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a perswasive essay Are you asking yourself why you should read this blog post? Are you asking, Whats in it for me? What if I promised that by factors reading this youll learn more about perseverance how to write an effective persuasive essay? What if I promised that by reading this youll learn 20 persuasive essay topics to help you get started writing your persuasive essay, and that youll even learn some tips about how to choose a persuasive essay topic? If youre still reading, then Ive achieved my goal. Ive written a persuasive opening. And if youre assigned to national factors, write a persuasive essay, you should definitely keep reading. The goal of perseverance speeches, a persuasive essay is to national, convince readers. When writing the teratogens essay, youll first need to national, state your own opinion then develop evidence to support that opinion. These reasons and examples (evidence) should convince readers to Essay about, believe your argument. I know this quick definition gives you the factors basics, but you should know more about teratogens persuasive writing before you attempt to write your own essay.

As tempting as it may seem to skip past the additional information and factors, go directly to common teratogens, the list of persuasive essay topics, dont do it. Take the time now to read more about persuasive writing. (Its all about persuasion. Are you clicking the links below yet?) Ill trust that Ive persuaded you to national, read all three of the above articles, and now that you know how to write a persuasive essay, here are 20 persuasive essay topics to perseverance, help you get started. CCO Public Domain. 20 Persuasive Essay Topics to national, Help You Get Started. 1. Talent Essay. Does Facebook (or other forms of national, social media) create isolation?

Facebook lets people stay connected and meet new friends, yet some argue people spend so much time on social media that they lose contact with real life. Springsteen. 2. National Factors. Should guns be permitted on common teratogens college campuses? With recent school massacres permeating the news, people feel as though they should be able to national, protect themselves by teratogens carrying guns in all public spaces; however, others feel as though allowing guns on campuses will only increase crime and the death toll. 3. Do kids benefit if everyone on the team receives a trophy? If everyone on the team receives a trophy (even for participation) kids may feel like part of the team and feel as though their efforts matter. Others believe handing out trophies to all kids on the team simply makes them feel entitled. 4. National. Is society too dependent on technology?

Technology creates great opportunities, yet some feel people can no longer function without a smart phone by their sides at all times. 5. Should all high school students be required to complete parenting classes? Parents often believe sexuality, family planning, and parenting should be taught at home, but many do not believe parents sufficiently educate their children about common teratogens these topics and feel the school should provide teens with training for adulthood and require parenting classes. National. 6. Does the school day start too early? While some simply say kids should go to essay immigration, bed earlier in order to be alert during the school day, others argue teens require more sleep and need to sleep later in order to function properly. 7. Should the national minimum wage be increased? Many business owners argue that raising minimum wage would only cause hardship and cause them to raise their prices, but many workers argue raising minimum wage is necessary in order to teratogens, help low income workers dig out of poverty.

8. Should elementary schools teach handwriting? If no one knows how to write or read cursive handwriting, the factors form of communication will be lost, some believe. Other, however, believe handwriting is antiquated, and kids would be better served learning keyboarding. 9. Should childhood vaccinations be mandatory? Though vaccinations can prevent a number of childhood illnesses, some believe mandatory vaccination violates individual rights and can actually do more harm than good. 10. Are security cameras an invasion of privacy? Security cameras are in Talent Management place to factors, protect both businesses and the general public, but some argue cameras have gone too far and actually invade privacy because people are constantly under surveillance. 11.

Should citizens be allowed to keep exotic pets? People feel they should be allowed to on illegal, keep exotic pets, as they are capable of caring for the animals and it is their right to national, keep such pets; however, others feel keeping such pets creates a danger to other people and is harmful to The Need Essay, the animals. 12. Should a relaxed dress code be allowed in the workplace? Some argue a more relaxed dress code has created more relaxed and less productive workers. Others argue the more relaxed dress code creates a more casual, friendly, and creative workplace. 13. Is it ethical to sentence juveniles as adults? The old cliche is If you do the crime, you should do the time, but many believe it isnt ethical to charge a juvenile as an adult, as a childs brain isnt fully developed yet. National Factors. 14. Should corporations be allowed to immigration, advertise in schools?

Though some think schools should embrace corporate advertising, as budgets are very limited, others believe kids shouldnt be bombarded with corporate persuasion; kids should focus on learning. 15. Factors. Should public transportation be free for all residents of a city? While some say free public transportation would help the environment and reduce traffic, others think free public transportation is too expensive, and the government cant afford to pay for it. Of Neutralization. 16. Is professional football too dangerous for players? Because of recent discoveries about chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), many believe football is too dangerous, and national, rules need to change.

Those on the other side of the side discrimination argument believe football players know the national factors risks and common teratogens, thus should be allowed to play. 17. Should minors be allowed to national factors, get tattoos (if they have parental permission)? Some feel parents should be allowed to give permission for five, their minor children to get tattoos, as they are making the decision for their own children. On the other hand, because tattoos are essentially permanent, some feel only adults should be able to get tattoos. Factors. People argue fracking is an effective way to extract natural gas, but others argue it is too dangerous and is harmful to the environment. 19. Should a college education be free for everyone?

Though people believe education is a right and The Need for Leadership Management, will make society, on national factors the whole, a better place for everyone, others feel there is no true way to offer a free college education as colleges would still need to about The Life, be funded (likely through tax dollars). 20. Should the national U.S. assist developing countries with immunization efforts? Immunizations have been critical to eradicating diseases such as polio and measles in the United States, so some would argue that its important to distribute immunizations to common, developing countries where people are still dying from these types of diseases. Others may argue that this type of effort would be too costly or ineffective. After reading this list, Im sure at least a few topics appeal to you, but how do you know which one of these great ideas to choose for your own paper? Here are a few tips. Dos and Donts of factors, Choosing Persuasive Essay Topics.

You care about. Its easier to write about something that interests you. Other people care about too. Why would you write about a topic that no one cares about? You are willing to common, examine from national factors multiple viewpoints. Common Teratogens. Looking at both sides of the issue shows you are educated about your topic. You dont care about. If you dont care about the topic, it will be difficult to persuade others. You are extremely passionate about. While passion is important, if youre so passionate about the topic that you arent willing to learn new information or see additional viewpoints, it will be difficult to write an effective paper. Cant be researched effectively.

In other words, dont try to research a topic like the meaning of the national universe or why people usually wear matching socks. In this blog post, youve learned how to write a persuasive essay, examined a variety of persuasive essay topics, and learned the dos and donts of selecting a good topic. So what are you waiting for? Start researching, and start writing! Still looking for teratogens, more? If so, I recommend you read this study guide about persuasive and argumentative essays. National. Want to make sure youre writing is convincing? Why not have one of our Kibin editors review your paper? Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades!

Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. Essay About The Life. About the national factors Author. Essay On Illegal Immigration. Susan M. Inez is a professor of English and writing goddess based out of the Northeast. National. Writing goddess? Meet the speeches Empress of Special Education at Kingman Middle School in factors Kingman, Arizona. We#8217;re happy to help! Glad you found the inspiration you needed. Can I read what you wrote? That sounds fabulous! I believe that tattoos should be allowed at any age with or without parents permission its just perminant ink on your skin most kids do it with pen so whats the big dead fam.

That sounds like a stance you could definitely defend in of neutralization a persuasive essay #8230; just make sure you have some evidence to back it up! Thanks for reading #128578; I think you might find this topic a little bit limiting because there aren#8217;t very many reasons *not* to spay or neuter a pet. It#8217;s not a debatable topic for most reasonable pet ownersthe answer to topic 1, for most people, is a simple #8220;yes.#8221;. If your goal is to be debatable, you could push this topic even further by arguing that pet owners should be required to pay fines if they choose not to spay/neuter a pet (unless they#8217;ve applied for a breeder#8217;s permit or something). That#8217;s one idea. That said, if you are writing more of an expository essay that doesn#8217;t need to be fully debatable (and is more intended to be informative), then I would suggest you go with topic 2 as this gives you more to write about in national factors your body text. Hope this helps and happy writing! It is fun to write an Management Essay, essay about the things that you are more interested.

THANKS to my English teacher i now know how to write an essay and i advice other peoples to practice how to write an essay. Factors. THANKS for hearing g my opinion. That awesome that your English teacher is so helpful. Essay About Of Bruce. Yay for amazing English teachers! You are right choosing a topic that#8217;s actually interesting to national, you makes the essay on illegal writing process so much better.

Thanks for factors, the comment! glad to Essay The Life of Bruce, be friends and please express your self to me in any way that you want PLEASE! I am very interested to children learnings. I want to read them different stories at the same time make them understand the morals and national factors, values of the common teratogens story. However, some children may not understand the national words. How will I make it as my topic for my research? I don#8217;t know how to common, construct a sentence for that.

Im not good in english yet. If you#8217;re writing a persuasive essay, you could write about the topic #8220;Should the government fund universal pre-K to national factors, improve early childhood reading skills?#8221; That is The Need Essay, a broader approach. If you#8217;re most interested in writing about your own personal initiatives for teaching children to read, you could write a persuasive essay that attempts to convince a local school district (or another more local entity) to factors, support/create volunteer reading programs for young children. I hope these ideas help! i have a cochlear implant and I found a topic for persuasive that I could write about is why shouldn#8217;t kids or teens not wear earplugs to listen to music- it could damage the nerves of their hearing. It sounds like you could write quite an interesting persuasive essay on that topic, great idea! thank you but I changed my mind, I am doing why 3 meals a day is teratogens, better than one meal. I need to national factors, know how to do an attention grabber. Hmm#8230;depends a bit on the angle of your paper (i.e. whether you#8217;re arguing that 3 meals is better for teratogens, managing hunger/appetite or something else), but one way to start would be to vividly describe the feeling of hunger! You can find lots more hook ideas here (if you add your email address to the field at the bottom right, we#8217;ll send you 14 examples): im 12 and these are great topics i seen in factors history.

Awesome! Thanks for the comment #128578; Hi, can you help me in my assignment. How can I explain every paragraph in Practice And Uphold Positive Attitude by Lee Am. Both of these posts will help you explain/analyze the text without just summarizing #128578;

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National factors

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Importance Of Teamwork Essays and Research Papers. and of these 80% have extended teamwork to at least 60%of core employees(Barbara, Stephen, 2007). Factors. In addition, Huijgen and Pekruhl( 2001) . report that about side discrimination half of organization in Europe used teams (Barbara and national Stephen,2007). Therefore, these evidences confirmed that teams are more and more important in the real world. With the high portion of adopting teamwork in business, lots of reasons are advanced for building teams, these are classified as importance of teamwork , and will be stressed out by. 2110 Words | 7 Pages. on their own and collaborative work also keeps employees accountable to each other, which increases motivation. Importance of . Teamwork Work Efficiency Teamwork enables you to accomplish tasks faster and more efficiently than tackling projects individually. Cooperating together on various tasks reduces workloads for all employees by enabling them to about, share responsibilities or ideas.

Teamwork also reduces the work pressure on every worker, which allows him to be thorough in the completion of the assigned. Better 903 Words | 3 Pages. ? Subject : Organization Behavior Section : EAR Teamwork Designed by national : Hala wael alsayeh 1102320 . Jumanah Badahdah 1132443 Hadiya Gadiri 1102329 Halima Mohamed 1102310 Shorooq Ba- Saiwar 1102365 Teamwork There are certain jobs that require individual focus and attention, but a vast majority of projects require teamwork to be done . Nowadays being able to work productively with a team is one of the most essential. Teamwork 1409 Words | 5 Pages. miles to go before valuing teams and teamwork will be the norm. You can, however, create a teamwork culture by doing just a . few things right. Admittedly, theyre the hard things, but with commitment and appreciation for five of neutralization, the value, you can create an overall sense of national factors teamwork in five of neutralization your organization. Create a Culture of Teamwork To make teamwork happen, these powerful actions must occur. Factors. Executive leaders communicate the five techniques clear expectation that teamwork and collaboration are expected. No one. Value 621 Words | 3 Pages.

The Hague University -SSMS- Module 1.5 Mrs. Phebe Winter MSc [email protected] Professional Abilities Skills ? Module 1 Class 5 Team Work ? . 8th October 2012 Teamwork ? Teamwork guitar playing ? Perfect Teamwork Teamwork - synergy Synergy comes from the Greek word synergia (synergos) ? working together Synergy usually arises when two persons (or more) with different complementary skills cooperate. In business, cooperation of people with organizational and technical. Belbin Team Inventory , Culture , Learning 445 Words | 5 Pages. mwork8/29/13 Advantages of Teamwork essay topics, buy custom Advantages of factors Teamwork essay paper sample cheap, service . Teamwork simply refers to activities of speeches a group of people who work together with the aim of attaining a common goal. National Factors. For such a team to perseverance speeches, be effective, people have to communicate with one another. Emphasis is put on how they can complement each others efforts.

Unity is important as it is the source of their strength and everyone understands it. The team makes use of the expertise. Cognition , Decision making , Decision making software 932 Words | 3 Pages. ---p.4 1. Introduction Some of the advantages and disadvantages are found in . teamwork recently. It is, however, apparent that there are a lot of facts shown that teamwork becomes more important between company departments or multicultural cooperations due to globalization trend.

Having teamwork can make plan conduct effectively and national efficiently whilst it may happen obstruction delaying the project if team members or the team founder do. Belbin Team Inventory 1266 Words | 4 Pages. Teamwork All of us have worked in teams at some point in effect discrimination our lives, and national we all can recall a time we had interacting with others to meet team . objectives. Essay The Life Of Bruce Springsteen. Communication is the way we get through our daily life, both personally and professionally. There are team units in factors our lives that we chose to be in, and The Need Management Essay then there are those that we are simply put in without a choice. It is usually these groups that have we will have the national factors most conflict. I have had the ability to Essay of Bruce, view a lot of different team. 2375 Words | 6 Pages. Teamwork for success Building quality and productive relationships with our customers is at the heart of our strategy because they are the . intermediaries through whom shoppers make their purchasing decisions. In 2008, we won the Grand Prize for the Best Supplier in fast moving consumer goods (FMCGs) category by national Romanian retail tracking company MEMRB and around 1,000 of The Life of Bruce its direct business partners for the third consecutive year.

14 Coca-Cola Hellenic By striving to achieve a closer. Better , Consultative selling , Customer 761 Words | 3 Pages. just now, is there anyone can tell me that, what is the moral value inside? Yes, thank you, it is factors, teamwork . The Life Springsteen. So, the title for my presentation . today would be Teamwork The factors for Sucess. At here, I would like to share with you all about three significant reasons, why teamwork is so important in workplace. The first reason to be discussed, would be Efficiency. Factors. A group of team with strong teamwork would have the proficient or skill in dividing tasks for each member efficiently, to ensure that. 513 Words | 2 Pages. TABLE OF CONTENT 2 CURRENT STATUS AND ISSUE 3 SOLUTION 3 TRAINING MAIN POINTS TO DISCUSS 3 Groups, group behaviour and teams 3 Benefits of working as . part of a team 4 Factors which have an impact on development of an teratogens, effective teamwork 4 Specialist skills 5 What is required from each team member 5 Influence of Technology 6 Team achievements and rewarding 6 TEAMBUILDING 7 CONCLUSION 8 Current status and issue Yellowfin Restaurant is located in the city centre. Its personnel is. Team building 1793 Words | 6 Pages.

Essay Topic Given the importance of teamwork , collaboration and network building in the professional world and in national a modern . Essay On Illegal. academic program, what are the most significant strengths and national contributions you bring to perseverance speeches, the group and the program? Mention any particular experiences have you had with team development and team dynamics. When I was working in TF in 2008, I was selected to lead a PPI (Practical Process Improvement) Project on company AR DSO improvement. In this project team, all the members. Collaboration , Computer program , Project management 723 Words | 2 Pages. Importance of Teamwork in Business Teamwork can be simply defined, as a state of unity achieved within a . National Factors. group of people working for a specific economic benefit. The phenomenon of side discrimination teamwork in business is basically used to define the coordination and cooperation, between the members of a partnership that form a business or a joint venture or a private limited company. There are several, genuine advantages of preserving a team spirit, in such organizations, so as to national, ensure optimized output.

Balance sheet , Capital punishment , Corporation 762 Words | 3 Pages. work within the teams to promote the teams and also the organisation. Harris amp; Harris (1996) also explain that a team has a common goal or purpose where . Techniques. team members can develop effective, mutual relationships to achieve team goals. Teams and teamwork help to promote deep learning that occurs through interaction, problem solving, dialogue, cooperation and collaboration (Johnson amp; Johnson, 1995). What is a team? Team work has become an national, important part of the working culture and many organisations. Conflict , Human resource management , Management 2439 Words | 7 Pages. Effectiveness Starbucks Corporation: Case Study in common teratogens Teamwork Name: Jessie (Luyan) Wang ? Introduction This report is national factors, a case study . of on illegal Starbucks teamwork practices. National Factors. In the first stage, the overview background of Starbucks will be introduced. Secondly, the viewpoints of Starbucks and essay on illegal immigration the strategies, which are used by the company to make their teamwork performance well, are going to factors, discuss. The Need Talent Essay. Next, the effectiveness of Starbucks teamwork strategy will be point out.

In the end, there is a. Coffee , Coffeehouse , Gordon Bowker 849 Words | 4 Pages. ? Teamwork and factors its Importance to your Success Jodie Scott Good Afternoon, to effect discrimination, the graduating class of Augusta Independent, class . of 2015!! How proud we all are of national factors you for achieving this success, and for Springsteen, the future success we know you are capable of national accomplishing!! What I am here to touch on with you today is the importance of teamwork . In today's society, teamwork certainly will be presented to you in some fashion, whether on speeches a day to day basis or as needed at your work, or even in your next phase. Fort Hays State University , Hays, Kansas , McGraw-Hill 918 Words | 4 Pages. Teamwork Essay Teamwork is national factors, becoming the norm in organisations around the world (Kozlowski and Bell, 2003).

Reasons have been . proposed to explain why teamwork exists by (Cohen and Bailey, 1997). They suggest organisations can develop and deliver products in a speedy and cost effective manner. Techniques. More so, teams are the best way to establish organisational strategy. Teamwork was defined by (Kozlowski and Bell, 2003) as the composition of national two or more individuals who share tasks and work towards a common. Decision making , Organization , Output 935 Words | 3 Pages. Teamwork Skills Four important skills that will help to create a work environment that great teamwork skills, and each employee . is encouraged to work together and participate by giving their input and ideas into the business are: 1. Plan and make decisions with others, as well as informing the Springsteen leader(manager of certain area of Simply Delicious) of any decisions and ideas employees want put into consideration in helping to factors, further Simply Delicious quality and reputation.

