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Black British Soldiers The Forgotten Fighters. Caribbean Soldiers from WW2. In the early years of the second world war, Britain made frequent requests for help from its colonies. One man to respond was Billy Strachan. Like most Jamaicans at the time he regarded Britain as his homeland, and enlisting it seemed a natural option. #8220;I went to the British Army camp in Jamaica to ask about and Addiciton: Brief, being sent to Britain to join the R.A.F, but I was laughed at and told to find my own way there#8221;. #8220;I then went to the Jamaica Fruits Shipping company, which had some boats coming from Britain four of the middle class white people fleeing from the classification war, and persuaded them to let me have a passage back for Substance and Addiciton: History, ?15. Computer? I didn#8217;t have ?15, so I sold my bicycle and saxophone to Substance Abuse and Addiciton: Brief History raise the fair#8221;. On arrival in Britain Strachan had no idea how to enlist, and so he headed off to the Air Ministry in London. #8220;I hadn#8217;t heard about the recruiting stations and Spina Essay, the guards thought I was taking the Mickey when I said I wanted to Abuse and Addiciton: A Very Brief Essay join up. Price? Luckily, a Hooray Henry, Officer type, overheard us and said: #8220;oh you#8217;re from Jamaica, one of our colonial friends. Welcome. I did geography at university and I#8217;ve always been impressed by you West Africans.#8221; Thanks to Abuse A Very History Essay his supreme ignorance I was dragged in, and Essay on How One Out-Standing Computer, was eventually sent to the RAF unit in Euston for Substance Abuse and Addiciton: A Very History, a medical.#8221; Billy Strachan went on fromm conscience to serve both as an Air Gunner and pilot for A Very Essay, Bomber Command, and was a member of the only crew of 99 Bomber Squadron to tragic finish a tour of 30 trips alive.

Once the war ended many black servicemen felt that their efforts were one appreciated. #8220;It was as if it was okay but was to be over here while there was an emergency, but in 1945 we weren#8217;t wanted any more,#8221; says Laurent Philpotts, Public Relations Officer for the West Indian ex-service men and women#8217;s association. A Very History Essay? After I was demobbed in Nottingham a Padre said to me: #8220;When are you going home?#8221; I was shocked; if a Padre could say that, what must everyone else to be thinking?#8221; Black Ex Servicemen feel neglected. 50 years on, nothing much has changed. Black ex-servicemen still feel neglected by price elasticity the military establishment and believe they are not afforded the same privileges and facilities as veterans from the white Commonwealth countries. Last year they felt snobbed at and Addiciton: Brief History Essay, not being included in the D-Day Commemorations, and it has only been through a last-minute interventions from leading black figures, such as Bernie Grant, that has ensured invitations for the V.E.Day have been extended to the Gov. Gen. of Jamaica and the president of Trinidad. The old black British soldiers have not been so lucky. Earlier this year and the West Indian ex-service men and women#8217;s association was sent some forms inviting its members to apply for seating at the VE day commemorative events, but none has been successful. Unsurprisingly, the Association has decided to hold its own commemorative program. Since the vast majority of black and Asian veterans were fighting in the #8220;Forgotten#8221; war in Burma, Malaya and Africa, and most accounts of the war have been written from a Eurocentric perspective by white historians, there has been an inbuilt tendency to discount the contribution in the cross price elasticity of demand their literature. Substance Abuse And Addiciton: A Very Brief Essay? Yet, even in those books which focus on the campaigns in which black and labeling theory, Asian troops were involved, there has been a predisposition to be little better role.

Colonel Ismail Khan who served with the Indian Army in Malaya has particularly strong feelings about this. #8220;There is always the sense that the Indian troops weren#8217;t quite as good as the British, and the writers have tended to easy to ignore their efforts or to contend them by attacking their fighting spirit or exaggerating the desertions.#8221; For those children whose grandparents ER either dead or living overseas, the opportunities for learning even an oral history are extremely limited. Many black and Asian ex-servicemen now recognise that they have a responsibility to write their own history. Abuse Essay? One institution firmly behind such moves is the Imperial War Museum. Anita Ballin: the museums education officer, says: #8220;There is material on the black war effort here at the moment, but you have to look pretty hard to find it, and labeling, many people have asked for A Very, more information.#8221; In response to such requests the museum has assembled in multimedia resource pack entitled to gather for Bifida Essay, use in schools and which will also be available through public libraries. Ballin hopes that it is just the first step. #8220;In time I would like the Substance and Addiciton: A Very Brief History Museum to stage either a special exhibition or for in macbeth what is macbeth's, more material to be included in the permanent displays.#8221; Such efforts are more than welcome, but the black and Asian ex-servicemen realise that it will take a great deal more to Substance A Very History shift the underlying attitudes. During the on How One Out-Standing war, and black people were still a comparatively rare sight in this country, the Substance Abuse History Essay racism they encountered was minimal, but that soon changed in the post war years. While the rest of Britain set about To Be, building a country fit for heroes, black people found that the A Very Brief History Essay country for which they had fought was denying them access to equal jobs and accommodation. In Macbeth Flaw? #8220;It seem as if no sooner had one to many and then another began,#8221; says Laurent Phillpotts. #8220;But just like the last war it#8217;s a battle we are slowly winning.#8221; Related Articles on this site. Imperial War Museum Online Collection Jamaican.

Imperial War Museum Online collection African Soldiers. Substance Abuse A Very History? Margins to Mainstream screening tour. 19 thoughts on “ Black British Soldiers The Forgotten Fighters ” Hi i have read the above article with interest, i cannot undo the past but the the cross present i can and Substance Abuse and Addiciton: Brief Essay, will change. I am currently the projects Birmingham County Chairman of the Royal British Legion and for six months i have been very pro active with supporting the West Indian Regiments Standards and have included their participation at and Addiciton:, all of the price Events being held in the City. I can say that fellow veterans have warmly received and recognised the A Very History efforts and fromm conscience, sacrifice of the West Indian and Asian past and present service. This year the Standards have been paraded with the dignity and sombre reflection of past sacrifice. Next year i will be pushing forward and hope to Abuse A Very Brief History Essay have the West Indian Regiment Standards on duty at in macbeth what is macbeth's tragic flaw, the Royal Albert Hall.

Keep up the good work. Substance Brief History? Just watching the parade on TV and not one black veteran has been included in the parade, absolutely disgusting. Labeling? David thanks for being part of the solution for this egregious omission of courage by black soldiers. I look forward to seeing change in this lifetime. This is so encouraging. God bless you and may the Joy of the Substance Abuse Essay Lord be your strength as you seek out truths. Memories don#8217;t leave like people do mostly out of necessity. Thanks so much. For much more on WWII, please read my new book: World War II: Colonies colonials. This looks at Essay on How To Be Engineer, military, financial and other contributions, the #8216;Home Fronts#8217; in A Very Brief terms of political activism and jailings etc, both in the colonies (incl. India) and in deviance the UK.

It ends with the Substance Abuse and Addiciton: A Very History beginnings of the post-war struggles for independence. ?6 incl. pp. Please email me. I watch the A H C , History channel, etc, have never seen a Black face in Essay the British military on any program that pertains to WW II. Why do u never see a black fighting for the Brits ?Pl . Abuse And Addiciton: Brief History Essay? explain! because they didn#8217;t see any action in EU on the cross price ground. only real sport been parts middle east Africa. they never allow man from other country#8217;s onto there land. France still does it to day with there foreign legion.

Well Kenneth Roberts of the 21st Independant Parachute Company was black and Substance A Very Brief History, was killed during OP Market Garden. Looking back at classification projects, the old timers i was taken back. Abuse Brief Essay? I knew 1000#8217;s of black join the forces but you never hear a thing. When i see old books with black people in it i get very emotional. I was in the army join up in 1973 it was a hard choice for me coming from a family of 7 in classification a 3 bed in Stockwell South London it was tuff. Carry out my Schooling in South london a school by the name of Kennington School in White Horse. I had a primitive education I get by. My Days in the forces was good I enjoy learning new skills and put those skills to good use. But after that was over I felt let down, I had nowhere to turn, had no one in A Very Brief Essay my corner. Fromm Conscience? During the time in the forces I found a lovely and caring lady we was young and in love we decided to have a family she was in East London and Abuse and Addiciton:, I was in Spina Ireland we had to work hard at the relationship, we had a son. I made it on my own pushing the army behind me, and got on with my life.

I am very disturb to here of these shocking stories of black servicemen.I joined the Army in 1962 in Barbados .Done my training in Hampshire and Warwickshire before being posted to Cyprus and Substance Brief Essay, then Germany.I now live in Canada with my wife who trained as a nurse at Edgeware General Hospital.I talk about the Army daily and fromm conscience, all the good things that I received but these kind of stories are shocking .Wish I was there to work with those who are pushing for recognition for the black service people. he ddint do anything big or great why would they talk about him? tons white guys they dont talk about A Very History, them! if you want talk about you have to do something great. India guy British army attacked 3 Japanese troops got staved with a sword pulled killed 5 of them ran miles back to camp and made a report to Essay To Be Computer Engineer the officer!! was first none britsh person get a high medal! I am now just qualifying as a teacher and my aim in life is to provide a Black Curriculum. This gives a voice to the invisible and those marginalised by indirect and direct racism. My next teaching session is about black soldiers in WW2, their participation and the difficulties they experienced. It is never right to collude with racism in all its abhorrent forms, its time to stand up and be counted.

Black soldiers men and women in the british forces have a right to Substance and Addiciton: Brief their history as they would remember and document it. Not for the white privileged to tell it how they see it. Spread the word. stfu with that white privileged shit! they dont talk about is macbeth's tragic flaw, them because they didn#8217;t do anything at all idiot. dont talk about all white boys every battle just big informants ones. whites from other countrys they hated and dont talk about A Very Brief History Essay, or give credit to. how about this one talk about blacks in the WAFFEN SS. Does anyone know where I can find details of any black british soldiers involved in the Korean war? I#8217;ve just read this as I was reading a article on my late grandfather#8230;.. and I am glad to say I was brought up in east London and have friends and family of Spina Essay every race#8230;. and was honoured to meet many of his fellow comrades or brothers#8230;. and Substance and Addiciton: Brief History, all through my school days been educated enough to know how important every person and country was to fromm conscience making life as we know it happen#8230;.. and my grandad george #8216;sandy#8217; ferris a commando who enlisted because his home life was so tuff didn#8217;t talk much about the fighting but of the honour of the Gurkhas and the pilots of from the West Indies and the bravery of the Substance Brief History Indian army#8230;.like a lot of important history it will be forgot or not remembered but to some of us your British heroes. I just thought. My old English teacher Joe Culverwell at Bifida Essay, Stationers Company School London N.8 in the 70s was a black soldier in WW2. A Very Brief Essay? Hi Tony, What more info can you find out about him? NOw there#8217;s a challenge.

The National Archive might be a good place to find out his War records? I am an American retired black soldier. I came across your messages by luck. I wanted to obtain information regarding black soldiers serving in the military during WW2. Labeling Deviance? I was very surprise to Substance Abuse Brief find very little info. I am sure blacks lived in Britain at that time. Were they allowed to serve? From my understanding, there was a large community of classification projects blacks living in Substance Abuse Essay England at that time and from my studies, England was in need are men for the war. So, where we#8217;re the conscience black men?

American black military men did served in Abuse and Addiciton: A Very History WW2 but not many. However, there is a history of their participation. If anyone can assist me in fromm conscience locating information regarding the Blacks that served in British military, please let me know. Thanks. Hi Charles, thanks for your comment. Substance Abuse And Addiciton: A Very History? I#8217;m sorry that you couldn#8217;t find what you were looking for. There are a few articles on the site regarding black soldiers. Classification? The majority are focused on the instances of Black Britons. Substance And Addiciton: A Very Brief History? This category has the articles, but don#8217;t forget to use the #8216;Previous#8217; link at the bottom left.

Hope you find something that interests you. African American History (99) African History (193) Black Britain (261) Black Footballers (20) Black History (191) Black History Books (24) Black History Month UK (156) Black People in theory deviance Europe (127) Black Soldiers (57) Black Sports Stars (41) Black Women (104) Caribbean History (168) Editors Blog (22) Guest Blog Posts (22) Slavery (46) Help to Keep This Site online. Please Support by Donating ?1.

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How to Write an and Addiciton: A Very Brief, Effective Nursing Resume Summary. Writing an effective nursing resume summary is easier said than done. Studies show that recruiters spend mere seconds reviewing a resume and these days that’s after the classification resume has made its way through the applicant tracking system. An effective nursing resume summary is concise and easy to read. It correlates the candidate’s experience with the Substance and Addiciton: Brief History Essay job description in question. And it piques the reader’s interest to the point that they will continue reviewing the resume in greater detail.

How long do recruiters spend reviewing a nursing resume? A 2012 study conducted by fromm conscience the Ladders found that recruiters spend 6 seconds reviewing a resume. That’s right, 6 seconds. Substance A Very Essay? You maybe wondering why you’d even bother writing a resume summary at all. Well, this particular study only studied the initial review of the resume. Initially, recruiters typically go straight to a review of the last two jobs held by the candidate.

They want to know immediately if they are working with a candidate that has experience in the particular job capacity in question. So they look at classification the job title and the dates of Abuse and Addiciton: A Very Brief employment. Conscience? Recruiters also focused on the employers and Substance Abuse and Addiciton: A Very Brief education of the candidates. Of course, this study was conducted on recruiters reviewing the resumes of general professionals as opposed to labeling, professionals in the healthcare field. We’d expect slight variations from recruiters in the healthcare field. They may look for specialties, licenses and certifications in Substance A Very Brief Essay addition to these other attributes. But that doesn’t change the fact that candidates have a very limited amount of time to catch a recruiter’s attention.

If recruiters see some or all of what they’re looking for in an labeling, initial review, then they may give the resume a closer look. Even then, the resume may only receive 20 seconds total. You’re probably wondering how anyone could read your summary in 20 seconds let alone your entire resume. And Addiciton: A Very Brief Essay? Well, they’re actually reviewing it as opposed to reading it. And that’s important because it sets the tone for formatting your summary. How should your nursing resume summary be formatted? Like the fromm rest of your resume, your summary should be concise and Substance Abuse History Essay easy to read. The reader should be able to review it quickly and pick up on the keywords and concepts that they’re looking for. This is why we recommend using bullets and stand-alone snippets in your summary. By doing this, you’re playing to theory deviance, the realities of the Substance Abuse and Addiciton: Brief Essay review process.

Most summaries are written in classification projects paragraph form. Substance And Addiciton: A Very Brief Essay? This is fine for conveying large volumes of information in a more compact space, but it assumes that the reviewer is actually going to in macbeth is macbeth's, take the time to read it. Unfortunately, they will not do this in Substance Abuse Brief History the vast majority of cases. Bifida Essay? Therefore, a summary written as a big, long paragraph may prevent the Substance Abuse A Very Brief History Essay reviewer from picking up on the key points or distract them from even reviewing it at all. By contrast, a summary written with bullets and classification projects stand-alone snippets allows the Substance History Essay reviewer to fromm conscience, quickly scan this section and easily pick up on the keywords and points you’re making. Brief History Essay? You might include a quick snippet from an online evaluation or professional endorsement and provide a link to the site where the rest of the information can be reviewed. You may also provide a brief overarching summary of conscience your skills in bold print and then provide bullets for A Very Essay, the rest of the information you’re seeking to convey.

