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George Orwell: Nineteen Eighty-Four Newspeak was the official language of Oceania and had been devised to meet the ideological needs of Ingsoc, or English Socialism. In the year 1984 there was not as yet anyone who used Newspeak as his sole means of Essay communication, either in speech or writing. The leading articles in the Times were written in it, but this was a tour de force which could only gay couples, be carried out by a specialist. It was expected that Newspeak would have finally superseded Oldspeak (or Standard English, as we should call it) by about the year 2050. Meanwhile it gained ground steadily, all Party members tending to use Newspeak words and grammatical constructions more and Antisocial Personality disorder, more in their everyday speech. The version in use in 1984, and embodied in the Ninth and Tenth Editions of the Newspeak Dictionary, was a provisional one, and contained many superfluous words and archaic formations which were due to be suppressed later. It is with the final, perfected version, as embodied in the Eleventh Edition of the fritz heider theory, Dictionary, that we are concerned here. The purpose of Personality Newspeak was not only to provide a medium of sex in philippine cinema expression for the world-view and Antisocial disorder, mental habits proper to cinema, the devotees of Ingsoc, but to disorder, make all other modes of thought impossible. It was intended that when Newspeak had been adopted once and for all and Oldspeak forgotten, a heretical thought that is, a thought diverging from the principles of of the following was not of romanesque Ingsoc should be literally unthinkable, at Essay least so far as thought is dependent on philippine cinema words.

Its vocabulary was so constructed as to give exact and often very subtle expression to Personality disorder Essay, every meaning that a Party member could properly wish to express, while excluding all other meanings and also the possibility of arriving at them by Creating, and Marketing indirect methods. This was done partly by the invention of new words, but chiefly by eliminating undesirable words and by stripping such words as remained of unorthodox meanings, and Personality disorder, so far as possible of all secondary meanings whatever. To give a single example. The word free still existed in Newspeak, but it could only be used in such statements as This dog is why communism is good free from lice or This field is free from Antisocial Personality disorder Essay weeds. It could not be used in its old sense of politically free or intellectually free since political and should gay couples to adopt, intellectual freedom no longer existed even as concepts, and were therefore of necessity nameless. Quite apart from the suppression of definitely heretical words, reduction of vocabulary was regarded as an end in itself, and Personality disorder, no word that could be dispensed with was allowed to survive. Newspeak was designed not to extend but to diminish the range of why communism thought, and this purpose was indirectly assisted by cutting the choice of words down to Antisocial Personality Essay, a minimum. Newspeak was founded on the English language as we now know it, though many Newspeak sentences, even when not containing newly-created words, would be barely intelligible to which of the a characteristic of romanesque, an English-speaker of our own day. Newspeak words were divided into Antisocial Personality disorder three distinct classes, known as the which of the of romanesque architecture?, A vocabulary, the Antisocial Personality, B vocabulary (also called compound words), and the C vocabulary.

It will be simpler to discuss each class separately, but the sex in, grammatical peculiarities of the language can be dealt with in the section devoted to Antisocial disorder, the A vocabulary, since the same rules held good for all three categories. The A vocabulary. The A vocabulary consisted of the words needed for the business of everyday life for such things as eating, drinking, working, putting on one's clothes, going up and down stairs, riding in vehicles, gardening, cooking, and the like. It was composed almost entirely of theory words that we already possess words like hit , run , dog , tree , sugar , house , field but in comparison with the present-day English vocabulary their number was extremely small, while their meanings were far more rigidly defined. All ambiguities and Antisocial disorder Essay, shades of meaning had been purged out of them. So far as it could be achieved, a Newspeak word of this class was simply a staccato sound expressing one clearly understood concept.

It would have been quite impossible to use the anne, A vocabulary for literary purposes or for political or philosophical discussion. It was intended only to express simple, purposive thoughts, usually involving concrete objects or physical actions. The grammar of Newspeak had two outstanding peculiarities. Personality! The first of these was an almost complete interchangeability between different parts of sex in philippine speech. Essay! Any word in the language (in principle this applied even to very abstract words such as if or when ) could be used either as verb, noun, adjective, or adverb. Between the verb and the noun form, when they were of the same root, there was never any variation, this rule of itself involving the destruction of many archaic forms. The word thought , for why communism is good example, did not exist in Essay Newspeak.

Its place was taken by gay couples be allowed to adopt think , which did duty for both noun and verb. No etymological principle was followed here: in some cases it was the original noun that was chosen for retention, in other cases the Personality disorder Essay, verb. Even where a noun and verb of kindred meaning were not etymologically connected, one or other of them was frequently suppressed. There was, for example, no such word as cut , its meaning being sufficiently covered by the noun-verb knife . Why Communism! Adjectives were formed by adding the suffix - ful to the noun-verb, and Personality disorder Essay, adverbs by adding - wise . Fritz! Thus for example, speedful meant rapid and speedwise meant quickly. Antisocial Disorder! Certain of which was not a characteristic of romanesque architecture? our present-day adjectives, such as good , strong , big , black , soft , were retained, but their total number was very small. There was little need for Antisocial them, since almost any adjectival meaning could be arrived at by adding - ful to a noun-verb. None of the now-existing adverbs was retained, except for a very few already ending in - wise : the - wise termination was invariable. The word well , for example, was replaced by goodwise . In addition, any word this again applied in principle to every word in the language could be negatived by adding the philippine cinema, affix un -, or could be strengthened by the affix plus -, or, for still greater emphasis, doubleplus -. Thus, for example, uncold meant warm, while pluscold and Antisocial Personality Essay, doublepluscold meant, respectively, very cold and superlatively cold. It was also possible, as in anne present-day English, to modify the meaning of almost any word by prepositional affixes such as ante -, post -, up -, down -, etc. By such methods it was found possible to bring about an enormous diminution of vocabulary. Antisocial Essay! Given, for instance, the word good , there was no need for such a word as bad , since the required meaning was equally well indeed, better expressed by ungood . All that was necessary, in any case where two words formed a natural pair of opposites, was to Essay Creating, Financing,, decide which of Antisocial Personality them to be allowed to adopt, suppress.

Dark , for example, could be replaced by unlight , or light by undark , according to preference. The second distinguishing mark of Newspeak grammar was its regularity. Personality Disorder Essay! Subject to a few exceptions which are mentioned below all inflexions followed the fritz heider attribution, same rules. Thus, in all verbs the Personality, preterite and cinema, the past participle were the same and ended in disorder - ed . The preterite of steal was stealed , the Essay Financing, and Marketing of Business, preterite of think was thinked , and so on throughout the language, all such forms as swam , gave , brought , spoke , taken , etc., being abolished. All plurals were made by adding - s or - es as the case might be. The plurals of man , ox , life , were mans , oxes , lifes . Comparison of adjectives was invariably made by Personality adding - er , - est ( good , gooder , goodest ), irregular forms and the more , most formation being suppressed. The only anne her kind, classes of Personality disorder Essay words that were still allowed to inflect irregularly were the pronouns, the relatives, the should gay couples, demonstrative adjectives, and the auxiliary verbs. All of these followed their ancient usage, except that whom had been scrapped as unnecessary, and the shall , should tenses had been dropped, all their uses being covered by will and would . There were also certain irregularities in word-formation arising out of the need for rapid and Personality, easy speech. A word which was difficult to utter, or was liable to Creating, of Business, be incorrectly heard, was held to disorder Essay, be ipso facto a bad word: occasionally therefore, for the sake of euphony, extra letters were inserted into a word or an archaic formation was retained. But this need made itself felt chiefly in connexion with the why communism, B vocabulary. Antisocial Personality Disorder! Why so great an importance was attached to ease of sexton pronunciation will be made clear later in Antisocial Personality disorder Essay this essay.

The B vocabulary. The B vocabulary consisted of words which had been deliberately constructed for political purposes: words, that is to say, which not only had in gay couples to adopt every case a political implication, but were intended to Antisocial Personality Essay, impose a desirable mental attitude upon the person using them. Without a full understanding of the heider attribution, principles of Ingsoc it was difficult to use these words correctly. In some cases they could be translated into Oldspeak, or even into Personality Essay words taken from the why communism, A vocabulary, but this usually demanded a long paraphrase and always involved the loss of certain overtones. The B words were a sort of disorder verbal shorthand, often packing whole ranges of ideas into a few syllables, and at the same time more accurate and why communism, forcible than ordinary language. The B words were in all cases compound words (2) . They consisted of two or more words, or portions of words, welded together in an easily pronounceable form. The resulting amalgam was always a noun-verb, and inflected according to the ordinary rules. Antisocial Disorder! To take a single example: the word goodthink , meaning, very roughly, orthodoxy, or, if one chose to regard it as a verb, to think in an orthodox manner. Heider Attribution Theory! This inflected as follows: noun-verb, goodthink ; past tense and past participle, goodthinked ; present participle, goodthinking ; adjective, goodthinkful ; adverb, goodthinkwise ; verbal noun, goodthinker . The B words were not constructed on any etymological plan. The words of which they were made up could be any parts of speech, and could be placed in any order and Antisocial disorder, mutilated in any way which made them easy to pronounce while indicating their derivation. In the word crimethink (thoughtcrime), for instance, the think came second, whereas in thinkpol (Thought Police) it came first, and in the latter word police had lost its second syllable.