2. Respect the common teratogens thoughts. Employment , Learning , Practice 947 Words | 3 Pages. ? Teamwork and Motivation Vanita Johnson BUS 520 Dr. Factors. Kimberly Millier July 19, 2013 Assignment 3: . Teamwork and perseverance Motivation Due Week 7 and worth 200 points Imagine that you are the owner of a small manufacturing company. Your company manufactures a commodity, widgets. Your widget is a clone of a nationally known widget.

Your companys widget, WooWoo, is less expensive and more readily available than the nationally known brand. Presently, the sales are high; however. I-Change Model , Motivation , Regulatory Focus Theory 1326 Words | 6 Pages. The Importance of Teamwork in Health Care The Importance of Teamwork in Health Care From an . early age we are instilled the factors importance of five techniques teamwork . The lessons may come from a soccer field, a classroom group project, or even a song on Sesame Street. Regardless of our future careers, we are all likely to experience some sort of teamwork requirement, even if it is factors, as simple as getting along with your co-workers. The Need For Leadership Management. Teams working in a hospital or other healthcare setting may consist of national several. Health , Health care , Health care provider 1085 Words | 3 Pages. Importance of Teams I might improve efficiency and customer service in common my department to focus on teamwork would be to factors, focus on . the problems that exist within the Essay team. The next step would be to research the team and figure out what their advantage points are and what they need help on. The third step would be course of action, which may be just to national, re-arrange the five of neutralization team.

The fourth step would be to involve the rest of the team in on the plan. This will get individuals involved in the decision. The. Functional , Functional group , Health care 774 Words | 3 Pages. Monica Jorge, 3622098 Youthalyn Mair-Pryce, 3622089 Reviewed by: Gabriela Bacigalupo, 1099953 Monica Jorge, 3622098 Youthalyn . National Factors. Mair-Pryce, 3622089 ACG 4651 Fall 2013 Section 04 September 17, 2013 Case #1: The importance of being independent (by Deloitte) Discussion Questions One of the key roles of the external auditor is to protect the interest of the public. To achieve this, it is important for the public to trust and have confidence in the work of an auditor. Accountancy , Accountant , Audit 1232 Words | 3 Pages. are many reasons why teamwork is important. Without teamwork you cannot accomplish anything in a work environment. . Teamwork is defined as the combined action of a group of people, especially when effective and efficient. It can be the only way that law enforcement can get the job done. If agencies do not have a good teamwork within their departments; they cannot have a good officer. They will not look out for effect discrimination, each other and they will not trust each other.

Having teamwork can dictate how a situation. Officer , Police , Profession 555 Words | 2 Pages. outline the differences between a group and a team 1.4 describe different roles in a team 2 Know how to approach key issues in team leading 2.1 identify . the national responsibilities of a team leader under health and safety legislation 2.2 outline the importance of good communications skills in team integration 2.3 identify ways of monitoring conflict in a team 3 Know how to organise the work of a team 3.1 outline methods of Management planning work with teams 3.2 describe how to set objectives for team members . Management , Occupational safety and health , Soft skills 1916 Words | 6 Pages. solving depends somewhat on the types of factors tasks assigned (Thorndike 1938). This means there are some tasks which are handled more effectively by individuals . rather than teams.

Further, the strong and consistent evidences relating to the efficiency of perseverance speeches teamwork are not revealed in national the deep examination of empirical field research (e.g., Beekun 1989; Hackman and Morris 1975; Macy and Management Essay Izumi 1993). Allen and national Hecht, indeed, concede that overall, the evidence regarding the effectiveness of teams must be described. Effectiveness , Efficacy , Project team 2240 Words | 7 Pages. Members of common a team must engage in both task work and teamwork processes to achieve their common goal. Factors. Task work is the component of the . individual members performance independent of interaction with other members. Teamwork is the interdependent component of performance necessary to effectively coordinate the performance of multiple team members. Team performance is a multilevel process that develops as members engage in task work and The Need for Leadership teamwork . National. Teamwork can be conceptually nested within team performance. Health , Health care , Health care provider 1137 Words | 3 Pages. TDA 2.6 (criteria 3.1) Describe why teamwork is important in schools. Teamwork is Talent Essay, a fundamental and effective way of national factors supporting . the development of the school. Educational process is the Essay Springsteen result of collaboration of teachers and staff members: they develop lesson plans and support childrens progress, improve the ability to good communication, which helps cooperation and integrates the environment.

Teamwork in the school has many benefits: expanding knowledge and experience, runs smoothly to get. Education , Learning , School 689 Words | 3 Pages. Teamwork and Work Force Diversity. ?1. TEAMWORK : Would you identify and describe the various existing types of groups and teams in your organization? How do you identify if . these groups or teams are effective as a work group? Explain the meaning of national this sentence, All teams are groups, but not all groups are teams. How do you comment to this Speed, Teamwork and Flexibility are the order of the side effect discrimination day. How do you manage the national factors On-Site-Teams as well as Virtual Teams? How do you address or manage a Self-Managed Work Team? Explain. Teamwork 1008 Words | 4 Pages.

Teamwork , what is it? This is the question that has puzzled mankind for a millennium. Essentially it is where more than one person works . together to achieve a common goal. We as people use teamwork every minute of the day, but it is especially important to the job of the Infantryman, it is the common teratogens backbone of our jobs. We as soldiers have to recognize that in order to do our job we must rely on the man on national our left and the man on our right. This is the basics of the infantryman's job trust the guy to. Sergeant , Teamwork 1529 Words | 4 Pages. Teamwork Drift By: Rana Ijaz Aslam (LHR) Teamwork is the core module in Essay about every organizations, government as well as private . sectors; to be some extent its gone astray the tiny problems from the companies departments, organizations private and government sectors. In most of the time, in companies peoples work mutually in different departments or sections at least 8-12 hours on national a day.

Keeping in that, they helped out five techniques of neutralization, each other in national a same manner by using their key skills or data resources. Due. Corporation , Management , Multinational corporation 795 Words | 3 Pages. Teamwork Reflection and Assessment. Teamwork Reflection and perseverance speeches Assessment The members in our teams are Bi, Xue, Qiaoyu and Chloe. Although we didnt appoint a leader nominally, . National. Chloe is the one who organized everything in on illegal our team. National Factors. In this case, she is a true leader of essay immigration us. Everybody in factors our team did a good job and the division of our job is showed as follow.

My part of report is the overview of the business, including the contents of strategic contexts 1.1, strategic thinking 1.1 and strategic planning 1.2. My report is written based. Group , Marketing , Mortar and pestle 940 Words | 2 Pages. 3.1: Describe why Teamwork is speeches, important in schools? Team is being part of a group of factors people who collaborate to achieve a goal. In a team, . members acquire a specific role to fulfil, effectively share ideas and work together towards the achievement of a certain task which is Teamwork . Effective teamwork among the school staff is The Need for Leadership Management Essay, very important as it ensures the smooth running of school. It shows that the school staff has a common purpose; i.e. to achieve the targets and provide the support required. Education , School , Teacher 971 Words | 3 Pages. The simple truth is that people in business today do not understand the true concept of teamwork . Over the years there have been some . unbelievable examples of teamwork in our day-to-day lives; like the 1927 New York Yankees Baseball Team, the factors 1972 Miami Dolphins Football Team, the Navy SEAL Teams or Fire Fighters anywhere - the perseverance list goes on and on. So how do we consistently achieve the type of teamwork where all team members feel the same way about a goal or a mission, they work towards that. Control , Energy , Management 2629 Words | 8 Pages.

Beyond Succes: Achieving Synergy in Teamwork. Report Beyond Success: Achieving Synergy in factors Teamwork 1. About The Life. Abstract We presented a paper based on teamwork and . the national importance of techniques of neutralization synergy in it. The following report is to analyze the article and give a brief summary of it to reach conclusions that teach the managers must pay attention to national, create environments of teamwork and healthy competition. 2. Introduction Since we are small we are educated with models that depict heroes who achieve their success with individual acts. Perseverance. Movie heroes with. Following , Individualism , Member of factors Parliament 764 Words | 4 Pages. Professional World of Work 07/26/04 The Essence of immigration Teamwork Two are better than one, because they have a good reward for their hard . work. For if one of national factors them should fall, the other one can raise his partner up.

But how will it be with just the essay on illegal one who falls when there is national, not another to common teratogens, raise him up? ? Ecclesiastes 4:9, 10 As the scriptural text quoted above implies, teamwork can accomplish what the factors individual cannot do on his or her own. Teamwork is defined as a small number of people with complementary. Bible , Conflict , Management 1469 Words | 5 Pages. The brand of Disney displays many forms of common creativity in factors their everyday business processes. Disney displays their success in creativity and . Side. teamwork everyday through theme parks and resorts, media and entertainment, and merchandise. Before achievements are made, there is a creative process to national factors, be explored. Essay. Creativity and teamwork are strongly correlated in business and in national order for those concepts to be jointly successful, three steps should be addressed. Using Disney as a parallel, this paper explores. Brainstorming , Convergent and divergent production , Creativity 1021 Words | 4 Pages. ? Teamwork VALUE Rubric Teamwork is behaviors under the control of teratogens individual team members (effort they put into team tasks, . manner of interacting with others on team, and national factors the quantity and quality of discrimination contributions they make to factors, team discussions.) Rules: 1. Five. Complete this evaluation for EACH team member (not including yourself) and submit in Teamwork Rubrics dropbox (e.g., you will need to complete this form 3 times for a group of 4, 4 times for a group of 5, etc.) 2. Enter a Score for EACH criterion. Activity , Conflict , Expression 687 Words | 3 Pages.

motivational tool to retain a quality workforce. Texas Roadhouse CEO Hart knows this which is why he coupled monetary rewards with a basic philosophy of national factors . really caring about people, and creating a management environment that creates a fresh mood of teamwork , excitement, and feeling appreciated. Criticized for essay immigration, lavish company conferences Hart explains, as the national text documents, that luxurious spending changes the hearts of people (p. 320). When you think about it, his effort in combination with employees. Employment , Human resources , Management 828 Words | 3 Pages. many obstacles both peacetime and wartime. Our peacetime mission is not as stressful as our wartime mission but nonetheless gives us our foundation on what . we need to do as an organization to be successful in combat. I want to focus on implementing teamwork in your subordinates as a manager to side effect, help lead to overall organization mission accomplishment.

As a commissioned Officer, or a manager of factors organizational behavior, I am in charge of perseverance all Soldiers assigned under me and national factors ensuring our organization succeeds. Management , Military , Operations research 453 Words | 2 Pages. ? Importance of Teams Sunbeam Healthcare A Business Proposal to essay immigration, Improve . Efficiency and Customer Service by national Focusing on Teamwork Prepared for Mary Ivyland Senior Vice President, Business Development Sunbeam Healthcare Prepared by perseverance speeches Manager, Call Center Operations Sunbeam Healthcare May 06, 2013 Sunbeam Healthcare A Business Proposal to factors, Improve Efficiency and perseverance Customer. Better , Costs , Health 1481 Words | 7 Pages. What is Teamwork ? Teamwork is defined in Webster's New World Dictionary as a joint action by a group of people, in national factors which each . person subordinates his or her individual interests and opinions to the unity and efficiency of the group. This does not mean that the individual is no longer important; however, it does mean that effective and efficient teamwork goes beyond individual accomplishments. The most effective teamwork is produced when all the The Need for Leadership Talent individuals involved harmonize their contributions. Decision making , Goal 1665 Words | 5 Pages.

culture audit process or as a final step in the culture management process. Finally, my recommendation is focus to national factors, build up a teamwork culture . for our company as above steps. The Life Of Bruce. That not just be a teamwork between teammate by teammate, should be a teamwork between team by team as well. Fostering teamwork is creating a work culture that values collaboration. In a teamwork environment, we understand and believe that thinking, planning, decisions and actions are better when done cooperatively. National. We recognize. Management , Organization , Organizational culture 1210 Words | 4 Pages. ? Teamwork Definition Working as team is defined a small number of people who are engaged to a common purpose, set of performance goals, and . Perseverance Speeches. approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable (Katzenbach and Smith, 1993). Factors. Wilson (2010) supports that teamworking can represent in extension to on illegal immigration, employee involvement by offering a degree of influence and control over day-to-day working. Factors. Moreover, working as teams might be multi-skilled, and might routinely rotate tasks, organize and allocate. Decision engineering , Decision making , Decision making software 1927 Words | 6 Pages.

The importance of Team work 1- The concept of teamwork is extremely important to the success of any team. All coaches talk . about common teratogens working as one unit, as a unified team. Teamwork and unselfishness create the backbone of a great team, without them a team cannot realistically compete. You can have a group of superstars, but if they do not work well as one unit, chances are they are not going to be as successful as you would think. The team working as one cohesive unit is going to be the key in their. Company , Corporation , Team building 1265 Words | 4 Pages. of people which are treated equally and national form together as one bringing different opinions and ideas to their common goal. Teamwork is so . Essay. important that it is factors, virtually impossible for you to reach the heights of your capabilities or make the money that you want without becoming very good at it. - Brian Tracy, Motivational Speaker and author.

Bruce Tuchmans theory for teamwork is well known as the 4 stages to make an effective team. The first of these stages being forming which is when a team are. Employment , Management , Organization 848 Words | 3 Pages. theories in attempt to find ways of reducing or avoiding some of the disadvantages that will be discussed. Management Essay. These ideas will be further developed throughout . the study. There are many advantages to working in teams as opposed to individual work. National Factors. Teamwork can be beneficial not only to team members, but also to their team project as it enables members to share ideas with one another.

It is essay on illegal immigration, suggested by Fincham and Rhodes (2005) that synergy occurs because discussion within groups generates more alternatives. 2308 Words | 7 Pages. ? Assignment 3: Teamwork and Motivation . Organization Motivation Plan An organization should take steps that would best benefit the organization as a whole to strategize a motivation plan. It first must identify what employees value and then determine how the organization can reciprocate that what the employees want is being heard. Factors. This can be done by taking the initiative to communicate first-hand with. Employment , Employment compensation , Job satisfaction 1606 Words | 6 Pages. assignments, c) Organization of breaks, and d) Collective choice of inspection procedures used.

Fully self-managed teams select their own members, and the . Essay The Life. members evaluate each others performance. As a result, supervisory positions take on factors decreased importance and may even be eliminated. Figure 2: Self Manage team C) Cross - Functional Teams Cross-functional teams are made of employees at discrimination, about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together. Belbin Team Inventory , Conflict , Group development 3482 Words | 13 Pages. 1. Toyota has succeeded because of national its team-oriented culture.

Individuals in Toyota share a system of shared meaning held by members . Perseverance. teamwork , along with certain core principles to create a unique organizational culture. It distinguishes Toyota from other organizations. Despite manufacturing plants in different geographical locations have their own cultures; however, a value that strongly influences all the units regardless of nationality has been developed based on national factors the organizational culture. Speeches. . Employment , Management , Organizational culture 1496 Words | 4 Pages. Teamwork Case Study A case study is a presentation within an organization. This case study is to address a health care scenario . in a relevant and national factors practical way.

In this case study a nurse gives a description of frustration over communication, physicians interactions and having the five of neutralization correct tools in the operating room. The objective in this paper is to propose a solution to national, the described situation, quality services in patient centered outcomes and teratogens an effective teamwork process in delivery. Clinical trial , Health , Health care 1299 Words | 4 Pages. there is some level of national factors teamwork needed to successfully accomplish tasks in everyday life. Exemplary communication is essential to a teams . success because without it there would be no way of coordinating efforts to accomplish a goal. Making the project seem like one cohesive piece would be impossible if members could not communicate well enough to figure out what needs to be done in order to complete any considerable feat. There are seven characteristics of effective teamwork ; these characteristics. Communication , Graphic communication 1283 Words | 4 Pages. Teamwork is a make or break situation. Either you help make it or the lack of it will break you. - Kris A. Hiatt. High-performance teams are . achievable.

WordNet 2.0, 2003 Princeton University defines a team as a cooperative unit . Therefore, the team members must realize that it is side, a team effort. Consequently, high-performance teams start with the national factors realization that there are no Loan Rangers. This is side, a cooperative effort and everyone must do his or her part to be successful. Any team that. Goal 928 Words | 3 Pages. Importance of teams Pamela Baldwin HSC/325 July 8, 2013 Mary Newby Importance of Teams Managing a high volume regional . National Factors. health care call center is a daunting task for managers. Managers must possess communication skills, problem solving abilities, and the ability to perseverance, observe issues before the actual occurrence in day-to-day operations. Factors. These concerns can range from customer services, communications, supply demands, diversity, and techniques criterias such as dealing with the military. Factors. Management. Health care , Problem solving 830 Words | 3 Pages. Teamwork and ICT Businesses often ask their employees to complete projects in teams; this has many benefits as it allows the possibility of . new friendships, a sense of group accomplishment and a distribution of responsibilities (Gluck 2011).

There is no denying that a fundamental component for creating a successful team is good communication. Without good communication, teamwork is impossible (Scott, 1953). For Leadership Talent Management. A lack of good communication can cause tension and anxiety in a team, which can affect. Apple I , Apple II series , Apple Inc. 2577 Words | 7 Pages. Importance of Sports Here's hoping that now you know what is the importance of sports.

Besidesbeing important for kids, taking . up asports careerin adult life, has its ownbenefits. A sportsperson often travels to other countries to play matches andin the process, learns a great deal about the cultures of factors these countries. Eventhe spectators or TV viewers are thoroughly entertained while watchingprofessional sports, making it an excellent recreational activity. 3 We live in jet age. Side. Life has become. American football , Belgium , Middle age 1441 Words | 4 Pages. ? Teamwork : Key to factors, Success Sherry Scott February 3, 2015 Teamwork : Key to Success Organizational behavior has . Essay Springsteen. been described in many different ways and its sole purpose is to national, evaluate the impact that individuals, groups, and even structures have on techniques the human behavior within organizations. It uses a combination of psychology and sociology and national factors how it effects management and communication within the organization. It is critical to techniques, the management teams within the organization to help.

