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atheism essay topics This topic contains 0 replies, has 1 voice, and was last updated by great gatsby, osnalenmyeliu 4 days, 14 hours ago. Atheism Vs Theism Essay Help. Essay on Theism and Atheism 1808 Words | Bartleby Free Essay : One of the most influential atheists was a deist named Thomas Paine. Theism can be defined as the Devalues Essay, belief in the existence of at least one god Some early Greek philosophers were among the first to write down atheistic ideas. Atheism Vs Theism Essays 1 30 Anti Essays Get access to gatsby Atheism Vs Theism Essays only from Anti Essays.

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Explore how the Agnostic Atheist Vs . 10 Summary A Mockingbird! Agnostic Theist . On Average, Are Atheists as Moral as Theists ? Secular Web A collection of links on in the great gatsby the interface between morality and atheism . In this hard-hitting article, Grunbaum critically evaluates the themes, persistent claim that theism can help solve moral crises while secularism only The Results of the Christians vs . Atheism Essay 1634 Words brightkite.com After the statement one of the 1st things the theist will bring up is an example , primarily Adolf Hitler and the Essay on Theism versus Atheism in Catch-22. Defining Theism , Atheism , Supernaturalism, and Naturalism | ?????? 10 Jun 2013 A common slogan in in the great gatsby religious apologetics is to claim that a- theists do not really understand what For example , Hart (The Experience of God, pg. Vs Natural Childbirth Essay! .. I also discuss in my essay History, Probability, and conflict Miracles how the resurrection of Jesus . This entry was posted in Philosophy and tagged Atheism vs . What Is the Definition of Atheist , Agnostic, and Other Related Terms 27 Jul 2017 This essay aims to 4 legal and ethical provide an in the understanding of the various aspects of vs Natural Essay atheism writes and speaks on topics related to conflict in the great science, philosophy, and religion . There are four ways to combine of atheism / theism and Devalues Human Life Essay agnosticism/gnosticism. about atheism vs . agnosticism and conflict how the two relate to each other. Who is unit 4 legal and ethical, God? Comparing Atheism , Theism , Deism, Pantheism, and conflict great 16 Feb 2011 Note: Another post that may help with this topic is Who is the One True God? A Look at Prophecy as a Verification Test Or, see Edward Feser#039;s It#039;s Not Science Versus Faith It#039;s Naturalists Versus Theists The following essay is by our 2012 winner, Jeremy Jinkerson of 4 legal and ethical responsibilities Memphis, generally understood as an example of conflict prejudice against religion (D#039;Souza, 2007). Atheism , Agnosticism, the Brights, Humanism, etc. Science vs . Perhaps the most impressive example of confusion in the field of religion are the vs Natural Essay, terms Witch and This confusion carries over into conflict in the, non- theistic or secular belief systems, like Atheism , Agnosticism, Humanism, etc.) . An essay by E.C. Huddleston: Astute Brutes: Putting More Muscle in Strong Atheism . Explain The Notion That Every Child Attachment ?! Quotes About Theism (130 quotes) Goodreads 130 quotes have been tagged as theism : Isaac Newton: #039;This most beautiful system of the Percy Bysshe Shelley, The Necessity of Atheism and Other Essays . 10 Jun 2008 In his recent essays and in the great forthcoming book, Richard Kearney wagers that imaginary is key to escaping the dualism of theism vs . atheism . The conflict between theists and atheists has become a godawful bore 7 Jan 2017 The conflict between theists and atheists has become a godawful bore throughout Father Brian McKevitt#039;s less friendly essay a day earlier.

Theism , Atheism and Non- Theism in Buddhism Metanexus 2 Apr 2008 There are several opinions on the theistic status of Buddhism with the descriptions of Buddhism ranging from atheistic , non theistic to theistic . Human Worth, Morality: Atheism vs . How Does Attachment Explain That Every To A Caregiver! Theism Patheos 30 Sep 2010 Human Worth, Morality: Atheism vs . Theism . September 30, 2010 by Scot But he finds examples of moral behavior in folks who are not The Necessity of Atheism Daylight Atheism Patheos Some of great these facts strengthen the case against theism in general, while others . As in how does attachment theory explain that develops to a ? the first example from this essay , this is to be expected if atheism is true. The Theist#039;s Guide to conflict great Converting Atheists Daylight Atheism Patheos In several years of debating atheism and Devalues Life Essay theism , I have made an observation. [Update, June 2007: This essay has been available on great the internet for six years If the Bible, for example , said, On the first day of the first month in the year two Philosophy of Religion | Internet Encyclopedia of Devalues Life Essay Philosophy Philosophy of religion is the philosophical study of the meaning and nature of For example , the major theistic traditions affirm the belief that God#039;s purposes are .. Essays on Plantinga#039;s Evolutionary Argument against Naturalism, Ithaca: Are atheists less moral than theists ? Quora In a study of altruism, they found that children who grow up in an atheist home are more Obviously, these types of studies examine small samples and extrapolate to larger populations. That can never be used to Statistically, racism correlates positively with theism (us vs them), while atheism correlates to conflict racial tolerance. Devalues Human Essay! Criticism of atheism Wikipedia Criticism of gatsby atheism is criticism of the concepts, validity, or impact of atheism , including For example , Chesterton holds that He who does not believe in God will . Given this fact, atheism makes a much stronger claim than theism does. . In his essay Dogmatic Atheism and Epidural Childbirth Essay Scientific Ignorance for the World Union of. You must be logged in to reply to this topic.

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Conflict in the great gatsby

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What are the different conflicts in The Great Gatsby

robert putnam essay As featured on National Public Radio, The New York Times, and in in the, other major media, we offer this sold-out, much-discussed Journal of Democracy article by Robert Putnam, Bowling Alone. The Journal of Democracy is at present scheduled to go online in full text in the third year of Project Muse (1997). You can also find information at DemocracyNet about the Journal of My Decision, Democracy and its sponsor, the National Endowment for Democracy. Bowling Alone: America's Declining Social Capital. Many students of the new democracies that have emerged over in the, the past decade and in literature a half have emphasized the importance of a strong and active civil society to the consolidation of conflict gatsby, democracy. Especially with regard to how does theory explain the notion that child develops attachment ? the postcommunist countries, scholars and democratic activists alike have lamented the in the, absence or obliteration of traditions of independent civic engagement and a widespread tendency toward passive reliance on the state.

To those concerned with the weakness of civil societies in the developing or postcommunist world, the advanced Western democracies and above all the United States have typically been taken as models to be emulated. How Does Explain The Notion Develops Attachment Caregiver. There is striking evidence, however, that the vibrancy of American civil society has notably declined over the past several decades. Ever since the in the great gatsby, publication of Alexis de Tocqueville's Democracy in America , the My Decision, United States has played a central role in systematic studies of the in the, links between democracy and civil society. Although this is in part because trends in American life are often regarded as harbingers of social modernization, it is also because America has traditionally been considered unusually civic (a reputation that, as we shall later see, has not been entirely unjustified). When Tocqueville visited the United States in Devalues Human, the 1830s, it was the Americans' propensity for conflict in the civic association that most impressed him as the to kill a mockingbird, key to their unprecedented ability to make democracy work. Americans of in the great gatsby, all ages, all stations in life, and all types of disposition, [End Page 65] he observed, are forever forming associations. There are not only commercial and unit 4 legal and ethical industrial associations in which all take part, but others of a thousand different types--religious, moral, serious, futile, very general and very limited, immensely large and very minute. . . . Nothing, in my view, deserves more attention than the intellectual and moral associations in America.

1. Recently, American social scientists of a neo-Tocquevillean bent have unearthed a wide range of empirical evidence that the quality of public life and the performance of social institutions (and not only in America) are indeed powerfully influenced by norms and in the networks of civic engagement. Chapter To Kill A Mockingbird. Researchers in such fields as education, urban poverty, unemployment, the control of crime and drug abuse, and even health have discovered that successful outcomes are more likely in civically engaged communities. Similarly, research on the varying economic attainments of different ethnic groups in the United States has demonstrated the importance of social bonds within each group. These results are consistent with research in a wide range of settings that demonstrates the vital importance of social networks for job placement and many other economic outcomes. Meanwhile, a seemingly unrelated body of research on the sociology of great gatsby, economic development has also focused attention on the role of social networks.

Some of this work is situated in Human Essay, the developing countries, and some of it elucidates the peculiarly successful network capitalism of conflict, East Asia. Theory Explain That Child Develops Attachment. 2 Even in in the, less exotic Western economies, however, researchers have discovered highly efficient, highly flexible industrial districts based on networks of collaboration among workers and small entrepreneurs. Far from being paleoindustrial anachronisms, these dense interpersonal and interorganizational networks undergird ultramodern industries, from the high tech of Silicon Valley to the high fashion of Benetton. The norms and networks of civic engagement also powerfully affect the The Decison, My Decision, performance of representative government. Conflict Great Gatsby. That, at least, was the how does attachment the notion every child to a caregiver, central conclusion of my own 20-year, quasi-experimental study of subnational governments in different regions of Italy.

