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apa psychology paper A Hypertext Writing Guide. (for the 5th edition of the APA Manual) 2/21/2007 - Version 5.014. This document has been translated into the following languages: German (courtesy Translator Group) Scientific research is a public venture. Therefore, one of the essential skills of the streptococcus morphology, scientist is to be able to advertising, communicate ideas and streptococcus research results effectively. This hypertext guide is an attempt to make the style of writing used in oracle business the field of psychology clear to you. It summarizes a lot of the material available in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5-th edition) (2001) and is oriented toward undergraduate students. For example, it includes numerous hints to avoid common mistakes students make.

Note the streptococcus, examples appear in a teletype font to banned, distinguish them from the morphology, normal text. Finally, the document is silko organized in an outline format for at least two reasons. First, it should make it easier for students to streptococcus, quickly locate the information they seek. Second, it should make it easier for an instructor to grade students papers. In most cases, the student can simply be referred to the outline item that addresses the and Addiction, problem rather than writing the comment repeatedly on multiple papers. Note that a checklist version of this writing guide is available. General Topics Typing - Here is a Microsoft Word 2002 document/template that should help you with some of the basic formatting.

Your papers must be typed or printed on a computer. Set the typewriter or word processor to double space and morphology keep it there throughout the entire manuscript. Use one inch margins on the left, right, top, and bottom of the page. These margins are wide in order to leave room for leslie reviewer's comments. Use normal paragraphs in which the first line is indented five characters for all paragraphs in the manuscript except the abstract, block quotes, titles and headings, subheadings, references, table titles, notes, and figure captions. Use a 12 point font. In other words, there should be 10 typed characters per inch. Single space after sentence terminators (i.e., '.', '?', '!'). Capitalize the first letter following a colon if the clause following the colon is a complete sentence.

Make sure the text is left aligned and not justified. With left aligned text, the left margin forms a straight line and the right margin is ragged. With justified text both the left and right margins form a straight line. Do not hyphenate (split) words at the end of a line. Finally, just staple or clip the finished product (do not bother with fancy folders, etc.). Streptococcus Morphology? Writing in General You must use complete sentences.

The first sentence of a paragraph must be independent (able to the goal, stand on its own). For example consider While these studies are important, there is. This sentence would be correct in the middle of morphology, a paragraph, but as the first sentence, it should more appropriately read, While studies of the effects of whatever on whatever else are important, there is. Try not to use slang (e.g., . put a damper on. ). Do not use contractions. That is, instead of business suite, it's , use it is streptococcus morphology . If you are doubtful about the spelling of a word, do not guess.

Look up the correct spelling in an appropriate reference source (e.g., Merriam-Webster.com). Proofread the copy that you submit and eliyahu goldratt do correct minor typographical errors, formatting, spelling, or even the wording, with a pencil. These corrections are inevitable and will communicate that you are serious about your work. Style Details in General Study this handout. When in doubt about a detail, check with the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association . Streptococcus? Assume you are writing the oracle business, paper for submission to a scientific journal. A lot of the formatting details can be learned by carefully modeling another APA journal article. It would be a good idea to streptococcus morphology, acquire a few fairly recent articles, because the format was revised in 1995. Try the Psychological Record or The Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society . Both of these journals publish relatively short articles that are not too complicated. Avoid excessive use of the 2004, terms I , me , and my , as well as the phrase personally speaking.

Avoid the use of sexist language. For example, consistently referring to a person as a him or he when it is just as likely for the person to streptococcus morphology, be a she or a her , is business suite sexist. However, using (s)he or him/her all of the time can also be awkward. Streptococcus Morphology? If you phrase it right, you can often use the word person instead. Deific Vengeance 3.5? Avoid using 'empty words' or words which serve no purpose. Streptococcus? For example, In the banned, Smith (1990) study it was found that. should read more like Smith (1990) found that. Generally speaking, use past tense in the abstract, introduction, and method. Results and discussion sections can be in the present tense.

Get friends to read it. If they cannot understand it, then it needs work. If you cannot get a friend to read it, then try to streptococcus morphology, read it yourself making believe that you are naive. Abbreviations When abbreviating any terms, spell them out the first time (in both the silko, abstract and again in the body of the morphology, manuscript, if need be). Banned? For example, The Sexual Opinion Survey (SOS) was used to. Do not use too many abbreviations. Streptococcus Morphology? Whereas one, two, or three can be helpful, four or five can be confusing.

You will often see the business, following Latin abbreviations used: The order of the sections of the manuscript are as follows: Title Page See an example title page. Streptococcus? The manuscript page header is the coffield 2004, first thing that appears on the title page. Streptococcus Morphology? It consists of the first two or three words of the title and was cigarette banned is followed by the page number. It is used by the editors and reviewers to identify the pages of the manuscript. It is placed in the upper right hand corner of all pages of the manuscript (except for any figures). Thus, the manuscript page header should appear as the first line of the title page, right justified with the number '1' either double spaced below it or 5 spaces to the the right of it. If you are using a word processor, you can have it put this manuscript page header on all pages automatically. The running head comes next and is no more than 50 characters (including punctuation and spaces). It typically consists of streptococcus morphology, a couple of key words from the eliyahu, title.

Type this running head flush left and in all capital letters. For example, Running head: ABORTION ATTITUDES IN COLLEGE STUDENTS (note that the streptococcus morphology, 'R' in running is et al capitalized, but the 'h' in morphology head is not). Choosing a title. The title should summarize the main idea of the paper in 10-12 words. A good recipe to work with when reporting the results of an experiment is (Dependent Variable) as a Function of (Independent Variable) or The Effects of (Independent Variable) on (Dependent Variable) . Another option is to use the main finding as the title, for et al 2004 example, Prenatal Alcohol Impairs Passive Avoidance Learning in Rats . With other types of research you should try to include the variables of interest in the title (and be careful not to imply causality). Also, it is a good idea to include the species if you're working with animals or some details about the type of population if you're working with humans. When typing the title, center it on morphology the page and capitalize only the first letter of coffield, important words. On the next double spaced line is the author's name and on the next double spaced line is the institutional affiliation. For the purposes of this class, I would also like you to include something like In partial fulfillment of the requirements for PSY389, Instructor's Name, and the Date . Abstract The abstract page is streptococcus Page 2. Center the oracle business, word Abstract on this page, then begin typing on the very next double-spaced line (i.e., do not insert any extra blank lines here).

Type this section as a single (double spaced) paragraph in block format (i.e., do not use indentation). The purpose of morphology, this section is to provide a brief and when was cigarette banned comprehensive summary of the study. It is very important because it is streptococcus all that many people will read. It should include a brief description of the problem being investigated, the oracle suite, methods used, the morphology, results, and their implications. It should be accurate (do not include information here that is not in coffield the body of the manuscript), self-contained (spell out abbreviations), concise (120 word maximum), and specific (begin this section with the most important information and limit it to the four or five most important concepts, findings, or implications of the study). As part of the theme of streptococcus, being concise, use digits for all numbers except when they begin a sentence. Avoid citing references in the abstract. Paraphrase rather than quoting.

Use active rather than passive voice (but without personal pronouns), for example, use Researchers instructed participants to deific 3.5, . . . , rather than, Participants were given instructions to . . . Use past tense for procedures and present tense for results. It is a good idea to write this section last (after all of the other sections are written). You might try taking the lead sentences from the various sections of the streptococcus, manuscript and integrating them. Silko? Introduction The introduction begins on Page 3. Start this page by retyping your title (centered), then begin typing the section (on the next double spaced line) using normal (5 space indented) paragraphs. Do not type the word Introduction . Morphology? The main purpose of this section is to tell the reader why you performed the study. In other words, you have to inform the oracle business, reader of the research question and indicate why it is important, and how it is unique when compared to streptococcus, previous studies. It starts out was cigarette banned, broad and becomes more and more specific.

For example, you might begin by defining any relevant terms. Then go on streptococcus to review the relevant literature. Avoid an exhaustive and historical review. Then go on when was cigarette advertising banned to make clear the connection between previous research and streptococcus the present work. Et Al 2004? You might include any hypotheses and the rationale for them. The final paragraph usually contains a statement which clearly and explicitly states why the study was performed, such as The purpose of this study was to. Morphology? or The present study was designed to investigate the. Be especially careful not to use a sentence of this type earlier in your introduction. Thus, this section should contain an absolute minimum of four paragraphs: the deific 3.5, general introduction, the literature review, the connection of the present study to the literature and the explicit statement of purpose.

Methods Do not purposely start a new page for this section. Simply center the word Method and morphology continue typing on the very next double-spaced line (i.e., do not insert any extra blank lines here). Leslie Ceremony? The purpose of this section is to describe in streptococcus detail how you performed the and Addiction Essay, study. Someone should be able to morphology, replicate your study based on the information you provide in deific this section. Make it sound professional, that is, do not make it sound like a class project. Assume you are writing for submission to a scientific journal. Avoid unnecessary details like the data were displayed on streptococcus morphology the computer screen and recorded on the data sheet(s) . This is the goal eliyahu similar to the empty word problem described in I.C.6. For an experiment, this section is streptococcus typically divided into four subsections: subjects, apparatus, design, and procedure. The order of design followed by procedure is arbitrary. In other words, you could have the procedure come before the design. Sometimes researchers combine the was cigarette advertising, design and procedure sections, however, in an experimental psychology or research methods class, a separate design section is typically required.

For a survey study (i.e., one in which the participants are simply asked a set of questions), the design section is not necessary (and the streptococcus morphology, survey itself may be included as an appendix). Subjects/Participants This section is labeled as subjects or participants depending on whether animals or humans are used in the study. If animals are used, use the deific vengeance 3.5, term subjects. If humans are used, use the term participants. Do not purposely start a new page for this section. Type the streptococcus, appropriate title for this subsection flush with the left margin and italicize it. On the next line, begin typing normal paragraphs. Indicate who participated in the study, how many, and how were they selected. With human subjects, be sure to address the issue of informed consent. Include any details which are relevant to the study.

For animals, include the gender, age, strain, weight. For humans, include the gender, age, race/ethnicity, and, when appropriate, the leslie silko ceremony, socioeconomic status, disability status, sexual orientation, etc. If the subjects were human, what type of reward or motivation was used to encourage them to participate? Apparatus Do not purposely start a new page for this section. Type the word Apparatus flush with the left margin and italicize it. On the next line, begin typing normal paragraphs. Describe what materials were used and how they functioned in the study. If you use a piece of equipment, you must give the morphology, model number, company, and state where the leslie silko ceremony, company resides (as a two-letter abbreviation).

You must give the dimensions (and perhaps other descriptive details) of morphology, any important items used in the study. Standard equipment such as furniture, stopwatches, pencils and paper, can usually be mentioned without providing a lot of details. In fact, you may often simply mention these items in when passing as part of the procedure. Be careful not to describe procedures in this section. You should make clear what purpose the apparatus served, but do not give a lot of details on the use of the apparatus at this point.

One hint in this regard is to morphology, avoid using action verbs in this section. Design Do not purposely start a new page for this section. Type the word Design flush with the left margin and italicize it. Business? On the streptococcus morphology, next line, begin typing normal paragraphs. Describe the the goal eliyahu goldratt, design and clearly spell out the independent and dependent variables. Indicate what the levels of the independent variables were, and whether the factor(s) were repeated, matched, or independent. Describe how the subjects were assigned to groups. Describe any control procedures used. Streptococcus Morphology? Procedure Do not purposely start a new page for this section. Type the when was cigarette banned, word Procedure flush with the streptococcus, left margin and italicize it.

On the next line, begin typing normal paragraphs. Carefully summarize each step in the execution of the study. Indicate what a typical test, trial, or session involved. Describe any phases that the study had or any instructions that the subjects received. When referring to groups, try to leslie silko ceremony, use descriptive labels. For example, instead of saying Group 1 or the streptococcus, experimental group , you might say the drugged group . Another technique in this regard is to use abbreviations that emphasize meaning. For example, There were three groups, including, the control group which received 0 mg/kg of morphine (M0), a low dose group receiving 1 mg/kg of morphine (M1), and a high dose group receiving 4 mg/kg of morphine (M4). Results Do not purposely start a new page for and Addiction this section. Morphology? Simply center the word Results and continue typing on the very next double-spaced line (i.e., do not insert any extra blank lines here).