Decision making , Group development , Organization 1200 Words | 7 Pages. Effective teamwork Beau Kincade MGT 345 Axia Kathy Laskowski Effective Teamwork This paper will explore some ways to . effectively create and national manage a team. There are many differing styles, so I will try and focus on the ones that I would chose personally; and match my style. With my style being eclectic, this is a pretty broad statement. Effect Discrimination. I like to factors, take, what I feel are the best ideas, and transform them into my own. Of Neutralization. I like to think that if given a team, I would be a great manager; being.

If You Have to factors, Ask , Learning , Management 1448 Words | 4 Pages. Importance of side effect discrimination Teams Christina DeBruyn HCS/325 June 9, 2013 Joan Ralph Webber Importance of national Teams In my organization teams . Common Teratogens. serve several purposes. Factors. The workload is not only essay on illegal immigration, divided between capable members, also allowing new ideas, and national a steady stream of five of neutralization how things will be complete. In a health care office setting, inside may be three to national factors, four individuals, which these three to four people make a team. Techniques Of Neutralization. An office that has a team have a much better chance of finding errors or data entry mistakes. Better , Final Solution , Improve 833 Words | 3 Pages. Importance of Teams Paper Working with people in a call center can be very stressful because there is a communication barrier between callers . and receiver.

Some callers may experience language barriers, speech issues, even people who are just not so easy to please. So one may have to national factors, ask themselves how to deal with those kinds of Talent communicate issues when in a call center that receives high amount of calls, and national factors call receivers not able to help everyone in a timely manner. With limited amount of perseverance speeches staffing. Animorphs , Goal , Health care 877 Words | 3 Pages. improve efficiency of the company and extend customer satisfaction. Not only does this take money, but time, skill, and national teamwork . As the . manager of five of neutralization a busy call center, the call volume has increased so much that there is an extra $20,000 to spend on improving customer satisfaction and efficiency.

How can this be spent wisely to national, reach these goals? Teamwork is top on Essay about The Life of Bruce Springsteen the list of factors importance because without a team, there is no business. Teams provide many things to essay on illegal immigration, a health care facility, as well as any other. Better , Decision making , Health care 994 Words | 3 Pages.

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UML, le langage de modlisation objet unifi. N de la fusion des mthodes objet dominantes (OMT, Booch et OOSE), puis normalis par l'OMG en 1997, UML est rapidement devenu un standard incontournable. Factors. UML n'est pas l'origine des concepts objet, mais il en en donne une dfinition plus formelle et apporte la dimension mthodologique qui faisait dfaut l'approche objet. Le but de cette prsentation n'est pas de faire l'apologie d'UML, ni de restreindre UML sa notation graphique, car le vritable intrt d'UML est ailleurs ! En effet, matriser la notation graphique d'UML n'est pas une fin en soi. Common Teratogens. Ce qui est primordial, c'est d'utiliser les concepts objet bon escient et d'appliquer la dmarche d'analyse correspondante. Cette prsentation a donc pour objectif, d'une part, de montrer en quoi l'approche objet et UML constituent un plus et d'autre part, d'exposer comment utiliser UML dans la pratique, c'est--dire comment intgrer UML dans un processus de dveloppement et comment modliser avec UML. Les textes qui composent la prsentation sont (volontairement) trs synthtiques, la manire de transparents qu'on projette au cours d'une formation. Il faut donc savoir lire entre les lignes, car il ne s'agit l que d'un tour d'horizon. National Factors. Cette prsentation ne se substitue donc ni aux formations plus acadmiques, ni aux ouvrages de rfrence.

Article lu fois. Publié le 22 octobre 2007 - Mis à jour le 14 septembre 2009. I-A-1. Side Effect Discrimination. Approche fonctionnelle vs. National Factors. approche objet^ I-A-1-a. Essay About The Life Of Bruce Springsteen. La dcoupe fonctionnelle d'un problme informatique : une approche intuitive^ Exemple de dcoupe fonctionnelle d'un logiciel ddi la gestion d'une bibliothque : Le logiciel est compos d'une hirarchie de fonctions, qui ensemble, fournissent les services dsirs, ainsi que de donnes qui reprsentent les lments manipuls (livres, etc).

Logique, cohrent et intuitif. I-A-1-b. National Factors. Le plus de l'approche fonctionnelle : la factorisation des comportements^ Une dcoupe fonctionnelle intelligente consiste factoriser certains comportements communs du logiciel. Perseverance Speeches. En d'autres termes : pour raliser une fonction du logiciel, on factors, peut utiliser un ensemble d'autres fonctions, dj disponibles, pour peu qu'on rende ces dernires un tant soit peu gnriques. The Need Management. Gnial ! I-A-1-c. National. Le revers de la mdaille : maintenance complexe en cas d'volution^ Factoriser les comportements n'a malheureusement pas que des avantages. Teratogens. Les fonctions sont devenues interdpendantes : une simple mise jour du logiciel un point donn, peut impacter en cascade une multitude d'autres fonctions. National Factors. On peut minorer cet impact, pour peu qu'on utilise des fonctions plus gnriques et des structures de donnes ouvertes.

Mais respecter ces contraintes rend l'criture du logiciel et sa maintenance plus complexe. En cas d'volution majeure du logiciel (passage de la gestion d'une bibliothque celle d'une mdiathque par exemple), le scnario est encore pire. On Illegal Immigration. Mme si la structure gnrale du logiciel reste valide, la multiplication des points de maintenance, engendre par le chanage des fonctions, rend l'adaptation trs laborieuse. National Factors. Le logiciel doit tre retouch dans sa globalit : I-A-1-d. On Illegal Immigration. La sparation des donnes et des traitements : le pige !^ Examinons le problme de l'volution de code fonctionnel plus en dtail. Faire voluer une application de gestion de bibliothque pour grer une mdiathque, afin de prendre en compte de nouveaux types d'ouvrages (cassettes vido, CD-ROM, etc. National Factors. ), ncessite : de faire voluer les structures de donnes qui sont manipules par les fonctions, d'adapter les traitements, qui ne manipulaient l'origine qu'un seul type de document (des livres).

Il faudra donc modifier toutes les portions de code qui utilisent la base documentaire, pour grer les donnes et les actions propres aux diffrents types de documents. Il faudra par exemple modifier la fonction qui ralise l'dition des lettres de rappel (une lettre de rappel est une mise en demeure, qu'on envoie automatiquement aux personnes qui tardent rendre un ouvrage emprunt). On Illegal. Si l'on dsire que le dlai avant rappel varie selon le type de document emprunt, il faut prvoir une rgle de calcul pour chaque type de document. En fait, c'est la quasi-totalit de l'application qui devra tre adapte, pour grer les nouvelles donnes et raliser les traitements correspondants. Factors. Et cela, chaque fois qu'on dcidera de grer un nouveau type de document ! I-A-1-e. Essay Immigration. 1re amlioration : rassembler les valeurs qui caractrisent un type, dans le type^

Une solution relativement lgante la multiplication des branches conditionnelles et des redondances dans le code (consquence logique d'une trop grande ouverture des donnes), consiste tout simplement centraliser dans les structures de donnes, les valeurs qui leurs sont propres : Quoi de plus logique ? En effet, le dlai avant dition d'une lettre de rappel est bien une caractristique propre tous les ouvrages grs par notre application. Mais cette solution n'est pas encore optimale ! I-A-1-f. National. 2me amlioration : centraliser les traitements associs un type, auprs du type^ Pourquoi ne pas aussi rassembler dans une mme unit physique les types de donnes et tous les traitements associs ? Que se passerait-il par exemple si l'on centralisait dans un mme fichier, la structure de donnes qui dcrit les documents et la fonction de calcul du dlai avant rappel ? Cela nous permettrait de retrouver en un clin d'oeil le bout de code qui est charg de calculer le dlai avant rappel d'un document, puisqu'il se trouve au plus prs de la structure de donnes concerne. Ainsi, si notre mdiathque devait grer un nouveau type d'ouvrage, il suffirait de modifier une seule fonction (qu'on sait retrouver instannment), pour assurer la prise en compte de ce nouveau type de document dans le calcul du dlai avant rappel. Essay. Plus besoin de fouiller partout dans le code. Ecrit en ces termes, notre logiciel sera plus facile maintenir et bien plus lisible. Factors. Le stockage et le calcul du dlai avant rappel des documents, est dsormais assur par une seule et unique unit physique (quelques lignes de code, rapidement identifiables). Pour accder la caractristique dlai avant rappel d'un document, il suffit de rcuprer la valeur correspondante parmi les champs qui dcrivent le document. Perseverance. Pour assurer la prise en compte d'un nouveau type de document dans le calcul du dlai avant rappel, il suffit de modifier une seule fonction, situe au mme endroit que la structure de donnes qui dcrit les documents : En rsum : centraliser les donnes d'un type et les traitements associs, dans une mme unit physique, permet de limiter les points de maintenance dans le code et facilite l'accs l'information en cas d'volution du logiciel : Les modifications que nous avons apport notre logiciel de gestion de mdiathque, nous ont amen transformer ce qui tait l'origine une structure de donnes, manipule par des fonctions, en une entit autonome, qui regroupe un ensemble de proprits cohrentes et de traitements associs. National. Une telle entit s'appelle. Discrimination. un objet et constitue le concept fondateur de l'approche du mme nom ! Un objet est une entit aux frontires prcises qui possde une identit (un nom).

Un ensemble d'attributs caractrise l'tat de l'objet. National Factors. Un ensemble d'oprations (mthodes) en dfinissent le comportement. The Need For Leadership Talent. Un objet est une instance de classe (une occurrence d'un type abstrait). National Factors. Une classe est un type de donnes abstrait, caractris par des proprits (attributs et mthodes) communes des objets et permettant de crer des objets possdant ces proprits. I-A-2. Effect. Quels sont les autres concepts importants de l'approche objet ?^ Consiste masquer les dtails d'implmentation d'un objet, en dfinissant une interface. National. L'interface est la vue externe d'un objet, elle dfinit les services accessibles (offerts) aux utilisateurs de l'objet. Perseverance Speeches. L'encapsulation facilite l'volution d'une application car elle stabilise l'utilisation des objets : on national, peut modifier l'implmentation des attributs d'un objet sans modifier son interface. Essay About The Life. L'encapsulation garantit l'intgrit des donnes, car elle permet d'interdire l'accs direct aux attributs des objets (utilisation d'accesseurs). L'hritage est un mcanisme de transmission des proprits d'une classe (ses attributs et mthodes) vers une sous-classe.

Une classe peut tre spcialise en d'autres classes, afin d'y ajouter des caractristiques spcifiques ou d'en adapter certaines. National Factors. Plusieurs classes peuvent tre gnralises en une classe qui les factorise, afin de regrouper les caractristiques communes d'un ensemble de classes. Perseverance Speeches. La spcialisation et la gnralisation permettent de construire des hirarchies de classes. Factors. L'hritage peut tre simple ou multiple. Essay About Of Bruce. L'hritage vite la duplication et encourage la rutilisation. National. Le polymorphisme reprsente la facult d'une mthode pouvoir s'appliquer des objets de classes diffrentes. About The Life Of Bruce Springsteen. Le polymorphisme augmente la gnricit du code. Exemple d'une hirarchie de classes : Il s'agit d'une relation entre deux classes, spcifiant que les objets d'une classe sont des composants de l'autre classe. Une relation d'agrgation permet donc de dfinir des objets composs d'autres objets. National Factors. L'agrgation permet d'assembler des objets de base, afin de construire des objets plus complexes. I-A-2-d.

Rsum sur les concepts fondateurs de l'approche objet^ la notion d'objet et de classe (d'objets) l'encapsulation (les interfaces des objets) l'hritage (les hirarchies d'objets) l'agrgation (la construction d'objets l'aide d'objets) Remarque : Les langages orients objet fournissent de nombreux autres mcanismes qui affinent ces concepts de base, favorisent la gnricit du code ou amliorent sa robustesse. I-A-2-e. The Need Talent Essay. L'approche objet, hier et aujourd'hui^ Les concepts objet sont stables et prouvs (issus du terrain) Simula, 1er langage de programmation implmenter le concept de type abstrait ( l'aide de classes), date de 1967 ! En 1976 dj, Smalltalk implmente les concepts fondateurs de l'approche objet (encapsulation, agrgation, hritage) l'aide de : classes associations entre classes hirarchies de classes messages entre objets Le 1er compilateur C++ date de 1980, et C++ est normalis par l'ANSI. National Factors. De nombreux langages orients objets acadmiques ont tays les concepts objets : Eiffel, Objective C, Loops. For Leadership Management Essay. Les concepts objet sont anciens, mais ils n'ont jamais t autant d'actualit L'approche fonctionnelle n'est pas adapte au dveloppement d'applications qui voluent sans cesse et dont la complexit croit continuellement.

L'approche objet a t invente pour faciliter l'volution d'applications complexes. National Factors. De nos jours, les outils orients objet sont fiables et performants Les compilateurs C++ produisent un code robuste et optimis. Essay Immigration. De trs nombreux outils facilitent le dveloppement d'applications C++ : gnrateurs d'IHM (Ilog Views, TeleUse. Factors. ) bibliothques (STL, USL, Rogue Wave, MFC. The Need Talent Management Essay. ) environnements de dveloppement intgrs (Developper Studio, Sniff+. National. ) outils de qualimtrie et de tests (Cantata++, Insure++, Logiscope. Common. ) bases de donnes orientes objet (O2, ObjectStore, Versant. National Factors. ) I-A-2-f. Essay About Of Bruce. L'approche objet : une solution parfaite ?^ Un ensemble de concepts stables, prouvs et normaliss. National. Une solution destine faciliter l'volution d'applications complexes. Teratogens. Une panoplie d'outils et de langages performants pour le dveloppement. Malgr les apparences, il est plus naturel pour nos esprits cartsiens, de dcomposer un problme informatique sous forme d'une hirarchie de fonctions atomiques et de donnes, qu'en terme d'objets et d'interaction entre ces objets. Factors. De plus, le vocabulaire prcis est un facteur d'chec important dans la mise en oeuvre d'une approche objet. L'approche objet est moins intuitive que l'approche fonctionnelle ! Quels moyens utiliser pour faciliter l'analyse objet ? Quels critres identifient une conception objet pertinente ? Comment comparer deux solutions de dcoupe objet d'un systme ? L'application des concepts objets ncessite une grande rigueur ! Le vocabulaire est prcis (risques d'ambiguts, d'incomprhensions). The Life Springsteen. Comment dcrire la structure objet d'un systme de manire pertinente ? I-A-2-g.

Quels sont les remdes aux inconvnients de l'approche objet ?^ Un langage pour exprimer les concepts objet qu'on utilise, afin de pouvoir : Reprsenter des concepts abstraits (graphiquement par exemple). Factors. Limiter les ambiguts (parler un langage commun). Five. Faciliter l'analyse (simplifier la comparaison et l'valuation de solutions). National. Une dmarche d'analyse et de conception objet, pour : Ne pas effectuer une analyse fonctionnelle et se contenter d'une implmentation objet, mais penser objet ds le dpart. Effect. Dfinir les vues qui permettent de couvrir tous les aspects d'un systme, avec des concepts objets. Bref : il nous faut un outil qui apporte une dimension mthodologique l'approche objet, afin de mieux matriser sa richesse et sa complexit. I-B. National Factors. Les mthodes objet et la gense d'UML^ Les premires mthodes d'analyse (annes 70) Dcoupe cartsienne (fonctionnelle et hirarchique) d'un systme. The Need For Leadership Talent. L'approche systmique (annes 80) Modlisation des donnes + modlisation des traitements (Merise, Axial, IE. National Factors. ). Of Neutralization. L'mergence des mthodes objet (1990-1995) Prise de conscience de l'importance d'une mthode spcifiquement objet : comment structurer un systme sans centrer l'analyse uniquement sur les donnes ou uniquement sur les traitements (mais sur les deux) ? Plus de 50 mthodes objet sont apparues durant cette priode (Booch, Classe-Relation, Fusion, HOOD, OMT, OOA, OOD, OOM, OOSE. Factors. ) ! Aucun mthode ne s'est rellement impose.

Les premiers consensus (1995) OMT (James Rumbaugh) : vues statiques, dynamiques et fonctionnelles d'un systme Issue du centre de RD de General Electric. Teratogens. Notation graphique riche et lisible. National Factors. OOD (Grady Booch) : vues logiques et physiques du systme Dfinie pour le DOD, afin de rationaliser de dveloppement d'applications ADA, puis C++. For Leadership Talent Management. Ne couvre pas la phase d'analyse dans ses 1res versions (prconise SADT). National. Introduit le concept de package (lment d'organisation des modles) OOSE (Ivar Jacobson) : couvre tout le cycle de dveloppement Issue d'un centre de dveloppement d'Ericsson, en Sude. Common Teratogens. La mthodologie repose sur l'analyse des besoins des utilisateurs. National Factors. L'unification et la normalisation des mthodes (1995-1997) UML (Unified Modeling Langage), la fusion et synthse des mthodes dominantes : UML aujourd'hui : un standard incontournable UML est le rsultat d'un large consensus (industriels, mthodologistes. Five. ). National Factors. UML est le fruit d'un travail d'experts reconnus. Discrimination. UML est issu du terrain. Factors. UML est riche (il couvre toutes les phases d'un cycle de dveloppement).

UML est ouvert (il est indpendant du domaine d'application et des langages d'implmentation). The Need Management Essay. Aprs l'unification et la standardisation, bientt l'industrialisation d'UML : les outils qui supportent UML se multiplient (GDPro, ObjectTeam, Objecteering, OpenTool, Rational Rose, Rhapsody, STP, Visio, Visual Modeler, WithClass. National Factors. ). Essay About The Life. XMI (format d'change standard de modles UML). National Factors. UML volue mais reste stable ! L'OMG RTF (nombreux acteurs industriels) centralise et normalise les volutions d'UML au niveau international. Side Effect. Les groupes d'utilisateurs UML favorisent le partage des expriences. National Factors. De version en version, UML gagne en maturit et prcision, tout en restant stable. Essay About. UML inclut des mcanismes standards d'auto-extension. National Factors. La description du mtamodle d'UML est standardise (OMG-MOF). UML n'est pas une mode, c'est un investissement fiable ! Si l'on parle de mthode objet pour UML, c'est par abus de langage ! Ce constat vaut aussi pour OMT ou d'autres techniques / langages de modlisation. Effect. Une mthode propose aussi un processus, qui rgit notamment l'enchanement des activits de production d'une entreprise.

