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Free Religious Studies and Theology essays. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY. Public is as old as mankind. Public Relations affect almost everyone who has a contact with other human beings. All of sinclair, us in one way or the other practice or experience public relations daily.
Public Relations are the planned and sustained effort to established a mutual understanding between an organization and its publics. According to British Public Relations as an art and social science analysis trend, predicting their consequence, counseling organization, leader and implement planned programme of action which will serve for both the organization and its public interest, the world assemble in Mexico City in August(1987).Public relations is the strategic management of relationship between an organizations and its diverse publics, through the use of communication to achieve mutual understanding, realize organizational goals, and serve the public interest(Flyn, Gregory #038; Valin 2008). The term cult is profiling and police, a Latin word which refers to worship, religion and faith. A cult is upton sinclair, a group of wertheimer psychology, people who are adherents of a certain type of worship. In the contemporary context, it generally refers to a fraternal relationship between a group of people who are out to sinclair achieve set objectives for members, even through these objectives go against the interest and norms of the psychology larger society(Ikudayisi,1998).Onyechere(1988) defines these cults as a group of people who share and propagate peculiar beliefs only to members. Cultism is dated back to upton sinclair 1952, when Wole Soyinka winner of the 1986 Nobel Peace Prize for Literature- and a group of hoya, friends at the University of Ibadan formed the Pyrites ‘Confraternity with the motto ‘’Against all Conventions’’. The skull and cross bones were their insignia, cultivating a bohemian style that ridiculed the colonial attitudes mode of dress of the day. This caught on upton, among students and over wertheimer, the next two decades, the fraternity, a non –violent body, became established in all the tertiary institutions that emerged in define upton sinclair, post- independence Nigeria. In the mid- 1980s, reports had it that some of the cults have been co-opted by elements in the intelligence and security services serving the military government such that they were used as foils to the left- wing student unions which, along with university teachers, were among the only remaining bastions of opposition to racial and police military rule. Cultism includes the activities of secret cults or societies that are very rampant in our institutions of learning today. Define Upton! This has not only created an atmosphere of insecurity in our campuses, it is also diverting attention from the primary purpose of the universities which is education.
Taiwo(2004) declared that’ ’What we are all witnessing today in the education sector is a sad reflection of attitudes, corruption in the society and define sinclair, the low priority placed on standardization and improvement of the intellectual custodians of has changed, our time by those in governance’’. This is against the fact that most members of these cults are from rich homes and are never serious with their studies; thus prompting their venturing into examination malpractices. 1.2 Statement of the problem. The basic conditions for sustained academic culture have been eroded in tertiary institution. And it has been a negative impact in tertiary institution which little attention has been given to the consequence. Sometimes students are attacked, killing with acids, charms, machetes, Knives, guns, daylight and gang rapping, loss of life, property and harassing of define upton sinclair, female students. Obada –Obieh(2002). There is no peace in campus, series of examination malpractice, killing of lecturers. Public Relations as problem- solving communication are expected to create strategies to enlighten the students and make them aware of what is needed of in how technology has changed, an academic community .In order to tackle this problem successfully both the students and define sinclair, general public and the government should take the challenges upon themselves.
1.3 Rationale Of The Study. The Research of the study is carried out due to the high rate of moral decadence among student in tertiary institution. It focuses on the relevance measures in which public relations and any external body could adopt to solve social phenomenon in tertiary institution in Nigeria. The study tries to portrayed the relationship and effect between the students and the cultism in Nigeria institution. 1.4 Objectives Of The Study. The aims of this study include the following; 1. To examine the different causes of cultism in how technology has changed education, tertiary institution. 2.To examine the role of Public Relations as strategies tool to reach the audience. 3.To study the various challenges the define upton cultists group have caused on the school activities.
Media relation has a significant effect in selective vs gmo, the fight against cultism in. Nigeria Tertiary Institution. 1.6 Research Questions. 1.Why do students get involve in upton sinclair, cultism in tertiary institution? 2. What roles does the wertheimer psychology Public Relations play to combat cultism in Nigeria tertiary institution? 3. What are the problems the cultists group caused on campus? 4. What are the tools put in place to define sinclair mobilize and encourage students on cultism in attitudes, the institution?
1.7 Significance Of Study. This research is chosen because it will enlighten the student about the risk of joining a cult or being a member of a cult, and help to excavate the evolution and the remote cause of define sinclair, cultism on campuses and proffer and enduring solution to it. 1.8 Scope Of The Study. The study focuses on public relations strategies and profiling, the fight against cultism in Nigeria tertiary institutions. 1.9 Definition Of Terms. Publics; Communication of people at large whether or not organized as group that have a direct or indirect association. Public Relations; Is the strategic management of relationship between an define upton sinclair organization and its diverse publics.
Strategies; A plan that is intended to achieve a particular purpose. Cultism; This is an association of people that comes together to wertheimer psychology form a religious body having common belief, mode of worship and activities are done in an isolated and private place. Institution; Is a social structure in which people co- operate and influences the behavior of define upton sinclair, people and way they live. Tertiary; The area of industry that deals with services rather than materials or goods. The focus of this chapter is to review existing literature relevant to psychology the subject matter of this study. The review covers conceptual, theoretical and empirical frameworks, which reviews past studies related to define sinclair this research work. 2.1 Conceptual Framework. 2.1.1 Emergence of Public Relations. Public Relations is not new, what is prejudice attitudes, new is the modern method of it. Sinclair! In the ancient world, Priests were believed to be endowed to persuade and mould opinion. Racial And Police Brutality! As a result, kings and queens consulted them before any major decision was taken or before any important ceremonial event took place .Public Relations projects were undertaken in sinclair, ancient Egypt.
In Greece, the racial brutality ruling class staged special event such as the Olympic Games to attract attention and to upton sinclair develop national spirit and vs gmo, sense of unity. The First Organized forum of sinclair, public relations history was during the shakespeare son reformation and counter-reformation period. The reformation was a religious revolution on the 17th century, which divided western and eastern Christendom into upton two camp namely catholic and shakespeare son, protestant. The movement stressed the upton right of individual conscience. The reformation attacked the absolute ecclesiastical authority of the profiling catholic church and so separated itself from mainstream. IfedayoDaramola (2003;252). Lvy Ledbetter, lee can be considered as the father of define upton, modern Public Relations. His activities in the united states of American dated back to 1906.Lvy Lee’s activities as a public relations man started as a journalist at a time when a coal mining industry was experiencing shattering strikes and industrial disorder. Lee offered to restore peace in the industry to the striking coal miners on psychology, the contribution that he was allowed to communicate all facts as and when necessary to the public. Lvy lee was later to define sinclair issue his famous’’ Declaration of attitudes, principles which he gave to all editors.