Because of the great difficulty in securing euphony, irregular formations were commoner in the B vocabulary than in the A vocabulary. For example, the adjective forms of Minitrue , Minipax , and Miniluv were, respectively, Minitruthful , Minipeaceful , and Minilovely , simply because - trueful , - paxful , and - loveful were sliightly awkward to be allowed to adopt, pronounce. In principle, however, all B words could inflect, and all inflected in exactly the same way. Some of the B words had highly subtilized meanings, barely intelligible to Antisocial Personality disorder, anyone who had not mastered the language as a whole. Consider, for example, such a typical sentence from a Times leading article as Oldthinkers unbellyfeel Ingsoc . The shortest rendering that one could make of this in Oldspeak would be: Those whose ideas were formed before the Revolution cannot have a full emotional understanding of the principles of English Socialism. But this is gay couples to adopt not an adequate translation. To begin with, in Antisocial Personality disorder order to grasp the why communism is good, full meaning of the Personality, Newspeak sentence quoted above, one would have to have a clear idea of what is meant by Ingsoc . And in addition, only a person thoroughly grounded in Ingsoc could appreciate the which a characteristic of romanesque, full force of the word bellyfeel , which implied a blind, enthusiastic acceptance difficult to imagine today; or of the Personality, word oldthink , which was inextricably mixed up with the idea of wickedness and decadence. But the special function of certain Newspeak words, of which oldthink was one, was not so much to express meanings as to destroy them. These words, necessarily few in number, had had their meanings extended until they contained within themselves whole batteries of words which, as they were sufficiently covered by a single comprehensive term, could now be scrapped and forgotten.

The greatest difficulty facing the compilers of the Newspeak Dictionary was not to invent new words, but, having invented them, to make sure what they meant: to make sure, that is to say, what ranges of words they cancelled by their existence. As we have already seen in the case of the of the of romanesque, word free , words which had once borne a heretical meaning were sometimes retained for the sake of convenience, but only with the undesirable meanings purged out of Antisocial disorder Essay them. Countless other words such as honour , justice , morality , internationalism , democracy , science , and religion had simply ceased to on Financing, and Marketing, exist. A few blanket words covered them, and, in covering them, abolished them. All words grouping themselves round the concepts of liberty and equality, for instance, were contained in the single word crimethink , while all words grouping themselves round the concepts of objectivity and rationalism were contained in the single word oldthink . Greater precision would have been dangerous.

What was required in a Party member was an outlook similar to that of the ancient Hebrew who knew, without knowing much else, that all nations other than his own worshipped false gods. He did not need to know that these gods were called Baal, Osiris, Moloch, Ashtaroth, and the like: probably the less he knew about them the better for his orthodoxy. He knew Jehovah and the commandments of Jehovah: he knew, therefore, that all gods with other names or other attributes were false gods. Personality! In somewhat the same way, the party member knew what constituted right conduct, and in exceedingly vague, generalized terms he knew what kinds of departure from it were possible. His sexual life, for fritz example, was entirely regulated by the two Newspeak words sexcrime (sexual immorality) and Antisocial Personality Essay, goodsex (chastity). Sexcrime covered all sexual misdeeds whatever. Philippine! It covered fornication, adultery, homosexuality, and Antisocial disorder Essay, other perversions, and, in sexton her kind addition, normal intercourse practised for Essay its own sake. Creating, Financing,! There was no need to enumerate them separately, since they were all equally culpable, and, in principle, all punishable by death. In the Antisocial Personality disorder Essay, C vocabulary, which consisted of scientific and technical words, it might be necessary to give specialized names to certain sexual aberrations, but the ordinary citizen had no need of them.

He knew what was meant by goodsex that is to say, normal intercourse between man and wife, for the sole purpose of begetting children, and without physical pleasure on the part of the woman: all else was sexcrime . In Newspeak it was seldom possible to follow a heretical thought further than the perception that it was heretical: beyond that point the necessary words were nonexistent. No word in the B vocabulary was ideologically neutral. On And Marketing Of Business! A great many were euphemisms. Such words, for instance, as joycamp (forced-labour camp) or Minipax (Ministry of Peace, i.e. Ministry of War) meant almost the exact opposite of what they appeared to Antisocial Personality disorder Essay, mean. Some words, on the other hand, displayed a frank and fritz heider theory, contemptuous understanding of the real nature of Oceanic society. An example was prolefeed , meaning the rubbishy entertainment and spurious news which the Party handed out to the masses. Antisocial Personality! Other words, again, were ambivalent, having the connotation good when applied to the Party and fritz attribution theory, bad when applied to its enemies.

But in addition there were great numbers of words which at first sight appeared to be mere abbreviations and which derived their ideological colour not from their meaning, but from their structure. So far as it could be contrived, everything that had or might have political significance of any kind was fitted into Essay the B vocabulary. Anne Sexton Her Kind! The name of every organization, or body of people, or doctrine, or country, or institution, or public building, was invariably cut down into the familiar shape; that is, a single easily pronounced word with the smallest number of syllables that would preserve the disorder Essay, original derivation. In the Ministry of philippine cinema Truth, for example, the Records Department, in which Winston Smith worked, was called Recdep , the Essay, Fiction Department was called Ficdep , the Teleprogrammes Department was called Teledep , and so on. This was not done solely with the object of saving time. Even in the early decades of the twentieth century, telescoped words and phrases had been one of the characteristic features of political language; and it had been noticed that the tendency to use abbreviations of this kind was most marked in totalitarian countries and totalitarian organizations. Examples were such words as Nazi , Gestapo , Comintern , Inprecorr , Agitprop . In the beginning the practice had been adopted as it were instinctively, but in anne her kind Newspeak it was used with a conscious purpose. It was perceived that in thus abbreviating a name one narrowed and subtly altered its meaning, by cutting out most of the associations that would otherwise cling to it.

The words Communist International , for instance, call up a composite picture of universal human brotherhood, red flags, barricades, Karl Marx, and the Paris Commune. Disorder Essay! The word Comintern , on the other hand, suggests merely a tightly-knit organization and why communism, a well-defined body of doctrine. It refers to something almost as easily recognized, and Personality, as limited in purpose, as a chair or a table. Comintern is a word that can be uttered almost without taking thought, whereas Communist International is a phrase over which one is anne sexton her kind obliged to linger at Personality disorder Essay least momentarily. In the theory, same way, the associations called up by a word like Minitrue are fewer and more controllable than those called up by Personality Essay Ministry of Truth . This accounted not only for the habit of abbreviating whenever possible, but also for the almost exaggerated care that was taken to make every word easily pronounceable. In Newspeak, euphony outweighed every consideration other than exactitude of meaning. Regularity of grammar was always sacrificed to it when it seemed necessary. And rightly so, since what was required, above all for political purposes, was short clipped words of unmistakable meaning which could be uttered rapidly and which roused the heider attribution, minimum of echoes in the speaker's mind. The words of the B vocabulary even gained in Antisocial force from the fact that nearly all of them were very much alike.

Almost invariably these words goodthink , Minipax , prolefeed , sexcrime , joycamp , Ingsoc , bellyfeel , thinkpol , and countless others were words of two or three syllables, with the stress distributed equally between the first syllable and the last. The use of them encouraged a gabbling style of speech, at once staccato and monotonous. And this was exactly what was aimed at. The intention was to make speech, and especially speech on any subject not ideologically neutral, as nearly as possible independent of consciousness. For the purposes of everyday life it was no doubt necessary, or sometimes necessary, to sex in philippine, reflect before speaking, but a Party member called upon to make a political or ethical judgement should be able to spray forth the correct opinions as automatically as a machine gun spraying forth bullets. His training fitted him to do this, the language gave him an almost foolproof instrument, and disorder Essay, the texture of the words, with their harsh sound and a certain wilful ugliness which was in accord with the spirit of why communism Ingsoc, assisted the process still further. So did the fact of having very few words to Personality disorder, choose from. Relative to sex in cinema, our own, the disorder Essay, Newspeak vocabulary was tiny, and new ways of reducing it were constantly being devised.

Newspeak, indeed, differed from most all other languages in that its vocabulary grew smaller instead of larger every year. Each reduction was a gain, since the attribution theory, smaller the area of choice, the smaller the Antisocial Essay, temptation to take thought. Ultimately it was hoped to make articulate speech issue from the larynx without involving the higher brain centres at all. Fritz! This aim was frankly admitted in the Newspeak word duckspeak , meaning to quack like a duck. Like various other words in the B vocabulary, duckspeak was ambivalent in Antisocial Personality meaning. Provided that the opinions which were quacked out Essay Creating, Financing, and Marketing of Business, were orthodox ones, it implied nothing but praise, and when the Times referred to Antisocial disorder Essay, one of the orators of the Party as a doubleplusgood duckspeaker it was paying a warm and valued compliment. The C vocabulary.

The C vocabulary was supplementary to the others and consisted entirely of scientific and technical terms. Should Gay Couples Be Allowed To Adopt! These resembled the Personality disorder Essay, scientific terms in why communism is good use today, and were constructed from the same roots, but the usual care was taken to define them rigidly and strip them of Personality Essay undesirable meanings. They followed the same grammatical rules as the words in the other two vocabularies. Very few of the C words had any currency either in everyday speech or in political speech. Any scientific worker or technician could find all the words he needed in Creating, Financing, and Marketing the list devoted to Antisocial disorder Essay, his own speciality, but he seldom had more than a smattering of the words occurring in the other lists. Only a very few words were common to fritz heider attribution, all lists, and there was no vocabulary expressing the function of Science as a habit of mind, or a method of Antisocial Personality disorder thought, irrespective of its particular branches. There was, indeed, no word for why communism Science, any meaning that it could possibly bear being already sufficiently covered by the word Ingsoc . From the foregoing account it will be seen that in Personality disorder Essay Newspeak the anne sexton, expression of Personality disorder unorthodox opinions, above a very low level, was well-nigh impossible. It was of course possible to is good, utter heresies of a very crude kind, a species of blasphemy.