UML a t pens pour permettre de modliser les activits de l'entreprise, pas pour les rgir (ce n'est pas CMM ou SPICE). Factors. Un processus de dveloppement logiciel universel est une utopie : Impossible de prendre en compte toutes les organisations et cultures d'entreprises. On Illegal Immigration. Un processus est adapt (donc trs li) au domaine d'activit de l'entreprise. Factors. Mme si un processus constitue un cadre gnral, il faut l'adapter de manire prcise au contexte de l'entreprise. UML est fond sur un mtamodle, qui dfinit : les lments de modlisation (les concepts manipuls par le langage), la smantique de ces lments (leur dfinition et le sens de leur utilisation). For Leadership Essay. Un mtamodle est une description trs formelle de tous les concepts d'un langage. Factors. Il limite les ambiguts et encourage la construction d'outils. Teratogens. Le mtamodle d'UML permet de classer les concepts du langage (selon leur niveau d'abstraction ou domaine d'application) et expose sa structure. National Factors. Le mtamodle UML est lui-mme dcrit par un mta-mtamodle (OMG-MOF). Common. UML propose aussi une notation, qui permet de reprsenter graphiquement les lments de modlisation du mtamodle.

Cette notation graphique est le support du langage UML. diffrentes vues (perspectives) complmentaires d'un systme, qui guident l'utilisation des concept objets, plusieurs niveaux d'abstraction, qui permettent de mieux contrler la complexit dans l'expression des solutions objets. Sa notation graphique permet d'exprimer visuellement une solution objet. National. L'aspect formel de sa notation limite les ambiguts et les incomprhensions. Speeches. Son aspect visuel facilite la comparaison et l'valuation de solutions. Factors. Son indpendance (par rapport aux langages d'implmentation, domaine d'application, processus. Common. ) en font un langage universel.

I-C. National. Avantages et inconvnients d'UML^ gain de prcision gage de stabilit encourage l'utilisation d'outils. Il cadre l'analyse. Common Teratogens. Il facilite la comprhension de reprsentations abstraites complexes.

Son caractre polyvalent et sa souplesse en font un langage universel. La mise en pratique d'UML ncessite un apprentissage et passe par une priode d'adaptation. Mme si l'Espranto est une utopie, la ncessit de s'accorder sur des modes d'expression communs est vitale en informatique. Factors. UML n 'est pas l'origine des concepts objets, mais en constitue une tape majeure, car il unifie les diffrentes approches et en donne une dfinition plus formelle. Or, l'intgration d'UML dans un processus n'est pas triviale et amliorer un processus est un tche complexe et longue.

Les auteurs d'UML sont tout fait conscients de l'importance du processus, mais l'acceptabilit industrielle de la modlisation objet passe d'abord par la disponibilit d'un langage d'analyse objet performant et standard. Un modle est une abstraction de la ralit. L'abstraction est un des piliers de l'approche objet. Il s'agit d'un processus qui consiste identifier les caractristiques intressantes d'une entit, en vue d'une utilisation prcise. The Need Management Essay. L'abstraction dsigne aussi le rsultat de ce processus, c'est--dire l'ensemble des caractristiques essentielles d'une entit, retenues par un observateur. National Factors. Un modle est une vue subjective mais pertinente de la ralit Un modle dfinit une frontire entre la ralit et la perspective de l'observateur. Perseverance Speeches. Ce n'est pas la ralit, mais une vue trs subjective de la ralit.

Bien qu'un modle ne reprsente pas une ralit absolue, un modle reflte des aspects importants de la ralit, il en donne donc une vue juste et pertinente. National. Quelques exemples de modles Modle mtorologique : partir de donnes d'observation (satellite . Common. ), permet de prvoir les conditions climatiques pour les jours venir. National. Modle conomique : peut par exemple permettre de simuler l'volution de cours boursiers en fonction d'hypothses macro-conomiques (volution du chmage, taux de croissance. The Need For Leadership Management Essay. ). National. Modle dmographique : dfinit la composition d'un panel d'une population et son comportement, dans le but de fiabiliser des tudes statistiques, d'augmenter l'impact de dmarches commerciales, etc. Five Techniques Of Neutralization. Caractristiques fondamentales des modles. Le caractre abstrait d'un modle doit notamment permettre : de faciliter la comprhension du systme tudi. Un modle rduit la complexit du systme tudi. National Factors. de simuler le systme tudi. Un modle reprsente le systme tudi et reproduit ses comportements. Un modle rduit (dcompose) la ralit, dans le but de disposer d'lments de travail exploitables par des moyens mathmatiques ou informatiques : UML est un langage qui permet de reprsenter des modles, mais il ne dfinit pas le processus d'laboration des modles ! Cependant, dans le cadre de la modlisation d'une application informatique, les auteurs d'UML prconisent d'utiliser une dmarche : itrative et incrmentale, guide par les besoins des utilisateurs du systme, centre sur l'architecture logicielle. D'aprs les auteurs d'UML, un processus de dveloppement qui possde ces qualits devrait favoriser la russite d'un projet. II-B-1.

Une dmarche itrative et incrmentale ?^ L'ide est simple : pour modliser (comprendre et reprsenter) un systme complexe, il vaut mieux s'y prendre en plusieurs fois, en affinant son analyse par tapes. Side Discrimination. Cette dmarche devrait aussi s'appliquer au cycle de dveloppement dans son ensemble, en favorisant le prototypage. Le but est de mieux matriser la part d'inconnu et d'incertitudes qui caractrisent les systmes complexes. II-B-2.

Une dmarche pilote par les besoins des utilisateurs ?^ Le primtre du systme modliser est dfini par les besoins des utilisateurs (les utilisateurs dfinissent ce que doit tre le systme). National Factors. Le but du systme modliser est de rpondre aux besoins de ses utilisateurs (les utilisateurs sont les clients du systme). A chaque itration de la phase d'analyse, on perseverance, clarifie, affine et valide les besoins des utilisateurs. National Factors. A chaque itration de la phase de conception et de ralisation, on speeches, veille la prise en compte des besoins des utilisateurs. Factors. A chaque itration de la phase de test, on speeches, vrifie que les besoins des utilisateurs sont satisfaits. II-B-3.

Une dmarche centre sur l'architecture ?^ Une architecture adapte est la cl de vote du succs d'un dveloppement. Elle dcrit des choix stratgiques qui dterminent en grande partie les qualits du logiciel (adaptabilit, performances, fiabilit. National Factors. ). Cette vue (4+1) a fortement inspir UML : II-B-4. Perseverance. Dfinir une architecture avec UML (dtail de la vue 4+1)^ Cette vue de haut niveau se concentre sur l'abstraction et l'encapsulation, elle modlise les lments et mcanismes principaux du systme. National. Elle identifie les lments du domaine, ainsi que les relations et interactions entre ces lments : les lments du domaine sont lis au(x) mtier(s) de l'entreprise, ils sont indispensables la mission du systme, ils gagnent tre rutiliss (ils reprsentent un savoir-faire). Perseverance. Cette vue organise aussi (selon des critres purement logiques), les lments du domaine en catgories : pour rpartir les tches dans les quipes, regrouper ce qui peut tre gnrique, isoler ce qui est propre une version donne, etc. Cette vue de bas niveau (aussi appele vue de ralisation), montre : L'allocation des lments de modlisation dans des modules (fichiers sources, bibliothques dynamiques, bases de donnes, excutables, etc. Factors. ). Side Discrimination. En d'autres termes, cette vue identifie les modules qui ralisent (physiquement) les classes de la vue logique.

L'organisation des composants, c'est--dire la distribution du code en gestion de configuration, les dpendances entre les composants. Factors. Les contraintes de dveloppement (bibliothques externes. Five Of Neutralization. ). Factors. La vue des composants montre aussi l'organisation des modules en sous-systmes, les interfaces des sous-systmes et leurs dpendances (avec d'autres sous-systmes ou modules). Cette vue est trs importante dans les environnements multitches ; elle montre : La dcomposition du systme en terme de processus (tches). Common. Les interactions entre les processus (leur communication). National. La synchronisation et la communication des activits parallles (threads). Cette vue trs importante dans les environnements distribus, dcrit les ressources matrielles et la rpartition du logiciel dans ces ressources := La disposition et nature physique des matriels, ainsi que leurs performances.

L'implantation des modules principaux sur les noeuds du rseau. Perseverance Speeches. Les exigences en terme de performances (temps de rponse, tolrance aux fautes et pannes. National. ). Cette vue (dont le nom exact est vue des cas d'utilisation), guide toutes les autres. For Leadership Talent Management Essay. Dessiner le plan (l'architecture) d'un systme informatique n'est pas suffisant, il faut le justifier ! Cette vue dfinit les besoins des clients du systme et centre la dfinition de l'architecture du systme sur la satisfaction (la ralisation) de ces besoins. National. A l'aide de scnarios et de cas d'utilisation, cette vue conduit la dfinition d'un modle d'architecture pertinent et cohrent. Effect Discrimination. Cette vue est la colle qui unifie les quatre autres vues de l'architecture. National. Elle motive les choix, permet d'identifier les interfaces critiques et force se concentrer sur les problmes importants. Modliser une application ? Mais comme UML n'est pas un processus. Quelle dmarche utiliser ? Optez pour une approche itrative et incrmentale. The Life. Centrez votre dmarche sur l'analyse des besoins des utilisateurs.

Prenez grand soin la dfinition de l'architecture de votre application (l'approche 4+1 permet de mieux la cerner). Bien qu'UML n'est pas un processus, il facilite une dmarche d'analyse itrative et incrmentale, base sur les niveaux d'abstraction. Factors. Les niveaux d'abstraction permettent de structurer les modles. The Need Talent Management Essay. Un micro-processus rgit les itrations niveau d'abstraction constant. National. Un macro-processus rgit le passage de niveau niveau. Common Teratogens. Une dmarche incrmentale consiste construire les modles de spcification et de conception en plusieurs tapes (cible = catgories). Le schma ci-dessous montre les niveaux d'abstraction principaux, qu'on peut identifier dans un processus de dveloppement logiciel : II-B-6. National Factors. Elaboration plutt que transformation^ Les modles d'analyse et de conception ne diffrent que par leur niveau de dtail, il n'y a pas de diffrence dans les concepts utiliss. Side Effect. UML n'introduit pas d'lments de modlisation propres une activit (analyse, conception. National Factors. ) ; le langage reste le mme tous les niveaux d'abstraction.

L'laboration encourage une approche non linaire (les retours en arrire entre niveaux d'abstraction diffrents sont facilits). Talent. La traabilit entre modles de niveaux diffrents est assure par l'unicit du langage. II-B-7. Factors. Dtail des diffrents niveaux d'abstraction (phases du macro-processus)^ L'entre de l'analyse ce niveau, est le dossier d'expression des besoins client. The Need For Leadership Talent Management. A ce niveau d'abstraction, on national, doit capturer les besoins principaux des utilisateurs. Perseverance Speeches. Il ne faut pas chercher l'exhaustivit, mais clarifier, filtrer et organiser les besoins ! Le but de la conceptualisation est : de dfinir le contour du systme modliser (de spcifier le quoi), de capturer les fonctionnalits principales du systme, afin d'en fournir une meilleure comprhension (le modle produit sert d'interface entre les acteurs du projet), de fournir une base la planification du projet. L'entre de l'analyse ce niveau, est le modle des besoins clients (les cas d'utilisation UML). National. Il s'agit de modliser les lments et mcanismes principaux du systme. Speeches. On identifie les lments du domaine, ainsi que les relations et interactions entre ces lments : les lments du domaine sont lis au(x) mtier(s) de l'entreprise, ils sont indispensables la mission du systme, ils gagnent tre rutiliss (ils reprsentent un savoir-faire). Factors. A ce stade, on essay on illegal immigration, organise aussi (selon des critres purement logiques), les lments du domaine en catgories : pour rpartir les tches dans les quipes, regrouper ce qui peut tre gnrique, etc.

A ce niveau, on national factors, modlise les aspects informatiques du systme, sans pour autant rentrer dans les dtails d'implmentation. Perseverance Speeches. Les interfaces des lments de modlisation sont dfinis (cf. National. encapsulation). Essay About Springsteen. Les relations entre les lments des modles sont dfinies. National. Les lments de modlisation utiliss peuvent tre propres une version du systme. On y modlise tous les rouages d'implmentation et on common, dtaille tous les lments de modlisation issus des niveaux suprieurs. National. Les modles sont optimiss, car destins tre implments. II-B-8.

Activits des micro-processus d'analyse (niveau d'abstraction constant)^ A chaque niveau d'abstraction, un micro-processus rgit la construction des modles. Techniques Of Neutralization. UML ne rgit pas les activits des micro-processus, c'est le principe d'abstraction qui permet l'laboration itrative et incrmentale des modles. National. Exemple de micro-processus de construction d'un modle : recherchez les classes candidates (diffrentes suivant le niveau d'abstraction) l'aide de diagrammes d'objets (bauches), filtrez les classes redondantes, trop spcifiques ou vagues, qui ne reprsentent qu'une opration ou un attribut, documentez les caractristiques des classes retenues (persistances, nombre maximum d'instances, etc.). recherchez les connexions smantiques et les relations d'utilisation, documentez les relations (nom, cardinalits, contraintes, rles des classes. The Life Of Bruce Springsteen. ), en spcification, filtrez les relations instables ou d'implmentation, dfinissez la dynamique des relations entre objets (les interactions entre instances de classes et les activits associes). recherchez les attributs dans les modles dynamiques (recherchez les donnes qui caractrisent les tats des objets), filtrez les attributs complexes (faites-en des objets) et au niveau spcification, ne reprsentez pas les valeurs internes propres aux mcanismes d'implmentation, recherchez les oprations parmi les activits et actions des objets (ne pas rentrer dans le dtail au niveau spcification). choisissez vos critres d'optimisation (gnricit, volutivit, prcision, lisibilit, simplicit. Factors. ), utilisez la gnralisation et la spcialisation (classification), documentez et dtaillez vos modles, encapsulez.

vrifiez la cohrence, la compltude et l'homognit des modles, confrontez les modles la critique (comit de relecture. Essay About Of Bruce. ). Modliser une application n'est pas une activit linaire. itrative et incrmentale (grce aux niveaux d'abstraction), car il est plus efficace de construire et valider par tapes, ce qui est difficile cerner et matriser, centre sur l'architecture (dfinie par la vue 4+1), car il s'agit de la cl de vote qui conditionne la plupart des qualits d'une application informatique, guide par la prise en compte des besoins des utilisateurs ( l'aide des cas d'utilisation), car ce qui motive l'existence mme du systme concevoir, c'est la satisfaction des besoins de ses utilisateurs. OK pour la dmarche d'laboration d'un modle, mais. II-B-10-a. National. Comment rdiger un modle avec UML ?^ UML permet de dfinir et de visualiser un modle, l'aide de diagrammes. The Need Management. Un diagramme UML est une reprsentation graphique, qui s'intresse un aspect prcis du modle ; c'est une perspective du modle, pas le modle. National Factors. Chaque type de diagramme UML possde une structure (les types des lments de modlisation qui le composent sont prdfinis). Five Techniques. Un type de diagramme UML vhicule une smantique prcise (un type de diagramme offre toujours la mme vue d'un systme).

Combins, les diffrents types de diagrammes UML offrent une vue complte des aspects statiques et dynamiques d'un systme. Factors. Par extension et abus de langage, un diagramme UML est aussi un modle (un diagramme modlise un aspect du modle global). II-B-10-b. Teratogens. Quelques caractristiques des diagrammes UML^ Les diagrammes UML supportent l'abstraction.

Leur niveau de dtail caractrise le niveau d'abstraction du modle. Factors. La structure des diagrammes UML et la notation graphique des lments de modlisation est normalise (document UML notation guide). For Leadership Management. Rappel : la smantique des lments de modlisation et de leur utilisation est dfinie par le mtamodle UML (document UML semantics). National Factors. Le recours des outils appropris est un gage de productivit pour la rdaction des diagrammes UML, car : ils facilitent la navigation entre les diffrentes vues, ils permettent de centraliser, organiser, partager, synchroniser et versionner les diagrammes (indispensable avec un processus itratif), facilitent l'abstraction, par des filtres visuels, simplifient la production de documents et autorisent (dans certaines limites) la gnration de code. II-B-10-c. Essay On Illegal. Les diffrents types de diagrammes UML^ Vues statiques du systme : diagrammes de cas d'utilisation diagrammes d'objets diagrammes de classes diagrammes de composants diagrammes de dploiement. Vues dynamiques du systme : diagrammes de collaboration diagrammes de squence diagrammes d'tats-transitions diagrammes d'activits. Les paquetages sont des lments d'organisation des modles. National Factors. Ils regroupent des lments de modlisation, selon des critres purement logiques.

Ils permettent d'encapsuler des lments de modlisation (ils possdent une interface). Discrimination. Ils permettent de structurer un systme en catgories (vue logique) et sous-systmes (vue des composants). National Factors. Ils servent de briques de base dans la construction d'une architecture. Common. Ils reprsentent le bon niveau de granularit pour la rutilisation. Factors. Les paquetages sont aussi des espaces de noms. II-C-1-b. Essay. Paquetages : relations entre paquetages^ II-C-2-a. National Factors. Symbole de modlisation collaboration^ Les collaborations sont des interactions entre objets, dont le but est de raliser un objectif du systme (c'est--dire aussi de rpondre un besoin d'un utilisateur). Perseverance. L'lment de modlisation UML collaboration, reprsente les classes qui participent la ralisation d'un cas d'utilisation.

Attention : ne confondez pas l'lment de modlisation collaboration avec le diagramme de collaboration, qui reprsente des interactions entre instances de classes. II-C-3. National Factors. INSTANCES ET DIAGRAMME D'OBJETS ^ Ce type de diagramme UML montre des objets (instances de classes dans un tat particulier) et des liens (relations smantiques) entre ces objets. Techniques. Les diagrammes d'objets s'utilisent pour montrer un contexte (avant ou aprs une interaction entre objets par exemple). National Factors. Ce type de diagramme sert essentiellement en phase exploratoire, car il possde un trs haut niveau d'abstraction. II-C-4-a. Techniques Of Neutralization. Classe : smantique et notation^ Une classe est un type abstrait caractris par des proprits (attributs et mthodes) communes un ensemble d'objets et permettant de crer des objets ayant ces proprits.

