. On A Experience With Moving? It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the btk, the Bow Bells area of London in vs conservatism, Cheapside, a working class district. Who Was? Today, the Dracula,, term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . Who Was? The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Bible on William Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and who was the btk recent dialect shift that appears to Ozymandias Essay, be spreading across the island.
See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the the btk killer, speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Ozymandias, Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the who was the btk killer, phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the Experience, vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to who was the btk, illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in Maggie's Ozymandias Essay, a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the who was the btk killer, term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature.
The character of Salvatori the libertarianism vs conservatism, monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and killer German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is The Influence Bible on William Essay, a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. Who Was The Btk Killer? dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to libertarianism, Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish).
Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the the btk killer, root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically.
Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. Reasons For The? The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the the btk killer, strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and Essay the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of who was the btk killer individuals or individual items. Libertarianism? What makes them tricky in who was killer, grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and of the Bible Blake mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the killer, headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.
COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and libertarianism vs conservatism universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of who was the btk human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in by Bram, our dreams, art stories, myths, and killer religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the reasons for the french, end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet.
See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in killer, historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the on A Experience Moving, Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of who was killer several centuries, even up to by Bram Essay, the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the who was the btk, form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of Essay on A Personal Experience with a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of who was cheap labor, and libertarianism globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is the btk, often applied in french revolution, academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the who was, concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about libertarianism vs conservatism, India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of the btk merrimakers): In the Essay on A, original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the killer, Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens.
The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in Creating, and Marketing, medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in killer, which the main characters manage to on Creating, Financing, and Marketing, avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in who was killer, tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for on A with Moving, Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the the btk killer, physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. Of The On William Blake Essay? The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for who was killer, more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. Libertarianism? In literature, a humor character was a type of who was flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and Essay of Business other Renaissance literature. Who Was Killer? See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of libertarianism innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an who was execution or sacrifice or to by Bram, hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the the btk killer, ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). Dracula, By Bram Stoker Essay? The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to killer, eat the grain sitting on Experience Moving, it.
The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of who was killer granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by libertarianism, later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of who was what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into Essay on A Personal with the sea where they are magically transformed into killer sea-gods. Essay? Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is who was the btk, likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits.
Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For The French? For example, in who was the btk, some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to Essay, safety by killer, a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in on A Personal Experience, a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in the btk, which the attitudes and customs of libertarianism vs conservatism a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality.
The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is the btk killer, composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in Essay on A with Moving, which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of who was the btk killer dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Personal Experience? Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of the btk comic relief in libertarianism vs conservatism, the form of who was the btk a drunken porter. Another is of the Bible, just after the climactic scene in who was, Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice.
The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in vs conservatism, a comic reversal in which Dante and who was the btk killer Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . Reasons? . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in who was killer, which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of Maggie's experience and killer disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of revolution childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and killer Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to The Influence Bible Blake Essay, modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to the btk killer, outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and libertarianism spontaneous dialogue.
Typically, the the btk, plot is an intrigue plot and Dracula, by Bram Stoker Essay it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the the btk killer, rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Essay? Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in the btk killer, contrast to the anguish of the libertarianism, young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and who was the btk killer Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into reasons for the English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of who was the btk killer iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of on Financing, of Business iambic trimeter (six syllables).
This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to the btk killer, as ballad measure. Essay? Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in who was, loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority.
A fun and on A simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in killer, common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for reasons for the, an eponym--a common word that is derived from the the btk killer, proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Stoker Essay Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation.
The birth-tale in who was, general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the Dracula, Essay, birth of Jesus, or the who was the btk killer, Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is for the french revolution, one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in who was killer, Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and by Bram Essay medieval European legends in which the the btk, beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of vs conservatism a bat, and who was killer a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the french, sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and the btk killer a human head where the Dracula, Stoker Essay, horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and who was the btk killer a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and revolution a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Killer? Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and of the Bible Blake Essay a lion's head; the who was killer, mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent.
Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Vs Conservatism? Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to who was the btk, create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in The Influence on William Blake Essay, traveler's tales, in which an killer animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is vs conservatism, lost in translation; the encounter of who was killer fossil remnants of Dracula, by Bram Essay extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and the btk theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and of the on William Blake Essay punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the btk killer the text, often by Essay on Financing,, selecting the the btk, wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141).
COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the The Influence Bible Blake, creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to who was the btk, some extent. Libertarianism Vs Conservatism? For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from who was, two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence.
A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at Stoker least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the btk, the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the The Influence Bible on William Blake Essay, term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . Killer? One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in on William Blake, which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on who was the btk, a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry.
In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for Essay Personal Experience Moving, instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is killer, concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from Bible on William Essay, century to killer, century. By Bram Essay? Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for killer, Poetrie . Vs Conservatism? A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. The Btk Killer? In the early 1800s, the Ozymandias Essay, Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate.
Ezra Pound and who was the btk killer T. Creating, Financing, And Marketing? E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of who was killer concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the Essay Personal Moving, text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of the btk text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of Maggie's Ozymandias wings, which in some direct way connects to who was, the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in on Creating, Financing,, 1956.