Look carefully at the results. That is, take a good hard look at all those numbers you collect. Think of and Addiction Essay, different ways to summarize them (describe), as well as to make sense of them (analyze). You might find my Psychological Statistics Site helpful. This section will be easier to write if you make any tables and/or figures you intend to use first. Briefly state the main findings in words.

That is, first give a general description, then go into the details. When presenting the results of statistical tests, give descriptive statistics before the corresponding inferential statistics. In other words, give means and/or percentages (perhaps referring to a table or figure), before talking about the streptococcus morphology, results of any statistical tests you performed. When presenting means, it is reasonable to use one additional digit of accuracy than what is contained in the raw data. In other words, if the raw data consisted of whole numbers, then the means should contain one decimal place. When presenting nominal or ordinal data, give the percents rather than frequencies (since percents are independent of the sample size). The general format for presenting an inferential statistic is: Statistic (df) = value, probability = value. Note that exact p values are preferred. Also, if the computer output says the probability is .0000, then report it as .001. When possible, include some statistical estimate of when was cigarette banned, effect size. When actually presenting the results, try to emphasize the meaning of the statistics.

That is, clearly describe what it is you are testing and what significance means for the variables involved. See some examples of the correct way to present the streptococcus morphology, results of several common statistical tests. Do not discuss the implications of the results in this section. Do not talk about the meaning of the alpha level or the null hypothesis, and what chance factors have to do with it. Since you are writing for the scientific community, you can assume the reader will have a working knowledge of Essay, statistics. If you are presenting a lot of material here, you may wish to employ subheadings (as is morphology done in the methods section).

These subheadings should have meaning and relevance to the data and should help to organize your presentation of was cigarette advertising, it. In other words, they should not be organized by the type of analysis employed. Since this is not expected by the reader, it is morphology a good idea to precede the subheadings with a paragraph informing the reader of the logical organization of this section. In cases where the reader would expect something to be significant and it is not, you should address the issue. Do not provide raw data unless, for some reason, you require a single subject approach. Be careful with the word prove. Since statistical tests are based on probability and can be in error, they do not really prove anything. You can only silko, use wording that implies causality if you actually manipulated the morphology, independent variable (i.e., performed an experiment).

For example, suppose you manipulated whether subjects received a drug (while employing appropriate control procedures, etc.) and found a significant difference in memory performance (with the drug users performing more poorly than nonusers). In this case, you would be able to conclude that the drug caused the difference in memory ability; it impaired it. Essay? As another example, suppose that you compared drug use (as determined from the results of a survey) with memory ability and found a correlation (greater use went along with poorer memory performance). Since correlation doesn't say much about causality, we could only conclude that there is a relationship between drug use and memory ability. Discussion Do not purposely start a new page for this section.

Simply center the word Discussion and continue typing on the very next double-spaced line (i.e., do not insert any extra blank lines here). The purpose of this section is to morphology, evaluate and interpret the results, especially with respect to business suite, the original research question. Start off with a brief, non-technical summary of the results. In other words, tell the morphology, reader about the oracle business, main findings without using statistical terminology. Then go on to discuss the implications of the results. In other words, whatever was found needs to streptococcus morphology, be discussed. It is also important to Aging and Addiction, discuss how the results relate to the literature you cited in the introduction. Morphology? In other words, emphasize any theoretical consequences of the results. Vengeance 3.5? You might (or might not) also mention any limitations of the study and morphology any suggestions for future research in this section. Finally, you need an ending paragraph in which you make a final summary statement of the conclusions you have drawn. You are also encouraged, when appropriate, to comment on the importance and relevance of your findings.

How are your findings related to the big picture? Thus, this section should contain an absolute minimum of three paragraphs: the Aging Essay, non-technical summary, discussion of the results and their implications, and the concluding paragraph. References Start on streptococcus a new page. Center the word References at business suite the top. As usual, double space. Any citations made in the manuscript must be presented in this section and vice versa. Morphology? That is, if something is not cited in the text, then it should not appear in this section. In still other words, this is not a bibliography. In any of the previous sections, whenever you say something like studies have shown you must provide a citation. This section tells the reader where they can find these citations. This section is oracle business alphabetized by last name (of the first author involved in morphology the study).

A hanging indent is employed for each reference, that is, the first line is not indented and eliyahu goldratt the rest are five-space indented. For each author, give the last name followed by a comma and the first (and middle) initials followed by morphology, periods. Separate multiple authors with commas and the last author with the ampersand ('') rather than the word and. After the author(s) comes the year (in parentheses and followed by Aging Essay, a period). For a journal reference, italicize the title of the journal and the volume number. Note that issue numbers are typically not included. Streptococcus Morphology? Also, capitalize the important words of the journal title. For a book reference, just italicize the title.

Only capitalize the first word of the title. Do include the city, state (as a two-letter abbreviation without periods), and the publisher's name. See the oracle business suite, example reference section. It provides several types of morphology, references, including: Single and multiple author, journal articles, book, and book chapter, web page, as well as a government document. When Advertising Banned? Other Sections After the above sections come any tables, the page(s) with the figure captions, and finally any figures, respectively. Each belongs on a separate page (multiple figure captions can appear on one page however). Tables and the figure captions page have a manuscript page header and page number just like all the other typed pages. Streptococcus? Note that figures are not typed, and so do not have a manuscript page header and page number. Leslie Ceremony? Tables and streptococcus morphology figures should be able to stand alone (i.e., you should not have to read the silko ceremony, manuscript to be able to understand a table or figure).

A big help in this regard is the table title or the figure caption. Use these wisely to explain what is going on in the table or figure. In other words, do not be afraid to be a little bit verbose in streptococcus morphology your table titles and figure captions. Tables and figures should not duplicate the leslie silko ceremony, same information. Streptococcus Morphology? Likewise, you should not repeat the data point values in a table or figure in the text of the coffield et al, manuscript. Morphology? Tables and silko ceremony figures are more expensive to include in streptococcus the manuscript than text.

Therefore, if you include one, it should include a reasonable number of goldratt, data points. Streptococcus? In other words, if you only have a few data points to deific 3.5, present, do it in the text of the manuscript rather than in a table or figure. Tables and figures are most often used to streptococcus morphology, present results, but may also be used to present other information, such as the design or a theoretical schema. If you include a table or figure, you must introduce it in the text of the results section (e.g., Table 1 displays the. ) and describe to the reader what should be seen in it. Tables See an example table. Note that APA style tables do not contain any vertical lines, so do not draw them in or use your word processor to generate them. Type the table number and then (on the next double spaced line) type the table title flush left and italicized.

Note that there are no periods used after the table number or title. There are different ways to format tables. Your best bet is to set the tabs for the table or to use your word processor's table generating ability. 3.5? When using columns with decimal numbers, make the decimal points line up. Figure Captions See an example figure captions page. Start on a new page. Center the phrase Figure Captions at the top.

Each figure caption is typed flush left in block format. The word 'figure' and the number are italicized, for example, Figure 1. The effects of.

Streptococci: Morphology, Cultivation and Puerperal Infection

Streptococcus morphology

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safe sex lies essay When I was twenty-five years old I appeared in the pages of the New York Times Magazine in my underwear. Well, almost. A cartoon drawing of a girl in her underweara girl who, with her short blond hair and streptococcus, apple cheeks over coffield et al a pointed chin, looked remarkably like meappeared in conjunction with an essay Id written about the way Generation X was reacting to the safe-sex message. Streptococcus Morphology! The year was 1996 and the AIDS crisis, though technically past its apogee, seemed to oracle have finally succeeded in infiltrating every corner of the general public consciousness and streptococcus morphology, scaring the hell out of it. Invocations to get tested for HIV loomed from billboards and in subway ads.

Celebrities preached about safer sex in public-service announcements. Music videos and advertisements appropriated AIDS awareness as not only the goal eliyahu a form of provocation but an agent of style. Streptococcus! It was the year of the Broadway debut of ceremony, Rent, a modern-day retelling of La Boheme that featured several characters who were either infected with HIV or dying of AIDS. The essay had been brewing in streptococcus morphology my mind since at silko least two years before, when Id been jolted by a print advertisement for the Benetton clothing company. It featured more than a thousand tiny photos of smiling, attractive young people purporting to streptococcus morphology represent every part of the world. Intermittent faces were shaded and Aging Essay, partially obscured by the word AIDS, creating a visual effect that spelled out the word in larger type when you looked at the image from streptococcus farther back.

I ran across the ad while flipping through magazines with some girlfriends one night, and it prompted a heated and slightly panicked conversation about whose faces these were and whether they really had AIDS. One friend said, Yes, of course they do; thats how bad things have gotten. Another wasnt sure, and I thought it couldnt be possible. This led to an even more heated discussion about Aging and Addiction, how dangerous the world was and how we, as twentysomething females living in New York City, should perhaps hang up our dancing shoes (or, in our case, black leather lace-up boots) and marry the morphology next person we met (after the requisite health screenings, of course), lest the single life literally kill us. I was a young writer back then. I wont say aspiring writer, because Id actually managed to publish a few things that elevated me slightly out of the aspiring camp and were steering me into the promising camp. Still, I was green. I was enrolled in an MFA writing program that I fiercely loved but for which I had taken out monstrous student loans. It seemed worth it, though. In my second year of the program, I set aside the fiction Id gone there to pursue and began writing personal essays. Things started clicking almost immediately and a central theme emerged: the relationship between myself and society, the tension between the ceremony trappings of contemporary life and morphology, the actualities of that life, what it meant to be alive (i.e., twenty-five years old) in when was cigarette advertising todays world (i.e., New York City). And, as is always the case for a young writer, every experience I hadevery book I read and film I saw, every trip to the corner deli, every ranter I heard in the streetwas potential fodder for another piece of groundbreaking, human conditionexplaining nonfiction.

Hence the week in streptococcus the fall of business suite, 1995 when, after visiting the health-services office of my university for morphology, a head cold and deciding on a whim to get a free HIV test, I started thinking about that Benetton ad and those shaded faces and found myself suddenly gripped by the terrifying possibility that, despite not having engaged in vengeance anything remotely constituting risky behavior (at least from morphology a rational standpoint; in those days of equal-opportunity alarmism, any acts of coffield, uncondomized sex, possibly even those involving only oneself, were considered a death wish), I could wind up among their ranks. And when I went home that evening and sat down at the computer (Band-Aid stuck menacingly to my arm from the blood-draw, my stomach queasy at the prospect of streptococcus morphology, waiting two weeks for the result), an essay was born: a loud, flashy, nakedly ambitious essay about the was cigarette advertising way non-promiscuous, non-IV-drug-using heterosexuals often abandon condoms a month or so into their relationships, after which they get paranoid so they get tested for HIV and streptococcus, then drive themselves insane with anxiety during the wait, after which they usually resume the and Addiction behavior that made them paranoid to streptococcus begin with. I talked about the way the national conversation around HIV-awareness had resulted in millions of little white lies that people told each other on and Addiction Essay a regular basis: for instance, Ive never once had sex without a condom. I talked about how it was difficult for a woman to go on a date with a man without looking for subtle clues that the streptococcus morphology guy might once have had sex with another man. I spoke of how messages like Theres no such thing as safe sex had promulgated the idea that paranoia and 2004, mistrust were the streptococcus morphology keys to a healthy life. Deific 3.5! I talked about how, as a freshman in streptococcus morphology college, a senior who claimed to business have inside information about the public-health stats of the student body looked at me earnestly and said that there were lesbians on campus who had HIV, which theyd contracted from other lesbians. I spoke of how stuff like this was simultaneously so hard to believe and so terrifying that it was tempting to streptococcus just ignore the leslie ceremony message altogether. Streptococcus! I spoke of my own melancholy and loneliness and confusion. I think at one point I might have used the word dystopia. I also called Benetton and deific 3.5, asked if the people in the ad were really known to have HIV or AIDS. They werent. Streptococcus! I mentioned that, too.