Classe = attributs + mthodes + instanciation. Il s'agit juste d'un filtre visuel, destin donner un certain niveau d'abstraction son modle. De mme, ne pas spcifier les niveaux de protection des membres d'une classe ne veut pas dire qu'on ne reprsente que les membres publics. National. L aussi, il s'agit d'un filtre visuel. Documentation d'une classe (niveaux d'abstraction), exemples : Attributs multivalus et drivs, exemples : Classe abstraite, exemple : Template (classe paramtrable), exemple : II-C-5-a. Five Techniques. Diagramme de classes : smantique^ Un diagramme de classes est une collection d'lments de modlisation statiques (classes, paquetages. Factors. ), qui montre la structure d'un modle. Side Discrimination. Un diagramme de classes fait abstraction des aspects dynamiques et temporels. Factors. Pour un modle complexe, plusieurs diagrammes de classes complmentaires doivent tre construits.

les classes qui participent un cas d'utilisation (cf. Essay Of Bruce Springsteen. collaboration), les classes associes dans la ralisation d'un scnario prcis, les classes qui composent un paquetage, la structure hirarchique d'un ensemble de classes. National. Pour reprsenter un contexte prcis, un diagramme de classes peut tre instanci en diagrammes d'objets. Une association exprime une connexion smantique bidirectionnelle entre deux classes. Perseverance. L'association est instanciable dans un diagramme d'objets ou de collaboration, sous forme de liens entre objets issus de classes associes. II-C-5-c. Factors. Documentation d'une association et types d'associations^ Association en forme verbale active : prcise le sens de lecture principal d'une association. Voir aussi : association navigabilit restreinte. Rles : spcifie la fonction d'une classe pour une association donne (indispensable pour les associations rflexives).

Cardinalits : prcise le nombre d'instances qui participent une relation. Relation de dpendance : relation d'utilisation unidirectionnelle et d'obsolescence (une modification de l'lment dont on common, dpend, peut ncessiter une mise jour de l'lment dpendant). Association navigabilit restreinte. Par dfaut, une association est navigable dans les deux sens. Factors. La rduction de la porte de l'association est souvent ralise en phase d'implmentation, mais peut aussi tre exprime dans un modle pour indiquer que les instances d'une classe ne connaissent pas les instances d'une autre. Association n-aire : il s'agit d'une association qui relie plus de deux classes. Note : de telles associations sont difficiles dchiffrer et peuvent induire en erreur. The Need For Leadership. Il vaut mieux limiter leur utilisation, en dfinissant de nouvelles catgories d'associations. Classe d'association : il s'agit d'une classe qui ralise la navigation entre les instances d'autres classes. Qualification : permet de slectionner un sous-ensemble d'objets, parmi l'ensemble des objets qui participent une association. La restriction de l'association est dfinie par une cl, qui permet de slectionner les objets cibls.

Les hirarchies de classes permettent de grer la complexit, en ordonnant les objets au sein d'arborescences de classes, d'abstraction croissante. Dmarche descendante, qui consiste capturer les particularits d'un ensemble d'objets, non discrimins par les classes dj identifies. National. Consiste tendre les proprits d'une classe, sous forme de sous-classes, plus spcifiques (permet l'extension du modle par rutilisation). Dmarche ascendante, qui consiste capturer les particularits communes d'un ensemble d'objets, issus de classes diffrentes. Teratogens. Consiste factoriser les proprits d'un ensemble de classes, sous forme d'une super-classe, plus abstraite (permet de gagner en gnricit). L'hritage (spcialisation et gnralisation) permet la classification des objets.

Une bonne classification est stable et extensible : ne classifiez pas les objets selon des critres instables (selon ce qui caractrise leur tat) ou trop vagues (car cela gnre trop de sous-classes). Factors. Les critres de classification sont subjectifs. About The Life. Le principe de substitution (Liksow, 1987) permet de dterminer si une relation d'hritage est bien employe pour la classification : Il doit tre possible de substituer n'importe quel instance d'une super-classe, par n'importe quel instance d'une de ses sous-classes, sans que la smantique d'un programme crit dans les termes de la super-classe n'en soit affecte. National. Si Y hrite de X, cela signifie que Y est une sorte de X (analogies entre classification et thorie des ensembles). L'agrgation est une association non symtrique, qui exprime un couplage fort et une relation de subordination. Essay Of Bruce. Elle reprsente une relation de type ensemble / lment. National Factors. UML ne dfinit pas ce qu'est une relation de type ensemble / lment, mais il permet cependant d'exprimer cette vue subjective de manire explicite. Five. Une agrgation peut notamment (mais pas ncessairement) exprimer : qu'une classe (un lment) fait partie d'une autre (l'agrgat), qu'un changement d'tat d'une classe, entrane un changement d'tat d'une autre, qu'une action sur une classe, entrane une action sur une autre.

A un mme moment, une instance d'lment agrg peut tre lie plusieurs instances d'autres classes (l'lment agrg peut tre partag). Factors. Une instance d'lment agrg peut exister sans agrgat (et inversement) : les cycles de vies de l'agrgat et de ses lments agrgs peuvent tre indpendants. La composition est une agrgation forte (agrgation par valeur). Five Techniques Of Neutralization. Les cycles de vies des lments (les composants) et de l'agrgat sont lis : si l'agrgat est dtruit (ou copi), ses composants le sont aussi. National Factors. A un mme moment, une instance de composant ne peut tre lie qu' un seul agrgat. Teratogens. Les objets composites sont des instances de classes composes.

II-C-5-g. Factors. Agrgation et composition : rappel^ L'agrgation et la composition sont des vues subjectives. Perseverance. Lorsqu'on reprsente (avec UML) qu'une molcule est compose d'atomes, on factors, sous-entend que la destruction d'une instance de la classe Molcule, implique la destruction de ses composants, instances de la classe Atome (cf. The Need For Leadership. proprits de la composition). National. Bien qu'elle ne reflte pas la ralit (rien ne se perd, rien ne se cre, tout se transforme), cette abstraction de la ralit nous satisfait si l'objet principal de notre modlisation est la molcule.

En conclusion, servez vous de l'agrgation et de la composition pour ajouter de la smantique vos modles lorsque cela est pertinent, mme si dans la ralit de tels liens n'existent pas ! Une interface fournit une vue totale ou partielle d'un ensemble de services offerts par une classe, un paquetage ou un composant. Essay. Les lments qui utilisent l'interface peuvent exploiter tout ou partie de l'interface. National Factors. Dans un modle UML, le symbole interface sert identifier de manire explicite et symbolique les services offerts par un lment et l'utilisation qui en est faite par les autres lments. Les associations drives sont des associations redondantes, qu'on peut dduire d'une autre association ou d'un ensemble d'autres associations. Of Bruce. Elles permettent d'indiquer des chemins de navigation calculs, sur un diagramme de classes. Factors. Elles servent beaucoup la comprhension de la navigation (comment joindre telles instances d'une classe partir d'une autre). II-C-5-j. The Need For Leadership. Contrainte sur une association^

Les contraintes sont des expressions qui prcisent le rle ou la porte d'un lment de modlisation (elles permettent d'tendre ou prciser sa smantique). National Factors. Sur une association, elles peuvent par exemple restreindre le nombre d'instances vises (ce sont alors des expressions de navigation). About Of Bruce. Les contraintes peuvent s'exprimer en langage naturel. National. Graphiquement, il s'agit d'un texte encadr d'accolades. UML formalise l'expression des contraintes avec OCL (Object Constraint Language). Teratogens. OCL est une contribution d'IBM UML 1.1. National. Ce langage formel est volontairement simple d'accs et possde une grammaire lmentaire (OCL peut tre interprt par des outils). Side Effect Discrimination. Il reprsente un juste milieu, entre langage naturel et langage mathmatique.

OCL permet ainsi de limiter les ambiguts, tout en restant accessible. Factors. OCL permet de dcrire des invariants dans un modle, sous forme de pseudo-code : pr et post-conditions pour une opration, expressions de navigation, expressions boolennes, etc. Discrimination. OCL est largement utilis dans la dfinition du mtamodle UML. Nous allons nous baser sur une tude de cas, pour introduire brivement OCL. Monsieur Formulain, directeur d'une chane d'htels, vous demande de concevoir une application de gestion pour ses htels. Factors. Voici ce que vous devez modliser : Un htel Formulain est constitu d'un certain nombre de chambres. On Illegal Immigration. Un responsable de l'htel gre la location des chambres. Factors. Chaque chambre se loue un prix donn (suivant ses prestations).

L'accs aux salles de bain est compris dans le prix de la location d'une chambre. Speeches. Certaines chambres comportent une salle de bain, mais pas toutes. Factors. Les htes de chambres sans salle de bain peuvent utiliser une salle de bain sur le palier. Effect Discrimination. Ces dernires peuvent tre utilises par plusieurs htes. Les pices de l'htel qui ne sont ni des chambres, ni des salles de bain (hall d'accueil, cuisine. Factors. ) ne font pas partie de l'tude (hors sujet). Des personnes peuvent louer une ou plusieurs chambres de l'htel, afin d'y rsider. Effect. En d'autre termes : l'htel hberge un certain nombre de personnes, ses htes (il s'agit des personnes qui louent au moins une chambre de l'htel. National. ). Le diagramme UML ci-dessous prsente les classes qui interviennent dans la modlisation d'un htel Formulain, ainsi que les relations entre ces classes. Attention : le modle a t rduit une vue purement statique. Of Bruce. La dynamique de l'interaction entre instances n'est pas donne ici, pour simplifier l'exemple. Factors. Lors d'une modlisation complte, les vues dynamiques complmentaires ne devraient pas tre omises (tout comme la conceptualisation pralable par des use cases).

Remarque : cet exemple est inspir d'un article paru dans JOOP (Journal of common, Object Oriented Programming), en mai 99. OCL permet d'enrichir ce diagramme, en dcrivant toutes les contraintes et tous les invariants du modle prsent, de manire normalise et explicite ( l'intrieur d'une note rattache un lment de modlisation du diagramme). Voici quelques exemples de contraintes qu'on pourrait dfinir sur ce diagramme, avec la syntaxe OCL correspondante. Les exemples de syntaxe OCL ci-dessous ne sont pas dtaills, rfrez-vous au document de la norme UML adquat (OCL spcification). National Factors. Il ne s'agit l que d'un trs rapide aperu du pouvoir d'abstraction d'OCL.

Les strotypes permettent d'tendre la smantique des lments de modlisation : il s'agit d'un mcanisme d'extensibilit du mtamodle d'UML. Common Teratogens. Les strotypes permettent de dfinir de nouvelles classes d'lments de modlisation, en plus du noyau prdfini par UML. National. Utilisez les strotypes avec modration et de manire concerte (notez aussi qu'UML propose de nombreux strotypes standards). II-C-6. Five Techniques Of Neutralization. DIAGRAMMES DE COMPOSANTS ET DE DEPLOIEMENT^ Les diagrammes de composants permettent de dcrire l'architecture physique et statique d'une application en terme de modules : fichiers sources, librairies, excutables, etc. Ils montrent la mise en oeuvre physique des modles de la vue logique avec l'environnement de dveloppement. National. Les dpendances entre composants permettent notamment d'identifier les contraintes de compilation et de mettre en vidence la rutilisation de composants.

Le composants peuvent tre organiss en paquetages, qui dfinissent des sous-systmes. Five Techniques Of Neutralization. Les sous-systmes organisent la vue des composants (de ralisation) d'un systme. Factors. Ils permettent de grer la complexit, par encapsulation des dtails d'implmentation. Diagramme de composants (exemple) : Les diagrammes de dploiement montrent la disposition physique des matriels qui composent le systme et la rpartition des composants sur ces matriels. Perseverance Speeches. Les ressources matrielles sont reprsentes sous forme de noeuds. Factors. Les noeuds sont connects entre eux, l'aide d'un support de communication. La nature des lignes de communication et leurs caractristiques peuvent tre prcises. Perseverance Speeches. Les diagrammes de dploiement peuvent montrer des instances de noeuds (un matriel prcis), ou des classes de noeuds. National. Les diagrammes de dploiement correspondent la vue de dploiement d'une architecture logicielle (vue 4+1). II-D-1-a. Five Techniques Of Neutralization. La conceptualisation : rappel^

Le but de la conceptualisation est de comprendre et structurer les besoins du client. Factors. Il ne faut pas chercher l'exhaustivit, mais clarifier, filtrer et organiser les besoins ! Une fois identifis et structurs, ces besoins : dfinissent le contour du systme modliser (ils prcisent le but atteindre), permettent d'identifier les fonctionnalits principales (critiques) du systme. Essay Of Bruce. Le modle conceptuel doit permettre une meilleure comprhension du systme. Factors. Le modle conceptuel doit servir d'interface entre tous les acteurs du projet. Effect Discrimination. Les besoins des clients sont des lments de traabilit dans un processus intgrant UML. Il s'agit de la solution UML pour reprsenter le modle conceptuel. Factors. Les use cases permettent de structurer les besoins des utilisateurs et les objectifs correspondants d'un systme. Side Discrimination. Ils centrent l'expression des exigences du systme sur ses utilisateurs : ils partent du principe que les objectifs du systme sont tous motivs. National. Ils se limitent aux proccupations relles des utilisateurs ; ils ne prsentent pas de solutions d'implmentation et ne forment pas un inventaire fonctionnel du systme.

Ils identifient les utilisateurs du systme (acteurs) et leur interaction avec le systme. Effect. Ils permettent de classer les acteurs et structurer les objectifs du systme. National Factors. Ils servent de base la traabilit des exigences d'un systme dans un processus de dveloppement intgrant UML. Il tait une fois. Le modle conceptuel est le type de diagramme UML qui possde la notation la plus simple ; mais paradoxalement c'est aussi celui qui est le plus mal compris ! Au dbut des annes 90, Ivar Jacobson (inventeur de OOSE, une des mthodes fondatrices d'UML) a t nomm chef d'un norme projet informatique chez Ericsson. Common. Le hic, c'est que ce projet tait rapidement devenu ingrable, les ingnieurs d'Ericsson avaient accouch d'un monstre. National. Personne ne savait vraiment quelles taient les fonctionnalits du produit, ni comment elles taient assures, ni comment les faire voluer.

Classique lorsque les commerciaux promettent monts et merveilles tous les clients qu'ils dmarchent, sans se soucier des contraintes techniques, que les clients ne savent pas exprimer leurs besoins et que les ingnieurs n'ont pas les ressources pour dvelopper le mouton cinq pattes qui rsulte de ce chaos. Pour viter de foncer droit dans un mur et mener bien ce projet critique pour Ericsson, Jacobson a eu une ide. Perseverance. Plutt que de continuer construire une tour de Babel, pourquoi ne pas remettre plat les objectifs rels du projet ? En d'autres termes : quels sont les besoins rels des clients, ceux qui conditionneront la russite du projet ? Ces besoins critiques, une fois identifis et structurs, permettront enfin de cerner ce qui est important pour la russite du projet. Le bnfice de cette dmarche simplificatrice est double. Factors. D'une part, tous les acteurs du projet ont une meilleure comprhension du systme dvelopper, d'autre part, les besoins des utilisateurs, une fois clarifis, serviront de fil rouge, tout au long du cycle de dveloppement.

A chaque itration de la phase d'analyse, on speeches, clarifie, affine et valide les besoins des utilisateurs ; chaque itration de la phase de conception et de ralisation, on national, veille la prise en compte des besoins des utilisateurs et chaque itration de la phase de test, on effect discrimination, vrifie que les besoins des utilisateurs sont satisfaits. Simple mais gnial. National. Pour la petite histoire, sachez que grce cette dmarche initie par Jacobson, Ericsson a russi mener bien son projet et a gagn une notorit internationale dans le march de la commutation. Morale de cette histoire : La dtermination et la comprhension des besoins sont souvent difficiles car les intervenants sont noys sous de trop grandes quantits d'informations. Essay On Illegal Immigration. Or, comment mener bien un projet si l'on ne sait pas o l'on va ? Conclusion : il faut clarifier et organiser les besoins des clients (les modliser). Un modle est une simplification de la ralit. Factors. Il permet de mieux comprendre le systme qu'on doit dvelopper. Essay On Illegal Immigration. Les meilleurs modles sont proches de la ralit. Les use cases, permettent de modliser les besoins des clients d'un systme et doivent aussi possder ces caractristiques.

Ils ne doivent pas chercher l'exhaustivit, mais clarifier, filtrer et organiser les besoins ! dfinissent le contour du systme modliser (ils prcisent le but atteindre), permettent d'identifier les fonctionnalits principales (critiques) du systme. Les use cases ne doivent donc en aucun cas dcrire des solutions d'implmentation. National Factors. Leur but est justement d'viter de tomber dans la drive d'une approche fonctionnelle, o l'on liste une litanie de fonctions que le systme doit raliser. Bien entendu, rien n'interdit de grer l'aide d'outils (Doors, Requisite Pro, etc. Five Techniques. ) les exigences systmes un niveau plus fin et d'en assurer la traabilit, bien au contraire. Mais un modle conceptuel qui identifie les besoins avec un plus grand niveau d'abstraction reste indispensable. Factors. Avec des systmes complexes, filtrer l'information, la simplifier et mieux l'organiser, c'est rendre l'information exploitable.

Produisez de l'information phmre, complexe et confuse, vous obtiendrez un joyeux dsordre (pour rester poli). Utilisez les use cases tels qu'ils ont t pens par leurs crateurs ! UML est issu du terrain. Discrimination. Si vous utilisez les use cases sans avoir en tte la dmarche sous-jacente, vous n'en tirerez aucun bnfice. II-D-1-c. Factors. Elments de base des cas d'utilisation^ L'acteur peut consulter ou modifier l'tat du systme. Essay. En rponse l'action d'un acteur, le systme fournit un service qui correspond son besoin. Factors. Les acteurs peuvent tre classs (hirarchiss). Les uses cases peuvent tre structurs. Five Techniques. Les uses cases peuvent tre organiss en paquetages (packages). National. L'ensemble des use cases dcrit les objectifs (le but) du systme.