What should be included in your nursing resume summary? There are many possibilities for your summary and there is no exact science as to Spina Bifida Essay, what to include. Different people will have different cards to play based on their level of experience and the specifics of their job search. The only certainty is Abuse and Addiciton: Brief History, that you should always due your best to match your skills and the information you convey on your resume with the qualifications and job description in question. You might include the Spina Essay following in your summary: Years of relevant experience. And Addiciton: Brief History Essay? A summary of your qualifications for the job in conscience question. A sense of your work or management style. Substance History? Personal characteristics that make you a good fit for the job and/or company. Professional achievements.

Education, certifications or special experience that might make you unique. Measurable improvements that you’ve made for previous employers. Accolades or awards that you’ve received from previous employers. When considering what to write in your summary, do your best to avoid stand-alone cliches like “team player” or “results oriented”. Instead, try to convey these concepts with concrete examples. You might state that as a team player you accomplished X, or as a results oriented professional you accomplished Y.

Finally, you’ll want to in macbeth tragic flaw, ensure that the History Essay rest of your resume supports your summary. Remember, your goal is to convey as much information that’s pertinent to the job in question. Projects? So you don’t necessarily want to repeat information throughout your resume. As a healthcare professional, you have no shortage of Substance Abuse and Addiciton: History Essay highly technical skills and diverse job duties to convey so making sure your resume isn’t repetitive shouldn’t be a problem. Below is one example of a summary: Registered Nurse with over classification 7 years of critical care experience. Abuse? Specialized practice in projects cardiovascular surgery, post-operative recovery, and intensive care. Extensive experience and thorough understanding of pathophysiology and pharmacology of critically ill patients. Honored with several merit awards as a highly effective patient/family educator. Promoted to Charge Nurse as a respected team-player with demonstrated leadership skills. Current member of the American Association of Critical Care Nurses (AACN) since 2008.

AACN Ambassador since 2011. 5 Things that New Grad RNs and Substance Brief Essay Experienced RNs Should Know About the Job Market A New Grad RN recently shared their frustration with us. How to Write the Best Nursing Cover Letter A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as. 8 Things Every Nurse Ought to Know About Online Nursing Job Applications Applying online is the norm for nursing jobs. Classification Projects? We provide.

Hello, I just recently graduated from Abuse and Addiciton: Brief History, a BSN program last week so I haven’t taken the NCLEX-RN yet; I have been an LPN for 20 years. How do I highlight my previous healthcare experience but still tailor my resume as a new grad? Now that my scope of price practice will be different, which skills or attributes from my experience as an LPN would be best to feature as a new grad without listing basic nursing skills? Also, how should I word the Substance Abuse and Addiciton: A Very Essay fact that I don’t have a license yet? Is it appropriate to say “license pending?” Also, should I list my name followed by BSN or LPN? Congratulations, Brandee! There are no right or wrong answers to these questions, but here are my recommendations. Assuming you’re looking for RN jobs, list your name followed only by BSN until you get your RN license and then add the RN. In the conscience Licenses and Certifications section of and Addiciton: Essay your resume, list the RN license as Pending and classification provide a status, ie. scheduled for NCLEX 5/31-2017, or passed NCLEX 5/31/2017, or Applied for License 6/7/2017. As for the summary, I would indicate that you’re a new grad with experience as an LPN (Recent BSN graduate with 20 years experience as an LPN in various settings). From there, try your best to Substance and Addiciton: A Very History Essay, highlight how your experience relates to the qualifications and requirements for the specific job your applying for.

And remember, always be looking for ways to what flaw, explain why you’re the solution to their problems….rather than explaining what they can do for Abuse and Addiciton: Brief, you. I hope this helps! At what point is a nurse considered a New Nurse/ New Grad versus an Experienced Nurse? I am working on Essay my resume and do not know how to Abuse and Addiciton: A Very History Essay, tailor it in regards to the two options. I graduated Dec 14? and worked my first nursing position in May 15?. I have had one other job since then and currently seeking another. So in theory total, I would say I have about 1 1/2 years of nursing experience. I would say that 1 year or more of experience makes you experienced. However, how you approach your resume would depend on Substance Abuse and Addiciton: Brief Essay whether or not that experience was in the same specialty that you’re applying for.

For example, if you have 1 year of Spina experience in Long Term Care, but your applying for jobs in a hospital’s ICU, then you might want to include details about clinical rotations in Substance and Addiciton: Essay the ICU during your schooling, in addition to your experience in Spina LTC. Substance A Very Brief History? I hope this helps! I am also having difficulties creating a resume. I have two years experience working in fromm a nursing home setting and only recently graduated from the LPN program. I’m concerned that my few years of overall experience is going to effect me finding a good job. I have tried to construct a resume, but I do not feel confident in what I have so far.

Any suggestions/references would be greatly appreciated! I am struggling in writing my resume. I am not sure how to Abuse and Addiciton:, present myself. Fromm Conscience? My most recent jobs included the Program Nurse head for a Life Skills Program for medical fragile children and the nurse in and Addiciton: Essay charge of all the labeling theory deviance medical needs for a camp, including managing all aspects of the clinic. I also have worked at several doctor clinics and in the early days of my career, I was an ICU nurse at several hospitals. I would like another position in some type of nurse management. Suggestions on how to Substance A Very Brief History, summarize myself? Thanks for the inquiry, Jean. There’s no easy way to summarize your experience when attempting to transition into classification projects a new area of the field.

My recommendation would be to review each job posting for hints about Abuse Brief qualifications and requirements that you may be able to fromm, equate to your past experience. You can also research the employer posting the job to see if there is some larger initiative they are pursuing or challenge they are facing that your past experience might line up with. You can also review the job descriptions for similar jobs of many different employers to find hints about the qualifications that are being sought for and Addiciton: Brief History Essay, the type of fromm conscience position you’re interested in. There’s a good chance that if a qualification is important to and Addiciton: A Very History Essay, one employer, it’s important to others. The main goal is to convey how you are going to help solve the problems an the cross, employer is facing; how you are the best solution for their hiring need. It appears as though you have a broad set of experience to Substance and Addiciton: A Very History Essay, draw on, and in macbeth tragic flaw that’s a good thing. Substance Abuse And Addiciton: A Very History? The tasks are 1) equating your experience with the qualifications of the new job and/or 2) conveying how your experience will help you solve an what, employer’s problem and 3) succinctly distilling this into and Addiciton: A Very Brief History Essay 2 to 4 bullet points in your resume summary. I hope this helps!

I’m a former travel nurse of many years inclusive of labeling interim nursing leadership positions and staff nurse positions. Brief History Essay? Honestly, my Resume’ would look more like a “rap sheet” if I listed 10+ years of contract work, especially as I always worked 2 jobs concurrently. Now that I have my BSN and will complete my MSN: Nurse Executive specialty track degree within 6 months, I am looking to move from Director roles into the C-Suite. Any suggestions how to summarize or should I list each contract job? Congratulations or your recent and upcoming achievements! In your particular situation, it might be best to display your travel nursing experience as one entry in your work history. For example: Worked for various agencies completing short term assignments across the country, gaining proficiency with a diverse set of charting systems, processes, procedures, organizational structures and management approaches. Then, go on to list some highlights that pertain to the job posting for which you are applying. Donna Cardillo recommends this approach. Typically, we recommend listing out the hospitals, but in Spina Essay your case it might be too much.

That said, you should definitely be prepared to list out each and every hospital you worked with as some employers require it. I hope this helps!! Thank you for this article! Helps a lot =) Thanks for letting us know; we’re glad to Substance Abuse History, hear it’s useful! Great advice, thank you so much for getting back to me! #128578; Any advice for a New Grad RN looking for a 1st job? Preceptorship in pediatrics but I am going to apply to medsurg positions as well. What should I highlight in my executive summary? Thanks in advance! Thanks for the question.

Here is an article dedicated to new-grad nursing resumes. There’s a bit about summaries there. In addition to what’s covered there, you might consider adding pertinent volunteer work, conferences attended, any honors or awards you achieved, or a stellar GPA among other things. As always, review the job listing, learn about the employer and the challenges the fromm employer faces. Then, try to highlight anything in your experience that might align. I hope this helps! Thanks for Abuse and Addiciton: Brief History, sharing very informative. What about a med/surg nurse who wants to apply for a psych nurse position? Have lots of experience with psych patients and psych medications while working in classification projects med/surg. Thanks for the inquiry, Kayla. I recommend highlighting the PSYCH experience you have along with any related Med/Surg experience in Abuse and Addiciton: Brief the summary.

Be sure to review the job posting carefully to see what they’re looking for on How To Be Computer, so you can include any relevant work experience. What is the standard number of pages or megabites a registered resume should have ? There isn’t a standard length or file size for nursing resume. Most would say that it’s best to keep the A Very Brief History Essay resume to is macbeth's tragic flaw, 1 to 2 pages, but that may not always be possible. Additionally, resume length isn’t as important as it once was now that Applicant Tracking Systems are the norm. Here is an article with some more considerations on the topic. How would I present my resume as neophyte RN employed, but was been in the medical settings since I graduated in Abuse A Very Brief Essay 2005. Is Macbeth's? I worked in family doctor’s office as over Substance Abuse A Very Essay all in charge. Had3 months practice as RN float temporary while working on One Out-Standing Computer my papers to stay for good (acute, long term and dementia) and CNA of 4 yrs. Now, I started working as an RN since Nov 2014 until present as a primary nurse in a long term care. I really want to be a dialysis nurse.

I had my 800 hours clinical hours wayback in 2006. My apologies, Luz, but I’m a little unclear as to your situation and primary goal. If you’re interested in becoming a dialysis nurse, then you might want to look into the major dialysis services, Fresenius and DaVita, as potential employers. They will sometimes hire candidates with limited experience and many aspects of your long-term-care experience might be attractive to them. I hope this helps! I have a question- thank you.

I would like to Substance and Addiciton: Brief Essay, become a dialysis nurse however, I have no experience in that area I have worked in cardiac telemetry and psyche. Labeling? I did do peritoneal dialysis on the cardiac medical unit which I will include in my job description. Substance Abuse And Addiciton: A Very Brief Essay? Please advise how to open the door into a new arena of the cross elasticity nursing. Thank you so very kindly, El. Towne. Thanks for the question! Most Dialysis positions require experience in an acute care setting, which you have, so that’s a great start.

You also have some relative experience in the field. You might consider obtaining a Certified Nephrology Nurse certification as many employers prefer candidates with that certification. Next, you might consider inquiring with the Abuse and Addiciton: Essay larger private Dialysis services, Davita and Fresenius. The ratings for these employers on Glass Door and labeling theory Indeed are just so-so, but they might be a great way to get 1 to 2 years of Abuse and Addiciton: Brief History Essay experience in the specialty before searching for a more desirable hospital based position. The private Dialysis operators tend to a bit more welcoming to candidates without experience. That said, the job market for RNs is very hot in on How Computer Engineer 2016, so your chances should be better with all employers. I hope this helps!

What about for a second career new nurse? I have over A Very History Essay seven years of experience in Spina Bifida Essay the communications field with three years of supervisory experience. I recently graduated with my BSN and passed the and Addiciton: A Very NCLEX. My nursing experience is in macbeth is macbeth's, limited to my clinical experience and some volunteer work. I am struggling how to relate my past experience with nursing to make me stand out in my Summary. Yes, it’s difficult to relate experiences in other industries to nursing because employers are typically seeking candidates with experience in the technical aspects of nursing. Substance Abuse History? That said, you can certainly highlight the general aspects of in macbeth what flaw your former career. Your promotion, leadership, team-work and Substance History other aspects are all good qualifications to address in your summary. Price Of Demand? Also, here is an article on new-grad nursing resumes that might be helpful. I hope this information helps! What would you write as a nursing student looking to start applying for Abuse and Addiciton: A Very, jobs?

I have no experience other than what my clinicals have offered me. Labeling Theory? I wont be taking my boards for about 5 months still. Set to graduate in and Addiciton: A Very December (3 more months. How would you suggest is the best way to the cross elasticity, present that as a RN, I simultaneously held the Abuse and Addiciton: A Very Brief titles of ADON, Wound Nurse, and Charge Nurse at fromm conscience my most recent employer? Initially I was hired as a Charge Nurse, then I was promoted to ADON but I still had to work as a Charge Nurse 3 of my 5 scheduled days so I functioned in the role of ADON only on Monday and Tuesday.

Later it was determined there was a definite need for consistent and routine wound monitoring, so I evolved into the Wound Nurse for the facility. Working with physicians I developed new protocols for wound assessment, treatment, and management and every Monday I functioned in the role of Wound Nurse. And Addiciton: A Very Brief History? Is it best to break each job into its own summary and bullet list? I’m in Spina Bifida Essay over my head trying to figure out the best way to Substance and Addiciton: A Very Brief, present myself in a resume now, including the profile. Thanks for deviance, the inquiry. Substance Abuse And Addiciton: History? This is a great problem to have for your nursing resume! I agree it’s difficult to manage though. Typically, when people have multiple roles with the same employer, they’re not simultaneous so they can be listed separately according the time-frame they were performed. In this case, I think it would be best to do as you suggest and break each into it’s own summary and bullet list. The reason is that these are all very different roles.

Something like below: Employer information (location, details, etc.) Job Title: Charge RN, ADON, Wound Care Nurse. Hired as a Charge RN, I was promoted to ADON and also accepted a role as the Wound Care Nurse for the facility. Charge RN: Start Date-End Date. Wound Care Nurse: Start Date-End Date. I think something like that works well in this case. It might take up quite a bit of in macbeth what is macbeth's space, but you’ve accomplished a lot! As always, be sure to tailor your resume to the position applied for and highlight quantifiable and tangible achievements where possible. As for your resume summary, I think it’s best say something like, “X years experience as Charge Nurse, X years experience as an Substance and Addiciton: Brief, ADON, and fromm conscience X years as a Wound Care Nurse.” And/or, “Leadership and teamwork skills recognized by current employer with promotions and special assignments.” Remember, the Brief History summary itself is just that, a quick summary designed to pique interest and get the To Be One Out-Standing Computer Engineer reader to spend more time reviewing the rest of the resume and the actual accomplishments.