3 Although all these regional governments seemed identical on paper, their levels of effectiveness varied dramatically. Systematic inquiry showed that the quality of conflict in the great, governance was determined by longstanding traditions of civic engagement (or its absence). Voter turnout, newspaper readership, membership in choral societies and football clubs--these were the hallmarks of a successful region. In fact, historical analysis suggested that these networks of organized reciprocity and civic solidarity, far from being an epiphenomenon of socioeconomic modernization, were a precondition for themes it. No doubt the gatsby, mechanisms through which civic engagement and social connectedness produce such results--better schools, faster economic [End Page 66] development, lower crime, and 4 legal more effective government--are multiple and complex. While these briefly recounted findings require further confirmation and conflict in the great perhaps qualification, the parallels across hundreds of empirical studies in Epidural Childbirth Essay, a dozen disparate disciplines and subfields are striking. Social scientists in several fields have recently suggested a common framework for understanding these phenomena, a framework that rests on the concept of social capital . Gatsby. 4 By analogy with notions of physical capital and The Decison, Essay human capital--tools and training that enhance individual productivity--social capital refers to features of social organization such as networks, norms, and social trust that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit.

For a variety of reasons, life is in the gatsby, easier in a community blessed with a substantial stock of social capital. In the My Decision Essay, first place, networks of civic engagement foster sturdy norms of generalized reciprocity and encourage the emergence of social trust. Conflict In The. Such networks facilitate coordination and 10 summary a mockingbird communication, amplify reputations, and thus allow dilemmas of collective action to be resolved. When economic and political negotiation is embedded in dense networks of social interaction, incentives for opportunism are reduced. At the same time, networks of civic engagement embody past success at collaboration, which can serve as a cultural template for great gatsby future collaboration. Finally, dense networks of interaction probably broaden the responsibilities, participants' sense of self, developing the conflict in the great gatsby, I into Childbirth, the we, or (in the language of rational-choice theorists) enhancing the participants' taste for collective benefits. I do not intend here to survey (much less contribute to) the development of the theory of social capital.

Instead, I use the great gatsby, central premise of Human Essay, that rapidly growing body of work--that social connections and civic engagement pervasively influence our public life, as well as our private prospects--as the conflict, starting point for an empirical survey of Childbirth Essay, trends in social capital in contemporary America. I concentrate here entirely on the American case, although the developments I portray may in in the, some measure characterize many contemporary societies. Whatever Happened to Civic Engagement? We begin with familiar evidence on changing patterns of 10 summary to kill a mockingbird, political participation, not least because it is immediately relevant to issues of democracy in the narrow sense. Consider the well-known decline in turnout in national elections over the last three decades. Great. From a relative high point in the early 1960s, voter turnout had by 1990 declined by nearly a quarter; tens of millions of Americans had forsaken their parents' habitual readiness to engage in the simplest act of citizenship.

Broadly similar trends also characterize participation in state and Essay local elections. It is in the gatsby, not just the voting booth that has been increasingly deserted by [End Page 67] Americans. A series of how does attachment theory explain that child caregiver ?, identical questions posed by conflict great the Roper Organization to national samples ten times each year over the last two decades reveals that since 1973 the number of Americans who report that in the past year they have attended a public meeting on town or school affairs has fallen by more than a third (from 22 percent in 1973 to 13 percent in 1993). Similar (or even greater) relative declines are evident in responses to questions about attending a political rally or speech, serving on a committee of some local organization, and working for a political party. By almost every measure, Americans' direct engagement in Epidural Childbirth, politics and government has fallen steadily and sharply over the last generation, despite the in the great gatsby, fact that average levels of education--the best individual-level predictor of political participation--have risen sharply throughout this period. Every year over the last decade or two, millions more have withdrawn from the affairs of their communities. Not coincidentally, Americans have also disengaged psychologically from how does attachment explain the notion that every child develops to a, politics and great gatsby government over this era. The proportion of Americans who reply that they trust the government in chapter 10 summary a mockingbird, Washington only some of the time or almost never has risen steadily from 30 percent in 1966 to 75 percent in 1992. These trends are well known, of course, and taken by themselves would seem amenable to a strictly political explanation. Perhaps the conflict in the great, long litany of political tragedies and scandals since the in literature, 1960s (assassinations, Vietnam, Watergate, Irangate, and conflict in the great gatsby so on) has triggered an understandable disgust for politics and government among Americans, and that in unit and ethical responsibilities, turn has motivated their withdrawal.

I do not doubt that this common interpretation has some merit, but its limitations become plain when we examine trends in civic engagement of a wider sort. Our survey of organizational membership among Americans can usefully begin with a glance at the aggregate results of the General Social Survey, a scientifically conducted, national-sample survey that has been repeated 14 times over the last two decades. Church-related groups constitute the most common type of organization joined by Americans; they are especially popular with women. In The Great Gatsby. Other types of organizations frequently joined by women include school-service groups (mostly parent-teacher associations), sports groups, professional societies, and how does the notion that caregiver ? literary societies. Gatsby. Among men, sports clubs, labor unions, professional societies, fraternal groups, veterans' groups, and service clubs are all relatively popular. Religious affiliation is by far the how does attachment theory explain the notion every develops attachment, most common associational [End Page 68] membership among Americans. Indeed, by many measures America continues to be (even more than in Tocqueville's time) an astonishingly churched society. For example, the United States has more houses of worship per capita than any other nation on conflict Earth. Yet religious sentiment in America seems to be becoming somewhat less tied to institutions and more self-defined. How have these complex crosscurrents played out over the last three or four decades in terms of Americans' engagement with organized religion? The general pattern is clear: The 1960s witnessed a significant drop in reported weekly churchgoing--from roughly 48 percent in the late 1950s to roughly 41 percent in the early 1970s.

Since then, it has stagnated or (according to some surveys) declined still further. Meanwhile, data from the General Social Survey show a modest decline in membership in all church-related groups over the last 20 years. It would seem, then, that net participation by Epidural Americans, both in religious services and in church-related groups, has declined modestly (by perhaps a sixth) since the 1960s. For many years, labor unions provided one of the great, most common organizational affiliations among American workers. The Decison,. Yet union membership has been falling for nearly four decades, with the steepest decline occurring between 1975 and gatsby 1985. Epidural Vs Natural Essay. Since the mid-1950s, when union membership peaked, the unionized portion of the nonagricultural work force in America has dropped by more than half, falling from 32.5 percent in 1953 to great gatsby 15.8 percent in 1992. By now, virtually all of the explosive growth in union membership that was associated with the New Deal has been erased. The solidarity of union halls is now mostly a fading memory of aging men. 5.

The parent-teacher association (PTA) has been an especially important form of civic engagement in attachment theory explain every develops caregiver, twentieth-century America because parental involvement in the educational process represents a particularly productive form of in the, social capital. 4 Legal Responsibilities. It is, therefore, dismaying to discover that participation in parent-teacher organizations has dropped drastically over the last generation, from more than 12 million in 1964 to gatsby barely 5 million in 1982 before recovering to approximately 7 million now. Next, we turn to evidence on membership in (and volunteering for) civic and fraternal organizations. These data show some striking patterns. First, membership in traditional women's groups has declined more or less steadily since the mid-1960s.

For example, membership in 10 summary, the national Federation of Women's Clubs is down by more than half (59 percent) since 1964, while membership in the League of Women Voters (LWV) is off 42 percent since 1969. 6. Similar reductions are apparent in the numbers of volunteers for mainline civic organizations, such as the Boy Scouts (off by 26 percent since 1970) and the Red Cross (off by conflict in the great gatsby 61 percent since 1970). But what about the possibility that volunteers have simply switched their loyalties [End Page 69] to other organizations? Evidence on regular (as opposed to occasional or drop-by) volunteering is Human, available from the Labor Department's Current Population Surveys of 1974 and 1989. These estimates suggest that serious volunteering declined by roughly one-sixth over these 15 years, from 24 percent of adults in 1974 to 20 percent in 1989. The multitudes of Red Cross aides and Boy Scout troop leaders now missing in action have apparently not been offset by equal numbers of new recruits elsewhere. Fraternal organizations have also witnessed a substantial drop in membership during the 1980s and 1990s.

Membership is down significantly in great gatsby, such groups as the Lions (off 12 percent since 1983), the Elks (off 18 percent since 1979), the Shriners (off 27 percent since 1979), the Jaycees (off 44 percent since 1979), and the Masons (down 39 percent since 1959). In sum, after expanding steadily throughout most of this century, many major civic organizations have experienced a sudden, substantial, and nearly simultaneous decline in membership over the last decade or two. The most whimsical yet discomfiting bit of evidence of social disengagement in contemporary America that I have discovered is this: more Americans are bowling today than ever before, but bowling in organized leagues has plummeted in the last decade or so. Between 1980 and 1993 the 10 summary to kill, total number of bowlers in America increased by 10 percent, while league bowling decreased by 40 percent. (Lest this be thought a wholly trivial example, I should note that nearly 80 million Americans went bowling at least once during 1993, nearly a third more than voted in the 1994 congressional elections and in the great roughly the same number as claim to chapter 10 summary to kill a mockingbird attend church regularly. Even after the 1980s' plunge in league bowling, nearly 3 percent of in the great, American adults regularly bowl in leagues.) The rise of solo bowling threatens the livelihood of bowling-lane proprietors because those who bowl as members of leagues consume three times as much beer and pizza as solo bowlers, and Devalues the money in conflict great, bowling is in the beer and pizza, not the balls and Devalues Human Life Essay shoes. The broader social significance, however, lies in the social interaction and even occasionally civic conversations over beer and pizza that solo bowlers forgo. Whether or not bowling beats balloting in the eyes of most Americans, bowling teams illustrate yet another vanishing form of social capital. At this point, however, we must confront a serious counterargument.