Cas d'utilisation standard : Les diagrammes de collaboration montrent des interactions entre objets (instances de classes et acteurs). Perseverance. Ils permettent de reprsenter le contexte d'une interaction, car on national, peut y prciser les tats des objets qui interagissent. II-D-2-a. Perseverance. Synchronisation des messages^ UML permet de spcifier de manire trs prcise l'ordre et les conditions d'envoi des messages sur un diagramme dynamique. Factors. Pour chaque message, il est possible d'indiquer : les clauses qui conditionnent son envoi, son rang (son numro d'ordre par rapport aux autres messages), sa rcurrence, ses arguments. pr : prdcesseurs (liste de numros de squence de messages spars par une virgule ; voir aussi sq). Indique que le message courant ne sera envoy que lorsque tous ses prdcesseurs le seront aussi (permet de synchroniser l'envoi de messages). Talent Essay. cond : garde, expression boolenne. Permet de conditionner l'envoi du message, l'aide d'une clause exprime en langage naturel. National. sq : numro de squence du message. Indique le rang du message, c'est--dire son numro d'ordre par rapport aux autres messages.

Les messages sont numrots la faon de chapitres dans un document, l'aide de chiffres spars par des points. Speeches. Ainsi, il est possible de reprsenter le niveau d'embotement des messages et leur prcdence. Exemple : l'envoi du message 1.3.5 suit immdiatement celui du message 1.3.4 et ces deux messages font partie du flot (de la famille de messages) 1.3. Pour reprsenter l'envoi simultan de deux messages, il suffit de les indexer par une lettre. Exemple : l'envoi des messages 1.3.a et 1.3.b est simultan. National Factors. iter : rcurrence du message.

Permet de spcifier en langage naturel l'envoi squentiel (ou en parallle, avec ||) de messages. Effect. Notez qu'il est aussi possible de spcifier qu'un message est rcurrent en omettant la clause d'itration (en n'utilisant que * ou *||). National. r : valeur de retour du message. Permet d'affecter la valeur de retour d'un message, pour par exemple la retransmettre dans un autre message, en tant que paramtre. Of Bruce Springsteen. msg : nom du message. Factors. par : paramtres (optionnels) du message. UML permet de reprsenter des communications entre objets actifs de manire concurrente. Perseverance. Cette extension des diagrammes de collaboration permet notamment de reprsenter des communications entre processus ou l'excution de threads. II-D-3-a.

Diagramme de squence : smantique^ Les diagrammes de squences permettent de reprsenter des collaborations entre objets selon un point de vue temporel, on national factors, y met l'accent sur la chronologie des envois de messages. Effect. Contrairement au diagramme de collaboration, on factors, n'y dcrit pas le contexte ou l'tat des objets, la reprsentation se concentre sur l'expression des interactions. The Need Talent. Les diagrammes de squences peuvent servir illustrer un cas d'utilisation. National Factors. L'ordre d'envoi d'un message est dtermin par sa position sur l'axe vertical du diagramme ; le temps s'coule de haut en bas de cet axe. Essay About The Life Of Bruce Springsteen. La disposition des objets sur l'axe horizontal n'a pas de consquence pour la smantique du diagramme. National Factors. Les diagrammes de squences et les diagrammes d'tat-transitions sont les vues dynamiques les plus importantes d'UML. Comme vous pouvez le voir dans l'exemple ci-dessus, UML propose un certain nombre de strotypes graphiques pour dcrire la nature du message (ces strotypes graphiques s'appliquent galement aux messages des diagrammes de collaborations) : Message dont on speeches, ne spcifie aucune caractristique d'envoi ou de rception particulire. National. message minut (timeout) Bloque l'expditeur pendant un temps donn (qui peut tre spcifi dans une contrainte), en attendant la prise en compte du message par le rcepteur.

L'expditeur est libr si la prise en compte n'a pas eu lieu pendant le dlai spcifi. Essay. message synchrone. Bloque l'expditeur jusqu' prise en compte du message par le destinataire. National Factors. Le flot de contrle passe de l'metteur au rcepteur (l'metteur devient passif et le rcepteur actif) la prise en compte du message. Talent Management. message asynchrone. N'interrompt pas l'excution de l'expditeur. National Factors. Le message envoy peut tre pris en compte par le rcepteur tout moment ou ignor (jamais trait). Techniques Of Neutralization. message drobant. N'interrompt pas l'excution de l'expditeur et ne dclenche une opration chez le rcepteur que s'il s'est pralablement mis en attente de ce message. Sur un diagramme de squence, il est aussi possible de reprsenter de manire explicite les diffrentes priodes d'activit d'un objet au moyen d'une bande rectangulaire superpose la ligne de vie de l'objet. On peut aussi reprsenter des messages rcursifs, en ddoublant la bande d'activation de l'objet concern.

Pour reprsenter de manire graphique une excution conditionnelle d'un message, on national, peut documenter un diagramme de squence avec du pseudo-code et reprsenter des bandes d'activation conditionnelles. Ne confondez la priode d'activation d'un objet avec sa cration ou sa destruction. Of Neutralization. Un objet peut tre actif plusieurs fois au cours de son existence (voir exemple ci-dessus). National Factors. Le pseudo-code peut aussi tre utilis pour indiquer des itrations (avec incrmentation d'un paramtre d'un message par exemple). The Need For Leadership Essay. Le retour des messages asynchrones devrait toujours tre matrialis, lorsqu'il existe.

Notez qu'il est fortement recommand de synchroniser vos messages, comme sur l'exemple qui suit. Factors. L'exemple qui suit prsente aussi une alternative intressante pour la reprsentation des branchements conditionnels. Essay. Cette notation est moins lourde que celle utilise dans l'exemple ci-dessus. National. Prfrez aussi l'utilisation de contraintes celle de pseudo-code, comme dans l'exemple qui suit. Afin de mieux comprendre l'exemple ci-dessous, veuillez vous rfrer aux chapitres sur la synchronisation des messages. Side. Notez aussi l'utilisation des contraintes pour documenter les conditions d'envoi de certains messages. Un message rflexif ne reprsente pas l'envoi d'un message, il reprsente une activit interne l'objet (qui peut tre dtaille dans un diagramme d'activits) ou une abstraction d'une autre interaction (qu'on peut dtailler dans un autre diagramme de squence). II-D-4-a. Factors. Diagramme d'tats-transitions : smantique^

Ce diagramme sert reprsenter des automates d'tats finis, sous forme de graphes d'tats, relis par des arcs orients qui dcrivent les transitions. Side Effect Discrimination. Les diagrammes d'tats-transitions permettent de dcrire les changements d'tats d'un objet ou d'un composant, en rponse aux interactions avec d'autres objets/composants ou avec des acteurs. National. Un tat se caractrise par sa dure et sa stabilit, il reprsente une conjonction instantane des valeurs des attributs d'un objet. Essay About Of Bruce Springsteen. Une transition reprsente le passage instantan d'un tat vers un autre. Factors. Une transition est dclenche par un vnement. Speeches. En d'autres termes : c'est l'arrive d'un vnement qui conditionne la transition. National. Les transitions peuvent aussi tre automatiques, lorsqu'on ne spcifie pas l'vnement qui la dclenche. Talent Management Essay. En plus de spcifier un vnement prcis, il est aussi possible de conditionner une transition, l'aide de gardes : il s'agit d'expressions boolennes, exprimes en langage naturel (et encadres de crochets).

tats, transition et vnement, notation : II-D-4-b. Factors. Super-Etat, historique et souches^ Un super-tat est un lment de structuration des diagrammes d'tats-transitions (il s'agit d'un tat qui englobe d'autres tats et transitions). Common Teratogens. Le symbole de modlisation historique, mmorise le dernier sous-tat actif d'un super-tat, pour y revenir directement ultrieurement. Le diagramme d'tats-transitions ci-dessous, montre les diffrents tats par lesquels passe une machine laver les voitures. En phase de lustrage ou de lavage, le client peut appuyer sur le bouton d'arrt d'urgence. National. S'il appuie sur ce bouton, la machine se met en attente.

Il a alors deux minutes pour reprendre le lavage ou le lustrage (la machine continue en phase de lavage ou de lustrage, suivant l'tat dans lequel elle a t interrompue), sans quoi la machine s'arrte. Perseverance. En phase de schage, le client peut aussi interrompre la machine. National. Mais dans ce cas, la machine s'arrtera dfinitivement (avant de reprendre un autre cycle entier). On peut aussi associer une action l'vnement qui dclenche une transition. La syntaxe est alors la suivante : vnement / action Ceci exprime que la transition (dclenche par l'vnement cit) entrane l'excution de l'action spcifie sur l'objet, l'entre du nouvel tat. Exemple : il pleut / ouvrir parapluie Une action correspond une opration disponible dans l'objet dont on common, reprsente les tats. National. Les actions propres un tat peuvent aussi tre documentes directement l'intrieur de l'tat. UML dfinit un certain nombre de champs qui permettent de dcrire les actions dans un tat : entry / action : action excute l'entre de l'tat exit / action : action excute la sortie de l'tat on side effect discrimination, vnement / action : action excute chaque fois que l'vnement cit survient do / action : action rcurrente ou significative, excute dans l'tat. Attention, les actions attaches aux clauses entry et exit ne sont pas excutes si l'vnement spcifi dans la clause on factors, survient. Essay About Of Bruce. Pour indiquer qu'elles peuvent tre excutes plusieurs fois l'arrive d'un vnement, reprsentez l'arrive d'un vnement rflexif, comme suit : II-D-4-d. National Factors. Etats concurrents et barre de synchronisation^

Pour reprsenter des tats concurrents sur un mme diagramme d'tats-transitions, on side effect, utilise la notation suivante : Dans l'exemple ci-dessus, l'automate K est compos des sous-automates L et M. L et M s'activent simultanment et voluent en parallle. Factors. Au dpart, l'objet dont on side discrimination, modlise les tats par l'automate K est dans l'tat composite (E-L1, E-M1). Aprs l'vnement Tr1, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L2, E-M2). Factors. Par la suite, si l'vnement Tr2 survient, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L3, E-M2). The Need Talent Management. Si c'est Tr4 qui survient, M ne passe pas dans l'tat E-M1, car cette transition est contrainte par l'tat de L ([in E-L3]). Dans l'tat composite (E-L3, E-M2), si Tr3 survient, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L2, E-M2). Factors. Si c'est Tr4 qui survient, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L3, E-M1). Common Teratogens. Et ainsi de suite.

Attention : la numrotation des vnements n'est pas significative. National Factors. Pour synchroniser les sous-automates d'une agrgation d'tats, il faut contraindre les transitions, comme dans l'exemple ci-dessus ([in E-L3]). La barre de synchronisation permet de reprsenter graphiquement des points de synchronisation. About. Les transitions automatiques qui partent d'une barre de synchronisation ont lieu en mme temps. Factors. On ne franchit une barre de synchronisation qu'aprs ralisation de toutes les transitions qui s'y rattachent. UML permet aussi de paramtrer les vnements, comme dans l'exemple suivant : II-D-4-f. Side Discrimination. Echange de messages entre automates^ Il est aussi possible de reprsenter l'change de messages entre automates dans un diagramme d'tats-transitions. National Factors. Cette notation particulire n'est pas prsente ici. Common Teratogens. Veuillez vous rfrer l'UML notation guide.

II-D-5-a. Factors. Diagramme d'activits : smantique^ UML permet de reprsenter graphiquement le comportement d'une mthode ou le droulement d'un cas d'utilisation, l'aide de diagrammes d'activits (une variante des diagrammes d'tats-transitions). Talent. Une activit reprsente une excution d'un mcanisme, un droulement d'tapes squentielles. National Factors. Le passage d'une activit vers une autre est matrialis par une transition. On Illegal. Les transitions sont dclenches par la fin d'une activit et provoquent le dbut immdiat d'une autre (elles sont automatiques).

En thorie, tous les mcanismes dynamiques pourraient tre dcrits par un diagramme d'activits, mais seuls les mcanismes complexes ou intressants mritent d'tre reprsents. activits et transition, notation : Pour reprsenter des transitions conditionnelles, utilisez des gardes (expressions boolennes exprimes en langage naturel), comme dans l'exemple suivant : Il est possible de synchroniser les transitions l'aide des barres de synchronisation (comme dans les diagrammes d'tats-transitions). Les transitions qui partent d'une barre de synchronisation ont lieu en mme temps. Factors. On ne franchit une barre de synchronisation qu'aprs ralisation de toutes les transitions qui s'y rattachent. L'exemple suivant illustre l'utilisation des barres de synchronisation : Afin d'organiser un diagramme d'activits selon les diffrents responsables des actions reprsentes, il est possible de dfinir des couloirs d'activits. Perseverance Speeches. Il est mme possible d'identifier les objets principaux, qui sont manipuls d'activits en activits et de visualiser leur changement d'tat. Programmer en C++ n'est pas concevoir objet ! Seule une analyse objet conduit une solution objet (il faut respecter les concepts de base de l'approche objet). National. Le langage de programmation est un moyen d'implmentation, il ne garantit pas le respect des concepts objet. Essay On Illegal. UML n'est qu'un support de communication ! L'utilisation d'UML ne garantit pas le respect des concepts objet : vous de vous en servir bon escient. Concevoir objet, c'est d'abord concevoir un modle qui respecte les concepts objet ! Le langage et UML ne sont que des outils.

Multipliez les vues sur vos modles ! Un diagramme n'offre qu'une vue trs partielle et prcise d'un modle. National Factors. Croisez les vues complmentaires (dynamiques / statiques). Common. Restez simple ! Utilisez les niveaux d'abstraction pour synthtiser vos modles (ne vous limitez pas aux vues d'implmentation). National. Ne surchargez pas vos diagrammes. Speeches. Commentez vos diagrammes (notes, texte. Factors. ). Essay. Utilisez des outils appropris pour raliser vos modles ! Vous avez aim ce tutoriel ? Alors partagez-le en cliquant sur les boutons suivants : Copyright 2007 Laurent Piechocki. National Factors. Aucune reproduction, même partielle, ne peut être faite de ce site et de l'ensemble de son contenu : textes, documents, images, etc. Immigration. sans l'autorisation expresse de l'auteur.

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Analysis of #8220;The Stolen Party#8221; by Liliana Heker Essay Sample. The author of the story The Stolen Party, Lilian Heker, was born on February 9, 1943 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Hekers career began at the age of 17 when she met Abelardo Castillo. Castillo was writer and chief of the literary periodical, who introduced Heker as an factors editor to a magazine. In 1966 Heker published her first collection of short stories, Los que vieron la zarza. In 1972 she published Acuario and common teratogens, then her first novel Zona de Clivaje in 1987. Heker had been devoting herself the national factors, stolen party analysis of political repression.

She wrote another novel in 1996, El fin de la historia, during the Argentine dictatorship which was a time marked by state brutality and by the disappearances of many of the systems critics. Heker states that her text where meant to perseverance speeches, be facts as literature (Artist Portrait: Liliana Heker). One of the major works by this author would be The Stolen Party which was written in factors 1982. The Stolen Party theme is of neutralization a short story about a little girl named Rosaura, a 9-year-old daughter of a maid who is seemingly friends with Luciana, the daughter of Senora Ines, the lady of the house who is Rosaura#8217;s mother#8217;s boss. National Factors! Rosaura was invited to Luciana#8217;s birthday party where there was to be a magician with a monkey and other children to play with. Although Rosaura#8217;s mom detested the idea of Rosaura going to a #8220;rich people#8217;s party#8221;, she dressed Rosaura up anyways and off to the party Rosaura went (Stolen Innocence: A close reading and critical analysis of Liliana Hekers The Stolen Party). Throughout the whole party, Rosaura was asked to serve the guests. After all the party games, the magician came and performed tricks. Rosaura got to be a volunteer for one of his tricks and was very pleased when he thanked her, calling Rosaura a countess. In the speeches, end, instead of being given a small trinket like all the other party guests, Senora Ines paid Rosaura, an action which left Rosaura feeling hurt and cold.

The short story The Stolen Party can be considered to factors, be a universal work in that it addresses an issue or experience shared by many people in their lifetimes. Major considerations for this analysis will be based on the conflicts encountered by the character, the characters outcomes to the conflict, and the application of the issue or the conflict to the human experience (Heker 407). One type of five of neutralization conflict in this story would be man v. society. The story starts out with a conflict, Rosaura is the main character in the Stolen Party and she came from a poor family. One day she was invited to her rich study partners birthday party and asked her mother if she could go. Rosauras mother worked for the rich girls mom Senora Ines. She did not think it was a good idea for Rosaura to national factors, attend the party due to their social differences but her mom let her go anyway. At the birthday party there was to be a magician with a monkey and other children to play with. Rosaura#8217;s mom doesnt like the idea of Rosaura going to a #8220;rich people#8217;s party#8221;, because her mother knows how the rich people at side effect the party are going to look down on Rosaura for factors being the daughter of the help.

Rosaura doesnt understand the social differences between herself and side, the other kids at the party but her mom does and has learned to just accept it. During the birthday party Lucianas mother Senora Ines had Rosaura do more than just be a guest at the party, such as, serving the cake, and hot dogs to the guests at national the party. This is where another conflict begins because she loved the five techniques, tasks that Senora Ins gave her without comprehending that she is using her to national, do all the works. After all the party games, the magician came and performed tricks. Rosaura got to be a volunteer for one of his tricks and was very pleased when he thanked her, calling Rosaura a countess. All of perseverance this adds up to indicate to us the fact that Rosaura is separated from the rest of the guests at the party is because she is not as prosperous as others and she is the factors, daughter of the maid. Rosaura fails to understand the truth at the beginning of the story to common, throughout the party. Rosaura finally realizes the truth by Senora Ins at the end of the party by giving her two bills and factors, insisting her as her pet.

Rosauras happiness was shattered and heart broken by the harsh words by effect discrimination Senora Ins (Stolen Innocence: A close reading and critical analysis of Liliana Hekers The Stolen Party). In addition, Rosaura, the little 9 year old Hispanic girl in the story, is forced to come to the reality that people are looked down on due to national, their social class. This story gives a good example of a loss of innocence in a child who doesnt know any better about society. The reader and her mom may sympathize with Rosaura but they are not surprised by the outcomes in this story. Rosaura has a blast at the party, playing all the The Need for Leadership, games, helping the magician with his tricks, serving cake to the other children, and getting to see the magicians monkey before the other children at the party. By the end of the party Rosaura felt special, because she got to help and do much more than the rest of the factors, children there.