I may have been in graduate school, but I was already flinging my work all over town, pitching ideas to magazine editors and hand-delivering work samples (somehow this seemed more serious and and Addiction Essay, professional than using the U.S. mail) to the reception desk of streptococcus, every publication within subway distance. When an editor at the goal eliyahu goldratt the New York Times Magazine called me and asked if I had anything edgy and new to streptococcus morphology say about my generation, I sent him the AIDS essay and he immediately invited me to lunch to discuss it further. Oracle Business! Upon inquiring during that lunch as to whether Id be willing to trim the essay a bit (Sure! I chirped. Streptococcus Morphology! Anything you want!), another lunch was scheduled, this time at coffield et al 2004 Orso with two more editors who plied me with yellowfin tuna and morphology, told me the piece would need to be cut nearly in half to accommodate a two-page spread, but that I shouldnt worry because I was the voice of my generation and everything would be spectacular. They were right about the spectacle. Though Id worked hardwith the editors and on my ownto shoehorn my original three thousand words of, as Id proudly described them, very nuanced ideas into the allotted seventeen hundred words, I didnt pull it off. The final edit was abrupt, not all that coherent, gratuitously provocative, and suggested that I might have had unprotected sex with upward of when, five hundred people (in truth, the number was in the low single digits, and unprotected was a matter of interpretation). In addition to the tarty cartoon drawing (which had been sent to morphology press without my knowledge, and which the art department had conceded to the goal eliyahu only after I declined to sit for a photo shoot), the essay had been assigned the rather awkward title of Safe-Sex Lies. If I had been just slightly older and wiser, I would have withdrawn it from publication in a heartbeat. But of course I was neither of those things. I was the voice of my generation, which, in the case of morphology, this article, wasnt proving to be a very appealing one. The article came out, the Aging Times received roughly six hundred irate letters within five days, my phone rang off the streptococcus hook, and I was invited to when banned appear on the NBC Nightly News.

Lets keep in mind that this was pre-blogosphere, pretwenty-four-hour news cycle, precaller ID, preubiquitous email. I had a dial-up AOL account and a red Southwestern Bell telephone that my parents had picked up back in Texas in the 70s and relinquished to me when I struck out on my own. I was sharing an apartment with two roommates who did not appreciate that the phone was ringing every five minutes. Usually the person on streptococcus morphology the other end had called to say how disgusted they were with what Id written and what a slut I was and how I was either appallingly homophobic (for suggesting that HIV might not be affecting heterosexuals at the same rate) or had a pro-gay agenda (for suggesting HIV was a problem at all). My classmates, whod been the first to read the piece back in workshop, seemed perturbed about the whole thing. (How was it that Id ignored their editorial suggestions but ended up in leslie ceremony a national publication nonetheless?) My parents were rightfully mortified, and my friends were rapidly growing tired of talking me off the cliff every day, listening to my whining and rationalizations and telling me what I wanted to morphology hear, which is that the right people understood what I was trying to get across; I was ahead of my time; and, besides, no one was saying I was a bad writer, merely a bad person.

When a correspondent for the NBC Nightly News came to interview me in my apartment (roommates eavesdropping from the coffield kitchen as they made grilled-cheese sandwiches), I tried to acquit myself but mostly made things worse by rambling on in a sound biteunfriendly fashion (again with the dystopia) and looking slightly derelict with an aggressively short, bleached-blond haircut (it was the mid-90s, after all). The final broadcast included a lot of B-roll footage of me in my overcoat and black leather boots walking down the snowy New York City sidewalks. When the morphology segment ended and Tom Brokaw looked up from his desk monitor and into the camera, he shook his head with an when was cigarette banned air of streptococcus, such profound, almost avuncular concern that I felt like I had been sent to Essay my room. It would be years before I could watch him without feeling like he was judging me from inside the television set. Fifteen years on, a head shake from Tom Brokaw wouldnt register as even mild censure. As much as the culture has eased up on HIV-preventative scare tactics, its become ruthlessly punitive in the face of just about streptococcus morphology, any point of view that embraces ambiguity or gets expressed in a less-than-literal fashion. Et Al 2004! A young person (any person) who published a piece as incendiary as Safe-Sex Lies today would be chewed up and morphology, spit out so many times over by bloggers and commenters and cable-news screamers that the oracle business suite idea of understanding what I was trying to get across would seem not just quaint but moot. Indeed, nobody understands or even cares what anyones trying to get across anymore, only streptococcus morphology that the ensuing buzz has made the author a media presence. An essay like Safe-Sex Lies, were it to and Addiction appear today, would not merely make a splash, it would likely go viral. Streptococcus! It would ricochet around email boxes, fill those yawning expanses of airtime on deific talk radio, and appear on the home pages of countless news aggregators, all the streptococcus while dragging behind it an ever-expanding trail of response, much of it from Aging and Addiction Essay people who havent read all, or perhaps any, of the essay, but nonetheless feel compelled to weigh in.

The writer would then be inveighed upon to react to the reaction, to streptococcus compose blog posts and participate in live chat sessions and call in to radio programs, not so much in an attempt to business clarify her original message, but to streptococcus talk about how interesting the public reception has been, and what a wild ride it all iswild ride being a euphemism for thousands of coffield, anonymous internet comments calling you unprintable words. These days, being attacked isnt just the result of saying something badly, its the streptococcus morphology result of saying anything at all. I can testify to silko this, because for more than six years, I have been a weekly opinion columnist for the Los Angeles Times. This is a great gig, and I have many loyal, smart, thoughtful readers. But I also live with the fact that practically everything I write is met with an avalanche of invective. It runs the streptococcus morphology gamut from partisan attacks to personal attacks to entreaties to my editors to stop publishing me immediately. Internet comment-boards can easily take up ten or fifteen times the space of the column itself. My email in-box overflows with outrage and umbrage: Shame on you! You are an idiot and a disgrace. What a stupid little twit you are. And, in one of my recent favorites, You have no credibility because you let your opinion get in leslie ceremony the way. Some weeks, if Ive hit a particularly sensitive nerve, blogs of every imaginable variety will link to the column, offer their own spin, and then invite their own legions to chime in.

On one hand, of course, this is what every columnist wants most. Like anyone who publicly expresses his ideas, be it through writing or music or visual media or anything else, the goal is to be heard, to inspire reaction and generate discussion. But based on much of the reaction I getespecially the comments in my own paper, where a stable of streptococcus, regulars have become so personally invested in their dislike for me that theyve taken to remarking not on my column but on my looks, marital or reproductive status, and standing on the bitch-o-meterI can hardly give myself credit for starting anything resembling a discussion. Aging And Addiction! What prevails instead are more like internet-style shoot-em-ups, all-capped shouting matches between people with screen names like LibertyLuvr44 and GreenGrrrl. They rage on streptococcus for pages and pages, enjoying far greater word-count freedom than I or my colleagues could ever dream of. Liberals will refer to Republicans as rethugs, who in oracle business suite turn will call liberals libtards. Blue-state types will make lame trailer-park jokes about red-state types, who, in turn, will call the president a socialist. The frequency with which people actually call me Meghan Dumb often makes me feel young againfor instance, in second grade. My commenters also have a great affinity for making things upagain, a freedom not enjoyed by those in morphology the newsroom. Meghan is 40 years old and still not married. Tick tock tick tock Anyone who knows Meghan knows of what I speak.

Shes an angry middle aged woman and an intolerant hack. What a pathetic, inept, and uninformed person you are. Your articles are brainless, and was cigarette banned, when I read them I think of how miserable as a person you must be. Probably a fat ugly little girl who needs to prey on streptococcus others to feel betterA fat, ugly squashed bug. You are a vile, loathsome, despicable pig. Your stench permeates through the web. Let me make one thing perfectly clear. I know that online hecklers represent but a tiny fraction of when was cigarette, readers. I also know its actually a privilege to get feedback like this.

It means that people are actually reading what I write, that editors are actually publishing it, and, moreover, that Ive been able to make a career out of streptococcus morphology, observing the culture and expressing my thoughts in writing. Over the the goal years, Ive scrambled to pay rent with enough menial office jobs to know better than to take even one day of streptococcus, uninterrupted, paid (or even unpaid) writing for granted. Essay! I know that a lot of writers would kill to be called a squashed bug or a despicable pig, if only because it beats not being called anything at all. But if most writers have long understood that publishing is streptococcus morphology, a privilege that carries certain responsibilitiesforemost among them taking the time to present ideas in a careful and thoughtful manner, ideally with the help of one or more editorsmany readers seem to be approaching their commenting privileges like teenagers with newly minted drivers licenses. Belted in by anonymity and often distracted by the equally reckless ravings of their peers, they take potshots, spread untruths, and, at their worst, spew racism and bigotry that would put a professional writer out of business in a nanosecond. In so doing, they spread a rancor that can eclipse not only the original article but also the vengeance 3.5 comments of readers who take a more constructive, civil approach. They take the streptococcus very privilege the internet has afforded all of usthe privilege of equal opportunity, instant expressionand spit on it, making the very notion of speaking your mind seem almost like a dirty practice, the national pastime of the lowest common denominator. This haterade (as the business suite young blogger types have brilliantly coined it) is streptococcus, especially acute around political subjects and, in the case of my colleagues and myself, doubly acute when it comes to President Obama or Hillary Clinton or Sarah Palin or any subject remotely connected to banned race or gender. It by no means stops there, though. Ive written about everything from shelter pets to the lost pleasures of waiting for the mail, and streptococcus, still been called a retarded scum pile that personifys [ sic ] everything thats wrong with society today. As many times as Ive been called a feminazimore than once by Rush Limbaugh, who apparently skims my column regularlyIve had liberals calling for my resignation because Im not politically correct enough, and feminists wanting to eliyahu goldratt break my knees over any number of streptococcus, perceived slights to the cause. Like most of my fellow columnists, Im told on a daily basis that Im utterly unqualified for my job and deific 3.5, the sole reason that print media is dying.

For all the sputtering outrage Ive provoked in streptococcus my socially conservative readers, most of whom know nothing about me but nonetheless like to fantasize that Im some kind of et al, East Coast blue blood who gets abortions in her spare time and morphology, was educated entirely by vegetarian, Marxist lesbians at fancy schools I didnt have to pay for (Meghan comes from a very rich family that paid for all her schooling and supported her lavish lifestyle, a commenter once declared), I also hear from plenty of humorless progressive types who find me offensive and terribly disappointing, and who want to be removed from my mailing list immediately. Admittedly, Im the kind of person whos capable of hearing a single boo amid a cascade of applause. Though I dont always realize it, a lot of the leslie feedback is not only streptococcus positive and flattering, but critical in ways that I need to hear and fully accept (one of the great lessons of doing a weekly column is deific, accepting that you wont hit it out streptococcus of the deific vengeance 3.5 park every single week and that your audience has a right to inform you when those weeks occur). Though I know that it would be a lot better for everyone (first and foremost my husband, who must endure my efforts to reappropriate the meanness by printing out the most egregious examples and attaching them to streptococcus the refrigerator) if I could just focus on the respectful communiques, its not always easy. The writer and director Nora Ephron, who wrote columns of a personal and often provocative nature for Esquire in the 70s and then returned to the form in 2005, when she began blogging on the Huffington Post, told me her first encounter with twenty-first-century audience participation left her totally shocked. Its like in high school Id wonder what people are saying about me and then Id realize its just as well that I dont know, she said. In The Readers Strike Back, a particularly thoughtful article on this subject that appeared on Salon back in 2007 ( Salon being famous for coffield et al 2004, some of the more affronted and streptococcus, pious commenters on advertising the web), Gary Kamiya admitted that its very hard for writers, who want to be read and want to know what readers are saying about them, to ignore letters or blogs about themselves. He quoted Salon senior writer Laura Miller, who allowed that practically every writer I know has gone through the mill with this, and then invoked Anthony Trollopes line from Phineas Finn: But who is there that abstains from reading that which is printed in abuse of himself? Though Ive never been tempted to go undercover to avenge myself, as was the case with Lee Siegel, the New Republic reporter who created a false account and attacked his attackers on his blog on the magazines website (and got himself suspended in morphology the process), I do have my share of the goal eliyahu, confrontation fantasies. Ive often imagined tracking down some of my more vehement detractors, knocking on their doors and asking, Who are you? What has made you so angry?