It would have been possible, for example, to say Big Brother is ungood . But this statement, which to an orthodox ear merely conveyed a self-evident absurdity, could not have been sustained by reasoned argument, because the necessary words were not available. Ideas inimical to Ingsoc could only Antisocial, be entertained in a vague wordless form, and why communism, could only be named in very broad terms which lumped together and condemned whole groups of heresies without defining them in doing so. One could, in fact, only use Newspeak for unorthodox purposes by illegitimately translating some of the words back into Personality Oldspeak. For example, All mans are equal was a possible Newspeak sentence, but only in the same sense in which All men are redhaired is Essay on Financing, a possible Oldspeak sentence. It did not contain a grammatical error, but it expressed a palpable untruth i.e. Antisocial Disorder! that all men are of equal size, weight, or strength. The concept of political equality no longer existed, and this secondary meaning had accordingly been purged out of the word equal . In 1984, when Oldspeak was still the to adopt, normal means of communication, the danger theoretically existed that in using Newspeak words one might remember their original meanings. In practice it was not difficult for any person well grounded in doublethink to avoid doing this, but within a couple of generations even the possibility of such a lapse would have vaished. A person growing up with Newspeak as his sole language would no more know that equal had once had the secondary meaning of politically equal, or that free had once meant intellectually free, than for instance, a person who had never heard of chess would be aware of the secondary meanings attaching to queen and rook . Antisocial Essay! There would be many crimes and why communism is good, errors which it would be beyond his power to commit, simply because they were nameless and Antisocial disorder Essay, therefore unimaginable. Which Of Romanesque! And it was to be foreseen that with the Personality, passage of time the distinguishing characteristics of Newspeak would become more and more pronounced its words growing fewer and fewer, their meanings more and attribution, more rigid, and the chance of putting them to Antisocial Personality, improper uses always diminishing. When Oldspeak had been once and for all superseded, the last link with the past would have been severed.

History had already been rewritten, but fragments of the literature of the past survived here and there, imperfectly censored, and so long as one retained one's knowledge of fritz heider Oldspeak it was possible to read them. In the future such fragments, even if they chanced to survive, would be unintelligible and untranslatable. It was impossible to translate any passage of Oldspeak into Newspeak unless it either referred to some technical process or some very simple everyday action, or was already orthodox ( goodthinkful would be the Antisocial Essay, Newspeak expression) in tendency. In practice this meant that no book written before approximately 1960 could be translated as a whole. Pre-revolutionary literature could only be subjected to ideological translation that is, alteration in sense as well as language. Take for example the to adopt, well-known passage from the Declaration of Independence: We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among men, deriving their powers from the Personality disorder Essay, consent of the governed. Following Was Not Of Romanesque Architecture?! That whenever any form of Government becomes destructive of those ends, it is the Antisocial disorder Essay, right of the People to alter or abolish it, and to institute new Government. It would have been quite impossible to render this into Newspeak while keeping to the sense of the original. The nearest one could come to doing so would be to following architecture?, swallow the whole passage up in the single word crimethink . A full translation could only be an ideological translation, whereby Jefferson's words would be changed into Antisocial Personality disorder a panegyric on absolute government.

A good deal of the literature of the past was, indeed, already being transformed in this way. Considerations of sexton her kind prestige made it desirable to preserve the memory of certain historical figures, while at the same time bringing their achievements into line with the philosophy of Ingsoc. Antisocial! Various writers, such as Shakespeare, Milton, Swift, Byron, Dickens, and anne sexton her kind, some others were therefore in process of translation: when the task had been completed, their original writings, with all else that survived of the literature of the Personality, past, would be destroyed. These translations were a slow and difficult business, and it was not expected that they would be finished before the first or second decade of the twenty-first century. There were also large quantities of merely utilitarian literature indispensable technical manuals, and the like that had to be treated in the same way. It was chiefly in order to allow time for the preliminary work of translation that the final adoption of Newspeak had been fixed for so late a date as 2050. GEORGE ORWELL: NINETEEN EIGHTY-FOUR; A NOVEL.

First published by Secker and Warburg, London in philippine 1949.

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Introduction to Antisocial Personality Disorder | Psych

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Essay on Antisocial Personality Disorder and

Nov 12, 2017 Antisocial Personality disorder Essay, academic proofreading -

Sample Essay On Antisocial Personality Disorder

essay on optimism In the first year, the optimists in the regular force outsold the pessimists, but only by 8 percent. In the second year, the optimists sold 31 percent more. Antisocial Personality Essay? As for the special force, it did beautifully. They outsold the pessimists in the regular force by 21 percent during the fritz attribution, first year, and by Personality disorder Essay 57 percent in the second year. They even outsold the sex in philippine cinema, average of the Personality disorder, regular force over the first two years, by 27 percent. In fact, they sold at Essay Creating, and Marketing least as much as the optimists in the regular force.

An optimistic explanatory style had the same effects when examined in educational institutions. 300 freshman in the class of 1987 at the University of Pennsylvania were given the ASQ. At the end of the first semester, the Personality disorder, students who were more optimistic were doing better. Kamen and Seligman found that when we look at two people with equal academic abilities, the more optimistic person tends to get better grades. The optimists were those who explained their success in sex in philippine terms of enduring personal characteristics rather than in terms of luck, easy tests, or low grading standards. Similar results were found when Seligman tested twelve hundred plebes entering West Point military school. Personality? The school is heider so tough that a hundred usually dropped out before classes even began.

West Point was concerned about the dropout rate and their inability to predict which candidates would be able to stick it out. After following the results for two years, Seligman found that the students who quit were the pessimists: those who blamed bad events on Antisocial Personality disorder, themselves, who believed the bad thing would last forever, and that it would undermine everything they did. The linkage of theory, optimism with success has turned up also in studies of sports. The optimists experienced more motivation to succeed and were more persistent in their efforts. Seligman and his colleagues analyzed numerous statements by members of teams like the Personality disorder Essay, Boston Celtics and why communism is good the New Jersey Nets in 1983-84 to predict their performance in Antisocial Personality disorder the 1984-85 season.

They found that the Celtic optimistically explained away their losses, while the Nets said things like We are all missing everything, and We botched things up ourselves and blew all our opportunities. The researchers found that the should, teams#146; explanatory styles strongly predicted their level of success the following season. The same results were found in baseball#146;s National League. The degree of optimism predicted success even after allowing for how good the team was, and pessimism predicted failure. Politics provides another arena in Essay which to test the should gay couples, power of optimism. We see the same results here: One study analyzed the nomination acceptance speeches of Democratic and Republican presidential candidates between 1948 and 1984.

Even after adjusting for the popularity rating of the candidates according to polls, the candidates who concentrated on negative statements about the nation#146;s future almost always lost to those who expressed more optimistic views. The pessimistic candidates lost nine out of ten of the elections. Adlai Stephenson, unsuccessfully running in 1952, declared, for example: The ordeal of the Personality disorder, 20 th century#151;the bloodiest, most turbulent era of the Christian age#151;is far from over. Should Gay Couples To Adopt? Sacrifice, patience, and implacable purpose may be our lot for years to come. His optimistic and successful opponent, Dwight Eisenhower instead made a clear statement of problem-solving action: I will go to Korea. Not only does an optimistic attitude make us more likely to succeed, believing that you control your life and can better it promotes good health. Optimism benefits health in four ways: First, by replacing a sense of helplessness with a feeling of control, optimism boosts the immune system. This was demonstrated in rat experiments by Madelon Visintainer. Antisocial Personality? The rats who learned helplessness through the experimental setup were more vulnerable to anne sexton, tumor growth than those who were able to shut off the electric shocks. Second, optimists will seek medical advice and Personality disorder Essay stick to health programs better than pessimists.

The pessimists, telling themselves It doesn#146;t matter what I do will give up easily and fail to sexton, seek information and professional advice. Antisocial Personality Disorder Essay? A study of sex in, one hundred Harvard graduates showed that the pessimists were less likely to Personality disorder, quit smoking cigarettes than were the which following a characteristic architecture?, optimists. Third, the more negative life events a person encounters, the more illness he will probably suffer. Antisocial Personality Disorder Essay? If, all in one month, you lose your job, break up with your spouse, and heider theory a friend dies, your chances of becoming ill increase considerably. Pessimists experience more of disorder, these negative events. They take less action to fritz attribution theory, prevent bad things happening, and Antisocial when negative events occur they make them seem worse by thinking persistently, negatively, and why communism is good helplessly about Antisocial disorder Essay them.

Fourth, research has shown a clear correlation between resilience against illness and degree of social support. Why Communism Is Good? Lonely people who have no close friends or who withdraw from social engagement when unhappy have a greater risk of illness and, when ill, are more likely to get worse. Pessimists take less action to seek support. Optimism wipes away passivity, leading us to seek out other people. Personality Essay? The company of others reduces stress, thereby boosting the immune system. Others can also help take care of sex in philippine, us and encourage us to take medication, rest, or visit a doctor. One of the first studies of the role of pessimism in causing illness was carried out at Virginia Tech in the mid-1980s. Antisocial Essay? The study, following 150 students, found that the optimists had only half as many infectious illnesses and visits to the doctor as the anne sexton, pessimists. A British study followed sixty-nine women with breast cancer for five years. Antisocial Personality? Those who optimistically fought the cancer were less likely to suffer a recurrence and more likely to survive than those who responded to sexton, their diagnosis with fatalistic passivity.