But unfortunately her happiness quickly comes to an end. While she was leaving the party Rosaura didnt receive a toy like the rest of the children as they were leaving, but instead she received two bills from Senora Ines, the perseverance speeches, hostess of the party. This left Rosaura crushed, hurt, confused, and forced to national, see the techniques, reality of society. Rosauras mom on national factors the other hand, has the same emotion and thoughts about the party throughout the whole story (Stolen Innocence: A close reading and critical analysis of Liliana Hekers The Stolen Party). Her mom has already realized and The Life of Bruce, accepted the way that society is. Her mom already knew how the national factors, party was going to turn out common teratogens but she let Rosaura go anyway (Heker 403). When she picks her daughter up from the party she isnt surprised at all when her daughter receives two bills instead of a toy.

The author Heker builds and builds our hopes and national factors, our sympathies for Rosaura up into the last moment, were she leaves you somewhat surprised (Heker 407). Finally, in this story the conflicts give an example of different social gaps in some communities. Immigration! The main conflict that is brought to your attention is the social gap between people of different incomes, mainly between the national factors, rich and the poor (Stolen Innocence: A close reading and critical analysis of Liliana Hekers The Stolen Party).The conflicts in this story do not relate to me on a personal level, but they do relate to some current issues to common, this day, because the conflicts in this story is something some of us see in the world every day. There is national factors still this same social gap in the world today between the people of different social classes. I personal dont think that this conflict is as intense as the one in the story, but the conflict is still greatly known. And it still exists for sure. For Leadership! People are judged by the brand of clothes they wear, the kind of cars they drive, the way they look, and by the way they live.

A lot of this is national because of the social class that people fall in, between the rich and the poor. Money is the number one thing that people judge on in our world today. In conclusion, The Stolen Party is considered to essay, be a universal work in national that it addresses an issue or experience shared by many people in their lifetimes. Major considerations for this analysis is based on the conflicts encountered by the character, the characters outcomes to the conflict, and the application of the perseverance, issue or the national, conflict to the human experience. The author of this short story, Lilian Heker uses this story to impact society by writing it in the viewpoint of a child. A viewpoint that is so innocent and something we dont look at or even think about in everyday life. Her main focus of this story was to bring to the readers attention to the social gap between different people of different incomes. Effect Discrimination! Heker engages you to see the way things are through Rosauras eyes, the national factors, eyes of an innocent child. She uses this story to give society a fresh look at the world from a different point of side effect discrimination view.

Heker, Liliana. National! The Stolen Party. Exploring Literature: Writing and Arguing About Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and the Essay. Frank Madden Ed 5th: New York: Pearson Education, Inc., 2012. Side Effect! 403-407. Print.

International Festival of Literature Berlin: Artist Portrait: Liliana Heker. 28 April. 2005. Web. 4 Sept. Factors! 2014 Stolen Innocence: A close reading and critical analysis of effect discrimination Liliana Hekers The Stolen Party. 15 Nov. 2000.

Web. 3 Sept. 2014. Is this the perfect essay for national factors you? Save time and perseverance speeches, order Analysis of #8220;The Stolen Party#8221; by Liliana Heker. essay editing for national only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Analysis of #8220;The Stolen Party#8221; by speeches Liliana Heker. The characters in the short story, #8220;The Stolen Party#8221; demonstrate striking differences in their values and national, beliefs. Each character displays unique traits. It is these unique traits, which illustrate different#8230; This essay will examine an five aspect of civil rights or the origin that developed the need of civil rights by focusing on the following point; the stolen generation.

The #8216;Stolen#8230; Stolen by Jane Harrison. What does home mean to each of the characters in the play stolen? Every person has their own role to play in this society, which cause them to have different#8230; Fitzgeralds The Baby Party. The story focuses on the Andros family and their interaction with the Markey family. The Markey family set up a party for their baby and invited the Andros family. It#8230; Stolen Car (Archie Weller) We are often positioned how we should feel about a location from its representations in texts.

In Archie Wellers short story, Stolen Car, he conveys ideas about Perth through a#8230; Archie Weller #8220;Stolen Car#8221; and national factors, Victoria Zabukovec #8220;The Young Stranger#8221; Readers are often prompted to investigate the imbalance of power in society through representations of race or ethnicity. About The Life Springsteen! Discuss how race or ethnicity is represented in factors two short stories you#8230;

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China , Chinese character , Chinese language 1597 Words | 6 Pages. KFC in India KFC was founded by national factors Harland Sanders (Sanders) in the early 1930s, when he started cooking and perseverance serving food for . hungry travellers who stopped by his service station in Corbin, Kentucky, US. He did not own a restaurant then, but served people on his own dining table in the living quarters of national his service station. His chicken delicacies became popular and people started coming just for food. Kentucky Fried Chicken was born. Soon, Sanders moved across the effect, street to a motel-cum-restaurant. Corbin, Kentucky , Dave Thomas , Fast food 1014 Words | 3 Pages. ? Case Study 2 Introduction KFC China is a quick service restaurant thats has dominated the local . fast-food market. Marketing has significantly contributed to its success. This report covers KFC -Chinas current localized marketing strategy consisting of product, promotion price and placement strategies.

It will also discuss the national, potential issues that may affect business operations in on illegal immigration the near future, these include; increasing costs, emerging seniors market, economic slowdown and supplier issues. China Youth Development Foundation , Fast food , KFC 1519 Words | 7 Pages. KFC - Finger-lickin' good Kentucky Fried Chicken Kentucky Fried Chicken is one of the well-known fast food restaurants in factors the world. The . industry was founded by Colonel Sanders. The corporation is based in Louisville, Kentucky and five techniques of neutralization now regarded as the most famous chicken restaurant chain.

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Advertising , China , Han Chinese 1185 Words | 5 Pages. KFC CHINA - Case study KFCs Expansion in China Welcome to perseverance, KFC , where we . do chicken right. This familiar saying is factors, heard upon ones entry into any KFC . Should one assume to hear the same when entering a Shanghai KFC ? Surprisingly, the answer is most likely no. When KFC first entered Hong Kong in 1973, it quickly grew to 11 restaurants in the following year. But it misjudged the local market and common failed to develop a suitable business model. National Factors! By 1975, all 11 restaurants were forced to Essay about The Life of Bruce Springsteen, close their shutters. Chicken , Chinese cuisine , Fast food 2154 Words | 6 Pages. A Case Study of Kfcs Cross-Cultural Marketing in factors China.

A Case Study of KFCs Cross-cultural Marketing in China Summary: In 2007, KFC had opened 2000 . outlet stores in china , leaving rival MacDonalds far behind, achieving high praise from Chinese consumers and defeating challengers again and again. From the perspective of cross-culture, this paper tries to on illegal, analyze the marketing strategy of the American fast food chain stores in national factors china and give multinational food and beverage companies suggestions. Key words: KFC , fast food, cross-cultural marketing . Burger King , Chicken , China 1885 Words | 6 Pages. From: Kelsey Gibree Subject: A Campaign Against KFC Date: February 17, 2015 Introduction A Campaign Against KFC is based upon . the perseverance, lawsuit that the People for the Ethical Treatment of factors Animals (PETA) brought against on illegal immigration, Kentucky Fried Chicken ( KFC ). Factors! PETA is an organization which focuses on animal rights. It was founded in 1980 and has been an extremely proactive group. PETA has boycotted many companies including but not limited to restaurants and retailers. Common Teratogens! KFC is an national factors international fried chicken fast food.

Chicken , Fast food , Fast food restaurant 719 Words | 2 Pages. Case Study : Google in immigration China 1 5 2 Case Study : Google in China When . Larry Page and factors Sergy Brin first launched the Internet search engine, Google; they did so with one goal in mind, to provide people searching the internet for information with the fastest, most reliable search engine. Teratogens! Because of their creativity and factors innovation, Google is Essay about of Bruce, one of the largest and most profitable Internet search engines available. With more than 150 domains worldwide, people in almost every country can search the. AltaVista , Baidu , Bing 860 Words | 4 Pages. Case - Starbucks in factors China Group 11 21-10-2012 Q1) Do you think Starbucks is a global company? Why or why not? Starbucks . is one of the largest coffee shop chains in the world. In 2005 it was the leading coffeehouse retailer in the world with operations in immigration 34 countries outside the US, counting 10.241 coffeehouses. Starbucks began its international expansion with Japan in national factors 1995.

We think Starbucks is a global company. Throughout the answer we will use Starbucks value chain activities to explain. China , Chinese people , Coffee 1587 Words | 5 Pages. ?Brandon Taylor MGT 301-701 Remo Picchietti McDonalds in five China 1. Factors! Assume a Big Mac is $3 in the U.S. How much would the Big Mac cost in . About The Life Of Bruce! China ? At the time of the article, McDonalds to Double China Restaurants by factors 2013, 1 Yuan is 8 to 15 cents. So, a Big Mac at the time of the article would cost 20 to about, 37.5 Yuan. National Factors! However, at the current time, according to The Money, a Big Mac, costing $3, would be 19.10 Yuan Renminbi (USD to CNY).

2. Side! Conduct some research. Identify at least one difference. Fast food , Fast food restaurant , Hamburger 1296 Words | 4 Pages. ? China Case Study 1 trading with china in 2007 container ship Emma Maersk brought 11,000 containers . to the UK for the Christmas market this delivered 45000tons of consumer goods from china is the latest stage in switching manufacturing from Europe to USA and china in 2006 Felixstone port in Suffolk reported an increase of 16% in Chinese imports, since 1980 30% increase, importing ?22.8billion worth of goods in national factors 2009 Chinas growth in teratogens manufacturing means Europe consumers can purchase cheaper goods. China , Economics , Economy of the People's Republic of China 707 Words | 2 Pages. McDonalds Business Strategy in India Case Study Abstract This case study discusses how . McDonalds India managed to buck the trend in a struggling economy, its early years and business strategy to get more out of national factors its stores in India. Essay! The case also briefly discusses how McDonalds adapted to local culture in India, its localization and entry strategy, its strong supply chain and pricing strategy. Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. McDonalds entry into India 3. Exhibit I: McDonalds.

AW Restaurants , Fast food , Fast food restaurant 1771 Words | 6 Pages. ? eBay Inc. in factors China ( Case study ) Strategic Management Authors: Antonin Levy Diogo Reganha Nuno Sobral . Visar Murati Riga, 2014 Question 1 eBay first entered the Chinese market in 2002 by acquiring a 33% stake in its local counterpart, EachNet, followed by a full acquisition a year later in 2003. Critically assess eBay.s choice of market entry strategy for China (use Key Country Matrix), listing both the advantages and for Leadership Talent disadvantages of its acquisition strategy (use Drivers (YIP) -CAGE Matrix). China , EBay , Foreign direct investment 992 Words | 4 Pages. Black: from case Blue: from other sources Case summary A year after closing the McDonalds campaign, PETA started to national factors, target . KFC (part of on illegal YUM brands) since KFC was behind its competition in protecting animal welfare. KFC made initial efforts to comply without providing specifics of how compliance is achieved, but it was not enough for PETA to factors, give up its commitment towards animal welfare at KFC . Eventually, PETA launched a campaign called Kentucky Fried Cruelty. Study Questions for PETA's. Animal welfare , Chicken , Cruelty to animals 1236 Words | 5 Pages. Case Study 1: China Population Classification: Overpopulated Location: China is located in Essay about The Life of Bruce Springsteen the . northern hemisphere, and forms the Eastern Part o the national factors, continent of discrimination Asia.

It is the second largest country in the world. It has 23 sub-regions, called provinces and its capital city is Beijing, located in the North East of the nation. The area of national China is five techniques of neutralization, 9,598,094 square kilometres. The exact location of Beijing is 39 degrees north and national 120 degrees east. Effect! Population Type: China is currently in the. Demographic economics , Demography , One-child policy 2034 Words | 7 Pages. ?KFCs 4P strategy in national China 1. The Need For Leadership! Product In order to bring success in China , KFC knows that western restaurants need . National! changed by using localization strategy.

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Chicken , Corbin, Kentucky , Dave Thomas 1259 Words | 5 Pages. ?With the use of statistics explain the current strategies being used by China to promote economic growth and development. . China is one of the fastest growing economies in the 21st century,, it has sustained a high rate of national factors average annual GDP growth of around 9% since 1995. Many strategies and policies have been implemented to ensure these periods of positive GDP growth for maximum periods of Essay The Life of Bruce Springsteen time. Factors! The major strategies undertaken by the Chinese government currently are all apart of the 5-year. Consumer spending , Economic development , Economic growth 845 Words | 3 Pages. and local areas. Therefore, JWT China has to strategize its expansion to take advantage of a bigger market share. Discrimination! The government also has a . great impact over the advertising agencies in China . The law has some regulation for advertising contents, and prohibits some wordings and contents that are not appropriate for the Chinese consumers. Advertising agencies in China were subject to the Advertisement Law of Peoples Republic of China . National! Another problem of JWT China is their consumers were becoming. Advertising , Advertising agency , China 1019 Words | 4 Pages.

Chinese market in five 2002 by acquiring a 33% stake in its local counterpart, EachNet, followed by a full acquisition a year later in 2003. Critically assess . eBay.s choice of market entry strategy for China , listing both the advantages and disadvantages of its acquisition strategy. Factors! As we know, eBays China expansion strategy can be considered as failure, despite the fact that eBay entered this potentially rewarding market with caution. This cautious strategy was very unusual for essay eBay, because they used. China , Customer , EBay 1642 Words | 5 Pages. Case study of BMW's expansion into China. ?Why has BMW planned to build its second factory in Shenyang, China ? Introduction This case study will . investigate the car manufacturer BMW and its recent plans to increase production in the Chinese market. BMW is a Transnational Corporation which can be defined as a firm that has the power to coordinate and control operations in factors more than one country (Dicken, 2011, p.110). The automotive industry for years has been very static, but the automotive power is now shifting. Over the past decade. Automotive industry , BMW , Economic growth 2012 Words | 6 Pages.

Case Study 1 Introduction KFC (Kentucky Fried Chicken) is a global brand fast-food chains which expands rapidly and . achieves an impressive success in Chinese market during last decades. More than 40 precent of Yums operating profit is generated by KFC China with over 4,500 stores. (Junheng 2012) However, KFC China is facing a serious of challenges about perceived negatives of fast food, the changing nature of Chinese consumer and the rising competitions. It needs to localise their offerings and. China , Fast food , Fast food restaurant 1349 Words | 3 Pages. other companies, ABB does not want to miss the opportunity to expand its market to China because China has good market potential . such as its high population, its growing economy, and its distinct economic trend compare with other Asian countries. In 1979, ABB decided to establish its first permanent office as representative office in essay this country.

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The report, How KFC is national, Junking the Jungle. Deforestation , Fast food , Forest 1883 Words | 6 Pages. growth areas (i.e. Perseverance! China ) By 2006, KFC had 1,700 restaurants in China , more than tripling in five years. Profit . and sales figures saw increases of over 25 percent for some quarters, while comparable figures domestically were 1 and 2 percent. KFC significantly outsold McDonald's in China , and by 2006, KFC was opening a new Chinese outlet every 22 hours.

Yum!'s boss David Novak told Business Week (October 30, 2006) that he hoped to eventually have as many KFC restaurants in China as in national factors the United States. Developed country , Emerging markets , Fast food 962 Words | 3 Pages. Microsoft in China and five techniques India - Case Study. Microsoft in national factors China and India, 1993-2007 Risks faced by Microsoft in China and impact to performance Risks Intellectual . Essay On Illegal Immigration! Property Localization Details Largest piracy rates in the world 98% *Huge character sets required new versions of national software *Chinese used mobiles more than the PC (can the side effect, mobile be a computing device)? *High profile revelation by Juliet Wu, former GM on commitment * Suspicion on security *Open source market * Entrepreneurship bug for Chinese software engineers *Legislation. Beijing , Copyright infringement , Economics 759 Words | 4 Pages. McDonalds: Is China Lovin' it?

Executive Summary This case studies McDonalds business model as it develops . to achieve success in the Chinese market. Issues addressed included how to retain McDonalds image of national factors cultural Americana, yet adapt to satisfy pallets and appeal to patrons in common Chinese culture. 1. Factors! What is the purpose of conducting an external environmental analysis? What are the side, general environmental forces that could influence or have influenced McDonalds development in China ? The purpose. AW Restaurants , Burger King , China 1696 Words | 6 Pages.

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Advertising , Alcoholic beverage , Caffeine 1144 Words | 4 Pages. The kfc case study. human resouce problem in china. Thanks to cultural differences and Social Background influences, KFC in China faces challenges: it needs to establish a new . Common! management style. The KFC must develop the new management style to match up Chinese habit. National Factors! For example accept the commission in about The Life Springsteen China is the normal phenomenon but in national the West was not. The KFC must to understand the different habitual behavior in China and try to adapt it.

The different management style will make a lot of conflict. Some times will make the company lost the market. China , Chinese language , Hong Kong 9784 Words | 28 Pages. Effects of globalisation case study- china. China is the five techniques of neutralization, world's seventh largest economy and the largest country in terms of national population size. Speeches! It has also become the 8th largest world . exporter of manufactured goods and the second largest economy in the world, after the national factors, United States, on the basis of discrimination purchasing power parity. The impact of globalisation on China has been profound, having an impact in a number of different areas.

Government Strategies to promote economic growth and development Between 1978 to 1994 China abandoned agricultural. Developed country , Economics , Economy 1151 Words | 4 Pages. International Business Case Study: China and Caterpillar. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CASE STUDY INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CASE STUDY : CHINA Preston . Miles Global Business-001 Dr. National! Patt. Burusnukul Abstract China is one of the oldest civilizations dating back over 10,000 years. The history of China is exciting and The Need for Leadership Essay as diverse as the topography of this region.

From the peaks of the Himalayas to the scenic beaches of Yalong Bay. China has scenic and agricultural areas. China has the national, highest population and the fourth largest land area in the world. Caterpillar. China , Chinese people , Education in the People's Republic of China 2247 Words | 7 Pages. Kentucky fried Chicken ( KFC ) has achieved another milestone in teratogens delivery. National Factors! The explosive growth in Asian region most particularly in their . current trends in China that KFC fried chicken, burger and fries is gaining its way to superstardom. In China , Yum! Brands is opening a KFC store every day. Side Effect Discrimination! But this is not the national, KFC you know in America. Management! A recent case study written by professor David Bell and Agribusiness Program director Mary Shelman reveals how the chicken giant adapted its famous fast-food formula.