Lloyd (1980;3). In Great Britain, the activities of Sir Stephen Tallent who was the founder of the Britain institute of public relations between 1926-1931 contributed immensely to the birth and growth of public relations in the United Kingdom. Colonial government employed public relations practice to define upton sinclair persuade people to go into has changed war. Public Relations started as an information office which was an arm of British government. The purpose of information office was to make people go into define sinclair war.
D.C Fletcher was the head of information office. Oriola (2009). In 1946, the selective breeding vs gmo information office was transformed into ministry of information. An army of the upton sinclair ministry of information was public relations department that carry out public relations functions. 2.1.2 Concept Of Public Relations. Public Relations Society of America ( PRSA)(1982) Persist that Public Relations help our complex, Pluralistic society to reach decisions and function more effectively by contributing to mutual understanding among groups and institutions.
It serves to bring private and public policies into harmony. Public relations serve a wide variety of attitudes, institutions in society, such as business, trade unions, government agencies, voluntary associations, foundations and hospitals, educational and religions institutions. Taye (2002), quoting News and Carel (2001) says that the first world assemble of public relations association regards public relations as the art and science of analyzing trends, predicting their consequences, counseling organization leaders and implementing planned programmes of action which will serve both the organization’s and the publics interest. Tejuoso (2003) see public relations as a management function of a continuing and planned character through which public and private organization and institution seeks to win and retain the understanding, Sympathy and support of those with whom they are. Johnstone and Zawawi (2004;6) define public relations as the’ ’ethical and strategic management of communication and relationships in order to build and develop coalitions and define sinclair, policy, identify and manage issues and create and direct messages to how technology has changed education achieve sound outcomes within a socially responsible framework. Meanwhile, Lvy Lee and Edward Louis Bernays (1990) describe public relations as a management function which tabulates public attitudes, defines the policies, procedures and interest of organization by define sinclair, executing a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance. Basically Public Relation is an act that can be seen to involved artistic skills, language, writing, and public speaking. It is a social science using social scientific instrument to understand and predict human behavior Nwosu (1968). 2.1.3 Public Relations Strategies. Generally, the public relations strategies for tertiary institution should be fashioned out of the corporate objectives of such institution from where public relations derive its objectives.
Press release; It serves as the data bank of institutions. It informs the psychology external publics of the institutions about events that is about to take place or have taken place, through press to the media. Media Relation; Public relations should maintain mutual relationship with the journalist through letters, personal calls on point of interest as a practice measure in order to effectively manage the reputation of the institution. Interviews; It is upton sinclair, veritable tools of getting the support and understanding of the student for their popular and unpopular policies and decision. Meeting; This is an important communication strategies that can be most effective if brilliantly used.
Sponsorship; By providing entertaining radio and profiling, television programmes to the publicity. 2.1.4 Public Relations Campaign Planning. Franks Jerfkins (1998) outline four point for public relations activities in define sinclair, the following order; Appreciation of situation; Although public relation activities are meant to place organization in good state before its public in order for the organization to be able to achieve its corporation aims. 1.Appreciation situation involves tactical monitoring of trends within and around the campuses of the institution making use of prejudice, formal and informal research techniques relevant to public relations practice. 2.Defining The Objective; Specific public relations campaign objective for upton higher institutions are; 1. To pass information to community on the day to day activities of the board, management staff, student union and other members of the community. 2. To fight against cultism in tertiary institution. 3. To correct misconception of management activities by staff, students and shakespeare son, other members of the community. 4.Defining The Publics; Public relations programme are designed for different publics to the institution, for effectiveness of specific campaigns a clear understanding of the’’ Specific public’’ being targeted is essential for sinclair the success of campaign. Therefore, for wertheimer every programme, a list of target public should be made.
5.Selection Of Media And Techniques; Public relations media serve as the define sinclair instrument of communication used by an organization to disseminate information to the different publics and also provide feedback needed for further actions on the part of psychology, management, before selecting media, public relations must have deep knowledge of the characteristic of both the publics and media. 2.1.5 Public Relations For Tertiary Institutions. Currently, public relations practice in higher institution has been faced with enormous challenges. The focus of public relation has been directed lately towards getting the institution out of the woods and consequently repositions them to brazen up for define upton sinclair the task of extinguishing the extraneous factors that have rotten the system. Adefolakan (2001).The presence of selective vs gmo, cultism in our citadel of learning has done a lot of havoc to the nation’s educational systems just as it has negative impact on the socio-economic and political systems. The current state of higher institutions and higher education in Nigeria is the combined responsibility of the governments of these institution, parent, lecturers, and the larger society Mojaye (2005). Public relations in tertiary institution have faced a lot of challenges in recent time. It is now evident that tertiary institutions in Nigeria are seeing the need of employ public relation services and strategies to tackle their image deficiencies but it is also true that most manager of these institution often rebuff practitioner’s counsel in favor of the use of contemporary public relations approaches for solving most of the problems that plague the sector Nwosu (2002). 2.1.6 Public Relations As A Management Function In Tertiary Institutions. The dynamic nature of education and educational institution has made it somehow to have stereo-type public relations for define sinclair educational institutions especially in Nigeria .Nkwocha (2004).
However the following would serve as the basic for articulating function of public relations in tertiary institutions. 1.To serve as communication link between the institution and its internal and external publics. 2.To embark on all activities and oscar de la hoya children, programs that would greatly reduce student’s agitation and upton sinclair, crisis. 3.To secure the understanding and support of major donors and philanthropist for vs gmo the institution. 4.To secure the define upton sinclair confidence and support of government. 5.To undertake community relations activities that will create lasting friendship between the wertheimer psychology institution and the host communities. 6. To monitor trends in education as they may affect performance and fortunes of tertiary institutions. 2.1.7 Role Of Public Relations Officer In Higher Institutions. Operators and managers of higher institutions have since realized the importance of public relations in the day to sinclair day running of the institutions. They have come to realized that the institutions cannot survive without the support of psychology, its crucial publics(internal and external), and in order for them to function properly there is need to align their policies, goals and objectives with the interest of larger society .Nkwocha (2004).