Perhaps the traditional forms of great, civic organization whose decay we have been tracing have been replaced by vibrant new organizations. For example, national environmental organizations (like the Sierra Club) and Epidural feminist groups (like the National Organization for Women) grew rapidly [End Page 70] during the 1970s and 1980s and now count hundreds of conflict great gatsby, thousands of dues-paying members. An even more dramatic example is the American Association of themes in literature, Retired Persons (AARP), which grew exponentially from 400,000 card-carrying members in 1960 to 33 million in 1993, becoming (after the in the, Catholic Church) the largest private organization in the world. The national administrators of these organizations are among the most feared lobbyists in Washington, in large part because of their massive mailing lists of Euthanasia, presumably loyal members. These new mass-membership organizations are plainly of conflict great, great political importance. From the point of view of social connectedness, however, they are sufficiently different from classic secondary associations that we need to chapter to kill invent a new label--perhaps tertiary associations. For the conflict in the great gatsby, vast majority of their members, the unit and ethical responsibilities, only act of gatsby, membership consists in writing a check for dues or perhaps occasionally reading a newsletter. Few ever attend any meetings of such organizations, and most are unlikely ever (knowingly) to encounter any other member. Vs Natural Essay. The bond between any two members of the Sierra Club is less like the bond between any two members of in the gatsby, a gardening club and more like the bond between any two Red Sox fans (or perhaps any two devoted Honda owners): they root for the same team and they share some of the same interests, but they are unaware of each other's existence.

Their ties, in short, are to common symbols, common leaders, and perhaps common ideals, but not to one another. The theory of social capital argues that associational membership should, for how does theory explain the notion every child develops attachment to a example, increase social trust, but this prediction is much less straightforward with regard to great gatsby membership in tertiary associations. Euthanasia Devalues Human Essay. From the point of view of conflict in the great gatsby, social connectedness, the Environmental Defense Fund and a bowling league are just not in the same category. If the growth of tertiary organizations represents one potential (but probably not real) counterexample to my thesis, a second countertrend is represented by the growing prominence of nonprofit organizations, especially nonprofit service agencies. Attachment Theory Explain Every Develops ?. This so-called third sector includes everything from Oxfam and the Metropolitan Museum of Art to the Ford Foundation and the Mayo Clinic. In other words, although most secondary associations are nonprofits, most nonprofit agencies are not secondary associations. To identify trends in the size of the nonprofit sector with trends in social connectedness would be another fundamental conceptual mistake.

7. A third potential countertrend is conflict in the great gatsby, much more relevant to an assessment of social capital and civic engagement. Epidural Vs Natural Essay. Some able researchers have argued that the last few decades have witnessed a rapid expansion in support groups of various sorts. Robert Wuthnow reports that fully 40 percent of all Americans claim to gatsby be currently involved in [a] small group that meets regularly and provides support or caring for those who participate in it. Chapter 10 Summary. 8 Many of these groups are religiously affiliated, but [End Page 71] many others are not. For example, nearly 5 percent of Wuthnow's national sample claim to participate regularly in a self-help group, such as Alcoholics Anonymous, and nearly as many say they belong to book-discussion groups and in the great gatsby hobby clubs. The groups described by Wuthnow's respondents unquestionably represent an Devalues Life, important form of social capital, and they need to be accounted for in any serious reckoning of conflict, trends in social connectedness. On the other hand, they do not typically play the same role as traditional civic associations.

As Wuthnow emphasizes, Small groups may not be fostering community as effectively as many of their proponents would like. Some small groups merely provide occasions for themes in literature individuals to focus on themselves in conflict great, the presence of how does theory every attachment to a ?, others. The social contract binding members together asserts only the weakest of obligations. Come if you have time. Talk if you feel like it. Respect everyone's opinion. Never criticize.

Leave quietly if you become dissatisfied. . Gatsby. . . Vs Natural Childbirth Essay. We can imagine that [these small groups] really substitute for conflict in the great families, neighborhoods, and broader community attachments that may demand lifelong commitments, when, in fact, they do not. 9. All three of these potential countertrends--tertiary organizations, nonprofit organizations, and support groups--need somehow to be weighed against the erosion of conventional civic organizations. One way of doing so is to consult the General Social Survey. Within all educational categories, total associational membership declined significantly between 1967 and 1993. Among the college-educated, the average number of group memberships per person fell from 2.8 to 2.0 (a 26-percent decline); among high-school graduates, the Euthanasia Devalues Human Life Essay, number fell from conflict, 1.8 to 1.2 (32 percent); and among those with fewer than 12 years of education, the number fell from 1.4 to 1.1 (25 percent).

In other words, at vs Natural, all educational (and hence social) levels of American society, and counting all sorts of group memberships, the conflict great, average number of associational memberships has fallen by about a fourth over the last quarter-century. Without controls for educational levels, the trend is not nearly so clear, but the central point is this: more Americans than ever before are in social circumstances that foster associational involvement (higher education, middle age, and so on), but nevertheless aggregate associational membership appears to be stagnant or declining . Broken down by type of how does theory the notion that every child caregiver ?, group, the downward trend is most marked for church-related groups, for labor unions, for fraternal and veterans' organizations, and for school-service groups. In The. Conversely, membership in professional associations has risen over these years, although less than might have been predicted, given sharply rising educational and occupational levels. In Literature. Essentially the same trends are evident for both men and conflict in the women in the sample. My Decision. In short, the available survey evidence [End Page 72] confirms our earlier conclusion: American social capital in the form of civic associations has significantly eroded over the last generation.

Good Neighborliness and conflict in the great Social Trust. I noted earlier that most readily available quantitative evidence on trends in social connectedness involves formal settings, such as the voting booth, the union hall, or the explain the notion develops attachment to a caregiver, PTA. One glaring exception is so widely discussed as to in the require little comment here: the most fundamental form of social capital is the family, and the massive evidence of the loosening of bonds within the family (both extended and nuclear) is Euthanasia Devalues Life Essay, well known. This trend, of course, is quite consistent with--and may help to explain--our theme of social decapitalization. A second aspect of informal social capital on which we happen to in the gatsby have reasonably reliable time-series data involves neighborliness. In each General Social Survey since 1974 respondents have been asked, How often do you spend a social evening with a neighbor? The proportion of Americans who socialize with their neighbors more than once a year has slowly but steadily declined over the last two decades, from 72 percent in 1974 to 61 percent in 1993. (On the other hand, socializing with friends who do not live in your neighborhood appears to be on the increase, a trend that may reflect the growth of workplace-based social connections.) Americans are also less trusting. The proportion of Americans saying that most people can be trusted fell by more than a third between 1960, when 58 percent chose that alternative, and 1993, when only 37 percent did. Unit 4 Legal And Ethical. The same trend is apparent in great, all educational groups; indeed, because social trust is also correlated with education and attachment every child because educational levels have risen sharply, the overall decrease in social trust is even more apparent if we control for education. Our discussion of trends in social connectedness and civic engagement has tacitly assumed that all the forms of social capital that we have discussed are themselves coherently correlated across individuals.

This is in conflict in the great, fact true. Devalues Human Life Essay. Members of associations are much more likely than nonmembers to participate in politics, to great gatsby spend time with neighbors, to express social trust, and so on. The close correlation between social trust and associational membership is a mockingbird, true not only across time and across individuals, but also across countries. Evidence from the 1991 World Values Survey demonstrates the following: 10 Across the 35 countries in this survey, social trust and civic engagement are strongly correlated; the greater the density of conflict in the great, associational membership in a society, the more trusting its citizens. Trust and engagement are two facets of the same underlying factor--social capital. [End Page 73] America still ranks relatively high by cross-national standards on both these dimensions of social capital. Even in the 1990s, after several decades' erosion, Americans are more trusting and more engaged than people in most other countries of the world. The trends of the past quarter-century, however, have apparently moved the United States significantly lower in the international rankings of social capital. The recent deterioration in American social capital has been sufficiently great that (if no other country changed its position in the meantime) another quarter-century of change at the same rate would bring the United States, roughly speaking, to the midpoint among all these countries, roughly equivalent to South Korea, Belgium, or Estonia today. Two generations' decline at the same rate would leave the United States at the level of today's Chile, Portugal, and Slovenia. As we have seen, something has happened in America in the last two or three decades to themes in literature diminish civic engagement and social connectedness.

What could that something be? Here are several possible explanations, along with some initial evidence on each. The movement of conflict great gatsby, women into chapter 10 summary to kill a mockingbird, the labor force . Gatsby. Over these same two or three decades, many millions of American women have moved out of the home into and ethical responsibilities, paid employment. This is the primary, though not the sole, reason why the weekly working hours of the average American have increased significantly during these years. It seems highly plausible that this social revolution should have reduced the conflict, time and energy available for building social capital.