The rare women who survived long term after two bouts of cancer were those with an optimistic way of thinking. Antisocial Personality Disorder Essay? For years it was suspected that the cancer-prone person was inhibited, conforming, and depressive, and suppresses feelings rather than expressing them. Evidence has been accumulating to support this idea. Even more convincingly, the development of cancer tends to be faster and Essay on Creating, of Business more severe in those who are passive than in people who fight the cancer, believing they have some control. Psychiatrist Arthur Schale has found a higher incidence of cancer in Antisocial disorder those who feel helpless and hopeless. Unsubstantiated and exaggerated claims for the power of the which of the following, mind to influence the body are easy to find. Yet the Personality Essay, evidence now strongly suggests that the way we think and feel does influence our health to a significant degree. This should not be terribly surprising.

Thoughts take place in brains, and brains are integrated into the hormonal system. Minds and brains should be seen as aspects of one system, not as two distinct objects. One likely mechanism explaining the link between pessimism, depression and susceptibility to disease is this: When we feel pessimistic, depressed, or are grieving over the loss of a loved one#151;a situation likely to induce a sense of lost control#151;a group of neurotransmitters (chemical messengers in the brain) becomes depleted. When catecholamines become depleted, another group of neurotransmitters, called endorphins, increase in activity. Endorphins are the body#146;s natural opiates. When endorphins increase in activity, the immune system turns itself down. A growing number of studies show that the sense of personal control felt by optimists clearly boosts the immune system. Not only does optimism feel good, not only does it make us more successful, it can also save our lives and Essay on Creating, keep us in Personality disorder Essay optimal health. TWELVE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DYNAMIC OPTIMIST.

Now we have seen evidence supporting the intuitive view that optimism is good for which of the, us, we can examine the twelve characteristics in more detail. INTERPRETING EXPERIENCES POSITIVELY: (1) Selective Focus: Unimaginably vast in scope and complexity, reality cannot be fully recognized at any one time. Even that part of reality I call my life contains so many elements, events, phenomena, causes, consequences, and perspectives that I cannot keep every aspect of it in focus at any particular moment. No matter how realistic and rational we are, we have no choice but to focus our attention. Dynamic optimists choose to focus primarily on thoughts, events, and Antisocial Personality disorder interpretations that induce joy, encouragement, pleasure, and heider theory constructive activity. Optimists will look at the same world as pessimists but notice different things, and Antisocial Personality see the anne sexton, same things in different ways. One admires a well-tailored suit, the other cannot see anything but a tiny hole in the jacket. Essay? One enjoys the exertion of fritz attribution, climbing a hill, the other worries about getting sweaty. Optimists spend most of their time focused on Antisocial Personality Essay, opportunities, on being with people who they enjoy and benefit from, and on thoughts that energize them.

Dynamic optimists value rationality. So selective focus does not mean avoiding warning signals, or denying unpleasant events, persons, thoughts, or feelings. It does mean dwelling on the constructive and enjoyable and de-emphasizing pain, difficulty, and frustration. On And Marketing? The negative aspects of life can be acknowledged but not fixated upon: Your lower back is sore and and you will seek to Essay, remedy the sex in philippine cinema, problem; in the meantime you will enjoy the disorder Essay, movie. Heider Attribution? Disagreeable events can be placed in a context of learning. Disorder Essay? Optimists attend to the downsides of fritz heider attribution, life only to the extent that this will enable them to move ahead. Preoccupied with encouraging, empowering thoughts, optimists have little time for dwelling on misery. Optimists can look at a frustrating event, fully accepting its reality, then choose to interpret the event in a way that leads to action, growth, and mastery. A child#146;s irresponsible behavior, for example, can give a parent an opportunity to improve his communication skills. While the pessimist focuses on Personality disorder, the frustration itself, often excessively and pointlessly, the optimist keeps the event in sex in philippine proportion, enjoys the Antisocial, rest of life, and looks for solutions to the challenge.

This last word is a key part of the optimist#146;s vocabulary: Where the pessimist sees problems , the optimist sees challenges . If things are going well for an optimist, she often takes that as a sign that things will continue to go well, and that she is therefore capable of which of the was not of romanesque architecture?, making things go well in disorder Essay other areas of life. If I#146;m making strong progress at my exercise routine, I can take it as a sign that I can overcome difficulties with my finances. If something goes badly, the optimist sees it as a useful learning experience and focuses on how she will do better in future. The pessimist thinks through an opposing filter. Some anonymous wit defined a pessimist as one who feels bad when he feels good for fear he#146;ll feel worse when he feels better. Pessimists fixate on everything that could possibly annoy, frustrate, or harm them. Creating, Financing, And Marketing Of Business? They worry unconstructively. If something goes well, they refuse to Personality disorder, believe it, or they believe it cannot last. If it goes badly, it shows that everything is her kind getting worse. Pessimists see every option open to them as crowded with waiting traps, whether bankruptcy, betrayal, or bereavement.

The optimist recognizes the traps but has a wider vision open to solutions, possibilities, and assisting forces. By focusing on constructive, joyful, open-ended aspects of life, the optimist spots more solutions and feels more motivated to Antisocial Personality disorder, overcome obstacles. (2) Refraining from Complaining: Accompanying a positive focus we find the optimist a pleasure to gay couples be allowed to adopt, be near. She sees more good than bad, more to praise than to blame, more open paths than closed roads. Even when the optimist thinks of some negative event, she either keeps it to herself, or speaks of it only to help others or to seek solutions. Part of not focusing on the negative is Antisocial not talking about it pointlessly. The more we complain to others, the more we notice annoying, frustrating phenomena.

Whatever we focus on expands. Complaining, whining, moaning all make us fix our attention on our woes. They also make us boring! The less we complain, the more room exists in our minds for the constructive, the creative, the delightful. If life sometimes presents tough obstacles, the optimist recalls the words of Theodore Roosevelt, who said I wish to preach not the doctrine of ignoble ease, but the doctrine of strenuous life. A common form of complaint heard from pessimistically-focused thinkers sounds like this: Life isn#146;t fair.

I don#146;t deserve this. Which Was Not Of Romanesque Architecture?? Why me? When something bad befalls us, it may be true that we do not deserve it, or that the world is not fair. But to whine about it can only be irrational. Yes the world is not fair. Disorder Essay? It just is.

The world was not built for our benefit. Other people are not here to and Marketing, serve us or to make us happy. When the Antisocial disorder Essay, pessimist complains of unfairness, they reveal an underlying irrational belief that life ought to be fair. Which Of The Of Romanesque? Living effectively includes recognizing that the world will continue just being , rather than being fair . Making ourselves and others miserable by carping about it will get us nowhere. Such pointless, irrational moaning can only generate resentment.

Resentment leads to anger, hostility, and envy. Antisocial? The optimist expects no fairness (though is delighted when she finds it). Optimists search out people, circumstances, and Essay on of Business events that will assist them in life. When they run into opposing forces, they accept them calmly and with good humor look for Antisocial, ways around the heider attribution theory, obstacles thrown in Antisocial Personality disorder Essay their path. (3) Questioning Limits: Iron-clad limits do exist. You cannot jump unaided from which of the following a characteristic, here to the moon. You cannot run faster than light. You cannot make a million dollars by saying Shazam! These kinds of limits have little to do with the things we want to accomplish in Personality disorder Essay life. The laws of physics (at least as we currently understand) rule out fritz attribution theory, certain goals but outside that realm we will have to look hard to find many provably impossible goals.

Most of what we might want to achieve in Antisocial Personality disorder life, whether it is making millions, making major breakthroughs in a field of study, becoming famous, achieving our ideal body, or finding a wonderful life partner, may be difficult yet many people succeed. For almost any improbable goal, we can find those who have made their dream a reality. Optimists nurture a constructive skepticism that challenges the limiting beliefs held by ourselves, our associates, and our society. Fritz Attribution Theory? Optimists display a deep and Antisocial disorder pervasive creative openness to possibilities. They challenge unquestioned, traditional beliefs about limits where no convincing demonstration of impossibility has been made. Optimists#146; confidence in their ability to achieve their goals cannot easily be shaken. A rational optimist will not persistently attempt the truly impossible.

However, in human affairs we will not often be able to prove an sex in endeavor to be impossible. Even if we can demonstrate some desired goal to be impossible, the optimist will not draw unnecessarily frustrating conclusions. Personality Disorder Essay? Many limits are limits only within a specific context. We may be able to change the context and Financing, and Marketing thereby change what is possible. Perhaps you simply cannot make your fortune in that small town, but the same goal can be eminently achievable in a large city.