Jubril (1997;22) opines that, public relations reduces industrial crises and student unrest, help raise the quality of learning, and the acceptance of certificates, safeguards the tenure of chief academic officers, enhances the employment of graduates, raises the profile of graduate and attract funding for the institutions. From the define sinclair foregoing, it has become apparent that public relations in institutions strive to achieve what Jefkins (1988;9) calls the “transfer process” This entails transforming public perception from negative dimension to shakespeare son the positive. Define Upton! Specifically, public relation is oscar de la hoya children, considered as capable of converting public ignorance to knowledge and upton sinclair, awareness; apathy to interest and support, prejudice to sympathy and lastly, hostility to understanding and acceptance. Fayoyin (1992), underlie the national and philosophical basic of public relations which is prejudice, primarily concerned with achieving understanding through knowledge. 2.1.8 Public Relations And Crisis Management In Tertiary Institutions. A crisis is an extreme situation of conflict, which has reached a turning point, Where critical decisions have to upton sinclair be taken or else the conflict escalates to a point of extreme violence. Sometimes, a crisis is a degenerated state of conflict, that serve as threats to human security, intense violence characterized by fighting, death, injury, large-scale displacement of Populations, destruction of property, etc. Nwosu (2005). Once a crisis occurs, it is the prejudice attitudes responsibility of the government of a state or any other authority to de-escalate the situation and bring a cessation to violence.
This may be done through various means, including the use of the coercive state apparatus, where necessary(Best,2007;10). The Public Relations Executive should follow basic steps; identified by Lesly(1978) to avoid panic-baton crisis management. Premediate; This is the act of developing plans well ahead of crises situation. The plan must be well understood, revised and updated. Coordinate; This involves letting staff know and define upton, understand his/her assignments should there be An emergency or crisis. Communication; All communications gaps should be bridged during crisis. Evaluation; The best way to avoid panic in crisis situation is for the public relations executive to learn from his/her past mistakes. This means that the public relations executive should be able to identify those things he did wrong the last time. 2.1.9 Evolution Of Cultism In Tertiary Institutions.
The origin of the breeding secret cults in the Nigerian universities can be traced back to the Pyrates confraternity, also known as National Association of Sea Dogs, that was founded at the university college, Ibadan(now called the University of Ibadan),in 1953 when the institution was still a satellite campus of the University of London. It has the skull and crossbones as its logo. Professor Soyinka also explained that confraternities are not cults(Dixon 1994). According to him, Confraternity was part of the upton sinclair social life of the institution. How Technology Education! Adebayo (2001) has pointed out some evil minds have twisted the original aims of this noble tradition that was simply one of campus life. According to Adelola (1997), the first notable departure came in 1968 with the upton formation of the Eiye Confraternity at the University of Ibadan. According to Owoeye (1997) the Eiye Confraternity had sprung from shakespeare son, the’ ’Buccaneers’’’ which also had sprung up from the sea dogs. Define! The protestant groups which sprang up from the Pyrates Confraternity included Black eye, Vikings, Buccaneers, Mafia, dragons, Black beret and others. Prejudice Attitudes! The female cults include, Temple of upton sinclair, Eden, Frigrates, Barracudas, Daughters of Jezebel and others.
Today in Nigeria, there is hardly any tertiary institution which has not suffered the adverse effects of the activities of secret cults which have been characterized by violence. 2.1.10 Causes Of Cultism In Nigerian Tertiary Institutions. There are various causes of cultism on campuses some of which are examined as follows, as identified by Eberendu (1999). 1.Influence of shakespeare son, peer Group; There is upton, no doubt that peer group influence is a potent factor that compels young undergraduates to join secret cults. Ibeh (2005) posited that, the period of adolescence is marked by intense social relationship in any environment he/she finds himself. Oscar De La! Akinfolarin (2003) and Omoegun and Akanle (2007) also reported in their studies that peer group influence is one of the reasons student join cultism. 2.Parental Background; Students, who come from homes where codes of good conduct and discipline are not strictly enforced, are found to be member of cultism. Olajuigbe (2001) reported that parental background, lack of moral instruction at home and define upton sinclair, the manner in which the shakespeare son child is brought could be a factor in enrolment as a member of a cult. According to Mgbekem (2004), some parents love their children to the extent of upton, pampering them. when they do wrong thing instead of scolding them, they allow the children to go free from the offence. Ayodele (2002) also identified family breakdown as one of the causes of cultism on and police, campuses. Define Upton! According to him, a child who comes from broken home is breeding, exposed to parental negligence and frustration, such child is easily induced into cultism.
3.Societal Decadence; Ogunbameru (1997) lamented that the Nigerian society has willingly or Unwillingly provided an enabling environment for define upton sinclair all forms of crimes among which is the problem of campus secret cult. Mgbekem (2005) also lamented that youths nowadays imbibed in how technology has changed education, immoral values instead of inculcating moral and decent values. 4.Erosion of Education Standards ;The economic downturn in the 1980s and early 1990s in the country encouraged corruption and erosion of standards in upton sinclair, the educational system. Most students gained admission into the institution with dubious credentials (Akinfolarin 2003). Such students, because of vs gmo, their low self-image find solace in cultism in order to define upton sinclair survive the academic rigors at all cost. 5.Militarization of the Nigerian Polity; Adewale (2005) remarked that the culture of violence which has become part and parcel of de la hoya children, Nigerian polity has many faces among which are military Coups, state sponsored violence, political assassinations, activities of ethnic militia and upton, communal clashes. Ibukun (1999) also highlighted militarization of the Nigerian polity for decades as a factor for shakespeare son cultism in define upton sinclair, Nigerian Tertiary institutions. While the psychology happenings in define, the institution are an offshoot of the wertheimer larger society, violence became pressed into the psyche of an average Nigerian. Other reasons for cultism in tertiary institutions include lack of recreational facilities, decay in social life and increasing materialism of the society (Omoegun and define sinclair, Akanle 2007).
2.2.11 Effects Of Cultism In Nigerian Tertiary Institutions. The attendant effect of cultism on the learning process cannot be exhausted as both intra and inter- cult clashes negatively affect the students in a very high proportion. It sometimes leads to incarceration, rustication or expulsion of both innocent and student members (Opaluwah 2009). A lot of lives and properties have been destroyed through cult violence (Mgbekem 2004).Young undergraduates who are supposed to selective vs gmo be leaders in define upton sinclair, future have fallen victims of trigger happy cultists (Jamiu 2008).Our youth population is being gradually decimated due to cult activities. The peace on prejudice, campus is adversely affected whenever there is cult invasion, this may result in suspension of academic activities for define upton sinclair some time. Due to the activities of the cultists and profiling and police, their sponsors who supply them with sophisticated weapons to prosecute communal clashes or to gain upper hand in define upton sinclair, power struggles ,there are illegal weapons in has changed education, all nooks and define upton, crannies of the tertiary institutions. The cultists who are in possession of such illegal weapons sometimes used them for wertheimer psychology perpetration of crimes. Mgbekem (2005).Those who eventually enlist in secret cult group might have been compelled to do so because of “Sagging egos’’ that need to define be boosted. Others join in shakespeare son, order to have a sense of belonging and sinclair, the need to be “well connected’’(Eneji 1996).Still others may join because of the selective breeding need for financial assistance, to secure girl friends or for upton self protection (Ogunbameru 1997). 2.3 Theoretical Framework.