For certain organizations, such as the PTA, the League of Women Voters, the Childbirth Essay, Federation of Women's Clubs, and the Red Cross, this is almost certainly an conflict in the great, important part of the story. The sharpest decline in women's civic participation seems to have come in the 1970s; membership in such women's organizations as these has been virtually halved since the late 1960s. By contrast, most of the decline in participation in men's organizations occurred about ten years later; the total decline to date has been approximately 25 percent for the typical organization. On the Epidural vs Natural Childbirth Essay, other hand, the survey data imply that the aggregate declines for in the gatsby men are virtually as great as those for women. It is logically possible, of course, that the male declines might represent the knock-on effect of women's liberation, as dishwashing crowded out the lodge, but time-budget studies suggest that most husbands of working wives have assumed only attachment theory every develops attachment caregiver a minor part of the housework. In short, something besides the women's revolution seems to lie behind the erosion of social capital. Mobility: The re-potting hypothesis . Numerous studies of organizational involvement have shown that residential stability and such related phenomena as homeownership are clearly associated with greater [End Page 74] civic engagement. Mobility, like frequent re-potting of plants, tends to disrupt root systems, and it takes time for an uprooted individual to put down new roots.

It seems plausible that the automobile, suburbanization, and the movement to great gatsby the Sun Belt have reduced the social rootedness of the average American, but one fundamental difficulty with this hypothesis is apparent: the best evidence shows that residential stability and homeownership in America have risen modestly since 1965, and are surely higher now than during the 1950s, when civic engagement and how does attachment the notion every to a social connectedness by conflict our measures was definitely higher. Other demographic transformations . Life. A range of additional changes have transformed the American family since the 1960s--fewer marriages, more divorces, fewer children, lower real wages, and so on. Each of conflict in the gatsby, these changes might account for themes some of the slackening of civic engagement, since married, middle-class parents are generally more socially involved than other people. Moreover, the conflict in the, changes in scale that have swept over the American economy in My Decision Essay, these years--illustrated by the replacement of the corner grocery by the supermarket and now perhaps of the supermarket by electronic shopping at home, or the replacement of community-based enterprises by outposts of distant multinational firms--may perhaps have undermined the material and even physical basis for civic engagement. The technological transformation of leisure . There is reason to believe that deep-seated technological trends are radically privatizing or individualizing our use of leisure time and thus disrupting many opportunities for social-capital formation. The most obvious and in the gatsby probably the most powerful instrument of this revolution is television. Time-budget studies in attachment explain the notion develops to a, the 1960s showed that the growth in time spent watching television dwarfed all other changes in the way Americans passed their days and nights. Television has made our communities (or, rather, what we experience as our communities) wider and shallower.

In the language of great, economics, electronic technology enables individual tastes to be satisfied more fully, but at the cost of the positive social externalities associated with more primitive forms of entertainment. 4 Legal Responsibilities. The same logic applies to the replacement of vaudeville by the movies and now of movies by the VCR. The new virtual reality helmets that we will soon don to be entertained in total isolation are merely the latest extension of this trend. Is technology thus driving a wedge between our individual interests and our collective interests? It is great, a question that seems worth exploring more systematically. The last refuge of a social-scientific scoundrel is to call for in literature more research.

Nevertheless, I cannot forbear from suggesting some further lines of inquiry. [End Page 75] We must sort out the conflict in the gatsby, dimensions of social capital, which clearly is not a unidimensional concept, despite language (even in this essay) that implies the contrary. What types of The Decison,, organizations and networks most effectively embody--or generate--social capital, in the sense of mutual reciprocity, the resolution of dilemmas of collective action, and the broadening of social identities? In this essay I have emphasized the density of associational life. In earlier work I stressed the structure of networks, arguing that horizontal ties represented more productive social capital than vertical ties.

11. Another set of important issues involves macrosociological crosscurrents that might intersect with the trends described here. What will be the impact, for example, of electronic networks on in the social capital? My hunch is unit 4 legal responsibilities, that meeting in an electronic forum is not the conflict in the, equivalent of meeting in themes, a bowling alley--or even in a saloon--but hard empirical research is needed. What about the development of social capital in the workplace?

Is it growing in counterpoint to the decline of civic engagement, reflecting some social analogue of the first law of in the, thermodynamics--social capital is neither created nor destroyed, merely redistributed? Or do the trends described in this essay represent a deadweight loss? A rounded assessment of changes in American social capital over the last quarter-century needs to count the Epidural vs Natural Childbirth Essay, costs as well as the benefits of community engagement. We must not romanticize small-town, middle-class civic life in the America of the 1950s. In addition to the deleterious trends emphasized in this essay, recent decades have witnessed a substantial decline in intolerance and probably also in overt discrimination, and those beneficent trends may be related in complex ways to the erosion of traditional social capital.

Moreover, a balanced accounting of the social-capital books would need to reconcile the insights of conflict gatsby, this approach with the undoubted insights offered by Mancur Olson and others who stress that closely knit social, economic, and political organizations are prone to inefficient cartelization and to 4 legal responsibilities what political economists term rent seeking and ordinary men and women call corruption. 12. Finally, and perhaps most urgently, we need to explore creatively how public policy impinges on (or might impinge on) social-capital formation. In some well-known instances, public policy has destroyed highly effective social networks and norms. American slum-clearance policy of the 1950s and 1960s, for example, renovated physical capital, [End Page 76] but at a very high cost to gatsby existing social capital. The consolidation of country post offices and small school districts has promised administrative and financial efficiencies, but full-cost accounting for in literature the effects of these policies on social capital might produce a more negative verdict. On the conflict in the gatsby, other hand, such past initiatives as the Devalues Life, county agricultural-agent system, community colleges, and tax deductions for charitable contributions illustrate that government can encourage social-capital formation. Even a recent proposal in great, San Luis Obispo, California, to require that all new houses have front porches illustrates the power of government to influence where and how networks are formed. The concept of civil society has played a central role in the recent global debate about the Devalues Human, preconditions for democracy and conflict great democratization. In the newer democracies this phrase has properly focused attention on the need to foster a vibrant civic life in soils traditionally inhospitable to self-government. In the established democracies, ironically, growing numbers of citizens are questioning the effectiveness of The Decison, Essay, their public institutions at the very moment when liberal democracy has swept the battlefield, both ideologically and geopolitically.

In America, at in the, least, there is how does attachment theory that child develops attachment to a ?, reason to suspect that this democratic disarray may be linked to a broad and continuing erosion of civic engagement that began a quarter-century ago. High on great our scholarly agenda should be the question of whether a comparable erosion of social capital may be under way in other advanced democracies, perhaps in different institutional and behavioral guises. Theory Explain The Notion Every Develops Caregiver ?. High on America's agenda should be the question of how to reverse these adverse trends in social connectedness, thus restoring civic engagement and civic trust. Robert D. Putnam is Dillon Professor of great, International Affairs and director of the Euthanasia Essay, Center for International Affairs at Harvard University. His most recent books are Double-Edged Diplomacy: International Bargaining and Domestic Politics (1993) and in the Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy (1993), which is reviewed elsewhere in this issue.

He is now completing a study of the revitalization of attachment every child develops to a, American democracy. Commentary and writings on related topics: Nicholas Lemann, Kicking in Groups, The Atlantic Monthly (April 1996). Mary Ann Zehr, Getting Involved in Civic Life, Foundation News and conflict great gatsby Commentary (May/June 1996). The Foundation News and Commentary is a publication of The Council on Foundations. 1. Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America , ed. Unit And Ethical Responsibilities. J.P. Maier, trans. George Lawrence (Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1969), 513-17.

2. On social networks and economic growth in the developing world, see Milton J. Esman and in the great Norman Uphoff, Local Organizations: Intermediaries in Rural Development (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1984), esp. 15-42 and 99-180; and Albert O. Epidural Vs Natural Essay. Hirschman, Getting Ahead Collectively: Grassroots Experiences in Latin America (Elmsford, N.Y.: Pergamon Press, 1984), esp. 42-77. On East Asia, see Gustav Papanek, The New Asian Capitalism: An Economic Portrait, in Peter L. Berger and Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao, eds., In Search of an East Asian Development Model (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1987), 27-80; Peter B. Conflict In The Great. Evans, The State as Problem and Solution: Predation, Embedded Autonomy and Structural Change, in Stephan Haggard and 4 legal responsibilities Robert R. Kaufman, eds., The Politics of Economic Adjustment (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), 139-81; and Gary G. Hamilton, William Zeile, and Wan-Jin Kim, Network Structure of East Asian Economies, in Stewart R. Clegg and S. Gordon Redding, eds., Capitalism in Contrasting Cultures (Hawthorne, N.Y.: De Gruyter, 1990), 105-29. See also Gary G. Hamilton and Nicole Woolsey Biggart, Market, Culture, and conflict great Authority: A Comparative Analysis of Management and Organization in 4 legal and ethical, the Far East, American Journal of Sociology (Supplement) 94 (1988): S52-S94; and Susan Greenhalgh, Families and Networks in conflict great, Taiwan's Economic Development, in Edwin Winckler and Susan Greenhalgh, eds., Contending Approaches to the Political Economy of Taiwan (Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 1987), 224-45.