Some of the goals of Life Expansion as I am outlining it in this book have long been considered impossible. Extending the Personality disorder, human life span past 120 has been declared impossible. Moving off this planet was considered impossible. Should? Becoming more than human is still believed by many to Antisocial Personality, be impossible or unthinkable. Dynamic optimists are especially suspicious of supposed limitations that others claim to be sacred, natural, or inherent in the divine order. Optimists with a sense of history and some understanding of heider, current technological developments see that each of Antisocial Personality disorder, these traditional human limitations may not be invincible after all. Each age, lacking the why communism, necessary vision, will, and technology, elevates temporary limits to the achievement of disorder Essay, our goals to the status of unalterable facts that must be accepted, even glorified and which of the following was not architecture? worshipped. Antisocial Personality Disorder Essay? (If life cannot be extended, why then, mortality must be good and is good natural!) The dynamic optimist challenges personal and socially accepted limits through the directed application of reason, analysis, and creative thinking to Antisocial disorder Essay, a problem. The pessimist accepts limits without question, feeling comfortable with the given, and lacks the drive to search for solutions. The optimist probes the supposed limits, staying open to new pathways, applying creativity, and determination. Of The Following? Actor Christopher Reeve has provided a shining example of a person challenging limits.

Instead of giving up after being severely crippled in disorder Essay a horse-riding accident, he has persistently pushed himself to regain strength and control. He had the courage to appear before a billion people at the 1996 Academy Awards. His example has inspired millions to laugh at sexton the relatively trivial obstacles in their own lives. Disorder? The Wright Brothers, the Apollo rocket launches, and the gerontologists probing at the mechanisms of sex in, aging all represent the optimist#146;s unwillingness to acquiesce in what others see as inevitable limitations. (4) Sense of Abundance: Pessimists see the world as full of obstacles and almost empty of options. They feel that someone else#146;s success means their failure. They see life as what economists call a zero-sum game#151;gains by one person must be matched by losses for others, so the total gain is Antisocial disorder Essay zero. This belief (often unconscious) in limited rewards, limited successes, and limited options leads to envy and resentment.

The effective optimist, by contrast, understands that everyone can improve their situation. Another person#146;s success is to be admired, not resented. Sex In? The success of others not only does not keep us down, it can help us: success in others provides a model for disorder Essay, us to learn from, and concretely shows that success is Essay Creating, and Marketing of Business possible. If my friend writes a best-selling book, why then, perhaps I can too! Dynamic optimists feel free to Essay, do what they want to sex in philippine, do.

As self-directed persons driven by positive values rather than fear or envy, they experience the world as crammed with endless possibilities they can choose from. Typically, they feel no coercion from people or circumstances to do anything. All they do is driven by their passions, not by external pressures. They work at what they love, not because it was their parent#146;s profession or because it is respectable. Optimists live with passion, fixing their attention on what they want to achieve and how they can achieve it. They appreciate what they have and love the Essay, world for all that it offers. Rather than complaining about having to make a living, for example, optimists apply their sense of abundance by fully appreciating the vast range of possible occupations open to them. If they do not possess all the skills needed for a desired occupation, they learn them. Heider Attribution? Pessimists settle for what they see as the realistic option. Crucial to fostering a sense of abundance is being for things, not against things.

You may be against many things: crime, war, being overweight, the Antisocial Personality, budget deficit, intolerance, aging. Optimists restate anything they oppose in positive terms. Which Of The Following A Characteristic Of Romanesque? Rather than being against government, be for liberty and responsibility. Rather than being against your company or office manager, be for making improvements. Instead of saying no to drugs, say yes to healthy pleasures.

I am not merely playing a word game here: Your energy goes wherever you focus your attention. When you are against something you will expend your time and energy attacking it, complaining about it, and reacting to Antisocial Personality, it. When you are for an alternative, you focus on changing it, creating alternatives, exciting others about new options, and feeling productive and creative#151;you will be proactive rather than reactive. Being for things, and a strong sense of abundance creates personal energy. An optimistic sense of gay couples be allowed to adopt, abundance encourages cheerfulness and activity. Antisocial Personality Essay? In a high-energy optimistic state you want to tackle tasks because you expect to enjoy the activity and expect to fritz heider attribution, make progress at it.

This creates a self-reinforcing cycle: Optimism breeds increased enthusiasm; this leads to effort and progress which validates optimism and generates more of it. The virtuous circle of optimism replaces the vicious circle of pessimism. (5) Humor: Humor acts both as a cause and a consequence of Antisocial disorder Essay, dynamic optimism. Should Be Allowed To Adopt? Not surprisingly, optimists, being cheerful types, will tend to Personality disorder Essay, see more humor in sexton everyday events than gloomy pessimists. Feeling good lends itself to spotting funny incongruities and enjoyable oddnesses. Pessimists, if humorous at all, display a more cynical, snide, nasty form of Essay, humor. Humor for them provides a way of tearing down and deriding the on Creating, and Marketing of Business, accomplishments and character of others. Antisocial Personality Essay? More surprisingly, humor adds to optimism.

Since optimism requires an openness to new possibilities and different perspectives, it helps to be able to laugh at dogmatic thinking in ourselves and others. Healthy, good-natured humor can reveal fresh approaches. Humor will be particularly helpful when the rigidity or irrationality is found in ourselves. Without humor, we may lock up emotionally, defending to the death the wisdom of what we are doing and who are. Which Of The Following Of Romanesque? With humor, we can look on disorder, our shortcomings with amusement. Most humor involves seeing old things from on Creating, and Marketing, unexpected angles. This explains the power of humor to Antisocial Personality, promote self-transformation: We will find it easier to change ourselves if we can use humor to step aside from anne sexton, who we are right now and see who we could become. Personality Disorder Essay? Nietzsche told us that laughter means to rejoice at sex in another#146;s expense, but with a good conscience. Antisocial Essay? We can laugh at our own foibles with a good conscience because humor allows us to separate our core sense of Essay Financing, and Marketing, identity from the foolishness we currently see in ourselves. INFLUENCING OUTCOMES POSITIVELY: (6) Rational: Being rational means doing our best to Antisocial Personality disorder Essay, see reality as it is rather than as we want it to be.

Rationality involves apportioning our belief according to the evidence: withholding commitment to unsupported beliefs, even if we want them to be true; not being certain of Essay on and Marketing of Business, uncertain ideas; and always being open to revision of beliefs as new evidence and new reasons appear. Antisocial Personality Disorder? The dynamic optimist applies reason to find ways of assessing and achieving goals, and does not confuse what he wishes to be true with what is true. Blind, wishful optimism is not dynamic optimism, it is an irrational optimism or faith in an unreal world. The rational optimist#151;the optimist who works with reality rather than against it#151;separates his emotional urges from his understanding as far as possible. The rational optimist thinks critically and logically about the world around him. Essay On And Marketing? He also turns the bright light of Personality disorder, reason on himself, examining the causes and reasons of philippine, his motivations and beliefs about himself. Rational optimism means using reason to discover what truly works. Reason involves learning how to assess evidence for claims, how to analyze arguments, assess motivations, figure out who and what to believe and Antisocial disorder Essay how far to sexton, believe it. Is supplemental vitamin E good for my health?

Should I invest in stocks or bonds? Should I believe the claims of homeopathy? Should I always trust my intuitions? Reason also involves ensuring that that your goals are attainable and that you have chosen effective means to them, and making sure your goals are consistent and coherent together. (7) Self-Improving: Dynamic optimists see themselves in transformational terms#151;they see the Personality disorder Essay, self as a process , not a static entity. Optimists recognize the fritz attribution theory, possibilities for Personality disorder, continuing growth, self-correction, and self-improvement. Rather than seeing their current psychology and personality as the ultimate form of themselves, optimists view it as a transition to a better self. If we are to expand our lives, overcoming limits to achievement and which of romanesque happiness, we need to Personality Essay, detach ourselves from who we are today.

More fundamentally we need to see ourselves as an evolutionary process of ever-improving development. Our current personalities serve as one link in the chain of our being. Be Allowed To Adopt? As Henri Bergson said in Creative Evolution : To exist is to Essay, change, to change is to mature, to mature is to go on be allowed to adopt, creating oneself endlessly. The powerful drive to improve, to Antisocial Personality Essay, overcome existing limitations in the self, in philippine optimists is not pushed by fear or self-dislike. This drive is pulled by an inspiring self-image.

Optimists form an image of disorder, who they want to Essay and Marketing, become and use it as a guide for Antisocial Personality, action. They stride towards their ideals rather than running away from who they are now. They seek to become beautiful, not to cover their ugliness; they patiently strive for calmness rather than berating themselves for their bad temper. Why Communism Is Good? Optimists feel a basic sense of happiness, but it is a happiness without self-satisfaction. The drive to self-transformation comes not from Personality disorder Essay, a rejection of the self, but from an identification with the self#146;s continual process of her kind, maturation and strengthening. Optimists recognize the Essay, natural law: Develop or perish. To remain the same leads to stagnation and to falling behind, especially in is good the modern world#146;s frantic and accelerating rate of change. Essay? Dynamic optimists seek to be not masters of the present, but masters of transformation. The drive for self-transformation, perpetual self-improvement, distinguishes the is good, dynamic optimist from the Personality disorder Essay, passive optimist.

The latter sits back, does nothing, and tells himself that everything will work out fine, and that he need not make any effort to improve his approach to living. The dynamic optimist acts on the recognition that continual transcendence of personal limits fuels success, achievement, and Creating, and Marketing happiness. As Goethe tells us in Antisocial disorder Essay The Mysteries : All force strives forward to following was not a characteristic of romanesque architecture?, work far and wide. To live and grow and ever to expand; Yet we are checked and thwarted on each side. By the world#146;s flux and swept along like sand: In this internal storm and outward tide. We hear a promise, hard to Antisocial disorder Essay, understand: From the compulsion that all creatures binds, Who overcomes himself, his freedom finds. (8) Experimental: Pessimists and passive optimists both cling to should be allowed to adopt, the old and familiar, the authorized, regulated and approved.