2.3.1 Persuasion Theory. Public relations people try to persuade audiences to learn new information, to change emotions, and hoya, act in certain ways. We use the following terms to talk about persuasion; Awareness; Accepting information for the first time. According to Folarin (1998), the theory holds that for define sinclair a persuasive message to be considered effective, it must succeed in altering the psychological function of the recipients(students) in such a way that he/she will respond in tune with the behavior desired by the communication. Aina (2002) further said the racial brutality theory appreciates new learning awareness through provision of upton, information in order to manipulate the internal psychological structure of individuals which can result in behavioral change as the vs gmo best ways to effective persuasion communication. It must be stressed that public relations as persuasive communicators must analyze and understand the audience that information /messages are directed to. 2.3.2 The Social Judgment Theory. Social judgment is proposed by Carolyn Sherif, Muzar and Carl Hovand (1965) as the perception and evaluation of an idea by comparing with current attitudes. It is define, a study that studies human judgment. Breeding! This is sinclair, a theory of persuasion that gives every public speaker a direction on how technology has changed education, how to set, and effectively achieve objectives. This theory based on define, anchor which means the listeners pre existing positions, deposition about particular issues.
There are three Zones within the response to persuasive messages. They are; latitude of acceptance, latitude of rejection, latitude of non-commitment. Latitude of oscar hoya children, Acceptance; It refer to position or argument which audience will accept with little or no persuasion. Latitude of Rejection; This is a position or argument that audiences oppose on which basic they would reject. Latitude of Non commitment; These are position or argument that listener neither accept non reject. 2.4 Empirical Framework. A research carried out by Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) November 6,1982. Public Relations help our complex, pluralistic society to reach decisions and function more effectively by contributing to mutual understanding among groups and institutions.
It serves to define bring private and public policies into harmony. Public relations serve as a wide variety of institutions in society, such as business, trade unions, government agencies, voluntary associations, foundations and hospitals, educational and religions institutions. To achieve their goals, these institutions must develop effective relationships with many different audience or publics such as employees, members, customers, local communities, shareholders and other institutions and with society at large. The management of institutions needs to understand the attitudes and valves of their publics in order to achieve institutional goals. The goals themselves are shaped by the external environment. Attitudes! The public relations practitioner acts as a counselor to management and as a mediator, helping to translate private aims into reasonable, publicly acceptable policy and action. This chapter focused attention on the method and procedure adopted in carrying out this study. 3.1 Research Design. The research design for upton this study is descriptive design type.
The descriptive design is a scientific method which involves observing and describing the behavior of a subject without influencing it in anyway Shuttleworth (2008).The descriptive design has a major function of describing accuracy and characteristics of a particular phenomenon Fagbohungbe (2003). 3.2 Sample And Sampling Techniques. The study adopted purposive sampling techniques to select student who fall within the age range of 18-25,26-30,30 and psychology, above. 3.3 Population of the study. The desired target population for this study consisted of all students in polytechnic and university. Adewale ,R. (2005).Violence in the Citadel; The menace of secret cults in the Nigerian universities’’ Nordic, journal of African Studies, 14(1) 79-98. Adebayo, W.(2001,July 8).VCs use secret cults to settle scores . Sunday Punch, PP.1-2. Adiamoh, G.(2003,Jan 12). Our citadel of knowledge , our dens of cults, Sunday Tribune, P .32. Aguda, A.S. 1997.
The Environment of secret cults. In; Reading on Campus Secret Cults, O.A. Ogunbameru (ed).Ile –Ife; Kuntel Publishing House. Best, S. Define Sinclair! G. (2007) The methods of profiling and police brutality, conflict resolution and transformation in Best S.G.(ed).Introduction to peace and define sinclair, conflict studies in West Africa Ibadan; Spectrum Books. Biagi , S.(2003) Media impact; An introduction to mass media, Canada; Thomson Wadsworth. Black, S. (1989). Introduction to Public Relations Lagos; West African Books Publisher Limited. Brown, A.(1999). Shocker, Female Cultists on Rampage. Weekend Sketch, 2nd Jan, Pp 4-31. CAM Foundation (1982).
Guided Studies, London CAM. Daramola ,I . (2003). Shakespeare Son! Introduction to mass communication, Lagos; Rothan Press Limited. Eberendu, A. Define! C. (1999). Arresting the Evil Called Campus Cult’’.
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Just complete our simple order form and how technology, you could have your customised Religious Studies and Theology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Religious Studies and Theology essay was submitted to define sinclair us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Different causes of cultism in tertiary institution . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/religious-studies-theology/different-causes-cultism-tertiary-institution/ [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 10-04-17 - Processions (religion) 18-02-17 - The testimony of Apostle Paul 10-11-16 - HOW ISLAM VIEWS SAME SEX MARRIAGE AND ITS EFFECT ON PUBLIC OPINION 28-07-16 - Different causes of cultism in tertiary institution 29-06-16 - What is the new age movement?
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12 Classic Essays on English Prose Style. Despite the changes in English prose over the past few centuries, we may still benefit from the stylistic observations of the old masters. Here, chronologically arranged, are 12 key passages from our collection of Classic Essays on English Prose Style. (To read the complete essays, click on the highlighted titles.) There is a mode of style for which I know not that the upton masters of oratory have yet found a name; a style by which the most evident truths are so obscured, that they can no longer be perceived, and the most familiar propositions so disguised that they cannot be known. . . . This style may be called the terrifick , for its chief intention is, to terrify and amaze; it may be termed the repulsive , for its natural effect is to drive away the reader; or it may be distinguished, in plain English, by the denomination of the bugbear style , for it has more terror than danger. Eloquence is not in has changed education the words but in the subject, and in great concerns the more simply anything is expressed, it is generally the more sublime. Sinclair! True eloquence does not consist, as the rhetoricians assure us, in saying great things in a sublime style, but in a simple style, for selective, there is, properly speaking, no such thing as a sublime style; the sublimity lies only in the things; and when they are not so, the language may be turgid, affected, metaphorical--but not affecting. Define Sinclair! About this time I met with an odd volume of the Spectator . I had never before seen any of wertheimer psychology, them.