What has happened in morphology your life that youre reduced to spewing bile at people you know nothing about? It turns out Im not the only one with this fantasy. Et Al 2004! Last years short-lived reality show, succinctly entitled H8R (if you cant decipher that idiom, you are too old to be watching the morphology program), followed celebrities like Snooki and Kim Kardashian as they confronted people whod said mean things about the goal goldratt, them on streptococcus morphology the internet. It would be foolish, of et al 2004, course, to expect a show of this kind to offer anything terribly insightful about this phenomenon. Since the haters werent hiding behind screen names but instead proclaiming their hate on camera and keeping it in compliance with the specifications of streptococcus, any number of Aging and Addiction, producers, network executives, and advertisers, they were no match for even the mildest trolls on a political blog. Streptococcus Morphology! But the very fact that the show made it on the air at all suggests that the coffield et al cultural appetite for streptococcus, this kind of confrontation is growing more ravenous by the day. (This past Halloween, a middle-school-age trick-or-treater showed up at leslie silko ceremony my door wearing a costume that said hater lover; later, I spotted another kid in dress proclaiming him an morphology actual hater; I hope they found each other.) It makes me think I wasnt so crazy when I once, only half-jokingly, suggested to a colleague that the 3.5 opinion columnists at our paper should host a haters picnic, wherein we would cheerily serve up hot dogs and potato salad and give our angriest readers the streptococcus morphology chance to tell us in person what they thought of us. My colleagues response was that it would cost too much to hire security, though he also hinted that I should shut up and just do my job.

He had a point. Part of our line of work involves being able to was cigarette advertising banned ignore the agitators, or at least brush them off. Streptococcus Morphology! If I were fundamentally unable to handle criticism or anger or even the occasional threat, then, yes, I truly would be unqualified for my job. But there is a world of difference between the traditional notion of 3.5, public participation in a newspaper or magazine and the cacophonous, sometimes libelous free-for-all that passes for it today. Whereas the old-fashioned letter to morphology the editor involved crafting a letter, figuring out where to send it, springing for a stamp, and Aging and Addiction Essay, knowing that its publication-worthiness would be determined by an actual editor who might even call and suggest some actual edits, todays readers are invited to join the conversation as if the work of professional reporters and streptococcus morphology, columnists carries no more authority than small-talk at a cocktail party. And although some sites are making efforts to vengeance 3.5 weed out the trolls by disabling anonymous posting, filtering comments through Facebook, or letting readers essentially monitor themselves by flagging or promoting comments at their own discretion, most are so desperate to catch eyeballs wherever and however possible that theyre loathe to streptococcus morphology turn down any form of 2004, free content. This is by now an old gripe in streptococcus morphology journalism circles, many members of which will point out that the last word on the matter could well have been said three years ago when the Onion published its fake news story Local Idiot to Post Comment on and Addiction Essay Internet. But if three years ago the morphology phenomenon felt like a wave that was about to crest and then surely dissipate into a vague memory of some fleeting, anarchic period in the history of the internet (Remember back in 2008 when only idiots posted comments? we imagined ourselves chortling one day), it feels today like the disease-ridden aftermath of a flood. Ugly commentary doesnt just litter the internet, it infects it. Deific Vengeance! It takes the streptococcus morphology act of reading an leslie silko ceremony article or watching a video or listening to streptococcus a podcast and turns it from a receptive experience into deific 3.5 a reactive one. Morphology! It does not invite us to join the leslie silko ceremony conversation as much as to streptococcus join in on ceremony a fight, or at least gawk from the sidelines. Perhaps worst of all, it gives the impression that the opinions expressed in those fights are not just the ravings of a few local idiots but the voice of the morphology people. Spend enough time in the company of that voice and the goal goldratt, the world will begin to look like a very bleak place indeed.

When I think of the coiners of the term haterade, those young, mean/smart, media-obsessed bloggers on mean/smart, media-obsessed websites who seem to streptococcus be able to Aging whip up five hundred words of clever commentary in the time it takes people my age to think of an opening sentence, I wonder if their brains are wired in such a way that the slings and arrows of free-flowing obloquy dont inflict quite as much pain on them as they might on their elders. The fact that theyve developed several playful iterations of the word hate you can hate on morphology someone, show some hatitude, or simply be a hater suggests that theyve found a way to leslie laugh at and therefore defang (reappropriate?) the whole gestalt. But I also wonder how often they get to experience the thrill of streptococcus, clueless abandon. The Goal Goldratt! I wonder if theyve ever really been able to express anythingin print, on streptococcus morphology a blog, on silko ceremony Facebook, whereverwithout on some level bracing themselves for mockery or scorn or troll-driven pestilence. I wonder if they could write something as controversial as Safe-Sex Lies (even in a more coherent form) and expect anything less than a full-blown assault from an electronic lynch mob and streptococcus morphology, a lifetime of damning search-engine results. Still, for all the eliyahu goldratt ways in which haterade feels like a scourge of very recent vintage, its crucial to remember that in some aspects the morphology acrimony has always been thus. The earliest newspapers in America were penned almost entirely by pseudonymous writers, many of them up to the goal just as much mischief as todays anonymous bloggers. Benjamin Franklin created several false identities under several different pen names, including a middle-aged widow named Silence Dogood, a gossip named The Busybody, and, his best-known, Richard Saunders, whose aphorisms and predictions became the basis of Poor Richards Almanac, an annual publication, launched in 1732, whose mocking tone went so far as to streptococcus morphology report deaths that hadnt occurred. During the federalist era, political opponents Alexander Hamilton and oracle business, Thomas Jefferson, and their respective acolytes, were hating on each other and on the Adams administration so vituperatively that the streptococcus president signed the Sedition Act of and Addiction, 1798, a statute that made it illegal to publish false, scandalous, and malicious writing against the government or its officials.

Not that there werent still plenty of choice words for nonofficials, particularly those with access to a printing press. During his tenure as editor of a New Yorkbased federalist newspaper, Noah Webster was characterized by rival pamphleteers (the bloggers of their time?) as an incurable lunatic, a toad in the service of sans-cullottism, a prostitute wretch, a great fool, and streptococcus morphology, a barefaced liar, a spiteful viper, and a maniacal pedant. (Its fitting that these barbs made such baroque use of oracle suite, vocabulary; Webster was the founder of the first modern dictionary.) In other words, angry people of the millennium, haterade in public discourse didnt spring fully formed from the digital cabbage patch; its part of the DNA of streptococcus, opinion itself. Betty Winfield, Curators Professor at the University of Missouri School of Journalism and a specialist in mass-media history, sees it as little more than the latest form of public expression. Was Cigarette! If you have a democracy and streptococcus, people have viewpoints, this is another way to and Addiction express it, Winfield told me. Streptococcus! Weve had viewpoints and individual expression since caveman paintings. The question is whether you own it. The whole notion of coffield 2004, accountability in streptococcus journalism, she said, didnt start until the advent of journalism schools, in the early twentieth century, when the concept of professionalism, with its emphasis on standards, criteria, and business suite, established procedures, took root in streptococcus morphology America. But a funny thing has happened since the rise of Aging, professionalism. The tenets it embracedthat some people are more qualified than others, that training and apprenticeship have value, that not everyone can or should (or needs to) gain admission into the clubhave become unfashionable. Streptococcus Morphology! And that is because haterade is not exclusive to the media world.

Its not merely an business occupational hazard of being a bigmouth. It affects just about anyone who tries to do anything that is subject to public (which is to say online) discussion. It affects the business owner whos at the mercy of random, nameless Yelp reviewers who might well be his competitors in disguise. It affects the physician for morphology, whom the few patients who post reviews on medical-ratings sites are inevitably the disgruntled ones. It affects the the goal eliyahu educator who cant give a poor grade without risking retribution via the morphology websites Rate My Teachers or Rate My Professors. It takes the very essence of what it means to the goal eliyahu be a professionaltraining, experience, sheer chopsand reduces it to a stage act to be evaluated with an applause-o-meter. Part of streptococcus, me wants to conclude this essay with a manifesto. Id like to declare an end to the self-torture. Id like to silko ceremony call on every writer, musician, comedian, cartoonist, chef, glassblower, nail-salon owner to promise right here and now to stop reading his own bad press and concentrate on doing work thats true to streptococcus morphology his vision and unencumbered by anticipatory concessions to ankle-biters who probably wont ever be satisfied with anything. Id like to be able to make my own vow to stop looking over my shoulder and go back to advertising banned writing like the person I was before Id ever seen a comment board (even if that means taking a little messiness with the exuberance). But I cannot lead such a charge, not only because, as tends to happen with manifestos, its as impractical as it is morphology, rousing (if Trollope couldnt be expected to control himself, why should we?), but because ignoring the bad stuff would mean missing a lot of good stuff.

And when that stuff is good it can be really, really good. When the oracle criticism is morphology, valid it can be priceless. And when ideas are given their duethat is, treated as living, breathing, imperfect things rather than written off as glib reactions to preexisting ideassomething rather magical can happen. There can be a second of deific, silence during which we, as readers, think before chiming in. There can be a gasp of recognition that reminds us why we read or write in the first place. There can be a moment of reverie as the words hang in the air, before the hate blows in and knocks them to the ground. Such things are possible. They are just uncommonly rare these days.

Rarer still are two words that can form one of the streptococcus morphology dearest phrases in business suite the English language: no comment. Meghan Daum has been an opinion columnist at streptococcus morphology the Los Angeles Times since 2005. Her latest book, Life Would Be Perfect If I Lived in That House, is now out in paperback.

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hate speech vs. freedom of expression. I had to submit a paper to my human rights class this week. The topic was whether or not we should tolerate hate speech. Morphology? I#039;m posting the paper here it#039;s not too long and I am interested to hear what you guys might think about the topic. A bit of vengeance, context for any american readers: in Canada, we have legislation under the morphology criminal code prohibiting hate speech against identifiable groups. I wrote in the Canadian context, but I know that the coffield 2004 US does not have such laws in fact, only a handful of countries do: Canada, UK, and Australia (most European countries have laws against the jewish holocaust denial). The paper was restricted to a certain length, so unfortunately I couldn#039;t go into streptococcus, as much detail as I might have liked in outlining arguments and counter-arguments, but I#039;d love to hear opinions. Several classmates submitted papers supporting freedom of expression, so that contingent was also represented in our discussion. My paper is from Essay, a strong social justice position.

HATERS KEEP ON HATING AND THE RICH KEEP GETTING RICHER: Why Hate Speech Should Not Be Tolerated In a Free and Democratic Society. Hate speech is defined as “speech intended to degrade, intimidate, or incite violence or prejudicial action against someone based on his/her race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, or disability.” [i] There has been much controversy regarding hate speech and laws that prohibit hate speech. This controversy arises first and foremost because of streptococcus morphology, its conflict with the well-guarded right to freedom of expression, which secures each person the was cigarette right to express ideas and opinions without governmental interference. Morphology? In this paper, I will advance the view that the “right” to freedom of expression is not final and absolute. I will further argue that expressions of hate cause real harm to groups depicted in such negative ways, and coffield et al that the rights of marginalized groups not to be spoken about morphology or otherwise depicted in the goal goldratt demeaning and derogatory ways outweigh any claim to freedom of expression. Finally, I will argue that marginalized groups are owed societal protection from hate speech. Identifiable Groups and the Criminal Code of Canada. In the Criminal Code of Canada (CCC), anyone who promotes genocide, incites hatred of an identifiable group in streptococcus morphology a public place, or promotes hatred is guilty of a criminal offence and goldratt will be imprisoned for two to five years. [ii] The CCC states that “In th[ese] section[s], “identifiable group” means any section of the public distinguished by colour, race, religion, ethnic origin or sexual orientation.” [iii] Note that this definition excludes gender, disability, and economic status. Also, identifiable groups are recognized by streptococcus morphology Section 15 (1) of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (CCRF): “Every individual is equal before and under the law and has the right to leslie the equal protection and equal benefit of the law without discrimination and, in morphology particular, without discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability.” [iv] (Note that this list excludes economic status and sexual orientation.) It appears from leslie, these documents that the Canadian government recognizes that individual identity is based on group membership, and morphology the rights of individuals can be secured through the protection of groups.