The dynamic optimist will be among the first to adopt more effective practices. Effective optimism requires more than a belief that things will improve; it requires actively searching for and creating novel approaches. Certainly the optimist eagerly learns from culturally entrenched practices, whether these are ways of organizing a business, principles for a marriage, or methods of boosting athletic performance. Yet he will put no unquestioning faith in ideas simply because they are old and widely accepted. The optimist evaluates each idea, each method on its merits, being quick to Essay, try fresh approaches where they appear to offer advantages. The optimistic personality continually seeks out of the, better ways of Antisocial Personality disorder, doing things, jumps out of ruts before they can wear deep, and questions dogmas and unthinking traditions. Nietzsche expressed this urgent drive to why communism, challenge the old: #133; Not to Antisocial disorder Essay, question , not to tremble with the craving and joy of questioning#133; that is what I feel to be contemptible , and fritz attribution this feeling is the first thing I seek in everyone: some foolishness persuades me ever and again that every human being has this feeling, as a human being.

As Nietzsche recognized with disappointment, many humans do not share this joy of Antisocial disorder, questioning. Pessimists and passive optimists feel comfortable and satisfied with the accepted and traditional. Only dynamic optimists exhibit a fundamental openness to new and better paths. An optimistic attitude encourages openness to new sources of information and new methods of improving life. When it forms part of your personality, an actively optimistic attitude programs your brain to apprehend opportunities and possibilities. This open, experimental attitude will both see more new approaches and following was not a characteristic show more willingness to try them out.

By applying his experimental attitude, the dynamic optimist becomes intensely creative. Willingness to Personality Essay, experiment implies a tolerance for risk-taking. Remembering the importance of rationality, this does not mean wild, random risk-taking, but a willingness to assume calculated risks for anticipated benefits. We might think that sticking with widely accepted methods is safe, but where improvement is needed, failing to experiment is itself risky. Should Be Allowed To Adopt? The optimist heeds the advice of Thomas Watson, founder of computer giant IBM, who told us: The way to succeed is to double your failure rate. Optimists see the self as a process not a static entity.

This allows them to identify with improving their ideas, methods, and practices, rather than desperately needing to be seen as right . Optimists, expecting success or at least learning from their experiments, will not be paralyzed by fear of failure. They keep their mind on their goals, unlike pessimists who shy away from uncertain attempts because they entertain all the possible undesirable outcomes while feeling that being mistaken means being failures and fools. (9) Self-Confident: We all feel confident in specific areas of life. You might be confident when playing tennis, or in closing a deal, or in giving a speech. But you might lack confidence in changing a diaper, replacing your computer#146;s hard drive, or singing in tune. The dynamic optimist cannot help but lack competence in numerous areas, yet retaining a solid confidence . Personality Essay? Self-confidence means not confidence in specific areas, but a fundamental conviction that I am competent to live. Of The Following Was Not Of Romanesque Architecture?? I may lack a skill or ability needed to get a particular job or to Antisocial Personality, solve a relationship difficulty, but I feel confident that I can acquire those skills. I feel assured that I can think up or discover existing solutions, or find someone with sound advice. If a person lacks this basic sense of anne, self-confidence, a pervasive pessimism will be hard to avoid. Antisocial Personality Essay? Acquiring self-confidence requires an effort; anyone promising to deliver it to you in one quick painless fix is lying. The underlying confidence I refer to comes from repeated experiences of successful learning and problem-solving, each of which takes attention and effort.

By repeatedly achieving, as well as recognizing and celebrating our achievements, we can build self-confidence. While the passive optimist hopes that someone else will make the future better, the dynamic optimist believes he can and will bring about what he wants. He does not leave the future up to following was not of romanesque architecture?, passive hoping and wishing, he takes action. If he wants a more enjoyable job, he does not wait for an offer, he goes out and searches for one, confident that he has the necessary skills or that he can acquire them. Effective optimism implies confidence in being able to Personality, create the should gay couples, future we want. Antisocial Personality Essay? Self-confidence generates persistence by giving us the attribution, power to keep trying in the face of resistance and setbacks. Personality Disorder? With self-confidence we will continue making an effort until we finally overcome all obstacles. Should Gay Couples? Pessimists, believing desirable goals to be unattainable, do not persist. In giving up so soon, and thereby failing, they reinforce their sense of personal inefficacy.

Pervasive pessimism in a person goes hand in Antisocial disorder hand with a self-image conveying failure, inability and resignation. A drive towards self-improvement and a willingness to experiment with novel approaches cannot exist without self-confidence. (10) Self-Worth: Self-confidence combines with self-worth to form self-esteem. Whereas self-confidence means a fundamental sense that I am competent to live and flourish, self-worth means a sense that I deserve to is good, live. Some unfortunate individuals lack self-worth, sometimes due to destructive parents who continually undermined them as children, and sometimes due to religious doctrines proclaiming that we are inherently evil, corrupt, and unworthy. Antisocial Personality Disorder Essay? While we can practice dynamic optimism even without a sense of why communism, self-worth, believing that we are worthy of success and happiness makes optimism far easier. How motivated will a person be to create the conditions for his success if he believes he does not deserve to flourish? How strongly will he pursue happiness if he believes he deserves to be punished? This motivation may still exist: the person might be motivated to achieve in order to serve someone else, or as an offering to a god. Such externally-based motivation risks building resentment.

Self-worth bonded to self-confidence forms a powerful core of self-esteem. When self-esteem suffuses our personality, we can forcefully tackle any new challenge with assurance. (11) Personal Responsibility: Effective optimism requires understanding the Antisocial disorder, part we play in gay couples to adopt bringing about the results we want. The passive optimist, with his comfortable faith that other people and institutions will do it all, refuses to acknowledge his own role. Personality Essay? I cannot endorse the common New Age belief that we entirely create our own reality. Yet our own thinking and action does radically affect our chances of success. Unlike the passive optimist, the dynamic optimist realizes that goals can be reliably achieved only through personal effort. Wishful thinking cannot substitute for active pursuit of the life we want. Taking responsibility for on and Marketing, ourselves requires a strong sense of Antisocial disorder, purpose.

Without a clear vision of our destination we will find it hard to get anywhere. Essay On Creating, And Marketing? Being responsible asks of Antisocial disorder Essay, us self-discipline: as we make our choices through the day we need to keep our goals and values in mind, stay focused, and following was not of romanesque resist distractions. Antisocial? More than that, taking responsibility means persisting at Essay Financing, of Business working toward what matters to Personality Essay, us. Persistence and perseverance are virtues of character found in all successful persons. Standing out as a great model of persistence, Thomas Edison tried endless combinations of materials and structures before finally creating the light bulb. His mind stayed focused tightly on his goal, allowing no doubts to stop him, and he persisted through hundreds of failed attempts. Personal responsibility combines psychological characteristics with ethical values. Being responsible involves more than personal effort, focus, and persistence. It also requires integrity: living according to your values.

An integrated personality has developed a consistent and rational set of values conducive to is good, successful living. If we profess our values yet live according to whim, social pressures, or expediency, we will find ourselves pulled in opposing directions. Lack of integrity saps our will by Antisocial Personality Essay pitting our values against our outward words and theory deeds. Like a car trying to move with its parking brake on, we will struggle harder to create the life we want if we give up our integrity. Disorder? Living with integrity is profoundly practical, not merely a nice abstract ideal. Taking responsibility for keeping our words and should to adopt actions consistent with our values means exercising our autonomy#151;our ability to disorder, make our own choices even in the face of external pressures. Being responsible for ourselves can be a great challenge when surrounding us we find government programs to take care of us, and authority figures wanting to should be allowed, run our lives (whether these are parents, gurus, or officials). These stealers of responsibility seduce us by Personality offering ease and should gay couples security if we will only give up personal control and let them make the decisions. But once we give up our autonomy and responsibility to others, we also give up our control over our future. (12) Selecting Environment: We can maintain an optimistic, creative, solution-finding attitude in any environment.

The ability to separate our thinking, to choose how we feel and act, is an aspect of our autonomy as humans. Even in the Nazi death camps, some stayed alive and sane by focusing their thoughts on their hopes and on what they could control. Clearly, though, we will find it far easier to persist in a dynamically optimistic approach to life when surrounded by others who fuel us rather than drain us. Some of us may be unfortunate enough to live and work with those who continually tell us why we cannot do what we want, why our efforts are doomed to fail, and Personality disorder who point to all the possible obstacles and relate tales of every failure they have heard of. While stuck in such an environment we will need to Creating,, maintain more vigilance over Antisocial Essay, our own thinking. If we find ourselves smothered in this miasma, we would do well to devote plenty of effort to why communism, changing our circumstances. This may mean changing jobs or offices, or fending off negative co-workers, relatives, or acquaintances. Dynamic optimists will find themselves attracted to persons and environments that inspire, support, and assist, not those that discourage, distract, and undermine. Still, we should take this recommendation in the context of the other characteristics of a dynamic optimist, and not take it to Antisocial, an extreme in isolation. Since success requires a clear understanding of the world as it really is, not as we wish it to be, we need to place ourselves among those who will not always agree with us. If we hear only heider attribution agreement from those who think just like us, we will fall into a distorted view of the world.

Our beliefs, values, and Antisocial Personality goals need to be tested, questioned, challenged. Only by surviving the criticism of others (and ourselves) or mutating into new forms can our beliefs and goals offer any assurance of her kind, being realistic. Personality Disorder? The optimist will therefore select the should be allowed, environment so as to surround himself not with only those who agree with him, but with those who will either agree and support him or constructively, reasonably, usefully criticize his goals and methods. Hostile, destructive criticism can still be useful, but is harder to learn from and Personality can undermine our motivation. The dynamic optimist carefully selects the environment to achieve a balance of support with constructive disagreement.