I bought it, read it over and over, and was much delighted with it. I thought the upton writing excellent, and wished, if possible, to imitate it. With that view, I took some of the papers, and making short hints of the sentiment in each sentence, laid them by for a few days, and then, without looking at the book, tried to complete the papers again, by expressing each hinted sentiment at length and prejudice, as fully as it had been expressed before, in any suitable words that should come to hand. Upton Sinclair! It is not easy to write a familiar style. Many people mistake a familiar for a vulgar style, and suppose that to write without affectation is to write at random. On the contrary, there is oscar de la hoya nothing that requires more precision, and, if I may so say, purity of expression, than the style I am speaking of. It utterly rejects not only define upton, all unmeaning pomp, but all low, cant phrases, and loose, unconnected, slipshod allusions. It is not to take the first word that offers, but the best word in common use. [Michael Sadler#39;s style is] everything which it ought not to be. Selective Breeding! Instead of define upton sinclair, saying what he has to say with the perspicuity, the precision, and the simplicity in which consists the eloquence proper to scientific writing, he indulges without measure in vague, bombastic declamation, made up of those fine things which boys of shakespeare son, fifteen admire, and which everybody, who is define upton not destined to be a boy all his life, weeds vigorously out of his compositions after five-and-twenty. That portion of his two thick volumes which is not made up of statistical tables, consists principally of ejaculations, apostrophes, metaphors, similes--all the worst of their respective kinds. The scholar might frequently emulate the propriety and how technology, emphasis of the farmer#39;s call to his team, and upton sinclair, confess that if that were written it would surpass his labored sentences.
Whose are the truly labored sentences? From the weak and racial profiling, flimsy periods of the define politician and literary man, we are glad to turn even to the description of work, the selective breeding vs gmo simple record of the month#39;s labor in sinclair the farmer#39;s almanac, to restore our tone and spirits. A sentence should read as if its author, had he held a plow instead of a pen, could have drawn a furrow deep and straight to the end. Cardinal John Newman on the Inseparability of Style and Substance. Thought and speech are inseparable from each other. Matter and expression are parts of one; style is a thinking out into language. This is attitudes what I have been laying down, and define upton, this is literature: not things , not the verbal symbols of things; not on the other hand mere words; but thoughts expressed in language. . . . A great author, Gentlemen, is not one who merely has a copia verborum , whether in prose or verse, and can, as it were, turn on selective breeding at his will any number of splendid phrases and swelling sentences; but he is define upton sinclair one who has something to say and knows how to say it. (John Henry Newman, The Idea of a University, 1852) Cooper#39;s word-sense was singularly dull. When a person has a poor ear for how technology has changed education, music he will flat and sharp right along without knowing it.
He keeps near the tune, but it is define upton sinclair not the tune. When a person has a poor ear for words, the attitudes result is a literary flatting and upton, sharping; you perceive what he is intending to profiling brutality, say, but you also perceive that he does not say it. Define Upton! This is Cooper. He was not a word-musician. His ear was satisfied with the approximate words. . . . There have been daring people in the world who claimed that Cooper could write English, but they are all dead now.
Agnes Repplier on the Right Words. Musicians know the value of chords; painters know the value of prejudice, colors; writers are often so blind to the value of words that they are content with a bare expression of their thoughts . . Upton! .. For every sentence that may be penned or spoken the right words exist. They lie concealed in the inexhaustible wealth of a vocabulary enriched by centuries of noble thought and profiling brutality, delicate manipulation. He who does not find them and fit them into place, who accepts the first term which presents itself rather than search for define upton sinclair, the expression which accurately and beautifully embodies his meaning, aspires to mediocrity, and is content with failure. (Agnes Repplier, #34;Words,#34; 1896) [L]et me plead that you have been told of one or two things which Style is not ; which have little or nothing to do with Style, though sometimes vulgarly mistaken for wertheimer psychology, it. Style, for example, is define upton sinclair not—can never be—extraneous Ornament. Prejudice Attitudes! . . . [I]f you here require a practical rule of me, I will present you with this: #34;Whenever you feel an impulse to upton, perpetrate a piece of exceptionally fine writing, obey it—wholeheartedly—and delete it before sending your manuscript to press. Murder your darlings .#34; Woodrow knew how to conjure up such words. He knew how to prejudice attitudes, make them glow, and weep. Sinclair! He wasted no time upon the heads of his dupes, but aimed directly at their ears, diaphragms and hearts. . . Children! . When Wilson got upon his legs in those days he seems to have gone into a sort of trance, with all the upton peculiar illusions and delusions that belong to a frenzied pedagogue. He heard words giving three cheers; he saw them race across a blackboard like Socialists pursued by the Polizei ; he felt them rush up and kiss him. (H.L.
Mencken, #34;The Style of Woodrow,#34; 1921) As the police put it, anything you say may be used as evidence against you. Shakespeare Son! If handwriting reveals character, writing reveals it still more. . . . Most style is not honest enough. Define Upton Sinclair! Easy to say, but hard to practice. A writer may take to long words, as young men to beards—to impress. But long words, like long beards, are often the badge of charlatans. Or a writer may cultivate the obscure, to seem profound. But even carefully muddied puddles are soon fathomed. Or he may cultivate eccentricity, to seem original.
But really original people do not have to think about being original—they can no more help it than they can help breathing. And Police Brutality! They do not need to dye their hair green.
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essay on the tango A farewell dinner in a Montevideo restaurant on a summer night, with tables spilling out onto the pavement under the plane trees. A famous Uruguayan poet in his early forties consoles the define, guest of honour on shakespeare son, the eve of his return home to Europe. Spontaneously, the Uruguayan breaks out into an appropriate tango that speaks of define upton, friendship and the bittersweet sorrow of parting. A woman at the table listens, then interrupts with another tango. Psychology! The poet begins a third. Soon they stand together, the one starting, the other joining in. The spirit is not that of a contest but of a quiet feast of nostalgia.
Tango follows tango. Two hours later they still stand there, gently egging each other on. It is three o'clock in upton the morning. 'When you come back,' promises the how technology has changed, poet, 'we'll get drunk for three days and three nights and I'll sing you three hundred tangos. That's how many I know. Define Sinclair! Three or four hundred.'
The Spirit of the Tango in Buenos Aires. An Argentine novelist comes back to hoya children his family, his home, his city, his country, his world - Buenos Aires - after seven years, seven months, and seven days of political exile in Mexico. I meet him ten days after his return. Define! He is how technology has changed education, bursting with happiness, drunk with happiness, and is absolutely full of himself. I ask what he's doing. 'I'm making love to Buenos Aires,' he says.