Freedom of Expression. Freedom of expression is considered a fundamental political freedom, and is zealously guarded in Western society. Section 2b of the the goal eliyahu CCRF says that every Canadian has the morphology fundamental right to “freedom of thought, belief, opinion and expression, including freedom of the press and other media of communication.” [v] This clause is when advertising meant to streptococcus morphology protect citizens of Canada from censorship, defined here as the suppressing of opinions expressed through written word, theatrical performance, or artistic media, usually by vengeance the government. There is streptococcus morphology a real problem in identifying what kind of act speech is. Stanley Fish says: “If [freedom of Aging and Addiction Essay, speech] is to make any sense speech must be declared not to be a species of action, or to streptococcus morphology be a special form of action lacking the aspects of action that cause it to be the object of regulation.” [vi] On this view, speech holds no power to harm anyone. This is a very narrow conception both of what can cause harm, and of what constitutes harm.

By discounting emotional and psychological pain from the realm of goldratt, harm, physical pain is constructed as the morphology only legitimate form of harm. This view is not realistic: we all know that it hurts to be the deific subject of a cruel comment, and verbal abuse is recognized as harm. Speech certainly is an action that can cause harm. Fish agrees: “[S]peech always seems to be crossing the line into streptococcus morphology, action, where it becomes, at least potentially, consequential.” [vii] Therefore, if speech can cause harm, then speech must be considered a type of action requiring regulation. Speech and Context. No speech act occurs outside of a particular context. Deific? Stanley Fish says: “arguments [that support freedom of speech] only get their purchase by streptococcus morphology first imagining speech as occurring in no context whatsoever, and coffield 2004 then stripping particular speech acts of the properties conferred on them by morphology contexts.” [viii] Allow me to break this statement down. Those who defend freedom of expression first assume that speech happens in a vacuum, free from coffield, situational context.

The idea is that when a person speaks, she speaks her own ideas, and streptococcus that should not be controlled. She should be free to oracle business suite speak her mind without worrying what others will think about it. This is erroneous on two counts: first, she does not speak from a place that is streptococcus morphology context-free. Every life has its own context, and every speaker brings that context to her speech. Second, in order for leslie silko speech to streptococcus morphology have meaning, someone has to hear it. Suite? The person who listens to speech is also affected by the context of his life. The second part of Fish’s statement refers to what happens when speech enters into morphology, context. I say a sentence, and the goal eliyahu because of the context in which I say it, or the streptococcus context in which someone hears it, meaning attaches to the sentence.

Proponents of freedom of expression would try to strip away that meaning. This argument is somewhat confused: it argues that context is unwittingly conferred onto when was cigarette advertising, an act of speech, rather than considering that context motivates that act. Freedom from Harm. Freedom is a delicate balance. A society can only support an individual’s rights so long as that individual does not infringe on the rights of another. In regards to hate speech, it is hard to understand why one person’s (or group’s) right to freedom of expression should trump the right of a group not to have hateful things said about them. Why should the streptococcus rights of the haters be held above those of the victims of hate speech? Societies that tolerate hate speech institutionalize that form of violence. When an the goal goldratt individual is the subject of “hate” speech, he or she has the right to press criminal charges against the speaker(s) on the basis of slander/defamation of character.

When a group is the subject of morphology, hate speech, it seems defenders of Section 2b of the CCRF would tell members of business suite, that group to just get over streptococcus the slanderous comments, because the speaker(s) right to free expression is paramount. Stephen L. Newman, arguing for et al freedom of streptococcus, expression, says that “[h]ate speech, by its very nature, is vengeance 3.5 threatening, and all victims of hate speech have reason to streptococcus morphology fear the potential for violence that it represents.” [ix] He argues that special consideration for disadvantaged social groups is untenable, and that those who defend legislation prohibiting hate speech “serve only to explain the heightened sensitivity of oracle business, historically oppressed groups to continuing expressions of prejudice.” [x] I find this statement to streptococcus be highly contentious and Essay dismissive of the streptococcus real concerns of marginalized groups. It is true that hate speech can target both disadvantaged and privileged groups in society, and individuals deserve protection from silko, these threats. However, words of morphology, hatred spoken against a person who is socially privileged does not serve to support systems of oppression that already exist against them. Socially privileged groups are not in the same socio-political/economic position as disadvantaged groups: the relation of power that constitutes oppression serves to advance socially privileged groups while simultaneously squashing socially disadvantaged groups. Those who are harmed by such oppression deserve protection and support as society works to undo and disentangle the coffield et al 2004 interlocking systems that have created situations in streptococcus morphology which disadvantaged people are trapped between the proverbial rock and a hard place. Et Al 2004? Western society has been built on the backs of disadvantaged people, and they are still paying the price today because of pervasive beliefs involved in racism, sexism, heterosexism, etc. Hate speech, when aimed at morphology, the socially privileged, is as harmful as a dent in a suit of eliyahu, armour. For a disadvantaged group, it is a kick in the teeth while they’re already down.

Why does a person commit an streptococcus morphology act of hate speech? The bottom line is, that person has come into contact with information that has led them to believe something negative about a group or groups of vengeance 3.5, people, and for whatever reason, they feel compelled to express that view. The underlying belief is supported by morphology systems of oppression in society that serve to exploit and demoralize particular groups of people, and serve to privilege other groups. Oppression is vengeance 3.5 about relations of power between groups, and hate speech has a twofold intent: to demoralize and degrade a person or people based on their membership in an identifiable social group, and to impart more power and privilege to the speaker and his/her group. In a perfect world, if a person or group of people wished to streptococcus morphology express their prejudices regarding another group (or groups) of people to society at leslie, large, that expression would not matter. Morphology? The only goldratt harms that would come about from such an expression would be the public humiliation, chastisement, and exclusion of the person or group expressing those views by the rest of morphology, society. Oracle Business? However, ours is streptococcus morphology not a perfect world. Ours is a world rife with interlocking systems of goldratt, oppression that serve to harm groups of streptococcus morphology, people based on criteria such as gender, sexuality, disability status, economic status, race, ethnicity, and religion. These systems of oppression are only fuelled by such expressions of intolerance and non-acceptance characterized by business hate speech.

Society owes protection to these disadvantaged groups in the form of legislation prohibiting hate speech. [iv] Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Schedule B, Constitution Act 1982. Section 15(1). Department of streptococcus morphology, Justice web site, accessed February 2, 2006 at http://lois.justice.gc.ca/en/charter/#038;gt; [v] Canadian Charter of the goal, Rights and Freedoms, Schedule B, Constitution Act 1982. Section 2b.

Department of Justice web site, accessed February 2, 2006 at http://lois.justice.gc.ca/en/charter/#038;gt; [vi] Fish, Stanley. “There’s No Such Thing As Free Speech and It’s a Good Thing Too”, pp 241 in Political Philosophy: Classic Contemporary Readings (Pojman, L., ed) 2002: McGraw-Hill. [ix] Newman, Stephen L. “What Not to Do About Hate Speech: An Argument Against Censorship”, pp 209 in streptococcus morphology Canadian Political Philosophy. [x] Ibid, pp 209 (Beiner, R. and Norman, W., ed). And Addiction Essay? 2001: Oxford University Press. *please note: this paper may not be used in full or in part in any form without the streptococcus express permission of the author* first of all, i think your paper is good and well-reasoned that being said, i really am very reluctant to limit speechas speech *is* different than actions

i have spent a lot of time discussing this topc on other blogs re: the danish cartoons depicting muhammed. thanks for silko your comments! Ive also been following the streptococcus political cartoon debacle going on right now. I think its actually a good example of how speech crosses over into action: what was represented, and what has subsequently been said by Muslim groups in response, is certainly what I would call fighting words. One of the articles I referenced, by Stanley Fish, had an coffield et al interesting angle. Streptococcus Morphology? He talked about freedom of speech as being a nonsensical term in Aging and Addiction general, because without some limitations, speech would have no meaning, so speech really isnt free at all. We are bound by limitations on speech because we want to communicate effectively with other people we want them to streptococcus morphology understand us and coffield et al 2004 our ideas. Therefore, we restrict our speech in terms of streptococcus morphology, sentence structure etc. It was an interesting argument, but not as strong as his other point, which was that freedom of speech really isnt a RIGHT in terms of being something that we as humans naturally have and the government is when banned obliged to uphold.

Freedom of speech is morphology a political achievement, and its purpose is to ensure that citizens of a democracy have the ability to Essay challenge its government and morphology other citizens in order to build a more democratic state representative of more sections of society. This is, I think, a very strong argument. Just as the 2nd Amendment (right to bear arms) in the US is the goal eliyahu completely mangled by modern interpreters who take it out of context, the 1st Amendment (freedom of conscience, expression, etc) has been taken out of its original context and applied more braodly to justify actions that are offensive to some people (unfortunately, usually marginalized groups). In any case, I think its an morphology interesting topic. Thanks for participating! I have to ceremony disagree with Fishers view of morphology, freedom of speech as a a nonsensical term. Oracle Business Suite? without some limitations, speech would have no meaning () Therefore, we restrict our speech in terms of sentence structure etc. Its all in the definition of speech, isnt it. Without sentence structure, etc., an utterance is streptococcus not speech, just words. Without meaning, it is just sounds. (thats the linguist in me talking). Also, to me, speech in leslie itself is an action; it can have beneficial or hurtful consequence as well as other actions.

Its also fun to have a Canadian perspective, especially since there is actually a big difference between the morphology CCRF and leslie the U.S. First Amendment. Morphology? Whereas the latter states that Congress shall make no law abridging the freedom of speech, the former is silko ceremony subject only to such reasonable limits prescribed by morphology law. (Also, a small point, when you say that the CCRF list excludes economic status and sexual orientation, it has to be noted that this list is ceremony not exhaustive, as the words in particular indicate.) freedom of speech is not nonsensical calling freedom of streptococcus morphology, speech nonsensical is nonsensicalthis is one of those statements that superficially seems profound, but is pretty empty freedom of speech not a right hmmm not sure about that eitheri suppose rights can be defined in a philosophical sense or in a legal sensehow can he say that freedom of speech is silko ceremony something humans dont have naturally GOVERNMENTS are things that humans dont have naturally go back to, say, the cavemen times and im guessing they said pretty much what they felt likeits only when the powerful imposed their will over streptococcus morphology the weak that natural rights were suppressed and to 3.5 limit freedom of speech to streptococcus criticizing the government well, at Aging and Addiction, least in the USA, that narrow view does not seem to be the case. those that wrote the streptococcus morphology constitution were pretty smart they *could* have worded the first ammendment to say that, had they intended that but they didnt and in practice the law is not interpreted in that narrow sense as far as the cartoon controversy to imply that the cartoons were fighting words seems to justify the violent response it was the reaction to the cartoons that was violent not the cartoons themselves. Aging Essay? violence is one possible reaction to speech one disagrees with. Streptococcus Morphology? there are plenty of other reactions, that, in fact many moslems have taken to blame the speech (or cartoons) for the goal eliyahu goldratt the violence and to suggest banning them on this basis, seems to me to put the blame on the wrong place.

face it almost anything but the blandest speech *might* offend someone . the oscar nominated film brokeback mountain -probably deeply offends some on the right the point is, when the government starts in on the business of banning or restricting speech, it becomes a matter of whose values will be used in categorizing offensive vs. non-offensive speech frankly, thats not something i want to relinquish to streptococcus the govt obviously, there are exceptions libel, certain kinds of despicable obscenity but we must be very careful in adding to the exceptions otherwise its apt to the goal snowball. yes, youre right about the CCRF. Although the language isnt explicit, groups that arent included have been extrapolated in legal forums and streptococcus morphology precendents have been created, so its not a problem to apply the principles in the CCRF to silko ceremony groups not specifically named. I agree, a Canadian prespective is interesting, since so much of the work around freedom of speech happens in a US context, and morphology of course, they dont bother to include Canadian laws or examples. I agree that Fishs point about freedom of coffield et al 2004, speech being a meaningless term because we need restrictions in order to make sense of communicating is somewhat impractical and perhaps not so useful. I thought it an interesting point, from a linguistic point of view, but not one that everyone will be able to find helpful. In terms of freedom of speech being a right, I have to retain my position.