Optimism and philippine Uncertainty. Bertrand Russell, one of the most prolific and long-lived philosophers of the 20 th century, pointed out that: Many people would sooner die than think. In fact they do. Russell#146;s barbed observation continues to be all too true. At this stage in human development, most of Antisocial Personality disorder, us display a deep desire for certainty. Is this due to culture or our biological nature? Given the cross-cultural persistence of the need for certainty, I suspect it is partly rooted in our evolutionary past. Back in our hunter-gatherer days, those who were uncertain about whether to which of the was not, run, how to disorder, throw a spear or stone, or whether to mate, were likely to die, their genes being forever taken out of the gene pool. The choices then were relatively simple.

Quick, decisive, certain choices probably conferred a survival advantage. If a tendency toward certainty and the dogmatic thinking that results really is built into our brain, advanced genetic technology may be the only effective way to remedy it. Sex In Philippine? In the meantime, only those who remain aware of this tendency, and strive continually to combat it in themselves, will have a chance of being the Personality disorder Essay, rational beings philosophers have long proclaimed us to be. We find it more comfortable to attribution theory, believe things with certainty. Certainty assures us we need look no further: we have found the final, unalterable truth. Personality Disorder? We need not think, we need not make new decisions, we need not experiment or question ourselves. The desperate desire for certainty insinuates itself into is good every aspect of our lives but especially in the area of religious and political beliefs. Dogmatic religious beliefs extol certainty, even making faith#151;belief in something despite the evidence#151;into a virtue. This attitude toward certainty and dogmatic faith was stated in an especially unapologetic and disorder extreme form by the Church father Tertullian.

After Jesus we have no need of speculation, after the Gospel no need of research. When we come to believe, we have no desire to believe anything else; for we begin by believing that there is nothing else we have to should gay couples to adopt, believe. Certainty reduces our chances of succeeding in Antisocial Personality Essay many situations because it prevents us opening ourselves to new sources of information. It leads us to should be allowed to adopt, conclude further investigation and experimentation to be a waste of time. The emotional reward that keeps people coming back to certainty like a favorite drug is its ability to Antisocial Personality, pacify us, to soothe us, and to relieve us of responsibility. Optimism tainted with dogmatic certainty can appeal to philippine, us since it lets us believe that success requires no action, or at least no new action. If you feel certain that a desired event or outcome will occur, you need not contribute to bringing it about. If you hold a belief with certainty you need not go to the trouble of looking for contrary evidence. Unfortunately we cannot draw a sharp, unmistakable dividing line between dynamic optimism and passive optimism and its reliance on certainty. Keeping in Antisocial Essay mind the twelve characteristics of the dynamic optimist will help keep optimism active and open.

It is up to us to guard against Essay on Financing, of Business, allowing our dynamically optimistic thinking to degenerate into Personality disorder Essay passive Pollyanna optimism. We cannot reliably distinguish rationally and irrationally optimistic beliefs on anne her kind, the basis of the strength of those beliefs (though this can be one indication). Personality Disorder Essay? Faith, or dogmatically optimistic beliefs, can be weak, though this is generally an unstable state, and many perfectly ordinary beliefs are extremely strongly held. For instance, I am very sure that I currently live in Southern California, that the Earth orbits the sun and that I am biologically male. How can we distinguish life expanding optimism from dogmatic optimism? Let me emphasize some of the twelve characteristic of dynamic optimists to help with this question:

Both kinds of sex in cinema, optimistic thinking involve selective focus, or selective filtering of information and experience, but in different ways. Essay? Dogmatic optimists refuse to of the was not, consider evidence that things are not going the way they want. They avert their eyes from obstacles to their goals. They see only disorder Essay encouraging signs while blanking out disturbing signs. Attribution Theory? The dynamic optimist uses selective focus differently: He chooses not to dwell endlessly and pointlessly on unpleasant and unchangeable events or persons. He remains open to recognizing and accepting obstacles to his goals. Rather than blind himself to them, he sees them as challenges, and thinks cheerfully, creatively, and openly about how to deal with them. We have seen that dynamic optimists continually seek to Personality Essay, improve themselves. Fritz Attribution Theory? While valuing who they are now, they strive to become ever better.

They may be satisfied with their progress, but they are never self-satisfied in thinking they are the best they can be. To prevent life expanding optimism from decaying into self-satisfied passive optimism check your behavior over time. Antisocial? Have you stopped looking for ways to improve? Do you approach every conversation as a chance to show the other fellow where he#146;s gone wrong? Have you made real progress with your goals, or are you just telling yourself that you have or you will start to real soon now? We can check our optimism also by which was not of romanesque noting our degree of rationality and experimentalism. You may be facing a problem or choice: Whether to stay with this job or change companies or professions; whether to tell the Personality disorder Essay, truth or lie to stay out of fritz attribution theory, a conflict; whether to vote for government welfare or subsidies or to oppose them. How do you go about making these decisions? Do you look for answers and Personality solutions always in gay couples to adopt the same places?

Is there one book that you look to every time for certain answers? Do you stick with what you have always done in the past? Do you look at information always from the same sources, or do you consult diverging books, magazines, speakers? Dynamic optimists never rely on dogmatic authorities (though they will listen for Antisocial, possible wisdom even from self-proclaimed gurus or authorities), whether these are living persons, massive institutions, or old books. The dynamic optimist tries to Essay on Creating, and Marketing, think as a critical rationalist#151;someone who leaves everything open to question and who treats no authority as an absolute guarantee of truth. Rather than being disturbed by having his beliefs or favorite sources challenged, the rational optimist welcomes feedback and new perspectives. (This does not mean wasting time with uninformative fools who only want to impose their ill-formed ideas on anyone within reach.) You can feel confident that your optimism remains rational and effective so long as you see plenty of signs of continued searching, critical experimentation, and personal responsibility for learning in Personality disorder Essay open ways. The active and passive forms of optimism differ in an obvious way when it comes to the issue of personal responsibility. The passive optimist believes that he will succeed in his endeavors, or circumstances will improve, not as a result of his own efforts but primarily or solely because of external factors. If someone expects their problems to fritz theory, be solved by Personality Essay the government, their parents, their spouse, or a god, they abdicate personal responsibility for their lives. You can spot the slide from dynamic to passive optimism if you see yourself no longer taking action to better your circumstances, instead sitting back and thinking someone else will take of it. On Creating, And Marketing Of Business? Dynamic optimists realize that they cannot control other people, only themselves.

They place confidence in their own ability to change the shape of the future. They jump in and actively set about creating the outcome they desire. Adopting certain habits and practices can help guard against letting our dynamically optimistic thinking deteriorate into Essay the more common passive form. The crucial first step involves thoroughly understanding the characteristics of the dynamic optimist and how they differ from the passive optimist. Once that understanding has been absorbed deep down, we will find it easier to detect and prevent the infiltration of passive thinking. As part of regular daily and weekly meditation and fritz attribution life-review habits, we can check our recent thinking and behavior. Regular sessions for setting personal goals and priorities provide an opportunity for a reality check.

These sessions give us a quiet time in which to reassess short-term and long-term goals and the effectiveness of the means being used. During meditation sessions we can renew our optimistic perspective, rooting out pessimism, while also checking that our optimism remains active and open. Another way to maintain a high level of optimism while avoiding intellectual passivity and certainty is to subject your ideas to evaluation by others of similar commitment. Such individuals and Antisocial disorder groups should also be oriented towards a rational, active optimism. Such persons allow you to test your ideas and goals in an environment both friendly and able to restrain unbridled flights of fantasy. Fritz Heider? Testing your ideas in Personality disorder Essay groups that are fundamentally opposed to your goals, or who cannot comprehend them, is why communism is good neither encouraging nor enlightening. Testing your ideas in supportive yet critical and disorder Essay analytical communities is vital.

Once we understand dynamic optimism thoroughly we have taken a giant leap toward being able to philippine, implement it fully in our lives. Shaping our thinking in an optimistic direction will be easier if we have some specific ideas of what to watch for in our thinking. I can only briefly explain a handful of these mental patterns here. Antisocial? I refer the reader to the Resources for on Creating, Financing, and Marketing of Business, more writings and workshops on Personality disorder, the subject. Cognitive psychologists such as David Burns and sexton her kind Albert Ellis have done us a great service in clearly identifying many thinking patterns typically found in Antisocial Personality Essay pessimists and depressed persons. Since my focus is on the positive#151;on becoming ever better than we are#151;rather than on the negative side of what causes depression and lack of motivation, I will point out a few positive correlates of the thinking patterns identified by these therapists. PARTICULARIZE: When the optimist has been frustrated by obstacles to following was not architecture?, his goals, he reacts appropriately: He inspects the obstacle and sees it for what it is, then considers how to Personality, remove it. The pessimist, especially if depressed, does the opposite. A depressed person will see a single negative event as an endless pattern of defeat.

A woman went for a first job interview. Being nervous and inexperienced she performed at less than her best and was not called back for a second interview at the firm. She told herself: I never get a break. I#146;m so rotten at this that no one will employ me. What#146;s the use? From a single experience she irrationally overgeneralizes to a belief about Essay on and Marketing of Business all future interview experiences. A shy teenage boy asked out a girl he was attracted to.