Vast , sprawling, flat Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the Argentine Republic, divided from the upton sinclair, Province of Buenos Aires and wertheimer the rest of the country by sinclair, the ring road known as the General Paz. Prejudice! The writer and I talk of upton, foreign cities - Mexico, New York, Rome, Paris, London. I chide him for not knowing Europe. For a moment he looks worried, inadequate, then the attitudes, radiance engulfs him again, and he is upton, able to announce emphatically, 'No, it will be twenty years before I cross the General Paz again.' Jorge Luis Borges on the Tango. 'Dictionaries of music give a definition of the prejudice attitudes, tango that is both elementary and straightforward, but a French or a Spanish composer who correctly pieces together a #147;tango#148; finds to his astonishment that he has constructed something that Argentine ears do not recognize, that our memories do not cherish, and that our bodies reject. Without Buenos Aires evenings and nights, no tango can be made.' In origin and development - even in define upton its dates - the education, tango parallels exactly American ragtime and jazz. Like jazz, the tango's beginnings were lowly and illegitimate.
Born on the waterfronts and in the outer slums of sinclair, Buenos Aires and Montevideo, it was taken up in a variety of dance halls, dives, and whorehouses. 'That reptile of the brothels', one distinguished Argentine writer dubbed the tango, in 1917. In the same way that American blacks speak of their most intimate music as soul music, to the contemporary Argentine - and prejudice especially the man of Buenos Aires, the porteno - the tango is the sinclair, expression of attitudes, his soul. As a dance, choreographically, the tango marks a departure from define upton previous dances, folk or formal, in that it was performed by couples closely entwined. The movements involved an intimate parting and coming together again in a manner blatantly romantic and sexual. Hence the lubriciousness generally attributed to the tango; hence, given the social conditions under which it was born and flourished, its popular appeal. The tango emerged, probably not before 1880, in psychology the River Plate port cities of Montevideo, Buenos Aires, Rosario, and La Plata. The earliest tangos were without lyrics and were danced, but its steps and define sinclair figures evolved before anyone knew he was dancing the tango. Musicologists trace the tango back to the habanera, Cuban music of the late nineteenth century with similar rhythms, whose own origins stem from hoya children France. But the line of descent is not direct. Along the way, a variety of influences gave shape to what we now know as the tango.
Among these were the Spanish zarzuela, the define upton, Andalusian tango, and - via South American freed slaves - African rhythms, especially the candombe. Some historians claim that the tango, as a dance, was a parody by the blacks of the politer dances of the psychology, day, such as waltzes, mazurkas, polkas, etc. The word 'tango' itself seems to be of African origin. A reflection of the tango's complex roots is found in the fact that when at the turn of the century the first tangos were published, they were termed not only tango criollo, or Argentine tango (to distinguish it from the Andalusian), but tango-habaneras, tango-milongas, etc. The milonga was a native forerunner. Its origins were country, just as the tango's were urban, and it stemmed from the tradition of payadores , who improvised ballads to a guitar accompaniment. In the earliest stage, tangos were anonymous and, as they were never written down, most of upton, them have been lost.
When at some point words were added to the music they followed the payador tradition - that is, they were improvised. They were also quite frequently salacious. Borges remembers these lines from a milonga of the period: You may escape from my balls, but from my prick - never! One can hear quite clearly in a number of the earliest recorded tangos traces of Spanish zarzuela and occasionally bits of racial, waltz and even ragtime. Define Upton! It would still be some years before the true tango was defined. Not until the first tangos were published as sheet music around 1900 do we know anything about the composers. The city of Buenos Aires counted a population of 165,000 in 1865; by 1914, the figure had swollen to one and a half million. Proportionally, the prejudice attitudes, same was true for define upton sinclair smaller Montevideo. At the same time, all along the River Plate people from the prejudice attitudes, country, displaced by define, new forms of rural exploitation, were flocking to wertheimer the cities. Factories burgeoned; so did conventillos , or slum tenements.
In 1919, close to half the dwellings of Buenos Aires were conventillos . The wealthy, elegant Barrio Norte began to grow after the yellow fever epidemic of the define sinclair, 1870s. Shakespeare Son! The first tramcars appeared, the first bicycle, the first telephone, gaslight, electricity, sanitation. The exclusive Jockey Club was created in the 1880s, and define sinclair the city began to be modernized in the European style. How Technology Has Changed! Beef, hides, and grain were exported; economic links with England were very close. Define Upton Sinclair! The counterpart to this financial boom was the working-class neighbourhoods and attitudes forty thousand new factories and whole hard-bitten suburbs where the teamsters and slaughterhouse workers lived in smouldering poverty. Populist parties grew as well as socialism and anarchism. Out of define sinclair, this breeding ground came the oscar hoya children, tango, with its mix of Spanish and Caribbean rhythms.
In twenty years, such was its genuine popularity that it swept away all the define upton, music and dance before it - the milongas and waltzes and polkas. In the same way that Buenos Aires and Montevideo were making Argentines and shakespeare son Uruguayans of Spaniards and Italians and making city dwellers of rural people, so too the define upton, tango became more and more native, more and more River Plate. With his elbows on the filthy table. his eyes lost in selective a dream, the wop Domingo Pulenta thinks. about the upton, tragedy of his having emigrated. So run the lyrics of one early tango. A historian writes that 'Foreigners and native Argentines invented the breeding vs gmo, tango in sad and poverty-stricken conditions on the tumble-down edges of Buenos Aires; they had no formal preparation and sinclair little technical skill.' The classical tango, dating from about 1900 to selective breeding vs gmo 1920, is quite unlike the sentimental tango that is upton, widely known outside Argentina and that is a late development and a degeneration. This latter-day tango is a lament for prejudice misfortunes suffered and it is rife with self-pity.
The early tango, however, is joyous, bold, gay, and - as Borges put it - 'at one and the same time stoic and orgiastic.' The career of Angel Villoldo spans perfectly this classic era of the tango, and his life and personality typify the spirit of the age. He was born between 1864 and 1869, worked as a typesetter on the newspaper La Nacion and upton sinclair wrote plays on shakespeare son, the side. He had a considerable reputation as a payador , but he was to win enduring fame as a composer and singer. He also directed choruses during Carnival festivities, wrote libretti for choral societies, was a livestock dealer at the slaughterhouses, and define upton sinclair a circus clown. During the Centenery celebrations, in 1910, Villoldo sang in several restaurants, bars, and cafes, in various parts of vs gmo, Buenos Aires.
Here are some examples of define upton sinclair, his bold lyrics sketching city life: Wanting to wertheimer win the define, grand lottery, Juanita bought a ticket. ending in the number eight, but what came up was seven. Reverend Jaifio was found.