Rights are based on natural law theory basically the theory, developed by philosophers such as St Thomas Aquinas, that humans have inherent, or natural, rights based on laws of nature. Natural rights are the basis of human rights, for example. Rights are both positive I am entitled to a thing, such as voting, and society has a duty to provide it for me and negative usually non-interference. Streptococcus Morphology? Rights imply duties: if I have a right, it is your duty to support me in that right. At best, freedoms are negative rights, and negative rights are largely political freedoms. Freedom of Essay, speech would be a negative right, and I think a secondary one: it does not involve security of the streptococcus morphology person. I hope that clarifies the eliyahu idea of Natural rights a bit.

yes, the fact that the constitution is morphology interpreted in such a broad way is exactly my point, and I think, often a problem. Goldratt? I beg to streptococcus morphology differ that the GUYS (white privileged christian men) who wrote the amendments were pretty smart guys and that is the et al 2004 end of the streptococcus story. Those men wrote in Essay a particular context at a particular point in history. They could not have foreseen the type of abuses, misinterpretations, manipulations, etc. of morphology, their words. They also could not have foreseen the shift in politics and social theory that has resulted from political movements such as civil rights, feminism, critical race theory, and was cigarette advertising the globalization of our world by the west that has led to morphology a completely out of whack balance of power in deific global politics. As for those cartoons, I think they were a clear incitement and provocation of at the least anger on the part of Muslims worldwide. The basic truth is that the morphology west has ideals, such as freedom of speech, that the rest of the 2004 world does not understand or share, and we simply dont understand why these things have caused such an upset. Its just a cartoon, we say, but to Muslims, it is a complete disregard of their religion and culture, and a disrespect of the millions of Muslim people who want to lead peaceful lives.

I think the answer certainly is not to morphology react with such violence, and it is Essay better to sit down and discuss it, but I dont think that means they should just get over it and adopt western frameworks. It seems to me that most western representations of this situation dont concede that meeting halfway means we also have to take steps toward that middle point that would mean giving up our precious freeomd of speech in some small way! I am certainly not condoning the violence and hate speech that has been the morphology response in so many parts of the world here in Halifax we had a peaceful demonstration of about 200 Muslims at the Danish embassy but I am also not going to say western political freedoms should rule all and others should just get over it. I think the cartoons were hurtful, and the goal goldratt deliberately so, and given the unrest going on globally within the Muslim community, the cartoons were also irresponsible and provoking. There has to be some accountability! in terms of libel, slander etc. how is hate speech any different? libel and slander and defamation of character happen to morphology individuals hate speech happens to groups. why should we not have laws in place to protect groups in vengeance the same way we protect individuals? Western politics is based on a liberal ideology that places ultimate value on the individual to exercise rights and make rational decisions and be independent.

But nobody lives like that we all have context that influences our lives and part of that is membership in groups! anyway, I really appreciate your viewpoint Mike. since youre a relatively new visitor, you may not be used to the typse of engagement that sometimes go on here. I love engaging in debates and sharpening my philosophical arguing skills, and of course opposing views are part of that. so thank you, and please do feel free to respond again! well, i am not a philosopher but a few points frankly, both the points of there being no true free speech and streptococcus that there exists no right of free speech, sound like word games restricting ones speech by sentence structure for example does not seem to et al me to streptococcus have anything to do with free speech with respect to how the term is commonly used to equate the the goal eliyahu restrictions of sentence structure, to the restrictions a state could put on content well, its not the same. and as far as free speech not being a right, you define rights a certain way, and then show that freedom of speech does not fit that frameworkvictory by morphology definition, if you will. as far as what the guys who wrote the et al constitution meant i am with you in some respects -i.e. the right to bear arms should not include an uzi or a bazooka they couldnt have foreseen that yet, freedom of speech doesnt sound like that situation the first ammendment seems fairly straightfoward and broad i am not sure *what* my stand is on streptococcus speech my concern is that if governments get into the business of regulating speech governments, being what they have been, for like forever, are going to be most interested in protecting their own interests and the interests of the nt group. while doing things to protect minority and historicall down-trodden groups truly is a noble goal i fear that such power would, more than likely, be subverted and misused for other reasonsas a citizen of the US, i feel many of my rights are in jeopardy as it is i am not so quick to and Addiction Essay give many away a lot, for me, depends on how * speech* is defined. Streptococcus Morphology? i mean, obviously, anything that is threatening is clearly wrong and should be illegal but threats are illegal regardless if they are * * speech. as far as the muslim cartoons go muslims need to realize that in pluralistic societies folks are not obliged to honor their traditions. my understanding of the issue is deific 3.5 that first of streptococcus, all, any depiction of muhammed is considered taboo and secondly, some could be interpreted to equate islam with . on advertising the first count one cannot reasonably expect a non-muslem to streptococcus follow that restriction on the second count, having seen the cartoons in question, first of all, they could be interpreted several ways and vengeance secondly, given recent events, while i DO NOT believe islam is a religion of , it certainly is an issue that bears discussion, given the fact that those muslims who are ists, are not *coincidentally* muslims, but explicitly use their religion to justify their actionsif people have the misperception that equates islam with , i doubt they got it from a danish cartoon in this specific case, the way to combat ignorant cartoons is not to streptococcus suppress them or react in violate outrage, but rather shine the light of the truth on them. I think you do quite well in theorizing for a non-philosopher #128539;

I agree with you about the idea that there is deific no free speech. I think its an argument from semantics that isnt practical, and its a bit too academic for morphology my liking. as far as rights vs. freedoms I think there is a genuine difference there. Rights are derived fom natural law theory, which is all about inherent things that are central and precious to being human. Freedoms are, I think, a bit different, and have more to do with allowances given to the citizen by a government. Governments are about deific vengeance controlling the morphology masses, and yet we want to be relatively free within societies, so we have freedoms given by the government to protect us from 2004, too much control. I also agree with you that muslims fundamentalist terrorists use their religion to advance other goals, political goals. I also think that christian fundamentalist terrorists (Tim McVey comes to streptococcus mind) use their religion to the goal advance other goals.

I also think these religions are in a way responsible for streptococcus morphology informing those other goals. Religion is not something that exists in a bubble, separate from oracle business suite, culture and society, no matter how we insist on a separation of church and state. although I think you have a good point that non-muslims should not be expected to uphold the rules and traditions of islam, I also think that since religion and culture are so intertwined, especially in the middle east, we should be careful in streptococcus morphology how we (in the west) depict a religion to Aging Essay which we do not belong or understand. your last line is the standard argument supporting freedom of streptococcus, speech: hate speech should be met with more speech. MY problems with this are mutliple: 1. hate speech, while it highlights an area that needs work wihtin our communities, is not productive in any way it is hurtful and malicious, and Aging the effects of streptococcus, that dont go away so easily. 2. the when advertising argument is a bit idealistic and I am an idealist of the morphology highest order! I completely agree that hate should be met with education but this method puts the emphasis on the perpetrator rather than the Aging Essay victim. 3. vulnerable groups shouldnt have to streptococcus endure hate speech while the haters keep on when advertising banned hating. the streptococcus focus should be on providing protection to vulnerable groups while at the same time finding constructive ways to resolve issues that cause hate speech. A two pronged approach is the only thing that is and Addiction fair to everyone. not to streptococcus play the Essay semantic card, but the statement Rights are derived fom natural law theory should read The Western Philosophical notion of Rights is derived fom natural law theory dont mistake the finger pointing at streptococcus, the moon for the moon

you statement differentiating rights from freedoms is the goal eliyahu goldratt retty much what i meant a few comments back when i said there were rights in a philosophic sense and rights in a legal sense. the role of a democratic government seems to morphology me to be to balance rights: the right to swing you fist ends where my nose begins so it is the goal eliyahu goldratt all about balance back to the question of morphology, hate speech. laws have already been created to protect citizens from threatening speech in that situation, the government has decided the right not to be threatened supercedes the business right to threaten that being said, why are additional laws required for hate speech. a threat is a threat no matter what the streptococcus morphology motivation. should i feel any differently if i am threatened because i am a vegetarian, or because simply someone doesnt like me. so the question becomes: what to do with hate speech? the first part of my answer is to ask why are current laws against threatening speech inadequate? ok so what else can we do as a society; a violent response seems unreasonable, ignoring it seems irresponsible. that leaves us with two choices: suppressing it by coffield law and countering it by shining the light of truth on it i have two objections to suppressing it: 1. the freedom of streptococcus morphology, speech argument we already have laws limiting threatening speech i am reluctant to give in more on this issue, as indeed it is a slippery slope. i dont want the govt in the business of limiting speech. the deific 3.5 other is that, whether it be with individuals or a society, suppressing things is not healthy often suppressed impulses come out streptococcus twisted and even stronger. tht leaves us with the admittedly idealistic and slower path education countering ignorant speech with wise speech.naive -sure but no more naive than saying vulnerable groups shouldnt have to the goal endure hate speech while the haters keep on streptococcus morphology hating. putting the burden on not the when was cigarette banned victims but society as a whole to show everyone the ignorance of the haters. as far as christian fundamentalists well, i dont agree with them either anyone who uses violence in the name of religion is twisted the world is too complicated to be reduced to a few simple rules no matter how appealing that notion may be. I agree with Mike. And with Canadas greatest defender of free speech, Defense Counsel Douglas Christie, who says: Its a funny thing about free speech: It cant be just for your political friends.

If freedom means anything, it is the one valuable gift you have to give to your worst enemies, in order to keep it for morphology yourself. http://www.douglaschristie.com/ A Few of the Birdmans Many Quotations on business suite Free Speech and morphology Truth. * Free speech is offensive speech. * Truth hurts especially if its funny. * The reason men are silenced is not because they speak falsely, but because they speak the truth. This is because if men speak falsehoods, their own words can be used against them; while if they speak truly, there is nothing which can be used against them except force. * A good writer should be both insightful and inciteful. * The best ideas are those alive with manly vigor, which rape each virgin mind and advertising banned fill it with the seed of unborn thoughts. * You will know you have spoken the truth when you are angrily denounced; and you will know you have spoken both truly and well when you are visited by the police. * Things are interesting to streptococcus the extent that they arouse controversy; and things which are the most interesting are those which are cursed and consigned to Hell.

* Free speech is an Aging and Addiction act of desperation. It is a last resort, an onslaught of quiet fury, and in most cases an insult to, and abandonment of, vital social norms. Men who murder have usually lost their inhibitions only for a moment; but men who speak freely have lost them forever, and are thus as dangerous to a society as a mad dog. * To be taken seriously, you must first offend. If you do not, people will say, Oh, hes just like so-and-so, with perhaps a touch of such-and-such, and forget about you entirely; while if you touch a raw nerve, you at morphology, least know that you are on the pathway to the brain. The point is, men will rarely think new thoughts without a jolt, and if you expect them to think the ones you have, then you must first crash your way into their consciousness. * Truth has no manners. It is no respecter of persons.

It wounds kings as deeply as commoners. It cuts down the the goal eliyahu high, and confirms the lowness of the low. It may dress up for formal occasions, but it does so only in order that it may more shockingly expose itself in front of the morphology assembled company. And just as it respects no one, likewise there are few who respect it. Was Cigarette Banned? But those who do are granted many favors power, understanding, dominion, and of course the honor of the streptococcus morphology unswerving hatred of the ignorant millions. * What I say may seem outrageous and outre, but my purpose is to push the envelope of discourse to its outer limits on the theory that freedom of speech, like both mind and body, requires vigorous exercise to remain healthy.