3. Robert D. Putnam, Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993). 4. James S. Coleman deserves primary credit for developing the social capital theoretical framework. See his Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital, American Journal of Sociology (Supplement) 94 (1988): S95-S120, as well as his The Foundations of Social Theory (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990), 300-21. See also Mark Granovetter, Economic Action and attachment theory child develops attachment to a caregiver Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness, American Journal of Sociology 91 (1985): 481-510; Glenn C. Loury, Why Should We Care About Group Inequality? Social Philosophy and Policy 5 (1987): 249-71; and Robert D. Putnam, The Prosperous Community: Social Capital and Public Life, American Prospect 13 (1993): 35-42. To my knowledge, the first scholar to use the term social capital in its current sense was Jane Jacobs, in The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961), 138. 5. Any simplistically political interpretation of the collapse of American unionism would need to in the great gatsby confront the and ethical, fact that the great gatsby, steepest decline began more than six years before the Reagan administration's attack on PATCO.

Data from the General Social Survey show a roughly 40-percent decline in reported union membership between 1975 and 1991. 6. In Literature. Data for the LWV are available over a longer time span and conflict in the show an My Decision Essay, interesting pattern: a sharp slump during the Depression, a strong and sustained rise after World War II that more than tripled membership between 1945 and 1969, and then the post-1969 decline, which has already erased virtually all the postwar gains and continues still. This same historical pattern applies to those men's fraternal organizations for which comparable data are available--steady increases for conflict in the great the first seven decades of the century, interrupted only by chapter a mockingbird the Great Depression, followed by a collapse in the 1970s and 1980s that has already wiped out most of the postwar expansion and continues apace. 7. Cf. Lester M. Salamon, The Rise of the conflict in the great gatsby, Nonprofit Sector, Foreign Affairs 73 (July-August 1994): 109-22.

See also Salamon, Partners in Public Service: The Scope and Theory of Epidural vs Natural Essay, Government-Nonprofit Relations, in Walter W. Powell, ed., The Nonprofit Sector: A Research Handbook (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987), 99-117. Salamon's empirical evidence does not sustain his broad claims about a global associational revolution comparable in significance to conflict gatsby the rise of the nation-state several centuries ago. 8. Robert Wuthnow, Sharing the The Decison, My Decision, Journey: Support Groups and America's New Quest for Community (New York: The Free Press, 1994), 45. 10. I am grateful to Ronald Inglehart, who directs this unique cross-national project, for sharing these highly useful data with me. See his The Impact of Culture on Economic Development: Theory, Hypotheses, and Some Empirical Tests (unpublished manuscript, University of Michigan, 1994). 11.

See my Making Democracy Work , esp. In The Great Gatsby. ch. 6. 12. Attachment Explain The Notion That Child Develops Attachment To A. See Mancur Olson, The Rise and Decline of Nations: Economic Growth, Stagflation, and Social Rigidities (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982), 2.

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The Great

case study yin stake Critics of the case study method believe that the conflict great gatsby, study of a small number of cases can offer no grounds for establishing reliability or generality of findings. Others feel that the intense exposure to study of the case biases the findings. Some dismiss case study research as useful only as an exploratory tool. Yet researchers continue to use the case study research method with success in carefully planned and crafted studies of chapter 10 summary to kill a mockingbird real-life situations, issues, and problems. Reports on great gatsby, case studies from many disciplines are widely available in the literature. This paper explains how to use the case study method and then applies the method to an example case study project designed to examine how one set of users, non-profit organizations, make use of an how does theory explain the notion develops attachment to a, electronic community network. The study examines the issue of whether or not the electronic community network is beneficial in some way to non-profit organizations and what those benefits might be. Many well-known case study researchers such as Robert E. Stake, Helen Simons, and Robert K. Yin have written about case study research and suggested techniques for organizing and conducting the research successfully.

This introduction to gatsby case study research draws upon their work and proposes six steps that should be used: Determine and define the research questions Select the cases and determine data gathering and analysis techniques Prepare to collect the data Collect data in the field Evaluate and analyze the data Prepare the report Step 1. Determine and Human Essay, Define the Research Questions. The first step in case study research is to establish a firm research focus to which the researcher can refer over the course of study of a complex phenomenon or object. Conflict In The Great Gatsby. The researcher establishes the focus of the study by Euthanasia Devalues Essay forming questions about the situation or problem to be studied and conflict great gatsby, determining a purpose for the study. The research object in a case study is often a program, an entity, a person, or a group of people. Each object is likely to be intricately connected to political, social, historical, and personal issues, providing wide ranging possibilities for questions and adding complexity to the case study.

The researcher investigates the object of the case study in depth using a variety of data gathering methods to produce evidence that leads to understanding of the case and answers the research questions. Case study research generally answers one or more questions which begin with how or why. The questions are targeted to a limited number of events or conditions and their inter-relationships. To assist in targeting and formulating the questions, researchers conduct a literature review. This review establishes what research has been previously conducted and leads to refined, insightful questions about the problem.

Careful definition of the questions at the start pinpoints where to look for evidence and helps determine the methods of analysis to be used in the study. The literature review, definition of the purpose of the case study, and early determination of the potential audience for the final report guide how the study will be designed, conducted, and publicly reported. Step 2. Select the Cases and how does theory every develops attachment to a ?, Determine Data Gathering and Analysis Techniques. During the design phase of case study research, the researcher determines what approaches to use in selecting single or multiple real-life cases to examine in depth and which instruments and data gathering approaches to use. When using multiple cases, each case is treated as a single case. Each case?s conclusions can then be used as information contributing to the whole study, but each case remains a single case. Exemplary case studies carefully select cases and carefully examine the choices available from among many research tools available in conflict great, order to increase the validity of the study. Careful discrimination at the point of selection also helps erect boundaries around the case. The researcher must determine whether to unit 4 legal responsibilities study cases which are unique in some way or cases which are considered typical and may also select cases to represent a variety of geographic regions, a variety of size parameters, or other parameters. Conflict In The Great. A useful step in the selection process is to repeatedly refer back to the purpose of the study in order to focus attention on where to look for cases and evidence that will satisfy the purpose of the study and answer the research questions posed. Selecting multiple or single cases is a key element, but a case study can include more than one unit of embedded analysis.

For example, a case study may involve study of Euthanasia Devalues a single industry and a firm participating in that industry. This type of case study involves two levels of analysis and in the gatsby, increases the complexity and amount of data to attachment explain that child caregiver ? be gathered and analyzed. A key strength of the case study method involves using multiple sources and techniques in the data gathering process. The researcher determines in advance what evidence to gather and what analysis techniques to use with the data to answer the research questions. Data gathered is gatsby, normally largely qualitative, but it may also be quantitative. Tools to collect data can include surveys, interviews, documentation review, observation, and even the collection of physical artifacts.

The researcher must use the designated data gathering tools systematically and properly in collecting the evidence. Epidural Essay. Throughout the design phase, researchers must ensure that the study is well constructed to ensure construct validity, internal validity, external validity, and conflict in the gatsby, reliability. Construct validity requires the researcher to use the correct measures for the concepts being studied. Internal validity (especially important with explanatory or causal studies) demonstrates that certain conditions lead to other conditions and requires the use of how does theory explain develops ? multiple pieces of evidence from multiple sources to conflict in the gatsby uncover convergent lines of inquiry. Devalues Human Life. The researcher strives to in the establish a chain of evidence forward and backward. External validity reflects whether or not findings are generalizable beyond the immediate case or cases; the more variations in places, people, and procedures a case study can withstand and still yield the same findings, the more external validity. The Decison, My Decision Essay. Techniques such as cross-case examination and within-case examination along with literature review helps ensure external validity. Reliability refers to the stability, accuracy, and precision of measurement. Exemplary case study design ensures that the procedures used are well documented and can be repeated with the same results over and over conflict great gatsby again.

Step 3. Prepare to Collect the Data. Because case study research generates a large amount of data from multiple sources, systematic organization of the how does attachment explain the notion that develops to a caregiver ?, data is important to prevent the researcher from becoming overwhelmed by the amount of data and to prevent the researcher from losing sight of the original research purpose and questions. Advance preparation assists in conflict gatsby, handling large amounts of data in a documented and systematic fashion. Researchers prepare databases to assist with categorizing, sorting, storing, and retrieving data for analysis. Exemplary case studies prepare good training programs for investigators, establish clear protocols and procedures in advance of investigator field work, and conduct a pilot study in advance of moving into the field in order to remove obvious barriers and problems. The investigator training program covers the basic concepts of the study, terminology, processes, and methods, and teaches investigators how to properly apply the techniques being used in the study. The program also trains investigators to understand how the gathering of data using multiple techniques strengthens the study by providing opportunities for triangulation during the analysis phase of the study.

The program covers protocols for case study research, including time deadlines, formats for narrative reporting and field notes, guidelines for collection of documents, and guidelines for field procedures to be used. Investigators need to be good listeners who can hear exactly the in literature, words being used by those interviewed. Qualifications for investigators also include being able to ask good questions and interpret answers. Good investigators review documents looking for great facts, but also read between the lines and pursue collaborative evidence elsewhere when that seems appropriate. Investigators need to be flexible in real-life situations and not feel threatened by unexpected change, missed appointments, or lack of office space.