In Lavalle Square. The night before last. With a black girl in his carriage. Day before yesterday five girls. came to me for racial profiling brutality confession, and after having confessed. they kissed my . Define Sinclair! girdle. In the original, the last example contains rhymes that suggest to the listener that the shakespeare son, word coming after the ellipses will be 'balls'.
Villoldo often met with tram drivers at one of define upton, their terminals, and in selective breeding the early years of this century he wrote a famous tango about the tramcars. His music was never melancholy; he wrote amusing anecdotes about the realities of his day. He was an inveterate womanizer and left this self-portrait in upton sinclair one of his best-known tangos: I am a son of Buenos Aires, nicknamed El Portenito; I'm one of the cleverest Argentines.
ever to be born in this country. When some friend of mine. plays a tango on how technology has changed education, his guitar, there's no one in the world. who dances it better than me. There's no one my equal, either, when it comes to define loving women. Villoldo wrote a tango in 1906 satirizing a police ordinance that forbade men from paying double-entendre verbal compliments to women in public.
The penalty was a rather stiff fine of fifty pesos. Police headquarters have decreed. an ordinance on morals, saying that a man must abstain. from speaking sweet words to a woman. In 1908, Villoldo sang in a cafe concert on the famous street corner of Suarez and Necochea, in the Boca, where the early tango flourished. He accompanied himself on the guitar and profiling often, at the same time, played both guitar and harmonica. He travelled to Paris, in 1905, to sing and define upton sinclair record his tangos on phonograph records. He recorded for Victor, Odeon, Columbia, and so forth. He died of cancer, in Buenos Aires, in 1919.
His era died with him. Where Tangos Were Played. So lascivious were the steps and figures of the tango that one pope banned it and how technology education no decent home would tolerate it. The particularly offending movements, called corte y quebrada (this is the dramatic hesitation followed by a lateral swing or rock of the hips), were a playful mimicry of sexual intercourse. Hence, certain public dance halls posted signs that specifically forbade the offending steps. In the tango, the melody acts as a stimulus to the inventiveness of the dancers; the figures are not set. Hence, the richness of the choreography depends on the imagination and physical skill of the dancers.
In some verses of the era, quoted by define upton, Borges in shakespeare son his book on Evaristo Carriego, the upton, poet of the slums of Buenos Aires in the early part of the twentieth century, we read: The bride's uncle, who has taken it upon himself. to see that the dancing stays proper, says, a bit shocked, that suggestive dance steps. are not allowed - even in de la hoya children fun. 'For modesty apart, not that any of these louts. would know what I'm talking about, this house. may be poor - there's no denying that - poor as anything, but respectable.' Lascivious dance steps and the sexual connotation of many of the tangos' titles ('The Corn Cob', 'The Big Rod', etc.) have been noted by define upton, all historians. Oscar De La Hoya! Old photographs show two men dancing the define, tango together on racial, the street.
What they were actually doing was trying out define various intricate steps to perfect what they would do with whores that same night in brothels. They would not practice at home so as not to offend their wives and daughters. No decent girl - not before the tango was made acceptable by Paris - danced a tango. The tango was played and danced in a great variety of prejudice, locales. These were: Salones. Halls, which belonged to mutual aid societies or social or sporting clubs. These functioned on weekends or on upton, patriotic holidays. Some were the province of shakespeare son, a particlar immigrant group. A certain famous salon , the Rodriguez Pena, gave its name to one of the early great tangos.
There, on Mondays, dance contests were held in elegant dress. Some of the best dancers were professionals famed for their work in whorehouses of a previous era. The best musicians and some of the first small orchestras played in these halls. The atmosphere was colourful. One salon was run by Charlie the Englishman, whose wife was Maria La Vasca, who had her own highly-reputed brothel. Casitas. Private homes. The word is a euphemism. Upton! Individuals, either owners or tenants, operated these, a group of de la, friends renting a place for a single night, where they danced and caroused. They were clandestine brothels, really, and whoever ran them hired the necessary number of girls for the evening. Define Sinclair! Maria La Vasca's, at Carlos Calvo 2721, was one of the most famous of these, functioning from the 1890s on.
What may be the first tango still in the repertory, 'El entrerriano', was born at Maria La Vasca's. 'Don Juan', another of the brilliant early tangos, originated in the casita know as Mamita (Little Mama's). In Montevideo, these casitas were known as pensiones . Hotels and tearooms. De La Hoya! The tango 'Gran Hotel Victoria' was written for the opening of the hotel of the same name, in Cordoba, in January 1906. Sometimes in these places the music would not be presented as a tango but - safely - as 'an Argentine dance'. Cabarets. Armenonville, Moulin Rouge, L'Abbaye, Montmartre, Maxim, Royal Pigall, etc. One, the Palais de Glace, was built as an ice-skating rink. Restaurants. El Americano. The famous tango 'El Choclo', by Villoldo, was first played here, in a street called Cortada de Carabales, near Cangallo, in 1905.
Summer restaurants . Open-air places. For reasons of sound amplification, the orchestras were enlarged, numbering fifteen or twenty or more. Define! One, the Pasatiempo, stood on an island, which could only be reached by boat. Another, the Rose Pavilion, functioned during the attitudes, afternoon for ladies and gentlemen and young girls and at define upton night under circumstances less suited to the family. Hansens's was the most famous of these and the most famous tango locale in history.
It originated in 1875 or thereabouts. It was a family restaurant and how technology has changed beer hall by day and a dance hall by night. Cafes and bars . Here the tango was listened to, not danced. These were a lateish development - after May 1910, the date of the define, centenery of Argentine independence. Some of these places had waitresses, who would dance with the clientele. Very numerous in Buenos Aires and psychology Montevideo. Academias. The term 'academy' meant in the nineteenth century a dance hall with a reputation for sinfulness or wickedness, where tangos were danced by women with loose morals. Later, the term referred to the places where tangos were taught but where people often came just to sinclair dance. Racial Profiling And Police Brutality! Usually the women professionals were paid by the dance. Brothels.
Supposedly, the define, tango did not exist in Buenos Aires brothels because dancing, alcoholic beverages, etc., were prohibited in oscar them by local ordinance. Nonetheless, in periods of relaxed vigilance, tangos were danced in certain dives where whores gathered and also in officially registered brothels. Outside the limits of the federal capital, however, the brothel was the principal social centre, and there freedom was nearly absolute. One of the most famous was called The Red Lantern. Sinclair! It was in the factory suburb of Avellaneda, just outside the Buenos Aires city limits. It showed pornographic films, and it was reached by boat across the Riachuelo. It belonged to breeding vs gmo a national chain of whorehouses run by an organization of Jewish pimps, who also owned their own cemetery.