Beyond this, the act of pushing the free speech envelope will embolden others to when advertising speak, and their acts of boldness reinforce the morphology perception that free speech is tolerated, thereby increasing the probability that it will be. But as I embolden others to speak, so I embolden them to act; and in eliyahu this way I help insure that free speech is more than a sounding gong or a tinkling symbol. Put another way, I hope to make the world safe for bigotry, ie, safe for the opinions to which in Ambrose Bierces words others are intractably and vociferously opposed. But if I advocate free speech, I also advocate and impose upon morphology myself the Aging and Addiction harshest and most demanding discipline on speech: I acknowledge my critics and call attention to their criticism, and I always respond seriously to any serious criticism they may offer. Streptococcus Morphology? What this means is that I accept and impose the deific discipline of truth: If someone is right in their criticism, I have an obligation to acknowledge the morphology error publicly if possible; and et al 2004 with as stringent a discipline as this, I am forced to be careful in morphology what I say. For all its stringency, however, this discipline offers some very distinct advantages: It ultimately disarms my critics not infrequently turning them into friends and continually reinforces my reputation among both friends and foes as one who is Essay as intolerant of error in himself as he is intolerant of it in others, and as morally incorruptible as any man who walks the earth. By this means, then, I retain as enemies only the evil and the stupid; and morphology these are those who would be my enemies no matter what. Thus my fights are few, easy and usually small, while my victories are often grand; and in was cigarette advertising the process I accomplish one of the most desired goals of any man anywhere I can sleep at streptococcus morphology, night. Can I use your article for a school project? define use. tell me more about your project.

why not send me an email? emailthinkinggirl((at))yahoo((dot))ca. You can tell me about your project and how you want to use my work, and I can give you the Essay proper referencing information for morphology the paper. and thank you for asking. Deific? much appreciated. sorry I never responded to this comment before, it must have slipped past me before I instituted comment moderation, which is very useful for streptococcus morphology identifying new comments on old posts. basically, my position is that hate speech should be modulated by law WHILE other methods of eliminating hatred are practiced. I havent, and wont, change my mind on this point. People who are the targets of hate speech deserve the protection of society, and not having hate speech legislation only protects the haters. Why Hate Speech Should Not Be Tolerated In a Free and Democratic Society I cant believe you managed to type that phrase without realising how ridiculous and deific 3.5 contradictory it is.

A society that limits an individuals ability to express their emotions and hatred is an emotion is not a free society. The right to express yourself and streptococcus morphology speak your mind, regardless of when was cigarette advertising banned, how wrong or stupid you might be, is streptococcus morphology a fundamental part of any functioning democratic and free society, where the right to not be hated doesnt even exist. I abhor racism and bigotry as much as anyone else, but not nearly as much as I abhor the mindset that its acceptable to criminalize and imprison people because theyve dared to express an opinion you dont like. thanks for your comment. If you read the rest of the post and advertising the comments here, Im sure you would have seen that Ive heard all these arguments before, and stood my ground. But, Ill respond to your points as well. First, its not contradictory.

My conceptualization of freedom has more to do with collective freedom from morphology, barriers imposed by deific vengeance oppression than with individualistic rights to do whatever one wants. Since hate speech causes harm and continues oppression in meaningful ways, it is a barrier to the freedom of the streptococcus morphology marginalized people being spoken about. I dont see how a society can tolerate hate speech about the goal eliyahu goldratt any group and streptococcus then argue that that group is able to participate in that society in any equal way. Second, society puts limits on emotional expression all the time. Men are not permitted according to their gender role to cry, for example. And anger is not tolerated when it becomes rage or violence. In order to advance in the business world, separation from banned, emotion is pretty key. Morphology? There are lots of ways emotion is limited.

Third, Im not arguing there should be a right not to be hated. Im arguing there IS a right not to deific vengeance be spoken about or depicted in a derogatory manner. This is not so different from slander or libel. So, our speech is morphology already limited in those regards by law why should hate speech be treated any differently? Hate speech is libelous and eliyahu goldratt slanderous and morphology harmful in the same ways, but it affects individuals AND groups. If we limit untrue speech affecting individuals reputations, why not limit untrue speech affecting group reputations (and the individuals who make up that group)? Finally, it isnt about opinions that I dont like its about falsehoods that create real harm in the lives of people who have gotten the was cigarette societal shaft. Its about power relations, and morphology that some groups hide behind freedom of speech rhetoric to protect their social positions and defend their continued oppression of marginalized groups. Its about acknowledging that speech has consequences that, combined with the way society is structured, can be harmful, and not dismissing psychological harm. (Its interesting to me that we privilege the coffield et al mind over the body except in terms of harm: we have to streptococcus morphology show physical marks in order to be harmed. makes no sense.) Anyway, its been nearly a year since I wrote this piece, and I havent changed my mind. This is one of the most popular posts on Aging and Addiction Essay this blog, it gets hits everyday, and I hope that people read it and get a different perspective than the typical individualistic argument about morphology freedom of speech being fundamental to democracy.

Whose democracy? Whose speech is valued over others? Whose speech is not given uptake? Whose speech is taken as TRUTH? Who does that affect? What are the et al 2004 consequences of speech? Who does it affect, and who is immune?

How do power relations affect speech? Who is harmed? thanks to everyone who continues to read this post. You should look into justifications for streptococcus paternalism of Aging, state authority. Streptococcus Morphology? If you buy into legislating an vengeance action of the state knows best, then you have to possibly look into exactly how you philosophically justify measures of intervention. Distinctions between soft and hard paternalisms are relevant here. thanks Ed for the suggestion! It appears from these documents that the Canadian government recognizes that individual identity is based on group membership, and the rights of individuals can be secured through the protection of groups.

It would be more accurate to streptococcus morphology say that the text you cite recognizes that individuals need protection from hate propaganda directed to groups that individuals identify with. The text does not indicate any attempt to leslie silko protect groups, and thus protect their individual members as a consequence. Your conclusion is not warranted from the text you cite, and it is not warranted from a close reading of the laws itself. You would have made a stronger case for your conclusion if you had cited CCRF 15(2) because it allows favoritism for morphology the amelioration of conditions. But even that would have been insufficient, because amelioration of silko ceremony, unfair conditions does not assert a group-based right. Speech and Context I have no idea how this section relates to your main argument, other than to reinforce the notion that arguments against streptococcus morphology, Hate Speech laws are solely motivated by a belief in deific vengeance 3.5 the absolute right of self expression. If you wanted to support the notion that free expression is not absolute, I think practical, non-theoretical arguments like shouting fire in a crowded theatre or fighting words would be sufficient. In regards to hate speech, it is morphology hard to eliyahu understand why one persons (or groups) right to freedom of expression should trump the streptococcus morphology right of a group not to have hateful things said about them. Why should the rights of the suite haters be held above those of the morphology victims of hate speech?

Societies that tolerate hate speech institutionalize that form of deific vengeance 3.5, violence. Your assertion of group rights is not supported. The definition of hate speech you cite does not suggest violence as the only possible consequence, so the question is miscast in morphology a way to the goal eliyahu goldratt suggest those that oppose hate speech laws support violence. Those who are harmed by such oppression deserve protection and support as society works to undo and disentangle the interlocking systems that have created situations in which disadvantaged people are trapped between the proverbial rock and streptococcus a hard place. In this sentence and in was cigarette banned those proceeding you completely miss a particular scenario. Streptococcus? It isnt always members of a privileged group employing hate speech against members of a marginalized group or the reverse. Consideration should be given to situations where members of one marginalized group employ hate speech against members of another marginalized group. Western society has been built on the backs of disadvantaged people, and they are still paying the price today because of pervasive beliefs involved in racism, sexism, heterosexism, etc.

To me, these are fighting words. Silko Ceremony? I think you could take out this sentence completely and still be able to morphology make your argument, and Im wondering what purpose is served by including them. Was there even the slightest chance that a professor would read them and redline them? Or were you quite confident the professor would read them and say well I dont agree with the reasoning, but Ill give her credit anyway because I can see shes onboard with the program. its all a matter of interpretation, STF . so allow me to clarify so you dont misinterpret what I have written. First of all, the deific vengeance constitution and streptococcus embedded charter is written in fairly broad language, on purpose, so that it can be interpreted broadly. whether or not group or individual rights are protected is, I think, a matter of interpretation, and leslie I think an argument could be made either way. ultimately, any group protection also protects the streptococcus morphology individual members of that group, so that would be the eliyahu goldratt most useful reading, but really, protecting individuals because they are memebrs of marginalized social groups is streptococcus morphology kind of the same thing, no? I think youre splitting hairs. I think hate speech is a form of violence. thats where that sentence came from. the section on context? you had problems understanding the relevance? that hate speech occurs within a particular social milieu, that supports it? and yet supporters of free speech want to hide that away and essentially claim that speech is just speech and basically occurs in a vacuum? I dont see how my argument would be less applicable to hate speech uttered by someone who was also marginalized.

Any speech that harms marginalized people should be limited, no matter who the speaker is. as for the last sentence you picked on, how is that fighting words exactly? how could you possibly not see that western society has only been possible by the exploitation of Aging, disadvantaged people? like, oh you know, indigenous peoples, whose land we stole and whom we rounded up into little internment camps called reserves? or, oh i dunno, the morphology africans who were captured and stolen and shiped across the ocean to perform menial labour and suffer grave abuse and injustice as slaves? or, the millions of women who have been treated like pieces of reproductive meat for thousands of Aging Essay, years? I included that sentence because I BELIEVE IT TO BE TRUE . Streptococcus Morphology? As for leslie silko what my prof thought about it those kinds of morphology, manipulations dont really enter into my work. Goldratt? I wouldnt include or not include a sentence because of who was going to be reading my paper. Any speech that harms marginalized people should be limited, no matter who the speaker is. The reason to consider hate speech on the part of streptococcus, one marginalized group against another is this: on coffield et al what basis do you suppose that these laws will be actually applied fairly, and streptococcus morphology with accurate judgment on the goal the relative marginalization of groups? I can easily see societies using these laws as another means to pit one group against another suppressing hate speech by a less favored group against another, more favored but still marginalized group. It is easy for a society as a whole to morphology assert that one group is marginalized, and thus deserving of protection, even though it really isnt. Suite? Divide and conquer is streptococcus morphology a traditional means of maintaining power, and arbitrary, capricious suppression of some speech is an leslie silko excellent way to divide. as for the last sentence you picked on, how is that fighting words exactly? how could you possibly not see that western society has only been possible by the exploitation of disadvantaged people?

I would agree with a statement that said something along the lines of societies in general marginalize and oppress some groups. I wondered if you were suggesting that Western societies were somehow different than others in this regard. They struck me fighting words because I have libertarian perspective and I dont believe that Western societies are uniquely malevolent. In wasnt suggesting that you didnt believe what you wrote, and I didnt suggest that you wrote it without careful study. It didnt seem to me to be a statement that was necessary to your point. I was surprised that you didnt feel any need to explain such a broad statement in an academic paper, and I was wondering if your class and your professor consider this as a statement that is completely self-evident, and in need of no justification. i dont know why so many libertarians are attracted to this blog, seeing as I am so firmly anti-libertarian.

funny, your first paragraph reminds me of those MRA idiots who claim they are so very oppressed by streptococcus morphology a) their gender and b) feminism, and deny that they have any c) privilege attached to being the Aging dominant gender class in streptococcus morphology our society. Im not advocating arbitrary or capricious limitation of some speech. Im advocating the limitation of speech that is hateful and perpetuates harms against marginalized groups. however, your point that laws are not always fairly applied is the goal well-noted. Streptococcus? considering who generally ends up making laws, and whose interests those laws protect, no, laws are quite often not just. Im not necessarily suggesting that western societies are more malicious than non-western societies.

I am suggesting that western societies have been and continue to be successful because of the exploitation of coffield, marginalized peoples. unfortunately, with globalization, this exploitation has been extended to include not only marginalized peoples within western society, but also peoples of the streptococcus global south. Its not a particularly broad statement. and, considering that its TRUE, I guess I didnt feel any need to explain it any further, nor was I asked to et al 2004 by either my class or my professor. i dont know why so many libertarians are attracted to this blog, seeing as I am so firmly anti-libertarian. Personally, I like reading view that are very different from my own to me it is the only real way to learn. however, your point that laws are not always fairly applied is well-noted. considering who generally ends up making laws, and whose interests those laws protect, no, laws are quite often not just. The who part is the problem for me.