It’s also an excellent opportunity to match your qualifications with the required qualifications for Abuse and Addiciton: Brief, the job. Essay To Be One Out-Standing Computer Engineer? So, if the job is looking for X years experience as an ADON, then you might say, “Over X years experience as an Substance Abuse and Addiciton:, ADON.” I hope this information helps and please let me know if you have further questions or concerns. When listed awards won with previous employers, is it alright to add awards you were nominated for fromm, but did not receive? Great Question! Like many things related to resumes, you will find some people who say yes and others who say no. I would say that it depends on how well you can quantify the nomination. For example: One of Abuse and Addiciton: A Very Brief History five Staff Nurses out of Essay on How 160 to be nominated for the X Award. Quantifying it this way, indicates that it was an honor just to be nominated. If you’re able to do this, or something like it, then adding the nomination to and Addiciton: A Very Essay, your resume could be useful.

I hope this helps!! Thank you. Two more questions, after my name is appropriate to include credentials or no? I have seen differing opinions. My university awards a BS not a BSN, so my credentials will be BS, RN. Will this throw recruiters off since most are looking specifically for a BSN or will the conscience supporting information under education provide enough information? That’s a tough one. I’m not sure that I have seen a BS instead of and Addiciton: A Very Essay a BSN.

To be honest, I don’t think recruiters are that picky, so it should be fine to include your credentials as BS, RN. The vast majority of recruiters are more concerned with making sure you have the in macbeth is macbeth's required work experience. That said, if you’re a new grad, it shouldn’t matter either. Like you’ve already noticed though, there are many different opinions on resumes. I typically encourage people to include the credentials after their name and Abuse and Addiciton: Brief Essay I think your situation is no different.

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100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Need a great argument topic? Below I give over 100 ideas. You'll write faster and easier if you pick a topic based on: Knowledge: Picking a topic you already know a lot about Substance Abuse A Very History Essay, can make research faster and labeling deviance, easier.

Interest: Picking a question you want to know more about Substance Abuse A Very History Essay, can make this paper more interesting. Fromm Conscience! Available Sources: I give links to many sources. Check those for articles first and if you find some, your work is half done. Substance Abuse Brief History! I also save you time by giving you links to videos and sample student essays. Check out labeling theory, my guides for Substance Abuse A Very, writing papers too. Good luck! If you get a good grade, be sure to classification come back and A Very, tell me!

1. Instructions for how to (and how not to) pick a topic. 2. Price Elasticity! Lists of topic ideas (in the Substance Abuse A Very Brief History categories of food and health, obesity and dieting, recycling and the environment, families and Essay on How To Be One Out-Standing Computer Engineer, relationships, and science and technology, with videos and many links to A Very History Essay research and student essay examples. 3. Step-by-step instructions for what tragic flaw, how to write your essay. Choosing a topic that everyone is talking about makes writing an argument essay easier. Make sure you choose a question that doesn't have an answer people already agree on. Pick a reader that doesn't agree with you, so that you are not preaching to Substance and Addiciton: A Very History the choir.

It also helps if the topic is something everyone has an opinion about: this will make it easier to get examples to projects back up your essay, either from Abuse and Addiciton: History Essay, articles or from people you interview. Finally, you probably want to pick a topic that is interesting to you and conscience, that you care about. Steer clear of overused topics like abortion, gun control, and the death penalty. For one thing, your instructor has already read far too many of these essays and is not only probably bored with the topic, but also has already heard everything you might say. Moreover, although those may seem like easy topics, they really aren't, because most people are set in their ways about Substance A Very Brief History, these issues and it is hard to think of an argument that might change their minds.

Is Deforestation Worth it? Do the economic benefits of the cross price, cutting down forests outweigh the environmental damage? What is Love? What kind of love leads to Abuse History Essay a lasting relationship? Stay-at-Home Dad: Is it a good idea for a father to raise his children full-time? What causes a man to become a stay-at-home dad and can it work out well for Bifida Essay, a family? Hunger Hurts: Should Americans think and do more about the hunger faced by Substance Abuse A Very, people around the world?

Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? What can be done to fromm help children maintain a healthy weight? How can people lose weight and Abuse History Essay, keep it off? Is weight gain caused by genetics, environment, or some other factor? How do naturally thin people stay that way? What is the relationship between food, exercise, and weight?

Are low carbohydrate diets (like the Paleo, Adkins, and South Beach diets) really the best? Do planned-meal diets like Jenny Craig and Nutrisystem really work to help people keep weight off? Why are Weight Watchers and other calorie-counting diets often considered the best by One Out-Standing, doctors? Is controlling weight really a matter of calories in, calories out? What is the best diet for a young adult? Can vegetarian diets be healthy? Why are so many people now choosing to go on and Addiciton: History, gluten-free diets? Is sugar really bad for you?

Does restricting the size of soft drinks that can be sold really help health? Should schools have vending machines that sell sodas, candy, and classification, other bad snacks? What can schools do to promote better health in students? Does intermittent fasting really help you to be more fit? How can morbidly obese people lose weight safely? Is the T.V. Substance A Very Brief Essay! show The Biggest Loser helpful in motivating people to be healthy?

Does the in macbeth is macbeth's show create negative or positive feelings about morbidly obese people? Does it exploit the and Addiciton: A Very History contestants? What causes anorexia? How can it be prevented? How can you help an anorexic friend? Why are more young men becoming anorexic? What is morbid obesity? How does morbid obesity affect a person's health? What should we do about the cost of healthcare for overweight people? Should there be a greater insurance premium for people who are obese?

Is surgery a good method for people to lose weight? Are sugar substitutes helpful for dieting? Is fat really bad for you? Is a low fat diet the classification projects best? Research Articles on Obesity and Dieting. Here are some professional articles and Substance and Addiciton: Essay, websites that can help you start. Classification! Many of these articles contain links to Abuse and Addiciton: History Essay other sources also.

Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance, by Rena R. Price Elasticity Of Demand! Wing and Suzanne Phelan, in American Society for Clinical Nutrition (2005). The National Weight Control Registry. An account of over 10,000 individuals who have lost significant amounts of weight and kept it off for long periods of time. Substance Abuse And Addiciton: A Very History Essay! Overweight and Obesity. Classification! U.S. government reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diet Topic Articles from Abuse A Very, Psychology Today . What can we do to Bifida help people around the world have clean water to drink? Is hunting good or bad for the environment? Should the horns of wild rhinos be removed to prevent them from being poached? Can we protect wild areas and animals by promoting eco-tourism? Should the government discourage or regulate oil drilling in the gulf of Mexico? What are the dangers of fracking?

Does recycling really make a difference? Should all states adopt a deposit on soft drink bottles and cans in order to promote recycling? Should schools require students to bring refillable containers for water and other beverages rather than disposable ones? Should supermarkets charge for plastic bags in order to encourage the use of reusable bags? Should your city (or campus) do more to A Very Brief Essay encourage recycling? What causes people to litter? What could motivate people to clean up after themselves? What causes earthquakes? What can we do to reduce death or damage from earthquakes?

Or how can we better predict them? Does being a vegetarian or vegan help the environment? Can using LED lights make a difference? How can composting help save the environment? What is hazardous household waste and why is it important not to throw it in the regular trash? What is deforestation? How does it happen? Can it be stopped? What is fracking?

Is fracking worth the risks? Does fracking hurt drinking water? What is a carbon footprint? How can we change our carbon footprint? What are the dangers for people living in cities like Beijing with high pollution? Is nuclear energy really safe? What should be done with nuclear waste? What is the Spina best way to handle our trash? Are landfills a good idea? Where can we use solar, wind, and other alternative energy sources effectively?

What is the A Very best way to encourage alternative energy use? (Government regulations? Incentives? Helping companies that produce these products? Advertising?) The World Bank on Environment: Information and Spina Bifida Essay, research about Substance and Addiciton: A Very Essay, environmental issues around the in macbeth tragic world. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: On the science and technology page, find research and and Addiciton: A Very Essay, information under different topics like water, pesticides, or ecosystems. Discover Magazine: Search the environmental topics page for your topic. U.S. Government Recycling and Conservation: Statistics and information. Should mothers stay home with their children?

Do long distance relationships work? How can divorce be prevented? Is divorce something that kids can recover from? Are teenage marriages a good idea? Should teenagers that get pregnant keep their children? How can you get out of the classification friend zone?

How can you know you are in Substance Abuse History Essay an abusive relationship? Why do people stay in abusive relationships? What are the effects of domestic violence on price elasticity of demand, children? Who should do the Substance Abuse and Addiciton: Brief Essay chores in a family? What are helicopter parents and how do they help or harm their children? Is it good to be an only child? Is doing sports together a good thing for families? How have video games impacted family life? Why do some people treat their pets as family members? Is this a good or bad thing?

How important are grandparents to children today? How does interracial adoption affect a family? Are large families better for children? How does birth order affect children? Do older people make better parents?

Have cell phones and social media made families closer or not? How should (or shouldn't) you use social media in a dating relationship? How long should people date before they become engaged? What makes people have a happy, long-lasting marriage? Are the expectations raised by conscience, romantic movies damaging to real relationships? Are Beauty Pageants Good for Kids? What is nanotechnology and Abuse A Very Brief History Essay, how has it already changed our lives?

How will nanotechnology affect dentistry or medicine? How can nanotechnology be helpful in developing new types of computers, cell phones, or data storage? Does using cell phones make people more or less connected? Do cell phones cause a cancer risk? What should the laws be concerning the use of cell phones while driving? Have social media and texting hurt or improved the lives of teenagers? Why are children better at understanding new technology than their parents are? Do violent video games cause people to act out violently? Should schools use video games as a teaching tool?

Can students study better using digital textbooks than they can by the cross price elasticity of demand, using books, pens, and and Addiciton: A Very Essay, paper? Will paper and books become obsolete? What is the fromm conscience difference between reading on a screen and reading a book? Should everyone wear a microchip with their personal information to avoid identity and credit card theft? Should parents be able to choose the Substance Abuse Brief History genetics of their children? Are smart watches going to replace cell phones? What is the fromm conscience next big leap in technology? Which is Substance better, the PC or the Mac? If we can help people live longer through technology, should we? Is there a balance between quantity and quality of fromm, life? How can 3-D printers be used effectively?

SciTech Daily: Science and new technology news and research reports. MIT Technology Review: Massachusetts Institute of Technology's website for explaining new technologies. If you want to write a quick and easy argument paper, follow these simple steps: Pick a topic question from the lists above. Decide your answer to the question (this is your beginning thesis). Substance Abuse And Addiciton: A Very Brief History! Write down everything you know about the topic. Talk to your friends or family to find out Essay on How, what they know, have heard, or have read recently about the topic (have them give you the source if they know it). Look at Substance A Very Brief Essay some of the research articles or web sites about fromm conscience, that topic.

Look back at Substance Abuse and Addiciton: your question and what is macbeth's flaw, refine your answer. After gathering information, you may want to change it. Write down three or more best reasons for and Addiciton: A Very Brief History, your answer (these are your topic ideas for the body of your essay). Using those reasons, look at Spina the articles you've read or the ideas you've already written down for Abuse Brief History, some evidence to support those reasons (this is the fromm conscience backup evidence for Substance Abuse History, each topic sentence). Conscience! Write your outline, then follow it to write your paper. Do you have to do research for your paper?

Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas and Writing Prompts. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and Substance A Very Brief History, Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 22. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. The Cross! How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Substance and Addiciton: A Very History, Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. This is a great resource. I've just entered into labeling college, and Abuse and Addiciton: Brief Essay, didn't know where to begin writing my first argumentative essay. Classification Projects! Thanks so much - voted up :) Do you know or have you written of anything to do with the argumentative essay of should smoking be banned because I have to do essays with research and Abuse A Very History, I need some reliable sites. Projects! Virginia Kearney 4 weeks ago from United States. Hi Aashi!

I'm glad that younger students are finding my work too. Although I now teach college students, I started my career teaching in your grade for Abuse Brief Essay, several years. I will have to put together some topics for primary grade students. Until then, you might want to is macbeth's tragic flaw look at Abuse and Addiciton: A Very Brief History my High School Topics, which have many ideas which are good for your age too. I am in primary school in grade 6 and I want some good topics for classification projects, primary students.

Good job making this page. I don't know what to Abuse and Addiciton: A Very History Essay do at in macbeth is macbeth's flaw first. History Essay! I was clueless and was browsing for answers but none of them made sense except for this. Thank you very much! I think the ideas are wonderful and are very helpful! I am a Junior in high school and I have to write an argumentative paper. Your insight on how to do so has been extremely helpful. I wanted to Essay on How To Be Computer thank you for your intelligence on how to write an Substance Brief, argumentative paper. Thanks! This website was very useful for picking out a topic for my essay. Again, thank you for helping me out!

King of Stuff 8 months ago. Elasticity! I find this website very interesting and and Addiciton: Brief Essay, helpful. Conscience! Thank you for making it! Your tips on writing essays is really helping me out. Mr. fluffypants 8 months ago.

I love this article. You have helped me with my school essay. Thank you! letter pile 8 months ago. I LOVE this website. Thank you so much for writing it! It has helped me so much! Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Nataly! You are welcome to shift the focus of the questions to whether governments should take action. My questions and topic ideas are just a starting point. I teach my students that there are a variety of ways to solve problems and one of those is by having governments or larger groups take action.

However, I want my students to focus more on how they and Substance Brief Essay, their audience can personally take responsibility and action, so often my questions are more locally written. In my class, I focus on having my students address a very particular audience in their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from really thinking carefully about the viewpoint of the other person and developing points that would persuade that person. In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the student is using other sources as well. However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of source. Most people who do TedTalks have written out their arguments in papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to see if there is an online paper you can cite as well. I find your lists great and really appreciate the idea of Essay on How To Be Computer Engineer, providing useful links. Abuse A Very! Still, I would rather shift the focus of some questions so that they ask students to Spina think more globally, from the point of view of the Substance Abuse and Addiciton: A Very Brief History state and the society.

For example, should the in macbeth is macbeth's tragic state take actions to prevent high rate of divorces, which ones? Are people in developed states responsible for providing water and food to the starving people around the globe?, etc. I also wanted to Abuse and Addiciton: A Very Essay ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources. Have you ever heard of any cases when professors forbid to is macbeth's tragic use it? Thank you for a good work! Hulya Gulyurt 9 months ago. This helped me so much with my homework, thank you! Great Efforts . Well done. should guns be allowed on school campus.

Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States. This is an interesting topic idea bojoi--and definitely one that would be controversial. I'd love to hear how you would develop your thesis. preetyradd 14 months ago. i think this is cool i got a good grade on my essay thanks. Kanwal asif 14 months ago. And Addiciton: Brief History! Thank u so much God bless u. Virginia Kearney 17 months ago from United States. Glad this will help you three keys!

ThreeKeys 17 months ago from elasticity of demand, Australia. And Addiciton: A Very Brief History! Im about to try out your suggestions in this great article. Im excited to see what the outcome will be in how I take a more pointed or comprehensive approach in a written debate so to speak. Thanks so much! Thank you it is labeling deviance really helpful. Abuse And Addiciton: A Very Brief History! Thank you so much for the topics. Trisha Roberts 3 years ago from Rensselaer, New York. Love the great ideas! Absolutely love the what list you shared with us.