Investigators need to understand the purpose of the Childbirth Essay, study and grasp the issues and conflict in the great, must be open to contrary findings. Investigators must also be aware that they are going into the world of real human beings who may be threatened or unsure of what the case study will bring. After investigators are trained, the 4 legal and ethical responsibilities, final advance preparation step is to in the gatsby select a pilot site and conduct a pilot test using each data gathering method so that problematic areas can be uncovered and corrected. Researchers need to anticipate key problems and events, identify key people, prepare letters of introduction, establish rules for confidentiality, and actively seek opportunities to revisit and revise the research design in order to chapter 10 summary a mockingbird address and conflict, add to the original set of research questions. 4. Collect Data in the Field. The researcher must collect and store multiple sources of theory explain the notion develops attachment to a ? evidence comprehensively and systematically, in formats that can be referenced and sorted so that converging lines of in the inquiry and patterns can be uncovered. Researchers carefully observe the Life, object of the conflict in the great gatsby, case study and how does explain that child, identify causal factors associated with the observed phenomenon. Renegotiation of conflict in the gatsby arrangements with the objects of the study or addition of questions to interviews may be necessary as the study progresses. Case study research is flexible, but when changes are made, they are documented systematically. Exemplary case studies use field notes and databases to Essay categorize and reference data so that it is readily available for subsequent reinterpretation. Field notes record feelings and intuitive hunches, pose questions, and document the work in great gatsby, progress.

They record testimonies, stories, and illustrations which can be used in later reports. They may warn of impending bias because of the detailed exposure of the themes, client to great special attention, or give an the notion that child develops ?, early signal that a pattern is conflict in the great gatsby, emerging. They assist in determining whether or not the inquiry needs to be reformulated or redefined based on what is being observed. Field notes should be kept separate from the data being collected and stored for analysis. Maintaining the relationship between the issue and the evidence is mandatory.

The researcher may enter some data into a database and how does attachment theory explain the notion that child develops to a caregiver, physically store other data, but the researcher documents, classifies, and cross-references all evidence so that it can be efficiently recalled for sorting and examination over the course of the study. Step 5. In The Gatsby. Evaluate and Analyze the Data. The researcher examines raw data using many interpretations in order to find linkages between the Epidural Essay, research object and the outcomes with reference to conflict in the gatsby the original research questions. Themes In Literature. Throughout the evaluation and analysis process, the researcher remains open to new opportunities and insights. The case study method, with its use of multiple data collection methods and analysis techniques, provides researchers with opportunities to triangulate data in order to strengthen the research findings and conclusions. The tactics used in analysis force researchers to move beyond initial impressions to improve the conflict in the great gatsby, likelihood of accurate and unit 4 legal, reliable findings. Exemplary case studies will deliberately sort the conflict gatsby, data in many different ways to expose or create new insights and will deliberately look for conflicting data to disconfirm the analysis.

Researchers categorize, tabulate, and recombine data to address the initial propositions or purpose of the study, and conduct cross-checks of facts and Epidural vs Natural, discrepancies in in the great, accounts. Focused, short, repeat interviews may be necessary to gather additional data to verify key observations or check a fact. Specific techniques include placing information into arrays, creating matrices of categories, creating flow charts or other displays, and to kill a mockingbird, tabulating frequency of events. Researchers use the quantitative data that has been collected to corroborate and support the qualitative data which is in the gatsby, most useful for understanding the rationale or theory underlying relationships. Another technique is to use multiple investigators to gain the advantage provided when a variety of perspectives and insights examine the data and Euthanasia Human Life Essay, the patterns.

When the multiple observations converge, confidence in the findings increases. Conflicting perceptions, on the other hand, cause the researchers to pry more deeply. Another technique, the cross-case search for patterns, keeps investigators from reaching premature conclusions by requiring that investigators look at conflict in the great, the data in many different ways. Cross-case analysis divides the chapter to kill a mockingbird, data by type across all cases investigated. One researcher then examines the data of that type thoroughly. When a pattern from one data type is corroborated by the evidence from another, the finding is stronger. When evidence conflicts, deeper probing of the differences is necessary to identify the cause or source of conflict. In all cases, the researcher treats the evidence fairly to produce analytic conclusions answering the original how and why research questions.

Step 6. Prepare the report. Exemplary case studies report the data in a way that transforms a complex issue into conflict in the gatsby, one that can be understood, allowing the 10 summary a mockingbird, reader to conflict in the great question and examine the study and reach an Childbirth, understanding independent of the researcher. The goal of the written report is to portray a complex problem in a way that conveys a vicarious experience to the reader. Case studies present data in very publicly accessible ways and may lead the reader to apply the experience in his or her own real-life situation. Researchers pay particular attention to displaying sufficient evidence to gain the reader?s confidence that all avenues have been explored, clearly communicating the boundaries of the case, and giving special attention to conflicting propositions. Techniques for composing the report can include handling each case as a separate chapter or treating the case as a chronological recounting. Some researchers report the conflict gatsby, case study as a story. During the report preparation process, researchers critically examine the Epidural vs Natural Childbirth Essay, document looking for ways the report is in the great, incomplete.

The researcher uses representative audience groups to review and comment on the draft document. Based on the comments, the researcher rewrites and makes revisions. Some case study researchers suggest that the document review audience include a journalist and some suggest that the documents should be reviewed by the participants in the study. Applying the Case Study Method to an Electronic Community Network. Step 1. Determine and 4 legal, Define the Research Questions. In general, electronic community networks have three distinct types of users, each one a good candidate for case study research. The three groups of users include people around the world who use the electronic community network, the non-profit organizations using the electronic community network to provide information to potential users of their services, and the community that forms as the result of interacting with other participants on the electronic community network. In this case, the researcher is primarily interested in determining whether or not the electronic community network is beneficial in in the gatsby, some way to non-profit organization participants. The researcher begins with a review of the literature to determine what prior studies have determined about this issue and uses the literature to define the following questions for the study of the non-profit organizations providing information to the electronic community network: Why do non-profit organization participants use the network?

How do non-profit organization participants determine what to place on the electronic community network? Do the non-profit organization participants believe the themes, community network serves a useful purpose in furthering their mission? How? Step 2. Select the Cases and Determine Data Gathering and Analysis Techniques. Many communities have constructed electronic community networks on conflict gatsby, the World Wide Web. At the how does attachment theory explain the notion develops attachment to a caregiver ?, outset of the design phase, the researcher determines that only one of these networks will be studied and further sets the conflict in the great, study boundaries to include only some of the non-profit organizations represented on that one network. The researcher contacts the Board of Directors of the chapter 10 summary, community network, who are open to the idea of the case study.

The researcher also gathers computer generated log data from the network and, using this data, determines that an in-depth study of representative organizations from four categories -- health care, environmental, education, and religious -- is feasible. The investigator applies additional selection criteria so that an urban-based and a rural-based non-profit are represented in the study in order to examine whether urban non-profits perceive more benefits from community networks than rural organizations. The researcher considers multiple sources of data for this study and selects document examination, the gathering and study of organizational documents such as administrative reports, agendas, letters, minutes, and conflict in the great gatsby, news clippings for each of the organizations. In this case, the how does theory that child develops attachment to a caregiver, investigator decides to also conduct open-ended interviews with key members of each organization using a check-list to guide interviewers during the interview process so that uniformity and consistency can be assured in the data, which could include facts, opinions, and in the great gatsby, unexpected insights. In this case study, the researcher cannot employ direct observation as a tool because some of the organizations involved have no office and unit and ethical, meet infrequently to conflict in the conduct business directly related to the electronic community network. The researcher instead decides to survey all Board members of the selected organizations using a questionnaire as a third data gathering tool. Within-case and cross-case analysis of data are selected as analysis techniques. Step 3. Prepare to themes in literature Collect the in the great gatsby, Data. The researcher prepares to collect data by first contacting each organization to be studied to gain their cooperation, explain the purpose of the study, and Euthanasia Life Essay, assemble key contact information.

Since data to be collected and examined includes organizational documents, the conflict in the gatsby, researcher states his intent to request copies of Euthanasia Life these documents, and plans for storage, classification, and retrieval of these items, as well as the interview and survey data. The researcher develops a formal investigator training program to include seminar topics on non-profit organizations and their structures in each of the four categories selected for this study. The training program also includes practice sessions in conducting open-ended interviews and documenting sources, suggested field notes formats, and in the great, a detailed explanation of the purpose of the case study. The researcher selects a fifth case as a pilot case, and the investigators apply the data gathering tools to the pilot case to determine whether the in literature, planned timeline is in the gatsby, feasible and whether or not the interview and survey questions are appropriate and effective. Based on the results of the pilot, the researcher makes adjustments and assigns investigators particular cases which become their area of expertise in the evaluation and analysis of the data. Step 4. Collect Data in attachment theory explain that develops to a caregiver, the Field. Investigators first arrange to visit with the Board of Directors of conflict each non-profit organization as a group and ask for copies of the organization?s mission, news clippings, brochures, and any other written material describing the organization and its purpose. The investigator reviews the purpose of the attachment the notion that every child develops ?, study with the entire Board, schedules individual interview times with as many Board members as can cooperate, confirms key contact data, and requests that all Board members respond to the written survey which will be mailed later.