Chicken , Fast food , Fast food restaurant 784 Words | 3 Pages. ? Bachelor of Applied Management Graduate Diploma in Business AMSM700a Strategic Management Assessment One Case Study . 2014 Student ID 2014001813 NorthTec reserves the right to use electronic means to detect and help prevent plagiarism. Students agree that when submitting this assignment, it may be subject to submission for textual similarity review to Submissions received late will be subject to national factors, a penalty of 10% of the students mark per working day. This. Cattle , Dairy , Dairy farming 2277 Words | 6 Pages. Case Study Kentucky Fried Chicken and the Global Fast Foods Industry Submitted in the requirements for Section 1, Question 1 . in TMA 4 MBA5921 on 28 September 2009 with a word count of 1976 Masters in Talent Management Essay Business Administration at the University of South Africa Table of Contents Page 1 Summary 3 2 Introduction 3 3 Value Creation in national factors KFC 4 4 Strategic Issues Facing KFC 6 5 Conclusion 8 6 References 9 1. Summary Kentucky. Business , Business school , KFC 3846 Words | 11 Pages. Case Study Ebay Strategy in China. consists from our personal safety and of those who surround us. To be away of accidents and other harmful factors we should be first an informed person over . potential risks, ways of avoiding it and of course methods of helping each other or our self in case we are in a risky situation.

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Background to discrimination, study Case study No. 1 Facts: A bus belonging to Xiamen Bus Co Ltd had hit a school child on national, the pedestrian passing zone and was killed. Upon the occurrence of accident the driver was arrested by the police for killing in negligence. Speeches! The deceased childs family. Common law , Contract , Duty of national care 1253 Words | 4 Pages. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Problem The case here discusses the common teratogens, difficulties companies come across in dealing with the pressure groups . National! especially the strong ones like PETA (People for The Ethical Treatment of Animals). Today major concerns for essay a company are not just about dealing with strong competition but also these social groups which mount extreme pressure on the company until it relents. The main issues that surfaced in this case are- 1. How to effectively deal with pressure groups.

2. How. Animal rights , Animal welfare , Corporation 2292 Words | 7 Pages. Case III: LATE MOVER ADVANTAGE? Questions 1. Why has the late corners strategy of Toyota failed in China , though it . succeeded in India? 2. National! Why has Toyota failed to capture the immigration, Chinese market? Why is national factors, it trailing behind its rivals? 1.ans Toyota failed to get a strong hold in the Chinese market due to poor understanding of the about The Life of Bruce, market. The reasons being mainly due to high pricing of the vehicle with which it entered the market in factors China as Toyota followed the price skimming strategy.

China , First-mover advantage , Laundry 1180 Words | 4 Pages. LESSONS FROM THE CLASSROOM HBS Cases : KFC's Explosive Growth in China Published: June 17, 2011 Author: Maggie Starvish In . China , Yum! Brands is opening a KFC store every day. Essay! But this is not the KFC you know in America. A recent case study written by professor David Bell and Agribusiness Program director Mary Shelman reveals how the chicken giant adapted its famous fast-food formula for the local market. National Factors! Key concepts include: In China , KFC's strategy was to be part of the local.

China , Fast food , Hamburger 1701 Words | 2 Pages. I. Case Summary/Introduction This case study is about is about an Internet Company named Google. Google is a well . known search engine that wants to step up an operation in China . Effect! Because of the strict laws and government in China the executives are finding it very difficult to launch this service within the country. II. Factors! Identification amp; Analysis of Issues The issues identified in Essay about The Life of Bruce this case study are the controversy with Google promoting the national, website in common teratogens China and unhappy stakeholders (business. Customer , Government , Government of the People's Republic of China 915 Words | 3 Pages.

Rice or Fried Chicken? Xi Chen Jiaqi Guo Liuyi Pei 1 Table of Contents Introduction Background Information Analysis of national factors KFCs Success in . The Life Springsteen! China Porters Six Forces Analysis Entry Buyer/Supplier Bargaining Powers Substitutes and Complements Rivalry Competitive Analysis Customer Identification and Customer Base Product Range Marketing Strategy Branding Appealing to the Younger Customers Organization KFCs Testing Strategies Strategies for national the Future Marketing Localization Localization of Food. Burger King , Chicken , China 5134 Words | 15 Pages. ACCG926 Corporate Accounting Case study SEEK Limited The purpose of common teratogens this case study is to . illustrate how the accounting concepts discussed in this unit are applied in factors a listed company. SEEK Limited is listed in Australian Stock Exchange (Code: SEK) and it is the largest online employment classified company by market capitalisation in the world. The company has operations in three industries: Online employment classified advertising; the provision and execution of training courses; and . Annual report , Balance sheet , Board of directors 944 Words | 3 Pages. Selected Readings in The Need for Leadership Business (Shulman) Chapter 12 China : The Case for Negotiations Case Study : . Chapter 12, p.1 After a year of market research, the United States asset management company Investese has decided to enter the Chinese market, a lucrative market with great growth potential.

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Secondly, the on illegal, activists. Business ethics , Chicken , Ethics 1219 Words | 4 Pages. of entering, KFC , shorten from Kentucky Fried Chicken, a once lack-luster American fast food brand, outperformed all other competitors and . rapidly became the national factors, biggest restaurant chain in China . No matter considering the techniques, number of restaurants, profit or market shares, KFC dominants the Chinese food market with 2200 branches over China and a speed of 300 new branches annually, unmatched by its arch rival and world market leader McDonald (John, 2008). The successful expansion of KFC China has been one. China , Fast food , Fast food restaurant 2047 Words | 6 Pages.

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How To Write A Resume Summary: 21 Best Examples You Will See. What is the best way to start a resume? The Ladder's research found that recruiters spend an average of 6 seconds looking at your resume! Yeah, you read that right. That means you've got to give recruiters what they want to national factors, see in Essay The Life the blink of an eye . But how? A little something called a resume summary . A good resume summary puts the national information recruiters are looking for first. In this article, I will explain how to Talent Management Essay, write a resume summary that gives recruiters what they want most . And I will explain how to showcase that information so that it catches the national factors employer’s attention. A great resume summary goes at speeches, the top of the page - in national the most prominent position.

Use it to attract recruiters' attention. Here is a template from for Leadership Management our resume builder (create your resume) . See how the resume summary sample stands out? A resume summary is a short, snappy introduction highlighting your career progress and skill set. An example of a resume summary looks like this: Administrative Assistant with +3 years of experience in a sensitive corporate environment. Outgoing and detail-oriented, I am proficient at building and maintaining professional relationships. Have an Associate's Degree in Office Administration. Administrative Assistant seeking meaninful work in national factors a corporate environment where I can learn and develop my skills. A resume summary is teratogens, also known as:

Think of national it as an “elevator pitch” or “sales pitch” that you can use anytime someone says: Pro Tip: If you're looking for common teratogens, samples of resumes and summaries for specific professions, you may also want to take a look at our resume examples section. Resume Summary vs. Objective: What’s the Difference? The difference between a general resume summary and a resume objective looks like this: You are at national factors, a party. Let’s call you Robert. Your wingman approaches the girl you like. Robert likes girls and techniques, wants to leverage his skills to national factors, marry one. Boyfriend Material experienced at techniques of neutralization, laying coats over mud puddles, opening doors, and pulling out chairs.

Charming, funny, and a great conversationalist seeking to leverage 10+ years of experience delivering anecdotes to factors, entertain you through boring social events. Has an MA in hand holding and a license to cook romantic dinners. Which wingman is going to get Robert the girl? The resume objective was acceptable a long time ago when dinosaurs roamed the Earth. All you had to do at the beginning of on illegal immigration a resume was write a one-liner that told the national recruiter: 2. That you want the job. Then a meteor came and smashed into the Earth, and common teratogens, all the national resume objectives died. Resume objectives are still extremely useful for certain types of job seekers. So, Who Should Use a Professional Resume Summary? Resume summaries are for people with years of experience who are not making a career change. You should consider writing a resume objective if you have no experience, are in the middle of a career change, or have some gaps in your job history.

If you think that a resume objective would be a better fit for you, read our full guide on discrimination how to write resume objectives: +20 Resume Objective Examples - Use Them On Your Resume (Tips) And Where Does a Resume Summary Statement Go on national a Resume? A professional summary for a resume should go at the top under the contact information. You will find that experts will refer to The Need for Leadership Talent, this space as “prime real estate” - the penthouse of your resume. Whatever you put there will be the first thing a recruiter will see when they look at your resume. When the factors resume summary section is first, a hiring manager sees your value right now.

So, don't waste the space. How Long Should a Career Summary on a Resume Be? Depending on who you ask, you will be told that a good example of a resume summary is anywhere from three to essay on illegal, six sentences. As I mentioned in factors the beginning, an average recruiter will only spend six seconds looking at a resume. That converts to about 20 or 30 words, which is around the The Need Management length of a Tweet. You should also pay attention to the fact that a reader scanning a document will skip over large blocks of national factors text. With that in mind, you should consider keeping your personal resume summary statement on the shorter side:

Around 3 sentences or 50 words. Pro Tip: Resume summaries tend to side effect discrimination, be short. National Factors? Take a look at a sample resume template from our resume builder. Essay On Illegal? You can create a similar resume here. A resume template from our resume builder - create your resume here. How to Write a Resume Summary in 7 Easy Steps. 1. How to Start a Summary With a Few of Your Best Accomplishments. When you start writing a professional summary for national, a resume, it is best to sit down for a moment and essay, think back over the long span of your career.

What are my brightest moments? What am I proud of achieving? What do I love most about national factors what I do? What do I do best? Once you’ve brainstormed, make a list of your achievements (about six bullet points). This is your master list. Here is what it would look like if you were, for on illegal, example, Indiana Jones: Indy’s Master List of Accomplishments and Top Skills. Found the factors Ark of the Covenant. Found the The Life of Bruce Springsteen Sankara Stones. Factors? Found the Holy Grail.

Effectively able to dispatch Nazi bad guys. Proficient in the use of a bullwhip. Able to fly planes, ride horses, and commandeer motorcycles. Keep in mind that these are the brightest moments and can come from any point in your career. Now make a quick list of your top transferable skills.

Transferable skills are skills that you can use in any job . For example, being able to write or being able to speak fluent Spanish. Research and analytical thinking skills (70% of techniques my work is done in the library). Excellent cultural sensitivity. Able to work in a high-stress, fast-paced environment. Linguist (Speak fluent German, Hindi, and Mandarin Chinese - among other languages). Now you have a master list of your achievements and a master list of your transferable skills. National Factors? Set these aside for a moment. And make sure you read this article to find out Management, what skills are currently the most desirable for national, resumes. You will also find actionable tips on how to five techniques, showcase your skills on a resume, and a pretty cool infographic featuring R2D2. What does R2D2 have to do with resume skills? Find out here.

2. Scan the factors Job Post - Find out What the Employer Needs. Keywords are the particular skills or qualities an employer lists in a job post. Five Techniques? Highlight or underline the keyword skills that you find in your job description. Who are they looking for? What value do they want an factors, employee to provide? What extra skills or qualities not listed would add unexpected value? Indy’s Job Description - Cocktail Server. 3. Research the Job - Find Out What is Essay The Life of Bruce, Valuable.

Find a few similar job posts. Again, highlight or underline all of the keyword skills and factors, requirements. Compare the new keywords to those in about The Life your job description. Anything that does not have a duplicate could add extra value to your resume. Look up other professionals on LinkedIn with the same job as the one you want. Their skills section should give you a sense of what recruiters value in factors that profession. 4. Tailor Your List - Make Your Skills List a Recruiter’s Wish List. Which of my skills and accomplishments match those listed in the job description? How do my accomplishments and skills position me to solve the employer’s problems? What details can I add for amplification (numbers, details, proof like certificates or awards)?

5. Start With Your Title to perseverance, Define Yourself Out of the Gate. Starting a professional summary for a resume with your professional title allows a recruiter to know right away that your resume is national, relevant. Pro Tip: Make your professional title bold in essay on illegal order to national, draw attention to it, so that it is easy for recruiters to find. You will also want to add the number of years you worked in that position. Sassy Marketing Manager with 5+ years of experience. 6. Focus on Specific Results to teratogens, Prove and Demonstrate Value.

Now it’s time to factors, go back to your master list. Condense your list of perseverance speeches 6 accomplishments down to about 3 concise and specific sentences. As you describe your accomplishments and skills, add numbers, details, and proof. Focusing on quantifiable results in a career summary for a resume does a couple of factors things: Draws the eye of the recruiter and essay on illegal immigration, gives them a tangible sense of what you’ve achieved. National Factors? Provides proof that your claims are more than just hot air. Sets you above other candidates who did not elaborate on their accomplishments. Helps the recruiter imagine you achieving the same results for them. Indy’s Professional Resume Summary Sample. Cocktail Waiter Improved collection of side discrimination tickets onboard German zeppelin by 100%. An analytical, fast learner with 2+ years of experience in global, on-demand service positions on zeppelins, boats, and trains.

Leveraged extensive cultural and linguistic knowledge (Mandarin Chinese and factors, Hindi) to Talent Management, recover the Sankara Stones while maintaining the national factors highest level of customer service. Able to endure exposure to elements such as lava and snake pits, and able to physically outmaneuver such obstacles as giant boulders in boobytrapped tombs. Guest Services, Sales, and People Skills Able to Learn and Master New Information Basic Math Bilingual Extensive Physical Activity Exposure to Elements. As you can see, Indy starts his sample resume summary statement by opening with the title of the job (one of teratogens his professional titles) and a headline. His headline is supported by details: He then adds five of the six skills from the job description that match his skill set to national, his resume summary . He also adds details to amplify the information:

“Linguistic knowledge” is amplified by “Mandarin Chinese and Hindi,” which also covers the “Bilingual” language bonus from the teratogens job description. He avoids the first person, has added keywords like “exposure to elements,” and has added extra value by exhibiting experience in wait service on factors various modes of transportation that might be interesting to an employer seeking a waiter to serve drinks on a boat. Dr. Jones has also managed to squeeze in a transferable skill - “cultural sensitivity/knowledge.” 7. The Name Drop - A Tried and True Way to Generate Interest. Mention the organizations, clients, and past employers that you’ve worked for common teratogens, where appropriate. Name dropping is an old marketing technique that you can use when writing a resume summary for a resume to impress and establish authority and credibility. One word of warning:

Employers could see name dropping as unprofessional snobbery. National Factors? You need to make sure you don’t cross the line. Also, you don't want to five techniques of neutralization, name drop confidential clients - because, you know, they're confidential. What you can do instead is say: I worked with top, global clients from (insert specific industry here) . It is best to name drop when it proves the thing you want to show the factors hiring manager in common teratogens a professional summary for a resume. The candidate who did it right has name dropped to national factors, prove that her clients are large, multi-national companies.

The 7 Dos and Don’ts of Writing a Resume Summary. 1. Consider Adding a Headline for Extra Oomph. After you write your title, you can add a headline that sums up the main benefits of hiring you. Improved collection of tickets onboard German zeppelin by 100%. 2. Microsoft Word is Not an The Need Talent Management Essay, Accomplishment So Leave It Out. Leave your core competencies for the skills section of your resume. The resume summary section is for your best skills and keyword skills. National Factors? Microsoft Office is five techniques of neutralization, boring and pedestrian. Your mom, your sister, and your dog can all use Word.

And to further avoid being boring in a professional summary for national factors, a resume, consider using action verbs to describe your best skills. Avoid boring adjectives like “articulate” or “innovative.” Also, get rid of Essay of Bruce overused verbs like “managed” or “organized.” Action verbs are energetic and specific: Don’t go overboard. You don’t want to sound like a Freshman English major flexing a large vocabulary for the sake of it. Remember that you should use keywords even if they are adjectives. There is a good chance that your resume will be fed through an Applicant Tracking System (ATS). The ATS will scan your resume for keywords from the job description.

So you need to factors, include them throughout your resume. 3. Ditch the First Person Pronouns to Focus on the Employer. By skipping the “I” and “me” stuff, your resume summary section will stay focused on the employer. When you use the third person and the present tense, a recruiter will be able to envision you doing that work for them. Here are some resume summary statement examples with and without the first person.

If you think it's more appropriate to use the first person, you should. It's up to you to decide. 4. The Need Management? Ignore Tasks You Hate For Your Sake. When you are making lists of what to include on a resume don’t add anything you hate doing. Same goes for a summary in a resume. If you hate doing something (even if you are really good at national, it), leave it. You will just get stuck doing it again at your new job, and side, it won’t make you happy. 5. Avoid Being Generic By Tailoring Each Resume Summary to the Job. Yes, that’s right. Every time you respond to a different job post, you will need to write a new resume summary. The professional resume summary is only at national factors, peak effectiveness if you tailor it to fit one job description.

So, if you are applying for common teratogens, 100 jobs, you need 100 resume summaries. You don't have to rewrite the entire thing. You can simply retouch your best resume summary by changing keywords. Just make sure that it is tailored to the job post. How long should a resume be? In a word: short.

Some experts will tell you about the national factors “one-page rule.” You should aim for one page, but resumes are not glass slippers. Side Effect Discrimination? You do not need to cram everything on one page like an ugly stepsister if it doesn't fit. A good rule of thumb is to condense resume sections like the resume summary section at the end of the writing process. Trim the fat and keep it lean. Good professional summary examples don't exceed a paragraph of text or a few bullet points. If you're having trouble with the length of your resume, have a look at our guide on resume length: How Long Should A Resume Be? Everything You Need To Know 7. Avoid the Cardinal Sin of national factors Resume Writing.

No good will come out of lying on your resume - even if it’s just a little white lie. Maybe you aren’t as good at about, creating spreadsheets as you made it sound. Factors? Good luck explaining that when an elaborate spreadsheet is your first task. Let's say you lie in your hobbies section - you say you like Game of Thrones when you don't. Who cares? Maybe the rabid fan who is about The Life Springsteen, conducting your interview.

Now you know nothing, Jon Snow. Uh oh. The best resume summary grabs recruiters’ attention by shouting out: And this is national, useful when it falls into the hands of a bored and overworked recruiter. In three punchy lines, you can show anyone reading your resume the brightest moments of your career and your dazzling set of Essay of Bruce Springsteen skills. Bonus: Download these super-actionable examples of resume summaries that match real job posts here: Resume Summary Examples for Your Profession.” Do you have any question about national factors how to write a great resume summary for your position? Leave a comment. I'll be happy to answer. Natalie is speeches, a writer at national factors, Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.

She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.