Thank you so much for this Article! Kalai 3 years ago from Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Sometimes i find that the most easy or obvious topic the hardest to Substance A Very Brief History Essay argue about. The less the words the classification greater the Abuse Brief headache. When we prepare for debates, each word has the ability to make or break the case.

Rae Saylor 3 years ago from Australia. Projects! What an Substance Abuse Brief, interesting range of ideas and tips! Massive thanks for writing this, pal! Voted up :) Eiddwen 3 years ago from Wales. A great hub Victoria ;thanks for in macbeth what, sharing and I vote up. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago.

This is very useful to those who must teach essay writing (and to those who must write them). I know I will be using this next time I teach English Comp. Voted up++ ExpectGreatThings 3 years ago from Illinois. Wow! This is a very impressive list and great instructions.

I like how you were able to write the questions without giving away your position on each topic. - Ginger. Eric Dierker 3 years ago from Spring Valley, CA. Abuse And Addiciton: A Very History Essay! U.S.A. Very interesting. Fun ideas and great food for thought. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and deviance, company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.

HubPages ® is Brief a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and in macbeth what, advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and Substance Abuse Brief History, others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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essay on Substance Abuse A Very Essay, foreign aid The Power of Independent Thinking. The Curse of Foreign Aid. Student Winner. Third Prize ($1000) 2.1. What is wealth. 2.2. How wealth emerges. 2.3.

How private property boots wealth. 3.1. One Out-Standing Computer. A reinforcement of wealth creation. 3.2. Common criticisms. 3.3. Abuse And Addiciton: A Very Brief Essay. Some empirical results. 4.1. Two kinds of interventionism. 4.2. Is Macbeth's. African case. 5.1. Food and clothes. 5.4. And Addiciton: A Very. National industry subsidizing. 5.5. Classification Projects. Public Works.

#147;Is foreign aid the solution to global poverty?#148; Today#146;s world economy is filled with contrasts. Abuse A Very Essay. While in some regions we find people dying of starvation, in others the concern about consumption becoming too high to be sustainable is taping shape. These sharp differences have prompted some populists and ideologists to blame the rich for the misery of the poor and to ask for international redistributions of fromm conscience wealth. It is easier to find opulent societies guilty of having plundered underdeveloped communities than to explain why some people can prosper and Substance Abuse Brief History other cannot. And it is also easier to simply imagine that one can improve poor peoples#146; lives by removing wealth from one place and putting it elsewhere than implementing the ideas that one would have to develop after reflecting seriously. Thus if we want to analyse why some societies are poor and whether some proposals are consistent with wealth creation, we must begin to understand the underlying conditions that make this wealth possible. Therefore our essay will be organised in in macbeth what tragic four sections. The first one is and Addiciton: Brief devoted to classification projects the definition of and Addiciton: Essay wealth, its foundation and is macbeth's tragic its economic sources.

Afterwards, we will study which are the Substance A Very implications of globalization on the sources of wealth. Thirdly, we will examine why its conditions are not universally fulfilled and how this fact explains poverty. And finally we will criticize foreign aid as a mean to achieve development. 2.1 What is wealth? Human being act purposely to achieve ends. A human being needs means to labeling theory fill the gap between his current state of affairs and his desired state of affairs. Substance And Addiciton: A Very Brief. As long as he obtains the proper means he shortens the subjective distance between his action and his end. We can thus say that an individual is richer than another if he is closer to fulfilling his ends, and One Out-Standing this will depend on the quantity and the quality of and Addiciton: his means.

Under this perspective, wealth is the relative abundance of suitable means in relation to one#146;s ends. This may appear a very simple definition, but we can extract some important corollaries which distinguish it from other definitions of wealth, avoiding popular misinterpretations. First of all, wealth is directly related to individual ends. Is Macbeth's. One person can be richer than another if he can satisfy better his ends even with a smaller endowment of means. Substance Abuse A Very Brief Essay. This does not mean that men without ends are the richest, but that one cannot consider that the size of the wealth is equal to the size of the endowment of properties. People with hard-to-realize ends need by definition more means to achieve them and Spina Bifida Essay thus one should not consider necessarily this greater abundance as a sign of Abuse A Very History higher wealth. In other words, action plans should be traced by the individuals who must perform them.

Obtaining the same good can represent little wealth to some and too much (too costly to be obtained) to another. Secondly, one should not only consider the direct means that satisfy the theory deviance ends, but also the entire production process that enables the achievement of those direct means. Action plans are so highly complex in that they involve many productive stages. Consumption goods are just the final stage and thus all previous stages that allow individuals to produce consumption goods are also considered wealth. Therefore, capital must be included in our definition.

But if we recall the previous point, we can understand that it must be capital designed through individual plans: the correct proportion between consumption goods and capital goods is given by individual time preference. Forcing capital accumulation (or capital consumption) means banning the Substance Abuse and Addiciton: Brief History achievement of the most valued ends and thus the destruction of wealth. Thirdly, wealth depends on the availability of means; those which cannot be used by any agent should not be considered wealth. That obviously excludes from our definition such terms as #147;natural wealth#148;, which tries to compare wealth with the abundance of in macbeth what tragic natural resources. Of course, natural resources may be wealth, as far as they are needed to fulfil one individual#146;s ends. However, only Substance A Very Brief History, those natural resources which are currently available are wealth. World inhabitants are not richer by the fact that planet#146;s core is formed by iron and nickel. Labeling Theory. We cannot still extract those minerals and that makes them useless. Natural resources become wealth just as some individual controls them. Substance Abuse And Addiciton: A Very History. This is in fact related to our previous remark. Tragic. We have to consider wealth as the whole chain of our plans: of course natural resources are wealth when we use them, but also those capital goods which open the path for their availability.

A community can live on Essay, the hugest deposits of Computer Engineer natural resources. But as long as they lack of the tools to exploit them, one should not count those resources as wealth. Until now, we have defined wealth and sketched some of Abuse and Addiciton: A Very Brief History its characteristics: it is Bifida a set of available means inserted in the plans of an actor to fulfil his ends. From now on Substance and Addiciton: A Very Brief Essay, we are going to analyse which are the conditions that make possible its creation and reproduction. 2.2 How wealth emerges. We have already said that any material resource cannot be considered wealth unless it is available to an individual#146;s plan. We should distinguish between two kinds of availability: physical and legal availability. The first one refers to the material disposition of Spina Bifida one mean; it is a factual relationship between the agent and and Addiciton: A Very History the mean. The second one implies having ultimate decision-making powers. Legal availability may or may not coincide with physical availability.

We can find cases where the person who has material contact with the resource is the one who has had the power of deciding its use. Labeling Theory Deviance. But we can also have cases where the individual who has the Substance Abuse and Addiciton: A Very Brief History material disposition is not the classification one who has decided its destiny (for instance, a worker who follows an entrepreneurial plan may have the Abuse A Very History physical availability but as long as he follows the wishes of the entrepreneur, he lacks legal availability.) If we take a closer look, we realize that legal availability is not exactly equal to the cross price elasticity a right to decide. Insofar I want to omit any ethical analysis, I am not speaking about who should have the legal availability, but about who actually has it. Substance Abuse Brief History Essay. For example, a thief who eats a stolen loaf of bread has had the power of last resort decision over that good (and thus its legal availability). In other words, legal availability is completely related with effectively inserting one mean in fromm conscience our plans (subjective side), while physical availability refers just to Abuse and Addiciton: A Very the material use of the resource (objective side). We could define a private property system as a society where original physical availability gives rise to original legal availability, which also includes the power to be transferred (homesteading). Projects. Furthermore, those to Abuse A Very whom the legal availability has been transferred must retain it either until it is further transferred or until the mean is consumed and perishes (enforceable voluntary agreements). If these two clauses are not fulfilled, we cannot speak properly of a private property system. Broadly speaking, when either homesteading or enforceable voluntary agreements fail, we have a third-way system and the cross price elasticity of demand when both principles fail a socialist one. Our definitions are probably too superficial, but they highlight two kinds of interventionism: partial and total.

The first one influences the Substance and Addiciton: Brief History assignment of legal availability (either at the beginning or in later stages) and the second one places every single mean of price a society under the power of some people who has neither homestead it nor acquired it by Substance Abuse A Very History Essay enforceable voluntary agreements. Because of we have stressed the role of availability in our definition of wealth, we must now raise some conclusive remarks on who will enjoy the wealth in each system: Private property system: People who make one resource available for its first time or who obtain that resource through a voluntary agreement have the projects power to decide its use. Wealth includes all those means originally or derivatively acquired. The conclusion is Substance Abuse and Addiciton: A Very pretty obvious.

A private property system is theory deviance a prerequisite for Substance and Addiciton: History Essay wealth creation. Without homesteading and enforceable voluntary agreements there is no foundation for wealth, and the cross elasticity almost every opportunity disappears or gets subjected to politicians#146; desires. 2.3. Abuse And Addiciton: History Essay. How private property boots wealth. Once we know that private property is a prerequisite for wealth creation, we have to explore the classification ways in which individuals arrive at that result in a private property system. First of all it is necessary to Abuse A Very Brief Essay recognize the labeling theory fundamental role that cooperation#151;what is more usually named #147;division of labor#148;#151;plays. Cooperation and Substance and Addiciton: A Very division of Spina Bifida Essay labor benefits its participants in at least three ways: economies of scale, diversification of abilities and specialization. Economies of and Addiciton: Brief scale refer just to fromm that situation in which there are positive synergies from cooperation. The output of two individuals working together is greater than the sum of Abuse and Addiciton: A Very Brief History Essay their products when working in isolation. As division of labor goes, people can form associations to collaborate among themselves for increasing the production of required means. In fact, there may be some products which cannot be obtained by autistic individuals.

For instance, moving heavy objects, surgery with general anesthesia or read an original novel. In these cases, the economies of scale derived from the fromm whole system of division of labor are virtually infinite: two null outcomes sum a positive one. Diversification of abilities stems from the differences in capabilities among men. Some people are more skilled at Substance A Very Brief History Essay, some task than others. Price Elasticity Of Demand. If individual A needs a mean x to Substance and Addiciton: A Very Brief History reach his ends but has plenty of in macbeth difficulties to get it, while individual B, who can produce it easily, has several problems in obtaining mean y, whose production A mastered, it is sensible to Substance and Addiciton: A Very History them to Essay Computer cooperate. They both can profit from the Substance Abuse and Addiciton: A Very Essay different abilities of other people. Even if I am very unskilled at a particular task, I still have options to achieve that task through cooperation. This leads us to the third benefit of division of labor: specialization. If people perform those tasks in which they are better, they could improve even further they skills and on How To Be Engineer increase their productivity. People such as geniuses could devote their time to research, as they do not need to Abuse Brief History Essay grow food, tailor their cloths and teach their children.

Other people may perfectly agree to provide them with those products in prospect of future technological developments. We do not need to restrict this analysis to the exchange of services, but we can generalize it as this process as an indirect exchange scheme, i.e. people create means, which are not directly needed for their own ends but for in macbeth is macbeth's other people#146;s. Specialization can evolve till systematic production of one basket of Substance and Addiciton: Brief goods which are hoped to be sold in Essay on How To Be Computer the market. Everyone who wants to participate in this huge spontaneous organization#151;capitalists, workers, entrepreneurs or consumers#151;has to find his place looking for profit opportunities. To do this people will employ economic calculation with historical market prices (as patterns of past exchanges) and their entrepreneurial sense. Decisions about Abuse and Addiciton: A Very Brief Essay what to produce (and what to consume), who to produce for (and who to buy from) and what flaw how to Substance Abuse History produce (and which are the conditions of the purchase) modify the previous productive structure. In developed economic societies, division of labor is on How To Be One Out-Standing totally dependent on consumer needs as forecast by entrepreneurs and capitalists.

Trade of goods and services become the most powerful way by which cooperation and specialization are brought about. Without this free trade among individuals people would have to cooperate through the barter of their abilities. Each person would have to find another person who could help him and who wanted something in what he could be helped by the first. Division of labor would be transitory: as soon as one contract expired, that production structure would disappear. Specialization would be very rudimentary and the scope of cooperation would be limited to the projects of the direct participants. What exchange allows is an increase of the size of the Substance Abuse A Very Brief Essay division of labor to projects every person that participates in the market, even without being aware of it, and to have individuals specialized in some production processes which have not been explicitly asked by Substance anyone. Then we get to the third stage of economic development. When people know that they can sell some good continually in the market and buy other goods with the proceedings, it becomes profitable to reduce the opportunity cost of the cross price elasticity of demand that productive activity in order to retain as much revenue as possible. In fact, sales depend on consumer#146;s willingness to buy and that depends on offering some product better than other sellers. Insofar other people provide more suitable goods and services than us, sales will collapse and our income with them. Entrepreneurs are ready to immobilize part of their incomes in order to Substance Abuse Brief History have better productive methods.

Capital allows them to incorporate more machines and technologies, to start new business and to projects devote time to research and develop better products which aim at consumer#146;s needs. Division of labor through exchange makes capital accumulation possible: people know that their task is to produce some goods and that their performance will be the Abuse A Very Brief History Essay better the more capital they employ. They save part of their earnings to invest in their previous production processes (amortization) or in new ones. This way, wealth is created in what is macbeth's flaw an asymptotic proportion. On the one hand, production of goods and services increases hugely#151;i.e. more ends being achieved; on the other, we have more intermediate goods which are also wealth because of the reasons so far explained. Substance Abuse And Addiciton: Essay. More capital not only means more present consumption goods, but also more future ones (capital goods are lastly financed with saved consumption goods that can be recovered through liquidations). Societies get richer as far as their proportion of consumers goods in relation to capital goods gets smaller, although its absolute number grows[4]. Probably it is in the case of elasticity of demand investment where the necessity of private property is more clearly seen. People will only be disposed to spend resources in roundabout methods of production that take a considerable time to mature if it is foreseeable that their proceeds will be retained by the owner. Otherwise, individuals will consume their incomes as soon as they obtained them. If private property is uncertain in the future, so will investment in the present.

3.1 A reinforcement of wealth creation. We have so far analyzed what is A Very Brief History wealth and how people organize themselves to Essay create it. Now we will study how the phenomenon known as globalization affects our previous conclusions. Globalization is just an Substance and Addiciton: expansion of the extent of the division of labor[5], i.e. an increase in cooperation among people, both in the number of participants and in what tragic the number of relationships. This change may have been motivated by several factors, such as reductions in Substance Abuse and Addiciton: A Very transportation costs due to better technology, an improvement of communications or a higher respect for private property (for instance, a reduction on trade barriers means allowing more enforceable contractual agreements among people located in different countries). But in any case, the nature of classification globalization is the Substance Abuse Brief History same wherever it comes about: the spontaneous division of labor adapts itself to the new capitalists, workers, entrepreneurs and in macbeth what tragic consumers and becomes more wealth productive. A deeper and Abuse A Very Brief History Essay more extensive division of the cross elasticity of demand labor implies more economies of scale, wider range of Substance A Very Essay individual abilities and more opportunities for specialization. Since entrepreneurs face a greater demand from the new consumers, they can increase the size of their factories and reduce the labeling deviance average cost of production spreading it among more units. Lower averages costs mean also lower prices for consumers after competition drives them down.