Investigators take written notes during the interview and record field notes after the interview is completed. The interviews, although open-ended, are structured around the research questions defined at the start of the case study. Research Question: Why do non-profit organization participants use the network? Interview Questions: How did the organization make the decision to place data on the World Wide Web community network? What need was the in the gatsby, organization hoping to fulfill? Research Question: How do non-profit organization participants determine what to The Decison, place on the electronic community network? Interview Questions: What process was used to select the information that would be used on the network? How is the information kept up to date? Research Question: Do the non-profit organization participants believe the community network serves a useful purpose in furthering their mission?

How? Interview Questions: How does the organization know if the electronic community network is beneficial to the organization? How does the electronic community network further the mission of the organization? What systematic tracking mechanisms exist to conflict great determine how many or what types of users are accessing the organization information? The investigator?s field notes record impressions and questions that might assist with the interpretation of the interview data. The investigator makes note of stories told during open-ended interviews and flags them for potential use in unit 4 legal, the final report. Data is entered into the database. The researcher mails written surveys to all Board members with a requested return date and a stamped return envelope. Once the surveys are returned, the researcher codes and enters the data into in the, the database so that it can be used independently as well as integrated when the The Decison, My Decision, case study progresses to the point of great cross-case examination of data for all four cases. Step 5. Themes. Evaluate and Analyze the Data. Within-case analysis is the first analysis technique used with each non-profit organization under study.

The assigned investigator studies each organization?s written documentation and survey response data as a separate case to identify unique patterns within the data for that single organization. Individual investigators prepare detailed case study write-ups for each organization, categorizing interview questions and in the gatsby, answers and examining the data for within-group similarities and how does theory explain that every child develops attachment ?, differences. Cross-case analysis follows. Conflict In The Great. Investigators examine pairs of cases, categorizing the similarities and differences in chapter a mockingbird, each pair. Investigators then examine similar pairs for differences, and dissimilar pairs for similarities. As patterns begin to in the great gatsby emerge, certain evidence may stand out as being in conflict with the patterns. In those cases, the investigator conducts follow-up focused interviews to confirm or correct the initial data in order to tie the evidence to the findings and to state relationships in answer to the research questions. Step 6 Prepare the in literature, Report. The outline of the report includes thanking all of the participants, stating the problem, listing the research questions, describing the conflict in the great gatsby, methods used to conduct the research and any potential flaws in Epidural vs Natural Essay, the method used, explaining the data gathering and analysis techniques used, and concluding with the answers to the questions and suggestions for in the great gatsby further research. Key features of the report include a retelling of specific stories related to the successes or disappointments experienced by the organizations that were conveyed during data collection, and chapter 10 summary to kill a mockingbird, answers or comments illuminating issues directly related to the research questions.

The researcher develops each issue using quotations or other details from the data collected, and great, points out the triangulation of data where applicable. The report also includes confirming and conflicting findings from literature reviews. The report conclusion makes assertions and suggestions for further research activity, so that another researcher may apply these techniques to another electronic community network and its participants to determine whether similar findings are identifiable in other communities. Final report distribution includes all participants. Applicability to Library and Epidural vs Natural Childbirth Essay, Information Science. Busha, C. H., Harter, S. P. (1980). Conflict Great Gatsby. Research methods in librarianship, techniques and interpretation. New York: Academic Press. Chang, H. C. (1974). Library goals as responses to structural milieu requirements: A comparative case study.

Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. DuMont, R. And Ethical. R. In The. (1975). The large urban public library as an agency of social reform, 1890-1915. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14 (4), 352-550. Emory, C. Attachment Theory That Child Attachment Caregiver. W., Cooper, D. R. (1991). Business research methods. (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Irvin. Goldhor, H. (1972).

An introduction to conflict great gatsby scientific research in librarianship. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois. Hamel, J. (with Dufour, S., Fortin, D.). (1993). Case study methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Harris, S., Sutton, R. (1986). Functions of parting ceremonies in dying organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 19, 5-30. Lawson, V. A Mockingbird. (1971). Reference service in university libraries, two case studies.

Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, New York. McAdams, D. C. (1979). Powerful actors in public land use decision making processes: A case study in Austin, Texas. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Texas, Austin. McClure, C. R., Hernon, P. (Eds.). (1991). Library and information science research: perspectives and strategies for improvement. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Miles, M. Conflict In The Great. B., Huberman, A. M. Chapter 10 Summary To Kill A Mockingbird. (1984). Qualitative data analysis: A sourcebook of new methods.

Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Miller, F. (1986). Use, appraisal, and research: A case study of social history . The American Archivist: 49 (4), 371-392. Paris, M. (1988). Library school closings: Four case studies. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press. Patton, M. Q. (1980). Qualitative evaluation methods. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Powell, R. R. (1985).

Basic research methods for conflict gatsby librarians. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Schindler, D. (1996). Urban youth and the frail elderly: Reciprocal giving and receiving. New York: Garland. Simons, H. (1980). Towards a science of the singular: Essays about case study in educational research and chapter 10 summary, evaluation.

Norwich, UK: University of East Anglia, Centre for Applied Research in Education. Stake, R. E. In The Gatsby. (1995). The art of case study research. Themes In Literature. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Swisher, R., McClure, C. R. (1984). Research for decision making, methods for librarians. Chicago: American Library Association.

Taylor, R. Gatsby. S. (1967). Unit And Ethical Responsibilities. Question-negotiation and information-seeking in libraries. Bethlehem, PA: Center for the Information Sciences. U.S. Department of conflict great Education. Epidural Vs Natural Childbirth. (1988). Rethinking the library in the information age: Issues in great, library research: proposals for attachment explain the notion child caregiver the 1990s. Volume II.

Washington, DC. Weiss, C.H., Bucuvala, M. J. (1980). Social science research and decision-making. New York: Columbia University Press. Wholey, J. S., Hatry, H. Great Gatsby. P., Newcomer, K. E. (Eds.). (1994).

Handbook of practical program evaluation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Yin, R. K. (1984). Case study research: Design and methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. This page is created and maintained by Sue Soy [email protected] Last Updated 02/12/2006. Copyright 1996 Susan K. Soy.

Please feel free to copy and distribute freely for academic purposes with attribution. Cite as: Soy, Susan K. (1997). The case study as a research method . Unpublished paper, University of Texas at Austin.

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Possible Impact of Federal Hiring Freeze on conflict in the great, the Internship Match. Dear fellow students, As many of you already know, President Trump issued an executive order on January 23 rd to freeze the hiring of Federal civilian employees across the Epidural vs Natural executive branch with the exception of military personnel. The Presidents memorandum can be found here. At present, this freeze includes all hiring at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BoP), and the Indian Health Service (IHS). Taken together, these three Federal departments are host to more than 700 APA-accredited internship slots, the vast majority of which are accredited through the VA. Important notice to users of MyPsychTrack. APAGS recently heard about a change to the MyPsychTrack (MPT) system that could create confusion and lost data.

MPT is changing to a new and improved portal (https://app.mypsychtrack.com/) on great gatsby, March 4th, 2016. If you are a student tracking clinical training hours on how does attachment the notion every child caregiver ?, MPT, unless you logged in recently to record hours, you may be unaware of this change. To maintain all your data, you have to upload your data to the new portal by March 4th . Data logged on the old portal may not be available on or after March 4th. There is in the, a link on the MPT homepage that provides assistance on transferring hours into the new system. Contact MPT support if you have any questions or concerns and The Decison, My Decision, they will walk you through the process. APPIC believes this will affect about 200 people who havent updated their MPT account since March 2015. Please share this widely with your peers, and of course, its always a good practice to back up your data regardless of the conflict great system you use! A Few Good Reasons Why the Internship Crisis Might Get (Slightly) Better.

Internship is stressful, so let us bask in The Decison,, some good news for a moment. For the past 18 years, APPIC has produced forward-looking best-case scenarios about the conflict gatsby internship match for doctoral students in clinical, counseling, and My Decision, school psychology using a point-in-time profile of applicants, doctoral internship sites, and gatsby, open spots on New Years Eve. APPIC predicts that the imbalance between the number of applicants and positions what APAGS and others call a crisis will continue to improve, as it has in 2015 and 2014. Here is what APPIC shared recently* with the psychology education and training community: There are currently only 148 more registered applicants than available positions (compared to a difference of 498 last year and 1,148 only four years ago) Approximately 200 students withdraw from the Match each year after registering (for a variety of reasons, such as not having received any interview offers, deciding to delay their internship another year, seeking or obtaining a position outside the APPIC Match, etc). This suggests that the number of positions in the 2016 Match could equal, or even slightly exceed, the number of students who submit a Rank Order List. Please note, however, that this does not mean that all applicants will get placed, nor will all positions get filled. As a result, the 2016 APPIC Match will likely show the closest balance between applicants and positions of any APPIC Match to date. The number of accredited positions, while significantly improved this year, is far lower than the number of registered applicants. Chapter! (APAGS reported on great gatsby, match rates using just data from the APA Commission on Accreditation on how does attachment the notion that to a, match day 2015). APPIC reminds us that it has provided a snapshot as of conflict, December 31, 2015, and that numbers change each day.** APPICs optimism is corroborated by Robert Hatchers new article in APPICs academic journal. Chapter To Kill A Mockingbird! Hatcher predicts that even if the internship growth rate slowed to less than 1%, match rates would be in the mid-90% range by 2018 (2015).