Borges's story 'Streetcorner Man' may have taken a number of elements from the define, real Red Lantern. Perigundines. Waterfront bars, or dives, of low character, whose prostitutes solicited. Such places were supposedly eliminated from Buenos Aires before 1900 but they continued to exist throughout the Argentine well into the Thirties. Ollas. These were places where you paid ten cents a dance and danced with professional women dancers. Formativos. Private houses where participants each contributed a small amount of money for musicians and other expenses.
Street corners . It was not uncommon for de la various dances to be held on street corners. Define! In the selective, case of the tango, it was danced by two men either loosely or tightly entwined, who would alternate taking the woman's part. This picturesque activity, accompanied by the barrel organ or hurdy-gurdy, had as its purpose the trying out and practice of new steps or else simple enjoyment of the dance. By two routes, the sinclair, tango reached Paris around 1910, where it quickly became the new craze and replaced all the other dances of the day. This happened not on de la hoya children, the popular level but among the aristocracy and in the most sophisticated and refined salons, in the most expensive restaurants, and the most exclusive private parties. First the tango arrived via the crews of ships carrying frozen River Plate beef to the port of Marseilles, whose dance halls and define upton sinclair bordellos resembled those of Buenos Aires and Montevideo. And also the tango arrived via those artists of the old guard who, beginning in 1905, went to Paris to record - Gobbi, Villoldo, Saborido, Greco, and others. The importance of this phenomenon was that Paris legitimized the wertheimer, tango, and after its acceptance in the highest circles there - from define whence came all fashion - it could be taken up by the middle class of Buenos Aires. In 1913, the tango was even presented to and defended before the Academie Francaise by one of its members. How Technology Education! Free of the taint of brothels, the tango was now referred to as 'tango de salon' . Around 1917 came a new development - the tango-cancion , or tango-as-song.
Now the lyrics became important. At the same time, they left behind the tough, swaggering stance of the old guard and began to upton sinclair turn sentimental and self-pitying. 'Mi noche triste' (My Sad Night), with words by Pascual Contursi, is the first tango-cancion , and it sets the pattern. My girl walked out on me. in the prime of my life, leaving my soul wounded. and thorns in my heart. For me there's no consolation, and that's why I'm getting drunk - to try to forget her love. Here begins a tendency that certain historians and shakespeare son critics - Borges among them - deplore. 'My Sad Night' was first sung by Carlos Gardel near the outset of his illustrious career.
At once, Gardel became known as one of the define, creators of the tango-cancion . Today when someone begins to tell you a sad tale of personal misfortune, you cut him short saying, 'Please, no tangos.' It was in the Twenties that musicianship was enormously improved. The players were now thoroughgoing professionals. The orchestras were larger, and the dance was simplified. At this time, the tango was played by sextets made up of two violins, piano, two concertinas, and a bass.
Carlos Gardel was born in Toulouse, in 1890, and came to Buenos Aires as a small boy to de la hoya children live with his unmarried mother in a slum tenement in the heart of the city. Gardel began singing early on and immediately rose to fame. Between 1919 and 1935, he made fifteen to eighteen films (a number of define upton sinclair, them in New York) and countless recordings. He died in an aeroplane fire on a runway in Ecuador, in 1935, at how technology has changed the height of his career. He went rapidly from cult figure to myth. Gardel had an upton sinclair, extraordinary voice ('He sings better all the time,' it is commonly said of him even decades after his death), a big smile, and breeding a warm heart. In him were combined the best and worst characteristics of the River Plate man - he was both debonair and roguish. He is greatly admired for his success (this is very Argentine), having been the first Argentine to sing and act his way into the world. One Argentine writer says that to them he was a sort of Humphrey Bogart had Bogart also been a singer. Gardel stands as a symbol of the city - its ports, its slums, its unsavoury nightlife; at the same time, he stands for the city's other side, its refined taste - evening dress, the Colon Opera House, Parisian travel, champagne, and beautiful women. A writer friend tells me that Gardel represents the ideal of the upton sinclair, Buenos Aires man.
Gardel had a house near the Abasto, Buenos Aires's wholesale marketplace. It still stands, today owned and exploited by a consortium whose head is shakespeare son, a Japanese concertina player and impresario who takes tango groups to define play in the night clubs of Tokyo. There is a two-block-long street by the Abasto named for Gardel. Every possible detail of prejudice, his life - his money, his cars, his houses, his possessions - has been documented and define upton sinclair speculated upon. Did Gardel wear glasses?
Did he play he guitar? What brand of hair pomade did he use? Did he have grey hair? False teeth? Play the horses? Apparently, there exists a passport in his name stating that he was born, in 1887, in Uruguay.
Uruguayans claim him as their son; others say it was a false document to exempt him from racial and police conscription in France. Gardel had quite a following of women, but he never married. His mother lived with him. She died, in Buenos Aires, in 1943. This is the last valuable decade in the tango's history. The outstanding figure of the period was Anibal Troilo, an orchestra leader and define upton concertina player, who was to the music of the tango what Gardel was to singing. Troilo has been called the Duke Ellington of the tango. In part, the tango's decline is due to the impact made by oscar de la hoya, phonograph records from abroad, which introduced new music into Argentine life and challenged the tango's popularity. The tango is define sinclair, seldom danced any more except by the older generations, who nostalgically relive their youth. In the citys' centre, places to shakespeare son dance the tango are no more. Define Sinclair! Night spots where the breeding, tango is still played, such as the Viejo Almacen, could not exist if it were not for tourists.
One lone figure, Astor Piazzola, goes on upton sinclair, composing. An old man, he is the last link with the tango tradition. His compositions have been likened to chamber music. Natural attrition is also responsible for the tango's decline. The tango reached its height in the Twenties and Thirties and simply could not be bettered. The sentimentality slipped into vulgarity. The tango was widely appreciated in the first decades of the twentieth century. Vs Gmo! The dance-song reached its culmination in upton sinclair Buenos Aires.
France was the first European country to accept this music, with its strong urban atmosphere, and send it forth into the world. Vs Gmo! It was no mere accident that the tango should take root in a country of upton, immigrants and in a mixture of diverse cultures. The unequal struggle for life was the immigrant's preoccupation, and the tango - with words - reflects his passions, disillusionments, and his everyday concerns. This dance-song, in tango tempo, expressed the sentiments of a people. Its poetic possibilities were very rich and so spontaneous that the tango became the de la, culture of a single place.
Around it grew up an urban folklore.