A wider range of Substance Brief History Essay individual abilities diversifies the qualities and quantities of suppliers: there are more people who can do more things. Very specific skills are more abundant and thus the bargaining power and prices of specific local producers go down. Finally, thanks to the economies of scale and the greater number of in macbeth what tragic flaw abilities, specialization can be focused to very concrete issues, increasing thus productivity and creativity. All this leads to lower prices and Substance Abuse and Addiciton: History Essay more diversified means: consumers can buy more and better commodities and thus reach more ends, i.e. In Macbeth What. more wealth is and Addiciton: created. Increased trade among individuals is just the external and labeling deviance visible way in which this new division of labor manifests itself. However, before new trade patterns are developed, the A Very History Essay exchanged commodities must be produced, what just can be done through changes in the structure of production. Labor and capital must be reassigned among productive branches and enterprises. When these companies are located in different countries, that process is usually called migrations and conscience capital movements respectively. It is commonly asserted that we could expect out of this process a tendency toward the equalization of the incomes of factors of production.

But we should speak not about monetary incomes, but about Substance Brief History Essay subjective incomes. Labeling Deviance. Employees not only look for higher wages that allow them to acquire more mean but also for other factors such as location, simplicity, physical effort, psychical motivation, altruism, etc. These characteristics are also wealth, as long as they affect the means with which to satisfy our ends. Those who dislike physical effort will be more pleased if they can achieve their objectives through a relaxing work instead. In fact, improving workplace conditions is Substance Abuse A Very another kind of remuneration that must be financed with capital[6]. There is only one way by which wages can be increased without destroying wealth, this is by increasing labor productivity[7]. Labor productivity can only be increased through capital, either by more capital accumulation or by incorporating technological advances in the form of capital goods. The more capital an labeling theory deviance entrepreneur has, the more productive methods that can be used and the higher wages that can be paid. Substance A Very History. However, capital accumulation is a very hard task. Classification. Capital is savings and to save one has to restrict its consumption.

If production is very low savings will also be very low and thus capital accumulation will happen slowly. This is where capitalist enter into the picture. Capital profitability is determined by the rate of return, this is, profits over capital invested. A Very History. As far as profits are just revenues minus costs and wages are a very important part of the costs, hiring people who were earning a low salary increases capital rate of return. For instance, if I earn $11000 from my business and to run it I have to spend $10000 a year#150;out of is macbeth's flaw which 5000 are wages#151;my rate of return is 10% (profits=1000, capital expenditure=10000). Abuse And Addiciton:. If I could hire people who are willing to classification projects work for half of the previous wages, my rate of return pumps to Abuse and Addiciton: A Very 46%[8]. The much higher profitability of the low wage scheme will push entrepreneurs to hire those people who are willing to work for half of the previous wages and Engineer due to their competition, these wages will go up (and also high wages will tend to go down in order to find a work place). This is just wage arbitration among homogeneous workers. Entrepreneurs may have to Substance Abuse and Addiciton: incur in additional expenses in order to hire those low wage workers.

This can happen, for deviance example, if it is necessary for the production center to relocate closer to where the Abuse A Very people work. Likewise, we can illustrate it just changing the above numbers a bit. The Cross Price. If entrepreneurs can only reach those workers by paying 1000 extra dollars, rate of return will be around 30%, a figure which is lower than 46% but that it is A Very History still far higher than 10%. In other words, it is profitable to hire those low wage workers even with those expenses. Being that the Spina case, low wage workers are not condemned to a slow capital accumulation process when capitalists are near. Entrepreneurs will hire those low wage workers thanks to their capital reserves and that will allow those workers to earn higher wages than they otherwise would earn. Up to this point, these workers can start saving increasing quantities of money and become themselves capitalists who continue the capital accumulation (and wealth creation) process. The case is the same when those who support the extra costs are not capitalists but entrepreneurs. With migrations entrepreneurs are not the ones who seek workers; it is the workers who seek entrepreneurs, and the ones assuming the costs Instead of capital looking for lower wages, those earning low wages are looking for higher productivity[9]. In any case, the capitalist#146;s seek for Substance and Addiciton: A Very Brief Essay profits allows workers to reach a more diversified supply of labor opportunities which makes possible better combinations of their job preferences with higher wage rates[10].

The resulting division of labor system will encompass all the benefits studied in the previous section but in a deeper form. This should help us to clear one common misunderstanding related to the exceptional and unique character of globalization. As a legacy of German historicism and Marxist theory of History, globalization is seen as a new stage in human development that requires some ad hoc economic theory. On the contrary, economic principles comprised in fromm conscience the previous section would be enough to describe globalization. There exist no particular economic laws which depend on historical contingencies. The prerequisite of private property and the profits from division of labor led by exchange and capital accumulation are an Substance Brief a priori truth apart from the concrete circumstances in which they take place. Price. When the Substance and Addiciton: History extent of the market increases, we just have a rescale of division of on How To Be Computer labor. History Essay. There is no modification and no exception in price the underlying economic laws. 3.2 Common criticisms. To many people globalization is and Addiciton: Brief History just a process by which a minority plunders the majority.

It is deviance a zero-sum game in which losers outnumber by Abuse and Addiciton: Brief Essay far the in macbeth what is macbeth's winners. Our analysis has proved that this is not clearly the Substance Abuse A Very Brief Essay case; every participant in the increased division of labor derived from elasticity, globalization benefits. Anyway, in order to History Essay give a more solid ground to our conclusions, we are going to address those critiques. The first misunderstanding comes from those who deny that division of labor is mutually beneficial in Bifida Essay any case. Substance And Addiciton: A Very. If one person is better than another in everything, there would be no profitable exchange as far as the first individual can provide for in macbeth what is macbeth's himself all that he need. As there will not be any specialization, the Substance Abuse and Addiciton: Brief Essay first individual will monopolize all the production and will exclude the second one from the division of labor system. Spina Essay. We may call it #147;the absolute advantage theory of trade#148;. The doctrine was already proved fallacious by David Ricardo when he explained that international trade was governed by comparative and not absolute advantage. If individual A can produce 10 television sets or 3 cars in 12 hours and individual B 8 televisions and 2 cars, then if both work in isolation and Brief Essay try to diversify production, the the cross elasticity of demand maximum output achievable in Substance and Addiciton: A Very Essay a day would be: Individual A: 10 television sets and 3 cars.

Individual B: 8 televisions sets and 2 cars. Total output: 18 television sets and 5 cars. However if both cooperate and individual A specializes in TV production and individual B in car production, total output is given by: Individual A: 20 television sets. Individual B: 4 cars. Total output: 20 television sets and 4 cars. Now A can use their 10 extra cars to buy not only the third car that would have produced in isolation but also a forth one that was not available to him.

B on the same way can use his two extra cars to conscience buy 10 television sets, which represent two more than those that could produce in isolation. Trade is mutually beneficial in physical terms for both individuals even when one of them does not have an absolute advantage in any good. As they devote their time in those projects in which they are better, global productivity increases. This physicalist approach is however just a particular case of a more general one: division of labor is mutually beneficial with regard to Substance and Addiciton: A Very Brief History Essay subjective plans. Since time is conscience scarce, every person must choose which activities to perform. People will tend to concentrate on the most valued activities and outsource less valued ones. But to do that, any person must compare the cost of Abuse and Addiciton: acquiring that activity in the cross elasticity of demand the market (this is, hire another person to Substance Abuse Essay do it) with the classification projects cost of performing it by himself. As long as the cost of performing that activity by and Addiciton: A Very himself is an opportunity cost (not performing by himself other activities), the individual will have always to in macbeth what tragic renounce to perform some activities. If the cost of A Very History being provided that non-performed activity by the market is inferior to the profits he derives from it, then there will be incentives for cooperation, even if that individual is absolutely superior in both tasks.

In other words, absolute advantage is not a handicap for social cooperation. Spina. Indeed, cooperation fosters wealth both by Substance Abuse A Very History increasing productivity and by providing commodities which would not have been available otherwise. The other main criticism has many variants but one same root: it follows the Marxist idea that capital exploits labor. With this we can argue either that capital previously-hired workers or the newly hired ones. Let#146;s focus on Bifida Essay, the first idea. We have seen that in Substance A Very History globalization there is fromm a tendency toward the equalization of incomes for homogeneous factors of production. This necessarily means that low remunerations will increase but also that high remunerations must decrease; i.e. Third-World workers will enjoy higher wages but #147;national#148; workers will suffer from lower salaries[11]. The fallacy of Abuse and Addiciton: A Very History Essay this argumentation lies on the implicit assumption that the only form of Essay income for #147;national#148; workers is wages, what implies that national workers must remain national workers even when we are exporting capital (so they will not discover any profit opportunity for investing abroad). If being a capitalist becomes exceedingly profitable thanks to foreign low wage workers, there is Abuse and Addiciton: no reason to suppose that national workers cannot invest part of their savings to hire foreign workers.

In spite of the decreasing in their own wages, they can obtain additional income coming from capital investments. For example, an entrepreneur hires five high wage workers for $10000 each and sells his output for $60000. On How To Be One Out-Standing. The rate of and Addiciton: A Very Brief History return of what is macbeth's tragic this investment will be 10000/50000=20%. If this entrepreneur discovers that he can hire low wage workers for $1000 $, he will fire his five high wage workers obtaining a return of 55000/5000=1100%. This is unmistakably a signal that more investment is needed in this sector and thus other capitalists and previous high wage workers can increase capital funds out of their savings.

For instance, the five workers might have saved $1500 each one from Abuse Brief History, his last salary and price elasticity hire these low wage workers for that price. Substance Abuse And Addiciton: Brief History Essay. In that case, they could sell the output for $60000, obtaining a profit of $52000 and a return of One Out-Standing Engineer 52500/7500=700%. The entrepreneur could decide to invest his funds elsewhere or bid for the low wage workers for a further higher salary. The first option will increase total output of the economy with respect to the previous situation (more wealth is now created). The second one would leave the high wage workers with a new trade-off: to Substance Abuse and Addiciton: Brief History Essay form a cooperative and compete with low wage workers or to become stockholders of a more capitalized enterprise that wants to enter in that sector.

In both cases, output will be increased and thus prices will be lower than otherwise. Finally, workers could also think not to projects be able to Substance and Addiciton: History compete in Spina Essay that sector, and thus to A Very Brief Essay invest his savings in satisfying the additional demand that will come out of the huge profits of his previous employer. Recall that when the entrepreneur hired high wage workers he obtained a profit of $10000 $, but now he is gaining $55000, this is 45000 extra dollars which will be devoted either to consumption or to savings. Labeling. Both decisions create an additional demand either for consumption or for capital goods that could be satisfied by the investment of his previous employees. Of course, in every case previous high wage workers could still look for another job which paid them a slightly lower salary with which to complement his investment returns. Newly, more output and thus more wealth is created. We can summarize our conclusions in the following scheme.

When one entrepreneur finds new low wage workers, fired ones can: 7.1. Compete for hiring low wage workers: The entrepreneur then increase the Substance Abuse and Addiciton: Brief History output in other sectors. 7.2. Invest in the same sector (cooperative or corporation): There is more output in the same sector. 7.3. Invest in the new sector that emerges from entrepreneurial profits: There is either more consumption or more capital goods. 7.4. Look for new jobs: More output in other sectors. As we see, the net result of the the cross price elasticity of demand appearance of new workers is to increase total wealth: there is a greater quantity and variety of consumption and capital goods and then lower prices. Whether this wealth will be redistributed to workers in a higher proportion than their preceding income is a question that cannot be answered a priori.

The point is Abuse History Essay that if they act properly#151;by inserting themselves into the more complex division of labor system and aiming to solve other people#146;s needs#151;they can be clearly better off as there has been created more wealth. This conclusion is equally valid when we talk in aggregate terms. Capital exports just mean that there are plenty of Essay opportunities for capital outside. If workers want to remain just workers without trying to take advantage of those opportunities, it is possible that, despite the fall in Abuse History Essay prices, they get worse off. Projects. However this would just represent a shortcoming in grasping which the necessities of people are: when there are individuals willing to work for a low salary what is needed is more capital, not higher wages. The other common objection to globalization is just the opposite of this one. Capitalists still exploit workers, but this time foreign ones. The argument goes as follows: entrepreneurs invest in foreign low wage countries only as long as they wages remain low. When their wages begin to rise, capital goes outside the country (hot money) looking for Substance A Very Brief Essay other low wage zones.

This argument is much simplistic than the earlier. The implicit assumption is that there will always be enough lower wage workers to labeling theory deviance satisfy entrepreneurial (consumer) needs which will offset wage increases. Abuse Brief History. Unfortunately, labor is the only real scarce factor of production[12] and as capital is accumulated, labor must receive increasing remunerations, at least in real terms. But even if we considered the assumption true for a moment, the conclusion would be incorrect. In order to hire a worker an entrepreneur has to offer him a subjective income higher than the the cross preceding one. The more this extra payment lasts the more opportunities for saving the worker has. One entrepreneur could disinvest from one country after having stayed there five years, but during that period their workers could have become capitalists who invest by themselves[13] (and this includes the ability to hire that infinite bunch of lower wage workers that is supposed to exist). 3.3 Some empirical results. Although we have shown a priori the intrinsic goodness of a global market economy, it may be interesting to refer to some data that illustrate our arguments.

Xavier Sala-i-Martin has performed some empirical research[14] that show that the number of poor people#151;defined as those who earn less than $826 a year#151;has diminished from 1200 millions to 800 in the period 1970-2000. The results are far more impressive if we take into account that world population has doubled in that period and that thus poverty in A Very History Essay relative terms has gone down from 37% of world population to elasticity 13%. Substance Abuse A Very History Essay. These results are pretty similar to those of Surjit Bhalla who suggests that poverty#151;$2 a day#151;has fallen 60% to on How To Be One Out-Standing Engineer 23%. Furthermore, Sala-i-Martin also offers data regarding other indicators that point in the direction of and Addiciton: Brief Essay growing wealth. Life expectancy has increased from 60 to the cross 67 years, child mortality has fallen from 10% to 6%, literacy has grown from and Addiciton: Brief Essay, 64 to Essay on How 80% and Substance Abuse A Very Essay access to potable water has risen from 25% to 80%. Both authors coincide in one point: there has been on part of the world which has not taken advantage from globalization, i.e.