The article does paint some complications that well be paying attention to. Crave even more good news this week? APA just announced that psychology graduate students now have access to 55 new APA-accredited internship slots , thanks to in the great, the accreditation of 11 internship programs that received funds from APAs internship stimulus package. The new slots were created after APAs Commission on Accreditation was able to accredit 17 internship programs in October. Euthanasia Devalues Human! Eleven of those programs were internship stimulus grantees and the additional six programs will also provide a number of internship slots, but those numbers are not yet available. APAGS is well aware that while we have some optimistic news before us, not all qualified doctoral students who desire an conflict great gatsby internship will receive one, and themes, not all doctoral programs and types are matching their students to accredited programs at comparable rates. APAGS has committed substantial resources to address these concerns, and well continue to see that other groups do the same, until the conflict in the great crisis is effectively ended.

If you want to help address the internship crisis as an to kill a mockingbird advocate, go to http://on.apa.org/internshipcrisis to learn how. *All APPIC information presented here, and conflict gatsby, much of the verbiage, was provided by APPIC in listserv announcements in January 2016. **For numbers wonks: As of December 31, 2015, the total numbers of applicants and internship sites registered to participate in the 2016 APPIC Match were: 3,940 registered applicants, 3,792 positions offered by 786 registered internship sites (744 of these registered sites are APPIC members). Compared to last year at this time, these numbers reflect a decrease of 223 applicants, an how does theory explain develops attachment to a increase of 127 positions, and an increase of 14 internship sites. Furthermore, the number of APA- and CPA-accredited positions has increased by 231. Compared to four years ago at this time, which was the great gatsby year of the unit responsibilities worst imbalance between applicants and positions: The number of registered applicants has decreased by 418 (4,358 to 3,940); The number of registered positions has increased by 582 (3,210 to 3,792); The difference between the numbers of registered positions and applicants has decreased by 1,000 (1,148 to 148); The number of registered APA- or CPA-accredited positions has increased by 590 (2,366 to 2,956); The number of registered internship sites has increased by 74 (712 to 786); The number of registered APPIC-member internship sites has increased by 77 (667 to 744). Tackling the Internship Crisis Through Legislative Advocacy.

The Texas State Capitol Building. (Source: StuSeeger on Flickr. Conflict Gatsby! Some rights reserved.) They say everything is bigger in Texas, but there is at least one exception: The window for Euthanasia, getting new legislation introduced and passed is tiny! Despite the fact that the legislature only great gatsby meets for 140 days every two years, the Texas Psychological Association (TPA)with the help of its Student Divisionwas able to find legislative sponsors for the Intern Bill and mobilize TPA members and their representatives to support it. This bill authorizes licensed psychologists to delegate services to a pre-doctoral psychology intern under their supervision. Allowing licensed psychologists to delegate services to their interns is the first in a series of steps toward making internships more sustainable. Vs Natural Essay! As the Director of the TPAs Student Division, I was given the opportunity to play a key role in advocating for conflict in the great, this legislation.

Climbing the legislative ladder. At my first TPA Board of how does that child develops to a caregiver ?, Trustees meeting as the Director of the Student Division, I learned they were planning to find legislators to sponsor the Intern Bill. After having seen the video created by conflict APAGS about the internship crisis, I was well aware that the lack of internships for qualified doctoral students had reached alarming proportions, with up to 29 percent of applicants not matching during the last five years. I coordinated with TPAs Grassroots committee to mobilize students to support this bill and ended up becoming personally involved in advocating for this legislation. My efforts began by mobilizing the Student Divisions Board of Directors and Campus Representatives to begin spreading the word to colleges and universities across Texas about this bill and what it could do for psychology students. One of the difficult things about advocacy is that you rarely get feedback about how your message is being received and whether it inspires others to Euthanasia Devalues Human, take up the in the great challenge. I learned that our message was effective after TPA invited its members to spend a day together at the capital with legislators, speaking with them about bills we are sponsoring. Students turned out in record-breaking numbers for this event, ready to unit responsibilities, take on the challenge of advocating for this much needed legislation. I headed back to the capital a few weeks later, along with other key TPA members, to testify before the conflict great Texas Public Health committee about the importance of passing the Intern Bill. This was an exciting opportunity. I prepared my testimony by 4 legal doing a little research and in the, getting feedback from responsibilities, students who had not previously matched to an internship program.

After all this work, the amount of time I was allowed to testify was reduced from 10 minutes to about 2 minutes! I had to be very concise, but I was able to speak about my most important points during this time (To watch, find the testimony from 04/07/2015 under Public Health, starting at 14:25). Representative Garnet Coleman and Senator Kevin Eltife have been very supportive of the profession of conflict great gatsby, psychology. Their sponsorship of House and themes in literature, Senate versions of conflict in the gatsby, this bill, combined with the persistence of students and TPA members, led to a majority vote with almost no opposition by chapter a mockingbird the House and in the, Senate. The bill became law in June 2015. The power of student advocacy.

My advice to themes, those involved with other organizations interested in promoting similar legislation falls into three categories: awareness, student involvement, and focus. Awareness: Even in academic settings, people are largely unaware of the severity of the internship crisis. Laying out the numbers gives people a clear view of the in the gatsby problem. Once they have been armed with the facts, people are more likely to become involved in changing the situation. For me, presenting the percentage of students who did not match to accredited internship programs had the greatest impact. These statistics can be found on the APPIC website. Student involvement: Students are willing to get involved in themes, legislative advocacy. When reaching out to them, it is important that you to provide several avenues to express their support.

Those who have the resources to travel to their states Capital (or live nearby) should be encouraged to make their position known in person before legislative committees, or set up appointments with their representatives individually. Providing links to online petitions and to the contact information for in the great, the states representatives can help others get involved. Also, encourage your peers to Epidural vs Natural, address these issues with their professors and advisors. Focus: When giving testimony before legislators keep the focus narrow enough so that you dont become bogged down in unfamiliar jargon. Gatsby! Present a brief overview of the statistics and then turn your attention to The Decison,, the impact the internship crisis has on individual students and their constituents. Once they understand that billing for interns will lead to increased access to mental health care for their states residents, supporting the conflict great legislation becomes that much easier. If you are a student, it is important to be involved in both a national organization, such as APAGS, and your state psychological organization. A Mockingbird! It was through APAGS that I discovered that the in the great internship crisis existed, which prompted me to get more involved with TPA in trying to do something about it. All I had to do was ask TPA to help with the 4 legal Intern Billthey were ecstatic that a student was willing to get involved. The bottom line is: Dont be afraid to ask. Great Gatsby! Ask your state psychology organization to introduce an Intern Bill; ask other students and Epidural vs Natural, psychologists to support it; ask your state government to pass it.

It is my hope that the gatsby success we have experienced in Human Essay, Texas will make it easier for conflict great, other state governments to say yes to an Intern Bill. Editors Note: Amanda S. Phillips is a doctoral student in clinical health psychology at the University of North Texas. She is also the 2014-2015 Director of the in literature Student Division of the Texas Psychological Association. Standardized Reference Form: What Students Need to Know. The Fall 2015 round of applicants for internship will be greeted with a new feature that levels the playing field for everyone entering the in the great pool: the how does theory explain that every child to a caregiver Standardized Reference Form (SRF) . Over the course of two years, a working group from the Council of in the, Chairs of Training Councils (CCTC) collaborated to improve the process of evaluating applicants in a way that was meaningful to attachment theory explain every child caregiver, reviewers and equitable for conflict in the great gatsby, students. Instead of the Devalues Human Life sometimes vague letters students may have received in the past, this form asks for writers to speak to specific competencies that are relevant to training in a narrative format. This includes student strengths and conflict great gatsby, areas for growth. We all have both, and now there wont be a penalty for vs Natural Essay, honest assessments of where students are in their skills and abilities before internship. It even allows for recommenders to indicate the years they trained you, so that the reviewers can see your developmental progression. We dont expect this letter to in the great, influence the unit 4 legal responsibilities match statistics, but the intention is that it results in a better fit for the intern and the site.

CCTC will continue to in the great, work with The Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers (APPIC) to evaluate the letter in the next year, allowing the to kill form to evolve and improve over gatsby, time. Students are welcomed to share feedback about it as well. Most change requires adjustment and a little anxiety, but here are some To Dos to assist students with making this a smooth transition: Go to the AAPI and in literature, download the SRF for in the, yourself to see how you will be evaluated. Write a letter on yourself to self-assess on Euthanasia Devalues Human, the competencies being addressed. Tell all your cohort members to do the same. Spread the word. Give anyone who may be writing a letter for you a copy of the SRF well in advance, especially if theyve written letters before.

This allows them to have a heads up on the new format, in case they have not yet been introduced. Share the conflict great gatsby FAQs with them, to answer any questions. Talk with your recommenders about the SRF and how you see your strengths and areas for growth related to each competency. Make the process collaborative, especially if they have not seen the progression of your skills. APAGS continues to work on unit and ethical responsibilities, the internship crisis and standardizing the way interns are evaluated is one piece of the larger puzzle.

Check back here for conflict in the gatsby, any updates about the SRF along the way.