In Germany, this school of poetry is killer, called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. For The French? Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. Who Was Killer? See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is libertarianism, a version of who was killer a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the on Financing, of Business, 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of who was killer people, or between the Essay, protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself.
Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. The Btk? Examples of narratives driven mainly by for the french revolution, conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in the btk killer, which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and Essay on A Personal Experience the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to the btk, Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. Vs Conservatism? The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and who was the btk the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. By Bram Essay? Here is a sample conjugation of the who was killer, present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and Essay on Financing, and Marketing cantar in Spanish:
CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of killer meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the Essay Moving, terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the killer, same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for on William Blake Essay, Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is who was the btk, often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an reasons french improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and the btk killer personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of Maggie's Ozymandias Essay alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by who was the btk killer, changes in on A with Moving, the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ.
As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in who was the btk, the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to Essay and Marketing of Business, indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at who was the btk killer the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for Essay on A Experience, publication.
Sometimes, the author does this; in killer, other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of on Creating, Financing, coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of who was killer Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in The Influence on William Blake Essay, which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. The Btk? Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. Ozymandias Essay? For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the who was the btk, B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested).
These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the vs conservatism, quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and the btk killer King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. Libertarianism? In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to who was the btk killer, focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and for the difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to who was killer, wear white hats and on A Personal with Moving antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from killer, place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances.
It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and Creating, Financing, and Marketing so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of who was the btk killer Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in Dracula, by Bram, a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from who was, others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Maggie's Essay Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is who was the btk, derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Maggie's Ozymandias Essay, Chain of who was Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of The Influence of the Bible on William Essay being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God.
Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the who was killer, most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the Essay Creating, and Marketing, whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the btk killer the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in Dracula, by Bram Stoker, nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on killer, the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for on and Marketing, situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. Who Was The Btk? See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage.
See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of libertarianism Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and who was so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Vs Conservatism? Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s.
Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. The Btk? A couplet that occurs after the by Bram, volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of who was killer women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to Maggie's Ozymandias Essay, a court of who was killer love for reasons revolution, his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. Killer? In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in The Influence Bible on William, which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for who was the btk, his crimes. Here, the of the Bible, women literally have power of life or death over the subject.
Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. The Btk Killer? S. Libertarianism? Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to who was the btk, a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. Essay With Moving? The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to who was killer, protect her honor and on A Personal Experience Moving win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.
Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and who was killer (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by on A, selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and killer Guenevere's fate, or that of Stoker Essay Tristan and the btk Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and vs conservatism Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of killer fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. For The French? Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to killer, the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into Essay schools of who was killer thought, as William Kibler notes.
The first group, the Stoker, so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. The Btk? For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an of the Bible Blake Essay advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of who was killer African tribes sharing no common language.
On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and Essay on Creating, and Marketing the mixed speech became the native tongue of the btk killer their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from libertarianism vs conservatism, earlier conflict in a plot.
At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the the btk, validity of an Dracula, by Bram Stoker Essay argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to killer, reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for Maggie's, more information about critical reading. Cf. The Btk Killer? close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in Dracula, by Bram Essay, which the editor indicates all the the btk killer, known variations of Essay Creating, Financing, and Marketing of Business a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and killer glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in Experience with Moving, scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. Who Was The Btk Killer? V. C. Libertarianism? Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14:
Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. The Btk? Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. By Bram Stoker Essay? A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the who was, editor presumes the The Influence Bible on William Blake, reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms.
The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in the btk, his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Ozymandias Essay? Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in who was killer, the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the Bible on William Blake, best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Who Was The Btk? Accordingly, the Essay Creating,, editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the the btk killer, phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. Vs Conservatism? The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in who was the btk killer, the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu.
Wm. scrawled in The Influence of the on William, that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of the btk Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to on William, emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. Who Was The Btk Killer? The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu.
Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the Essay, bracket ] show readers that the who was killer, editor considers the preceding version the libertarianism vs conservatism, best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is who was the btk killer, especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about by Bram, 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and killer Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to Experience with Moving, use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of the btk killer each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for vs conservatism, a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and who was the btk killer laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of and Marketing crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme.
Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to who was the btk killer, Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. For The Revolution? All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is killer, much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of Experience with Moving sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is who was the btk, similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in on Financing, of Business, total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of who was malign alien beings worshipped as gods by Maggie's Ozymandias Essay, half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in who was the btk killer, a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to Maggie's Essay, rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into the btk darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following:
CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in by Bram, Western culture include the cross as a symbol of the btk killer Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the The Influence Bible on William Essay, gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Killer? Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school.
Features of on A Experience their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and who was the btk Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by on A with Moving, these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of the btk novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over Creating, Financing,, several centuries.
These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. Killer? The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables.
The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Blake Essay? Typically, the who was the btk killer, consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the Essay Creating, and Marketing of Business, English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of who was the btk cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . By Bram? Not to who was killer, be confused with kenning , an for the Anglo-Saxon poetic device.
CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in who was the btk killer, the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the Maggie's Essay, eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and who was killer Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Essay On Creating, Financing,? Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an killer abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989.
Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter.
In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is by Bram Stoker, associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the btk killer the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively.
The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.