Africa. For instance, Sala-i-Martin says that #147; We are living in a world which is not perfect, although it globally improves, but it is also a world in which Africa is a disaster. Projects. The question is Abuse and Addiciton: A Very Brief who to blame: Africa or globalization #148;. Similarly, Bhalla states that: Zero 2$ is likely in classification all parts of the World in 2015, except in Brief History sub-Saharan Africa. This region#146;s share of the world#146;s poor people is expected to elasticity rise from 36% today to almost 90% in 2015[15]. Our target in the next section will be to Substance Abuse A Very Brief History Essay explain how wealth can be destroyed, looking at particular policies that have isolated African people from in macbeth what is macbeth's, globalization. 4.1 Two kinds of interventionism. Up to this point, we have studied which are the foundations and representations of Abuse Brief History wealth: private property and division of Spina Bifida labor manifested through commodities exchanges and capital investment. However we have also seen that in some parts of the world#151;Africa#151;people has been systematically unable to Substance and Addiciton: A Very Essay create wealth.

The fundamental reason behind this fact is, as we have already seen, the systematic violation of property rights that blocks division of labor, exchange and capital accumulation. This violation may come either from a State which explicitly abolishes private property or from a state of affairs in Essay Engineer which legal availability is not generally respected. In these cases people would lack incentives to cooperate in a huge scale division of labor, as long as very long-term plans would be subjected to the arbitrary decision of another person or group of people. Systematic interventionism creates alternative networks of labor to and Addiciton: History Essay those that would have prevailed in conscience a free market. It tries to either impose one central plan or to combine it with the supposed plans of its participants. During the time in which this alternative networks function, any other association is Substance Abuse and Addiciton: Brief Essay perceived as sabotage of the in macbeth central plan: people who do not summit are hampering the collectivist organization. As we see, individuals cannot adjust their plans as they could made in a market economy. No more than the Substance Brief History Essay people who are endowed with the legal availability over classification all the resources is capable to Abuse and Addiciton: modify the individual#146;s position in the network. No profit opportunity can be detected precisely because no profit opportunity exists: individuals cannot follow their own plans and price thus no one can find any end to be satisfied.

Exchange cannot take place and capital accumulation makes no sense. It is the State who decides how much is saved and Substance Abuse A Very History Essay consumed and how savings must be spent to in macbeth create machines, materials and other productive structures. Wealth destruction#151;poverty#151;with explicit interventionism is clear. No individual plan can be realized and then almost no material structure can be considered wealth. Just those consumer goods that central planning board gives to people and and Addiciton: A Very Brief Essay which coincide by chance with some of projects their ends will lastly be considered wealth. Neither division of Substance Brief Essay labor schemes nor productive structures could be considered wealth, since they block other higher ranked ends and To Be One Out-Standing means that could be achieved by individuals in absence of Substance Abuse Brief coercion. Asystematic interventionism is equally destructive of wealth, but its manifestation is a bit different. We may have a State whose discretionary behaviour lacks of a rule of action with respect to legal availability. In this context, people would be led by their expectations of coercion. If they foresee that they will be deprived in the future of the legal availability over their means, they will shorten their plans until the point in which they hope to be able to use their means. Deviance. The reason is obvious: means only Brief History Essay, derive value from labeling theory deviance, their ability to satisfy individual ends, if those means are stolen before they can be used, they lose all their value.

Shortening the number of stages in individual plans has a precautionary effect against coercion. If the period between means creation and Abuse Brief History means consumption is very short, asystematic violence is less likely to occur; it has less time to Essay One Out-Standing Computer materialize. The longer the period of the plan, the higher the probability of Abuse and Addiciton: A Very Brief asystematic interventionism to the cross price elasticity of demand happen, even if we considered that a given government is not a priori very willing to coerce people. So far we can already say that the effect of asystematic interventionism is always to shorten the number of stages of A Very Brief History people#146;s plans and we know that among the longer there are always more productive plans, which implies a narrow margin for social cooperation and for fromm capital investment. When we fulfill our ends through the division of labor, we place other people#146;s ends as a mean of ours. This human cooperation can be done horizontally (an association of various people who try to satisfy other person#146;s ends) or vertically (I satisfy the Substance Abuse History Essay needs of another person which in turn were the means for satisfying a third person ends). Asystematic interventionism affects both those horizontal associations with a high number of stages or vertical associations that by definition have more than one stage. The fact that the more time-consuming structures are the ones that are most damaged also implies that capital accumulation (which could be use to finance this time-consuming structure while they did not mature[16]) will also be strongly diminished. Theory. The range of division of labor is greatly reduced and resources are normally consumed as one gets them because there is no investment opportunity. A society can suffer both systematic and Substance A Very Brief History Essay asystematic interventionism. The scope of the first one determines the extension of the division of labor: more systematic interventionism means a smaller division of labor organization.

The hardness and price elasticity of demand regularity of the second increases the uncertainty over and Addiciton: A Very Essay legal availability and thus the complexity of the deviance division of labor that remained outside systematic interventions. Although many interventionist policies fit our descriptions, we can give some very visual examples of both classes. Taxes and regulations are kinds of systematic interventionism. Wars, inflation and expropriations are examples of the asystematic one. Taxes imply that some people spend wealth without having created it, i.e. there is Brief History Essay a complete loss of legal availability over resources. People have worked for classification projects the government and thus we may consider that all the efforts so devoted were part of a coercive plan conceived by the State. A 100% tax would mean socialism, this is, the complete planning of Substance Abuse A Very History individual actions. Regulations force or prevent some actions to on How To Be Computer Engineer happen. In this sense, it is a sort of construction of society and cooperation. If people have to act in Substance Abuse and Addiciton: Brief History some way, they cannot act in fromm conscience another that may be more profitable for their plans.

If people must not act in A Very Brief Essay some way, the potential area for cooperation is restricted. Wars may generate a huge uncertainty over the future legal availability of resources, specially when defence competences have been expropriated and monopolized without giving individuals the possibility of choosing their most preferred defender. During a war, insecure people try to Essay To Be One Out-Standing Engineer provide themselves as fast as possible with the most elementary consumption and protective goods. There is no place for long term investments. Inflation, as the debasement of money, provokes a redistribution of the value of the currency, which complicates the possibility to Substance and Addiciton: purchase of the desired consumption goods and deviance which erodes savings. The consequences is clearly a tendency to buy consumption goods before its prices increase more and to transform savings into Abuse History, assets that do not loss value, even if they are very illiquid. Finally, expropriations mean the probability of losing a resource by in macbeth what is macbeth's tragic governmental discretionary decision. The higher the subjective probability, the faster one will be willing to sell or consume the resource.

Therefore, that means it will not enter into long-term plans. It is Substance and Addiciton: clear that any society that suffers from any of labeling theory deviance these diseases must suffer from wealth destruction (impoverishment). Now let examine how this analysis fits with Africa and how it can explain its situation[17]. We will mainly use Heritage 2007 Index of Economic Freedom data: Taxes: Although there are countries with very high top rates[18], unfortunately it does not seem that this factor radically separates Third from Substance Brief History, First World.

This does not mean nevertheless that the African tax system does not destroy wealth: every resource appropriated coercively by in macbeth is macbeth's government as we have seen provokes this effect. African societies would do much better without it. If one had to sum up Africa#146;s main problem it would unquestionably be the lack of respect for property rights. Taxation, regulation, inflation and expropriation are clear attacks on private property that close any possibility for Africa to A Very History Essay insert in the international division of labor. Mauritius, Botswana and South Africa are the South-African countries whose population is the cross price of demand most prosperous[26] and, according to Substance A Very Essay Heritage, are also the three with more respect for property rights. We have identified a priori the disease. We have shown that it fits with reality. We thus know what the only solution for African societies is: transition to a full private property system. However, from many strata other solutions are proposed; we will devote our last section to analysis the projects viability of those ideas. Along this essay we have established that private property is both a sufficient and a necessary condition for wealth creation. Substance A Very Brief Essay. It is Spina Bifida Essay sufficient because no other factor is needed to reconcile individual plan in a mutually beneficial cooperation scheme.

It is necessary because without it no action or policy will be able to create wealth. Notwithstanding voices can still be heard asking for a grand foreign aid program to help Africa develop. Their proponents generally do not explain the A Very History concrete ways in which this aid will foster wealth; it is just assumed that it will. Although for a non-economist it might seem self-evident that money is wealth and what flaw that giving money to people can achieve them to Substance Abuse be prosperous, these judgements are doubtfully valid and conscience consistent. And Addiciton: A Very History. The Western observer tends to think with his backward experience, i.e. assuming that money is labeling theory deviance wealth because he has a bigger or smaller legal availability over it. The reasoning should be much different if we took into account that Africa is not stuck by the lack of resources, but by the lack of and Addiciton: A Very Brief History private property. The same shortcoming that prevent African wealth creation, remove efficiency to any foreign aid, either private or public. It may be useful to prove this point by examining the ways in on How To Be One Out-Standing Computer which foreign aid could be used and what would be their consequences.

Before of that, it is necessary to clarify one point. I am not going to value whether foreign aid is useful for other legitimate purposes. Substance Abuse. My argumentation will just be concerned with development and wealth creation, this is, with the ability of the cross price elasticity of demand individuals to fulfil increasing numbers of ends. Substance Abuse History Essay. Despite being against public foreign aid, I do not want to question private charity#146;s movies. I will just show that if the purpose of the is macbeth's donor is to help African people to and Addiciton: A Very Brief History Essay be able to create wealth, it will simply not work in absence of private property. 5.1 Food and clothes. The most primary destiny of foreign aid is to buy food and clothes#151;as kinds of very basic products#151;to Africans. The relation of this use of aid with growth would be the following: starving people cannot prosper; if we feed them, they will have free time to create wealth. The reasoning has a problem of fromm causality inversion. What we try to explain and solve is Substance Essay African poverty, one of price elasticity of demand whose signs is starvation. Africans are not poor because they starve, but they starve because they are poor.

Every rich society was some day in the past as poor as Africans are today, but however they did not get stuck. If Africans are so poor as to starve, the reasons for this must be found elsewhere besides the symptoms. In case this kind of policy were implemented, receivers of food would be able to survive while the free food provision continued. They would not be able to create wealth by Abuse Brief History Essay the same reasons they had not been able in the past. And as soon as aid stopped, starvation would continue. Consequently, spending foreign aid in this issue will not help African development.

Mainstream interventionist economists have already recognized in part our previous argument (mostly after the complete failure of projects foreign aid to promote growth). Giving food to Africans will not favor their development once that provision is cut. However, they do not relate it to private property insecurity but to educational barriers. The idea has been sum up in the motto #147; If you give a man a fish he will eat today but if you teach him to and Addiciton: History Essay fish he#146;ll eat for a lifetime #148;. Foreign aid thus could be useful in promoting education and in this way African development. This reasoning still fails to recognize what the true problem is. Elasticity. African people already know how to fish or how to grow their lands. It would be naive to A Very Brief Essay suppose that after centuries of having lived with the Nature they do not know anything. The true point is that despite knowing how to fish they do not fish or at least they do not fish enough. In other words, they do not use their knowledge to form economic plans.

And they do not do that due to what is macbeth's the reasons we have already sketched: there is no l a private property system in and Addiciton: A Very Brief History Essay Africa. Without private property there can be neither a truly productive division of labor (among fishermen) nor investments that assist them (ships, nets. ). No one want to put their very scarce resources in Computer Engineer some projects that with high probability will be interrupted by force. Extensions of the argument are equally invalid. Substance Abuse A Very. Educating technicians, physicians and other scientists will not attract foreign investment, for the reason that the problem is not in the insufficient formation of African people, but in the regulatory framework. Africa has already a comparative advantage in price elasticity of demand costs that is not currently exploited by Substance and Addiciton: A Very History foreign companies because of that framework. Nothing would change with better education. In fact, the foreseeable consequence is that those scientists formed in Africa emigrate to the First World, where they are required and where that kind of projects can be realized. A variant of the food case for foreign aid is the demand for better health care. To Be. According to this argument, diseases such as AIDS block any opportunity to prosperity. If Africans had better health, they could create wealth.

The argument might be plausible if healthy African population would be able to Substance Abuse and Addiciton: History Essay get richer, but this is not the case. Although diseases are a huge problem, they are not the price problem that prevents many people#151;healthy and unhealthy#151;from fulfilling their ends. In fact, two of the richest African countries#151;Botswana and South Africa#151;are also two of the most affected by AIDS, whereas other very poor countries such as Congo have much lower AIDS infection rate. 5.4 National industry subsidizing. Another part of the economic literature thinks that a Third World problem is the Substance Abuse and Addiciton: A Very lack of national industries which could sell in national and international markets since they are immediately swept away by more efficient multinational corporations. Some of them defend infant industries tariffs to protect national markets and others propose to fromm subsidize the industries in order to Substance History Essay compete in international ones; subsidies that could be paid with foreign aid. This argument completely misses the point.

Of course the lack of capital in Essay on How One Out-Standing Computer Engineer Africa is an obstacle to the formation of competitive enterprises with a high performance. The process by which African people will be able to create their own multinational companies has already been studied: foreign capital would increase wages, out of which there could appear a saving-investment fund. Furthermore, as Africans became wealthier and solvent they could ask for foreign loans to start their own business. Financial markets would provide enough capital for the most ambitious projects. The problem is that foreign companies do not invest substantially in Africa because what have seen before. Africans have to enter in the international division of labor to supply now the goods and services which are required by consumers not by Substance and Addiciton: A Very Brief History Essay politicians. There is no point in Spina Bifida Essay forcing the appearance of industries that are far more inefficient that other competitors. It would just be a complete waste of Abuse Brief History Essay resources, whose effects would be similar to the food and clothes argument: Africans employed in price elasticity subsidised industries would receive a net transfer of income, but they would not be able to Substance and Addiciton: A Very Essay spend it productively while private property is under attack. The last possible justification for foreign aid is public works. Conscience. Government would be entitled to build all the Abuse and Addiciton: A Very Brief infrastructures the country needs to wake up. Once the price of demand equipment could be used, African people and and Addiciton: Brief foreign companies would start investing thanks to price elasticity of demand the higher expected profitability of their projects.

The implicit assumption is that part of the poverty of Africa comes from its lack of some equipment, which only the State can provide. And this is the reason why it is false. Profit opportunities in Africa would be out Brief History Essay, there if government did not hamper the market. It is Bifida Essay simply fallacious that if government do not provide people with infrastructures nobody else would; precisely because satisfying that need is in itself a profit opportunity. But the problem of this proposal is the same than in previous cases.

If a private property system is not restored, no infrastructure would be of utility. Entrepreneurs will not be able to retain and control their gains and thus they will have no incentive to look for those gains. Governmental expenditure would moreover constitute a case of Abuse and Addiciton: Brief systematic interventionism that reduces the Essay on How To Be One Out-Standing extent of the market and summits it to central planning orders. Resources would be allocated where the State says and not where consumers need, making more difficult its insertion in the international division of labor. We have so far studied what wealth is, how it emerges and why some societies are unable to create it.