Being insensitive or perhaps simply not knowing how to respond any other way, she told him Only in your dreams. The boy tells himself: I#146;m ugly and boring. No girl will go out with me. Overgeneralizations like this can turn into Antisocial Personality self-fulfilling prophecies since the irrational belief leads the person to refrain from more attempts. With no more attempts to get an interview or a date, there can be no successes and so the which of the following was not of romanesque architecture?, person#146;s belief seems to be confirmed. The optimist refrains from overgeneralizing. Effective thinkers look at the frustrating situation as a particular event. Antisocial Disorder Essay? That event need not represent any pattern; it can lead to very different future events if treated as a learning experience.

If the woman going for the interview had been aware of sex in philippine cinema, her thinking, she might have stopped the Antisocial disorder, self-defeating cognition, instead telling herself: Well, I didn#146;t do so well at my first attempt. Essay On Creating, Financing, And Marketing? I#146;ll do better next time. Antisocial Essay? Now I know better what to expect. Let#146;s see, I could practice my responses to the questions I was asked, I could sit straighter and speak up confidently, and I could take more initiative in asking questions when given the opportunity. Similarly, the rejected boy might have reminded himself that this girl might have been having a bad day, and not all other girls would react the should gay couples be allowed to adopt, same way.

He might ask himself if he contributed to her response, perhaps by Antisocial Personality disorder Essay being too tentative, and consider how to come across more engagingly. The optimistic response to a bad experience is to look at it as a particular event, not an omen of perpetual failure, and to learn from it in order to correct course and home in on the desired goal. EMPHASIZE THE POSITIVE: Depression-prone individuals usually suffer from anhedonia#151;the inability to enjoy anything. One cause of this is their tendency to disqualify their positive experiences. Even non-depressive, hard-driven Type A personalities can fall into this trap. Upon being given a major promotion with raise in of the a characteristic of romanesque architecture? pay and benefits, an executive immediately started worrying about her new responsibilities.

She did not hold a party to celebrate, turned down friends#146; invitations to dinner to Antisocial Personality, congratulate her, and forgot about all the ways she earned the should to adopt, promotion. Personality Disorder? A man in his sixties who has exercised for years and maintained sound diet and be allowed health habits was complimented on his trim, youthful appearance. I#146;m just lucky he replied. Have you ever replied to a compliment or commendation with phrases like You#146;re just being nice, It was nothing really, or It doesn#146;t really count for Personality disorder Essay, anything? If so, you have disqualified your positive experiences. When this becomes a pattern, we deplete our motivation and darken our view of the world.

Having pushed aside our joyful, successful, affirming experiences, we are left looking only at our mistakes, shortcomings, and setbacks. Even if someone has enough motivation or self-discipline to keep accomplishing things despite disqualifying the positive, he will derive little pleasure from his successes. Sexton Her Kind? If our goal is to both move forward in Antisocial Personality disorder Essay our lives and which of the following was not a characteristic architecture? enjoy doing so, we need to Antisocial Personality disorder, affirm our positive experiences. The dynamic optimist does not need to seek approval, and does not abuse compliments by fritz heider attribution theory puffing himself up in a falsely self-aggrandizing manner. On the other hand, the optimist can confidently acknowledge compliments and rewards. Instead of replying with It was nothing, he says Thank you. The optimist celebrates both his own and disorder other people#146;s successes, enjoys each victory and advance, and sex in appreciates what he has earned. While the optimist looks forward to tackling new responsibilities and to moving on to fresh goals after achieving old ones, he does not forget to appreciate the efforts that got him where he is. Set realistic goals and standards: The tendency to disqualify the Antisocial Personality, positive often festers side by side with the vice of fritz attribution theory, perfectionism.

Optimism has nothing to do with wanting to be perfect. Optimism as I have explained it involves a confident drive to Antisocial, continually improve oneself and one#146;s circumstances. But not only does continual improvement not require perfection, it is anne her kind not even compatible with it. Antisocial Personality Disorder? If you are perfect, or believe you are, you have no room for should gay couples be allowed to adopt, further improvement. Optimists expect to do well and to Antisocial disorder Essay, keep getting better. They feel no need to be perfect or do a job perfectly. Gay Couples Be Allowed? They do not have to mow the lawn magnificently, just well enough. They do not need to write to Antisocial Personality Essay, their friends with unprecedented wit and skill; they just need to say things clearly. By setting realistic goals and standards for themselves, optimists succeed more often, thereby reinforcing their optimism and anne her kind motivation.

If I feel I must ski not just well but perfectly, I will get frustrated and angry at Antisocial Personality disorder Essay myself for fritz heider attribution theory, being only fairly good. Since I know I will not ski perfectly next time, I am likely to avoid trying it again. Perfectionism, by setting us up for failure, may discourage us from ever starting on a project. If we do start we may leave it unfinished, so we can tell ourselves: Well, if I had finished it, it would have been superb. If we do finish the Personality disorder, project, we will be unable to fully enjoy the imperfect result.

We can see perfectionism as an example of black-and-white, all-or-nothing thinking. Either we must do a job superbly, magnificently, with unprecedented excellence, or it is not worth doing at all. Thinking more rationally, optimists breeze past the perfectionist, content to simply do things well or even adequately and then to do them better the next time. Many of us feel drawn to anne her kind, perfectionist attitudes because we believe this to help us perform at Essay our best. Of The Following A Characteristic Of Romanesque Architecture?? Consider some reasons why perfectionism can have the opposite result, apart from discouraging us in the first place: Facing such a lofty standard you may get so nervous that you cannot perform well. You may be too afraid to Antisocial Personality disorder Essay, experiment with uncertain procedures that might produce superior results. You may be afraid to make mistakes that could reveal useful information. Turning perfectionist standards outward to other people, you will become intolerant of others and may drive them away. Was Not? Since perfection is almost never attainable#151;or even definable (how would you run a marathon perfectly?)#151;you will always feel frustrated, unhappy, and bitter so long as you put perfectionism in place of realistic goals and standards. KEEP EVENTS IN PROPORTION: A woman went to pick up her car from the mechanic, expecting it to disorder, be fixed by 3pm. She was looking forward to meeting a date at 4pm on the other side of architecture?, town.

Smiling tightly at her, the mechanic explained that he hadn#146;t been able to Antisocial Personality, fix the engine trouble yet, and would have to keep the car for another couple of hours. Gay Couples To Adopt? You#146;re ruining my life! the woman shouted. This exaggeration in thinking afflicts almost all of Personality disorder Essay, us sometimes, and some of us all too frequently. The housecleaners do an imperfect job and we complain Everyone#146;s incompetent! Perhaps you notice a minor mistake on a report for your company after it has been printed for everyone to read. On And Marketing? How awful! you tell yourself. That#146;s terrible. How could I be so sloppy?

Everyone will think I#146;m an idiot. Damn it! We can call this kind of negative exaggeration magnification or catastrophizing . It involves blowing up a minor irritation into a major calamity. The old cliche about Personality Essay making mountains out of molehills arose from someone noticing how some of us like to turn small annoyances and frustrations into world-shaking (or at anne her kind least life-threatening) catastrophes. Personality Disorder? We feel so much more important when every little setback can be seen as a dramatic cataclysm in the epic of our life! Unfortunately, the philippine, drama is a tragedy, where each day we are fated to Antisocial Personality disorder Essay, suffer incalculable misery. Cognitive therapist David Burns has referred to this distortion in heider attribution theory thinking as the binocular trick.

You look at negative events in such a way as to blow them up in size and importance. If you tend to Antisocial disorder Essay, compare yourself to others, you might also magnify the other fellow#146;s accomplishment, making yourself feel more threatened by should to adopt comparison. The binocular trick works from the other end too, in which case we call it minimization. Here you look through the other end of the binoculars at Antisocial Essay your accomplishments (or your competitors imperfections) and shrink them down to her kind, an insignificant size. Antisocial Disorder? When we regularly practice the binocular trick we overwhelm ourselves. Obstacles to achieving our goals appear enormous; they become mountains too high and rocky to climb. Our motivation drains away, leaving us apathetic and of the was not of romanesque architecture? unproductive. The dynamic optimist, being aware of Antisocial disorder, this seductive tendency to catastrophize, strives to keep events in proportion. Fritz Attribution? Life as a dramatic tragedy is replaced with life as a balanced, steady march forward, drama finding its place in the major accomplishments in one#146;s life. Attaining a developed ability to keep things in proportion can take self-discipline for many of us. Letting one#146;s destructive emotions run wild may feel easy.

In addition, we may believe that we can get what we want more effectively by exaggerating our hurt. Indeed this can be an Personality disorder Essay effective short-term method of manipulating others, but not a healthy or effective long-term approach. It will lead to a loss of respect from others, avoidance of is good, involvement in our little dramas, and distract us from directly and rationally confronting obstacles. Developing and Antisocial Personality disorder Essay strengthening this dynamic, practical optimism is one of the most effective ways of adding to was not a characteristic architecture?, our personal power. A thorough-going dynamic optimist cannot be stopped. He cannot be pushed aside, blocked out, or shut down. He will respond to all obstacles, all attacks, all setbacks with calmness, determination, and a creative, problem-solving attitude. Optimism and pessimism affect our entire worldview. Our whole approach to living will be either empowered or chained depending on which style of thinking predominates.

The principles of dynamic optimism provide keys for unlocking our full potential. In the next chapter I will reveal another, complementary, approach to bringing emotions and moods into the realm of choice.