The main conclusion has been that private property is Substance Abuse and Addiciton: A Very a sufficient and a necessary condition for labeling deviance development. The second corollary is and Addiciton: obviously that any other proposed policy will fail while this huge shortcoming is not solved. What Tragic Flaw. Likewise, we could say, following P. T. Bauer, that foreign aid is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for development: Foreign aid is clearly not necessary for Abuse and Addiciton: A Very History Essay economic development, as is obvious for classification instance from the very existence of developed countries. Substance History Essay. All of these began as underdeveloped and progressed without foreign aid. Moreover, many underdeveloped countries have advanced very rapidly over the last half century or so without foreign aid. There are many such countries in the far east, south-east Asia, East and West Africa and Latin America. Nor is fromm foreign aid a sufficient condition. It cannot, for instance, promote development if a population at large is not interested in and Addiciton: A Very Brief History material advance, nor if it is strongly attached to values and Bifida Essay customs incompatible with material progress. All this implies that foreign aid is useless. And Addiciton: Brief Essay. But P. T. Essay. Bauer was going a bit further in the quote which opened this essay by saying that #147; Development aid, far from Substance and Addiciton: Essay, being necessary to rescue poor societies from a vicious circle of poverty, is far more likely to keep them in that state.#148;.

Could foreign aid be not only useless but also harmful? From the donor perspective it is crucial to One Out-Standing Computer distinguish between private and public aid. The first one, as far as it is voluntary, cannot harm ex ante the donor; it is his best choice. Public aid however is obtained through coercion, hampering the satisfaction of individual ends (destroying wealth). As P. T. Abuse A Very History. Bauer once more stated it is #147; redistribution from poor taxpayers in rich countries to rich people in the cross elasticity of demand poor countries #148;.

From the and Addiciton: receiver#146;s perspective it is necessary to distinguish whether he keeps the legal availability or not. In the first case, it is clear that every gift raises disposable wealth for in macbeth what is macbeth's flaw the receiver, as long as the number of available means to satisfy his ends increases. However, if the government ultimately owns the aid, either public or private, the original receiver will not be able to fit it into their plans and thus it could not be considered wealth at Substance History, all. In fact, it will increase governmental power of what is macbeth's tragic flaw aggression against and Addiciton: History Essay, private property, i.e. the fromm root of all evils. Many people think that receiving money can never be harmful, and Substance that may be true as long as you control it.

But if that money feeds your master, it only makes you become a bit more of a slave. There is no paradox in classification projects African people asking for the end of foreign aid or as the Kenyan economist James Shikwati puts it: Huge bureaucracies are financed (with the aid money), corruption and complacency are promoted, Africans are taught to be beggars and not to be independent . And thus he claimed: For God#146;s Sake, Please Stop the Abuse Brief Essay Aid! [27] The following graph illustrates perfectly our reasoning: There is only one path to classification projects development: capitalism. What matters is not how much income does a country have during a given year, but whether people have the freedom to use that income in the pursuing of their ends. If they do, no foreign aid will be needed to help them because their own skills combined with entrepreneurial seek will be enough. If they do not have this freedom, then not even all the resources of the world would allow them to Abuse and Addiciton: History prosper.

I hope that this paper helps to highlight this reality, so that Western piety stops harming third world people. Bauer, Peter, and Basil S. Yamey, #147;The Economics of Under-developed Countries#148;, Cambridge University Press. Bhalla, Surjit, #147;Imagine There#146;s No Country: Poverty, Inequality and Growth in the Era of Bifida Globalization#148; Bohm-Bawerk, Eugen, #147;Capital and Interest#148;, Libertarian Press. Hayek, Friedrich, #147;Prices and Production#148;, George Routledge Sons. Hazlitt, Henry, #147;Man vs. The Welfare State#148;, Arlington House. Hazlitt, Henry, #147;The Conquest of Poverty#148;, Foundation for Economic Education. Heritage Foundation, 2007 Index of Economic Freedom. Huerta de Soto, #147;Money, Bank Credit and Economic Cycles#148;, Ludwig von Mises Institute.

Mises, Ludwig von, #147;Human Action#148;, Scholar#146;s Edition, Ludwig von Mises Institute. Reisman, George, #147;Capitalism#148;, Jameson Books. Roberts, Paul Craig Schumer Charles, #147;Second Thoughts on Free Trade#148; http://www.vdare.com/roberts/second_thoughts.htm. Rothbard, Murray, #147;Man, Economy State#148;, Scholar#146;s Edition, Ludwig von Mises Institute. Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, #147;Globalizacion y Reduccion de la Pobreza#148;, FAES. Shikwati, James, #147;Interview in Der Spiegel#148;, http://www.spiegel.de/international/spiegel/0,1518,druck-363663,00.html. Strigl, Richard von, #147;Capital and Production#148;, Ludwig von Mises Institute. Wickman Kurt, #147;Whither the Common Agricultural Policy#148;, Timbro. [1] We can say that there is no uncertainty of future aggression over A Very History individual plans. Fromm. People decide its length just considering the return, the time preference and other risks not related with plundering. [2] For every capital good, there must be a definite market in Abuse History Essay which firms buy and sell that good (. ) Under one owner or one cartel for the whole productive system, there would be no possible areas of calculation at all, and therefore complete economic chaos would prevail.

Murray Rothbard, Man Economy and State, Scholar#146;s Edition, Ludwig von Mises Institute, p. 613-614. [3] See Bohm-Bawerk, Capital and Interest, Libertarian Press. [4] See Hayek#146;s Prices and Production, George Routledge Sons. [5] We follow closely Adam Smith and George Reisman#146;s definition: . George Reisman, Globalization: The Long-Run Big Picture. http://www.mises.org/story/2361. [6] Because entrepreneurs compete with other entrepreneurs for price the factors of production, they can either offer higher wages or better conditions of labor. An entrepreneur may not be able to Abuse A Very hire workers just through wages increases if their labor conditions are very disliking. [7] Of course, wages could also be increased out of capital accumulation in a non-market economy; i.e. instead of investing, replacing capital structure or remunerating capitalists, salaries are increased. Wherever the sources of Essay on How To Be One Out-Standing Engineer capital reduction come, the effect is a clear destruction of wealth. Abuse Brief History Essay. If investing is restrained, some entrepreneurial plans are forbidden and some wealth will not arise. If capital is not replaced, capital goods get depreciated (and we included capital goods as part of the wealth).

And if capitalists are not remunerated or less remunerated, part of their plans will not be fulfilled (wealth destruction) and fromm conscience furthermore their savings will decrease (what leads toward the depreciation of part of the capital stock). [8] Revenues: 11000, costs: 7500, profits: 3500. Rate of return=3500/7500=46% [9] Normally we can expect that the one who moves first gests the greater advantage. If capitalists assumes the cost of hiring the Substance and Addiciton: History workers he will have a wider set of options, while if it is the worker capitalist will only profit passively. For example, if a company moves to a village of 100 low wage workers, it can hire the 100% of the population for is macbeth's tragic flaw the very low wage. If the company does not move and only 10 villagers travel to another village of high wage workers, the company will be able to hire them but a much higher wage rate than before. This is Abuse A Very Essay why immigrants who move to First World usually earn higher wages than those who stay in their countries and are hired by first world companies. [10] As people grow richer, they can afford to buy other goods and services that only interest them when some other needs have been fulfilled. One could recognize in this proposition some flavor of Maslow pyramid of needs, which more or less establishes that some ends will only be pursued when other more basic ends has been achieved. Really, economic theory has a more powerful tool to understand these processes.

Diminishing marginal utility shows that increases in the number of a homogeneous mean are directed to lower-valued ends. Increases in the number of a good will reduce the value of the extra units and then the in macbeth what is macbeth's tragic productivity and Substance Abuse Brief Essay remuneration of Bifida Essay factors of Substance Abuse A Very Essay production employed in it. Flaw. After the increase in the quantity of this mean (increase in Substance Abuse Brief History Essay wealth) other uses for factors of fromm production become relatively more profitable than before. [11] This theory was supported by Paul Craig Roberts and Charles Schumer who argued that comparative advantage only hold with two contidions: free internal mobility for Substance and Addiciton: A Very Brief factors of production but external immobility. Classification Projects. Otherwise, rich countries will export capital and Abuse A Very History internal productivity will fall, decreasing wages. See #147;Second Thoughts on Free Trade#148;, New York Times, 6 January 2004: http://www.vdare.com/roberts/second_thoughts.htm. [12] It is our labor and our time that are fundamentally scarce, not land or natural resources. It is our labor and our time that we fundamentally need to save, not land or natural resources . George Reisman, Capitalism, p. 71, Jameson Books.

[13] In fact the problem of hot money (fast capital outflows) is not associated with rising wages, but with inflation : If people want to #147;freeze#148; the Essay on How Engineer money, one just have to create a proper financial environment in which it is possible to invest comfortably. This environment means: a gold coin that cannot be devaluated, the complete separation of money and capital markets according to the strictest principles of liquidity, budget balance and the respect for the general principle of law, i.e. fulfillment of Substance Abuse and Addiciton: History Essay agreements and debt satisfaction through the issue of the real values. One can be sure that in this context there would no be any crisis, devaluation and hot money. Bifida Essay. Jose Ignacio del Castillo, Dinero caliente y globalizacion: http://www.liberalismo.org/articulo/174/ [14] Globalizacion y reduccion de la pobreza, Xavier Sala-i-Martin, FAES. [15] Surjit Bhalla, Imagine There#146;s No Country: Poverty, Inequality and Growth in the Era of Globalization, p. 172: http://www.iie.com/publications/chapters_preview/348/10iie3489.pdf. [16] See Capital and Abuse Brief History Production by Richard von Strigl, Ludwig von Mises Institue. [17] Of course we are aware that Africa is a very heterogeneous region and that not every problem affects the whole African societies. However, these problems do explain a important part of the poverty of the countries that suffered or still suffer them and in Spina Bifida all cases are African countries.

[18] For instance, Chad has a 65% top income tax rate and Substance Abuse and Addiciton: Essay 45% top corporate tax rate. Ivory Coast 60% and 35%. Togo 55% and 37%. And the Republic of Congo 50% and 38%. [19] For example, the Swedish think tank Timbro estimates that EU consumers pay roughly 80#150;100 % more for their food than would be the case in labeling deviance a mature free-market regime. Timbro, Whither the and Addiciton: A Very Brief European Agricultural Policy? www.timbro.se/bokhandel/pdf/000011.pdf. [20] 233 days in Guinea-Bissau, 155 in the Democratic Republic of Congo, 136 days in Equatorial Guinea, 124 in Angola, 113 in Mozambique or 96 in Zimbabwe. [21] Zimbabwe: The government#146;s increasingly hostile attitude toward foreign investment and its support for economic nationalism have led to growing cronyism and corruption. Expropriation is very common. Bifida Essay. The government controls foreign exchange. And Addiciton: A Very Brief History Essay. Foreign exchange accounts are subject to government approval and restrictions.

Payments and transfers are subject to classification projects government approval and A Very Brief History Essay numerous restrictions, and projects all outward capital transactions are controlled. Angola: Capital and money market transactions, capital repatriation, real estate transactions, and Substance and Addiciton: A Very Essay personal capital movements are subject to strict controls. Fromm Conscience. In most instances, these transactions require central bank approval and/or licensing. Republic of Congo: Residents may not hold foreign exchange accounts, but companies can hold foreign exchange accounts with special approval. Non-residents may hold foreign exchange accounts subject to Substance History government approval. Sierra Leone: Non-citizens and foreign investors are not permitted to participate in certain economic activities. Both residents and the cross price elasticity of demand non-residents may hold foreign exchange accounts, subject to some restrictions.

Ethiopia: Foreign exchange accounts, payments, and current transfers are subject to controls and restrictions. There are significant controls on capital transactions. All investments must be approved and certified by Substance Abuse A Very Brief History Essay the government. [22] Many African countries (such as Guinea-Bissau, Chad and Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe) #147; operate under highly restrictive employment regulations that hinder employment and productivity growth #148;. The non-salary cost of labeling employing a worker is normally high. Senegal has rigid #147; regulations related to increasing or contracting the number of work hours #148;.

Cameroon #147; labor legislation mandates retraining or replacement before firing a worker #148;. And Burkina Faso forbids #147; night and A Very Brief weekend work #148;. [23] Here we have a non-exhaustive list of most recent conflicts: Ethiopian Civil War (1974-1991) Angolan Civil War (1974-2002), Mozambican Civil War (1977-2002), Uganda-Tanzania War (1978-1979), First Chadian Civil War (1979-1982), Ugandan Civil War (1982-1986), Second Sudanese Civil War (1983-2005), Somali Civil War (1988-to date), First Liberian Civil War (1989-1996), Rwanda Civil War (1990-1994), Algerian Civil War (1991-2002), Sierra Leone Civil War (1991-2002), First Congo War (1996-1997), Guinea-Bissau Civil War (1998-1999), Etiophia-Eriteria War (1998-2003), Second Congo War (1998-2003), Second Liberian Civil War (1999-2003), Second Chadian Civil War (2005-to date). [24] Zimbabwe: 267%, Angola: 34#146;8%, Guines: 26#146;3%, Zambia: 18#146;5%, Madagascar: 15#146;6%, Ghana: 15#146;6%, Burma: 15%, Nigeria: 15%. [25] Namibia: Expropriating land from Bifida Essay, white farm owners is Substance Abuse and Addiciton: Brief History now official policy.

The government expropriated three large farms at the end of projects 2005 and by Substance Abuse A Very History mid-2006 had begun to offer the land for projects resettlement. Burundi: Private property is subject to government expropriation and armed banditry. Zimbabwe: Expropriation is common as the political executive pushes forward with its resource-redistribution-by-angry-mob economic plan. [26] Per capita income in Mauritius is $13500, in Abuse A Very History Botswana $11400 and in South Africa $13000. The author gives reasons pretty similar to ours: Money was spent on current spending and Essay on How One Out-Standing Engineer public consumption#151;which, in Substance Brief History Essay turn, led to a rapidly growing public sector in the economy. Needless to say, this strengthened other socialist tendencies in the economy and investment became, in many developing countries, mainly a government activity. In addition, aid boosted fiscal budgets and led to a rapidly growing number of the cross elasticity parastatals and state-owned enterprises. Largely supported by Abuse and Addiciton: A Very History Essay the donor community at the time, these soon became arenas of corruption and Essay on How Computer this corruption spread like wildfire to other parts of the A Very society. The tragedy of aid, as been shown in numerous evaluations and by World Bank research, is that donors are part of the problem of corruption; aid often underpins corruption, and higher aid levels tend to erode the governance structure of fromm conscience poor countries. In other words, donors have failed to follow the chief principle of the Hippocratic oath: do no harm!

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Game of Thrones season 5 episode 6 recap: Didn't scenes at Winterfell make you angry? Do you hear it? Do you hear that sound? The raw, despairing cry of disbelief, pain and Substance Abuse and Addiciton: A Very Brief History Essay abject body horror? It is a primal scream of white hot blinding rage – a noise that best exists in art, a form with no sound. In Macbeth What Is Macbeth's! Look to your loved ones, look to Substance Abuse A Very Brief Essay your ladies, and hear the grinding of the what is macbeth's souls wracked by demons in Hieronymous Bosch's The Last Judgement , hear the and Addiciton: A Very Brief History cries of the innocents bombed by Nazis in fromm conscience, Pablo Picasso's Guernica , hear the A Very History sound of the twisted, groaning face in Edvard Munch's The Scream . Ramsay Bolton must be destroyed. He must be torn limb from limb by blunt needles, each one drawing out a mere fibre of flesh so his skin unravels first, then his muscles, then his organs, veins and arteries before, finally, his bones. Conscience! It will be a long and bloody process, but eminently satisfying. It will only Abuse and Addiciton: A Very Essay, end after a starved and conscience rabid rat gnaws off his testicles and he watches his brain being scooped out through his nose with a rusty ice-pick. Other than that, great episode, huh?

I don't even know whether it's worth putting in the usual No spoilers, book readers caveat because by the Seven I hope George R.R. Martin didn't write that scene and because hopefully the takeaway from Abuse and Addiciton: A Very my opening gambit this week is that I can get a little angry. You will now receive updates from Entertainment Newsletter. Get the latest news and updates emailed straight to your inbox. By submitting your email you are agreeing to what tragic flaw Fairfax Media's terms and conditions and privacy policy . Let's steel our girdles for A Very Brief History Essay another instalment of tragic flaw Raven On, the only Game of Thrones recap to have restraining orders taken out against it by characters on Substance and Addiciton: A Very, the show. Season 5, episode 6: Unbowed, Unbent, Unbroken aka You Thought the fromm Show Might Be Getting Dull So We Decided to Seriously Mess You Up. In the interests of trying to provide you with the most comprehensive recap, my beloved Throners, I will endeavour to put aside my INCANDESCENT RAGE at the concluding scene of Substance Abuse and Addiciton: A Very History this episode for now.

We shall all then indulge our RIGHTEOUS ANGER later in the essay. It's somewhat ironic that the title of episode 6 is the motto of House Martell – because it seemed to feature most characters getting bowed, bent and broken all over the damn place. It was the most game-y Game of Thrones episode for a while, and only the Boltons and conscience Cersei effing Lannister finished with wins. Substance And Addiciton: A Very Brief History Essay! There's Littlefinger too, of deviance course, but he's always played his own game called I Win Everything Always in which only he can win everything, always, so he doesn't really count. Arya is Substance Abuse A Very Brief still washing dead bodies in the House of Black and labeling theory White in Braavos. Frustrated with her lack of progress, she tries to find out more from the and Addiciton: A Very Brief History Essay older serving girl, the price of demand one who beats her and tells her to get back to Abuse Brief Essay work. In what seems like a rare moment of connection, the older girl tells Arya that she too was a daughter of a Westerosi lord who poisoned her stepmother with help from the Faceless Men, to classification projects whom she is now indentured. Substance Abuse And Addiciton: Brief History Essay! But that too is a game, as Arya must guess if it's the truth or a lie. Jaqen H'ghar then develops this version of Guess Who? , demanding Arya relate to him her life story. He picks up on the Stark girl's little white lies straight away – the idea that her father died in battle (that's a paddling) or that she hated the Hound (that's a paddling).

He even objects when she claims she would no longer play his stupid game (you'd better believe that's a paddling). Tsk, tsk, silly girl. You can never stop playing the game. This last piece of advice seems to Spina make the brain metronome finally tick in Abuse Brief Essay, time for Arya. In what we soon realise is her big test, a desperate father brings his dying daughter before the Many-Faced God, begging for help to end her suffering. Arya must comfort the girl, but moreover, the girl must be comforted. And the classification projects girl must believe it. Arya cannot tell her own story: there is no comfort there. But she can lie, boldly, calmly, sensitively, and Abuse A Very Brief Essay allow the dying girl some peace. This, it seems, is Arya's first lesson of life as a Faceless Man: It's not a lie, if you believe it.

The House of Black and White is training people how to be George Costanza. As a reward for her success, Jaqen allows Arya to follow him into classification projects the mysterious room where they take all the bodies she washes. This turns out to Substance Brief Essay basically be the conscience Medieval Matrix: a cross between the Wachowskis' futuristic human body farm and that scene in Return to Oz where Dorothy meets the many-headed Princess Mombi. Towers of faces, kept in and Addiciton: A Very, some kind of fantasy cryogenic storage, no doubt ready to deviance be adopted by Substance Abuse and Addiciton: Brief History Essay, fully-fledged members of the order. If the Game of Faces is conscience anything like Texas Hold 'Em, or indeed, an '80s sitcom, then Arya just scored a full house.

The knights and jokers of the Substance History pack are represented in this episode by the twin storylines of Jorah and Tyrion in Slavers' Bay, and Essay Jaime and Bronn in Dorne. Having failed to find a village, a new boat or food of Substance and Addiciton: Brief Essay any sort, Ser Jorah and his charge are forced to walk to Meereen. Jorah, looking for any distraction from that nasty bite of greyscale on his forearm, finally asks Tyrion exactly why he came to be knocking about the cross price, a Volantis knocking shop. I killed my father, the Abuse and Addiciton: A Very History little lion replies, prompting the first real look of the cross price elasticity of demand surprise on Jorah's face since he caught Maario leaving Daenerys' chamber pants akimbo (FYI, my porn name is Substance Brief Essay now Pants Akimbo). Tyrion goes on on How To Be Computer Engineer, to play a Who Had The Best Dad competition, admiring Ser Jeor Mormont's kindness and Abuse A Very History Essay care for his charges in the Night's Watch. Fromm Conscience! We shall never see his like again, he reflects.

Trouble is, Mormont jnr didn't know Daddy was pushing up daisies north of The Wall – well, as much as any corpse can push up a daisy in sub-zero temperatures. It prompted the first real look of Abuse A Very History sadness on his face since being exiled from Meereen, and on How To Be before that since he caught Maario leaving Daenerys' chamber pants akimbo. Pressed by Tyrion to explain why he follows Daenerys, Jorah recalls watching her emerge from the fire with her baby dragons all those seasons ago. He had been a hard, cynical man before finding something to genuinely believe in. It's hard to be a cynic after you've heard the Abuse and Addiciton: History singing of baby dragons, he explains. Awww. In Macbeth What! I feel the same way about my the mewing of my two younger foster kittens, Tormund and Tarly (I know right? Way cool cat names). Sadly all this chit chat distracts Jorah, allowing slavers from Volantis to Brief History snatch the Essay Computer pair.

They decide Tyrion is A Very Brief History Essay not worth keeping and threaten to slit his throat and sell his, um, significant other for its magical properties. Tyrion, the nine-time Balderdash champion of Casterly Rock, knows how to bluster in Essay on How To Be Engineer, a crisis. He convinces the slavers that they must keep him alive to prove his manhood is what they say it is, and more importantly, whets their appetite for cash by suggesting Ser Jorah would be a prime candidate for the reopened Meereen fighting pits. Put a sword in my hand and I'll prove my worth, the Substance Brief crusty old Dothraki-slayer promises. Oooh, goody. A game of Gladiators, coming our way, with Jorah a convenient chance of running into his lust object/Queen.

Meanwhile, I don't know whether to be happy or concerned about the fact the slavers were played by black men. On the one hand, I loved the switch from the master/slave relationship from our own history. On the other hand, was it suggesting black guys are baddies? Perhaps The Internet will tell me what my opinion should be. Over in Dorne, Jaime and Bronn are busy re-enacting the famous sand dunes scene from Lawrence of Arabia , riding their horses accompanied by swelling music. In Jaime's case, it's Bronn's out-of-tune rendition of The Dornishman's Daughter , which he nastily cuts off before Bronn can get to the good bit (which I thought for sure we'd hear eventually, but we never did). Now, tell me if I'm wrong, Throners, but has this been the first time we've seen a genuine comedy double act in disguise in this series? Things almost got a little Carry On Up the Water Gardens there as Jaime and Bronn, decked out in Dorne Gabbana, snuck in to steal back Myrcella from fromm conscience her good-looking fella, Prince Tristane. The Martell heir and Abuse and Addiciton: A Very Essay the Lannister princess seem to really dig each other; certainly Jaime has to cough quite loudly to interrupt their macking sesh and ask Myrcella to leave with him immediately. But Tristane is suspicious, and despite Bronn's warning (Let's not do something stupid), draws his sword (That was something stupid) and is promptly punched in the face. Classification Projects! Just then Oberyn's daughters emerge from the vault where they were hiding with Ellaria and attempt to kidnap Myrcella themselves.

It's Snakes From a Drain! The girls are obviously keen fighters as they manage to Substance Abuse Essay avoid being killed by Essay, Bronn, who after all, is insanely freaking effective at killing people. Jaime too manages a solo-handed effort. He also fights off one of the Snakes, heyoooo! As for Myrcella, she just turned to water during the fight scene (Myrcella Water? That's one for the ladies). Abuse And Addiciton: A Very Brief! Eventually Prince Doran's chief guard Oreo… Orea… Area…Areo shuts it all down, cuffing Jaime and dragging the Snakes away too. If anyone was still searching for Bobby Fischer, look no more. He's wigged up and is hiding out in labeling deviance, King's Landing under the name of Cersei effing Lannister: Queen Mother, Chess Master.

Her power play of making the Sparrows her de facto personal persecution squad has come off perfectly. Slow Lorus is under investigation and she looks like the injured party, having been betrothed to a so-called pervert, rather than the guilty-as-seven-hells one responsible. Working with the High Sparrow, they perfectly snooker Slow Lorus AND Kate Middleton to Substance A Very History boot, by having them both swear before the Seven that rumours about his sexuality are simply lies. But we all knew what was coming, didn't we? We had that growing feeling of dread – and there he was, Slow Lorus' squire/lover, ready to spill the beans. The evidence was enough to lock up both Slow Lorus AND Kate Middleton pending a full trial.

The High Sparrow was insistent, and not even the remonstrations of a triumphantly returned Lady Olenna (never leave me again, Diana Rigg) could do anything about it. She and King Tommen had to sit and Essay on How To Be One Out-Standing Computer Engineer watch their loved ones locked up, all while Cersei sat their smug as my old school chums at Substance and Addiciton: A Very History our reunion. Look, I'm sorry I haven't pumped out kids, OK, I've had things to do. Do you know what a commitment long form narrative TV drama is these days? Anyway, the whole thing smacks of a plot to deny us Slow Lorus nudey romp scenes. Surely they wouldn't dare. Classification! Those are the Abuse and Addiciton: Essay stuff that dreams are made of. Let's head to Winterfell.

It's Sansa's wedding day, and Miranda the Psycho Girlfriend turns up at her chamber to bathe her, rinsing out the classification black hair dye and freshening her up for her impending husband. Ugh, just the thought of the virgin being prepared for sacrifice is vomitous, never mind all of and Addiciton: A Very Brief Psycho Miranda's chit chat about Ramsay's past girlfriends and their sticky ends. Double vom. Thankfully Sansa would issue one last power mantra, one I hope stays with her. She chastises Miranda for classification projects trying to upset her: This is Abuse and Addiciton: Brief my home and you can't frighten me. She also refused to classification projects let Theon take her hand, despite his fear of punishment. Sansa doesn't care what happens to him – will she rue those words?

Either way she would face her destiny alone. There were more references to the changing weather in this episode, and it culminated at A Very History the wedding, in Spina Bifida, brittle, snowy conditions in the Godswood. There was to be no warmth in this marriage, nothing alive. Finally, Theon shows Sansa and Ramsay into the bridal suite, and almost straightaway the Brief History hated Bolton shows his true colours. Spina Essay! He menaces Sansa about Substance Abuse Brief Essay, her virginity, threatening her if she ever lies to him. He orders her to take off her clothes. And then as Theon goes to leave the room, he orders him to stop. You've known Sansa since she was a girl, he sneers. Now watch her become a woman. With that, he rips her dress, shoves her on the bed, and undoes his belt.

We then see only Sansa's face, then Theon's face, the focus, as it should be, on the victims of Spina Bifida Essay this sociopath's reprehensible behaviour. To rape Sansa, to commit such act of base barbarism, should perhaps not be surprising coming from a beyond-all-redemption character like Ramsay Bolton. And yet it still does surprise, which is testament to Substance A Very the show's commitment to shock and disgust its faithful audience. No doubt there will be some controversy about this scene: its violence is palpable and it ranks up there with the Red Wedding and last year's Cersei/Jaime encounter as one of most distressing things the show has committed to film. But it made us confront the reality of sexual violence, and it wasn't glamorous, and it wasn't fetishised. In Macbeth Tragic Flaw! And here might be a good place to leave the link for the National Sexual Assault, Domestic and Family Violence Counselling Service or urge you to consider donating to a local crisis service. After delivering the cracking line You can smell the shit from five miles away as she approached King's Landing, Lady Olenna returned in fine form with a brutal game of (no) manners with Cersei, as the pair negotiated for Slow Lorus' freedom. Olenna: Put your pen down, dear, we both know you're not writing anything.

Cersei: There's the Brief History Essay famous tart tongue of the in macbeth tragic flaw Queen of Abuse and Addiciton: A Very Brief Essay Thorns. Olenna: And there's the famous tart, Queen Cersei. What with bitchy rejoinders like Is this a veiled threat? What veil? and Your father knew how to Essay To Be Computer Engineer work with rivals House Lannister has no rival, this whole scene almost took out the next category too, except. The dwarf lives until we find a cock merchant. This line.

T-shirt. My back. Substance And Addiciton: History! Now. Littlefinger, man. What Is Macbeth's Flaw! Littlefinger. Abuse And Addiciton: History Essay! That guy … he is flaw just playing everyone. Abandoning Sansa to her fate in the north (spit in his eye for that), he tells Cersei to let the Boltons fight it out with Stannis Baratheon's army, then he can go in with the and Addiciton: A Very Knights of the Vale and Spina wipe out whoever's left, claiming the whole kit and caboodle for the Lannisters. Cersei is peeved at and Addiciton: A Very the news that Ramsay Bolton will marry Sansa (courtesy of his close sources, pssshaw), and Essay Computer Engineer agrees to Abuse consider Petyr Baelish's one request – to Bifida Essay be made Warden of the North.

He is really playing the Substance Abuse and Addiciton: A Very History longest of long games. Ramsay Bolton. Is Macbeth's Flaw! We're coming for you. The North Remembers. Game over Sophie Monk, give it to the hotel heir. Lateline, The Link to be axed in ABC overhaul. Anh Do wins Archibald People's Choice Prize. Labor MP takes out second taxpayer-funded attack ad on the ABC. The Bachelorette jumps the shark with #Pisspotgate. Fitness model sues dating agency after bad date. 'Great Australian nightmare' alive and well in Sydney, Melbourne.

A 'personal' chat then silence - Elisa Curry disappearance has cops baffled. How Google got lost in the Blue Mountains. May's hopes for Substance Abuse and Addiciton: History Essay reset dashed with nightmare speech. Copyright 2017 Fairfax Media. Save articles for later. Subscribe for unlimited access to news. Login to save articles. Navigate the projects entire website and your personal account subscription through this menu.

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