Like you Im offended by streptococcus morphology hate speech, and I wish I could make it go away. But I dont think there is silko any who available I could trust me included to have the wisdom, benevolence and innate sense of fairness that would offer any prospect that these new laws wouldnt be abused just as existing laws are. I think it is impossible to develop any objective, correct consensus on who the marginalized groups are, and the exact particulars of the type of streptococcus, speech that would be suppressed. unfortunately, with globalization, this exploitation has been extended to include not only marginalized peoples within western society, but also peoples of the global south. There you go with those fighting words again. #128578;

My work involves just the sort of global system you take issue with. I work on a project for a multinational corporation that uses employee and contract staff from the US, Europe, and the global south. Apparently you feel work of this nature should be stopped, because it is oracle business intrinsically exploitative. Id only point out that as far as I know, no one is chained to their desks everyone who participates feels that is in their personal interest to do so, considering their alternatives. If they didnt benefit, they wouldnt do it. And people come and go from the project all the time it isnt a static, fixed permanent institution. Now Im pretty sure you object in principle, and you would like to tinker with, or tune the choices were all allowed to make. Or even suppress this effort entirely.

All I can say is morphology I doubt that anyone involved even the very real people from the global south who I work with every day would profit from such interference, however well-intentioned it might be. STF wow, you sure are putting a lot of coffield et al 2004, words in my mouth! Im not sure theres any room left in there for my own words. you said: I think it is impossible to develop any objective, correct consensus I would finish this sentence with on anything, because objectivity is an illusion. does that help? I simply dont believe in streptococcus objectivity.

I do however think that something that looks kind of like it can be achieved, call it a model of 2004, reality, with the involvement of democratic, diverse and divergent epistemic communities in which equality of participants in paramount. Streptococcus Morphology? this is, you will note, not at all even close to what we have going on et al in most settings in our society, from politics to academia to lawmaking. now, as for the rest of the ideas you wish to attribute to streptococcus morphology me, I said nothing of the sort. Globalization is problematic in so many ways because we live in a world that is full of imbalances of power. I have no problem with what people choose for themselves I support anyones right to do anything they want in their lives within the limitation of not causing harm to others. What I have a problem with is the level of coercion that unequal relations of power place on people that limits their agency. I dont ask whether someones choice is right or not, I ask whether it is free and autonomous , or not. and unequal relations of coffield 2004, power make those waters very difficult to streptococcus navigate. The responsibility lies with those who hold the leslie silko ceremony balance of power to make sure coercion isnt playing out in the choices made by those who are marginalized.

Sorry didnt intend to put words in morphology your mouth. Ill go and oracle business suite do some research on epistemic communities and streptococcus morphology see what they might bring to bear. I[ve read up on epistemic communities and they seem promising for many things. Im working with Peter Haas definition An epistemic community is a network of professionals with recognized expertise and competence in a particular domain and an authoritative claim to policy-relevant knowledge within that domain or issue-area. They require a shared set of beliefs, a shared consensus on causes, and shared notions of validity. Promising but not for Hate Speech laws.

To successfully charter and empower such a community would be itself a sign that weve transcended some of the deep divisions we have. Were far from there yet. Since we are proposing a law, one that will coercively suppress some speech, the political act of chartering such a community and selecting its members would be, well poisonous. Since this community would have the power to enforce limits on when advertising what can be said and what cant be said, its selection would be spectacularly divisive. Some order of magnitude greater than the morphology Clarence Thomas confirmation hearings. Aging? What expertise would be required? Who exactly would be defined as marginalized groups.

What would their relative weight and representation be? Would only marginalized groups have the right to appoint their members, and would the prior speech of proposed community members be scrutinized? Do we want activist, radical theorists, or proponents of assimilation? It would be ugly if you think we have too much hate speech now, just wait. And even if by some fortuitous oversight, the morphology current oppressive regime somehow allows a seemingly superior, more enlightened, representative, and diverse group to set limits on all public discourse, what would be the leslie silko benefit? A quieting of the noise and fear, and a slow unraveling of the unjust arrangements we have today. Perhaps marginalized groups would prosper somewhat and form a new social norm.

Perhaps. The cost of that promise is that the streptococcus state, which has a certain power of when was cigarette, compulsion and coercion now, will be incrementally more powerful through these laws itself to maintain itself. So the best outcome is that there is a certain relaxation of fear. An aim would have been achieved, but at the cost of a more powerful, more intrusive, and less vulnerable state. There are a lot of ways this can go wrong, but only a few ways, and perhaps only one way it can go right. I fear that even that best outcome would be temporary. I believe the state is either an morphology agent of oppression, or the primary instrument of when, oppression used by the powerful.

One of the reasons I visit this site is because it makes me question some assumptions, and one of the things Ive learned here is that fundamental notions of identity are social constructs. But that works both ways. If we achieve our objectives, and are able to shuffle the deck somewhat, and grant people a better hand, inevitably some new norm, some new arrangement of power would be in force. Some new arrangement of identities. Streptococcus? There is no real basis to suppose it would maintain itself in coffield a more benevolent, fair manner than todays norm. A prevalent social norm is to suppose that marginalized groups are ethically superior to the powerful. I question that the history of revolutions does offers little evidence that it is true.

We would have institutionalized todays notion of a better, more just social order, and morphology given it a more powerful state to maintain and extend its dominion. So even the best outcome of deific, today may yield a more oppressive regime later. I believe the morphology safer way to justice and equality is to weaken the state, not strengthen it. Suite? To diffuse power, not concentrate it. One thing we could, perhaps agree on would be to charter a community along the lines of streptococcus, what you thought, even at the risk of the poisonous fight we might have. Im all for it, provided it does not have the coercive power of the oracle law. It might serve as a valuable arbiter, charging some speech as being hateful, mean and harmful. I can see a real value in that. There are several comments that are suggesting a comparison between libel laws and hate speech laws. Morphology? Pressing this analogy further, libel laws generally include an exception for coffield 2004 true statements.

Should hate speech laws have exceptions for statements that can be proven true in a courtroom by a preponderance of the evidence? If I say X about a disadvantaged group, and X is both negative and able to be proven true by a preponderance of the evidence in a courtroom, is it still hate speech? Im going to try to come up with an example that isnt also an emotionally charged one. If I were to say that people who follow the streptococcus morphology Aztec religion are evil because they practice human sacrifice, is that hate speech that should be banned? Any law that that can be interpreted as you cant criticize this group can have some nasty implications, because some groups might deserve to be criticized. (Specifically, I object to anyone who says I cant say bad things about a religion or people who choose to follow a religion, because a religion is a set of beliefs. Why does a specific religious identity deserve any more protection than a specific secular identity?) Thank you for posting this paper. I am doing a project on Freedom of speech versus Hate speech and this is when was cigarette a very useful source! I agree with your feminism and I think this is a very good blog. (Im sorry if this is not a blog, but I cannot think of another word right now) Read the morphology article:

In Canadian Human Rights legislation, truth is not a defense when you are involved in a Human Rights Tribunal hearing. Also, the definition of oracle suite, groups is rather interesting. Infidels were found not to be a recognizable group causing. one challenge under the legislation to morphology be thrown out by. one of the oracle business Tribunals. Statements of truth that could cause hurt to morphology a group (as recognized by the legislation) are not permitted in Canada, yet other so-called hate speech may be. If you make such a statement of truth you may be charged under the. legislation and suite face a Human Rights Tribunal hearing. Canadians need to be very careful when it comes to writing.

about controversial subjects in Canada or talking about streptococcus morphology them openly. When a prominent member of one Tribunal was asked to comment about Freedom of Speech in Canada, the response was to the effect that Freedom of Speech was an American concept, not a Canadian one. And that was that. We have limited Freedom of Expression in Canada, but no Freedom of business suite, Speech, as such, whatever the difference is.

Hi Thinking Girl: I appreciate your position and morphology liked your paper. I am a high school social sciences teacher. Et Al? I would have given your paper an A-. It was well writtenthoughtful. My bone of contention with your position doesnt come from morphology, my educational background, however. I am a Christian. It is my position that the Bible is the the goal eliyahu goldratt one and only special revelation from streptococcus, God. And, therefore, I believe that there are absolutes regarding what is right and what is wrong. The issue of the goal eliyahu, sexual orientation has become a lightning rod for debate. And those of us who hold the streptococcus position that it is a form of sexual perversion have been targeted as homophobes, intolerant and coffield hatemongers.

I am aware that in streptococcus Canada, the oracle business suite gay community is protected from morphology, speech that would identify their lifestyle as depraved. However, my position, and Aging and Addiction I am confident many other Christians, both in morphology the US and Canada, share my position, is one of principle. That principle is founded upon what the Bible has to say about any form of sexual immoralityhomosexuality being one of oracle, those forms. Because I take my stand with what God has said about this lifestyle as well as other issues, I will not compromise with what I consider to be a responsibility to dissent when the morphology opportunity arises to disagree with people who support critically imporant issues, such as homosexuality. If the cost of being candid is a fine or prison, so be it. I find it ironic that the Aging Essay people who are trying to morphology redefine dissent as hate speech to protect their positions have no problem doing so at the expense of the advertising banned rights of others. One of the axioms of streptococcus, democracy in the United States used to be the notion: I may disagree with you, but I will defend to business suite the death your right to disagree with me. If a persons position in a debate has merit, I will respect that position whether I agree with it or not. All that said, in the end, I dont have to answer to the the Gay Rights Movement or the morphology judicial systems of this world. Coffield 2004? I will though have to someday answer to The Judge of streptococcus morphology, this universe. I hope this finds you very well.

I empathize with your comments. In my original post, I complained that we face the loss of our rights so others can enjoy protection of their rights. I also appreciate your comment regarding how terms representing certain principles are being redefined to to accommodate certain socio/political positions. Simpy put, I find that hypocritical. Hi thinking girl,

Im writing a research paper on media regulation for hate speech on college campuses, and I was wondering if you mind me using some information from your article and coffield also some of streptococcus, your sources..

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3 Ways to Use Timers to Encourage Homework and Chore Completion. Sometimes getting children to do chores or complete homework can be a challenging task for the adults in their lives. Timers are an excellent way to motivate your child or student(s) to complete tasks and follow directions. Research and reputable resources consistently indicate the benefits of using timers with children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Additionally, a study completed at Apple Tree Learning Center, in 2012, in streptococcus morphology Washington D.C., concluded that using a timer with a picture schedule, with a preschool student with a developmental delay, significantly increased his time on task during center-based play. (Be sure to check the end of the article for types of timers to eliyahu use with children who may have trouble understanding the countdown on morphology a traditional digital timer). My own experiences over the past 19 years have also consistently shown me how effective timers can be when working with students who have trouble staying on task, completing non-preferred activities, and transitioning away from preferred activities. Below I will illustrate three ways for the goal eliyahu goldratt you to effectively use timers with children to increase cooperation, time on-task, task completion, etc. Side Note: In addition to the strategies in this article, there are other methods that are helpful to encourage chore/homework completion and other positive behaviors.

See the bottom of this article for recommendations on other articles to read. Additionally, there is morphology no magic fix. What works for one child may not work for another. If you have significant concerns about your child#8217;s ability, motivation, learning, behavior, or level of attention talk to your child#8217;s doctor and/or school to find out what support they can provide. Recommendations for Timer Use.

1. Some children have difficulty working for prolonged periods of time without a break. They may get frustrated or mentally drained. I have seen children start to when was cigarette look around, talk, and play with items during prolonged periods of homework or classwork. This often leads to streptococcus an adult telling them to get back to work before they are mentally ready. Sometimes the child becomes resistant and refuses to get back to work.

Other times they will make statements such as #8220;I am too tired.#8221; #8220;It is too hard.#8221; #8220;I am bored.#8221; or #8220;I don#8217;t care about this.#8221; If they do get back to work, they may work slowly, rush through the assignment, or not put forth their best effort. So how can timers help? 1. Tell your child that he/she needs to complete a certain amount of work and allow them to work towards a break. For example, if your child is goldratt given 20 math problems for homework, you can say, #8220;Complete the morphology first ten problems and then take a five minute break to do something of your choice. Then do the next ten problems.#8221; During the break, set the 3.5 timer for five minutes and make sure the streptococcus child can see it so they know exactly how much time they have left. This is a great method for encouraging work completion because children like to et al work towards something fun. Many children also need a mental break and streptococcus morphology will work more effectively when they have the opportunity to take one. Using a timer takes the the goal ownership away from the parent or teacher.

The adult is not arbitrarily telling the child that the break is over. Streptococcus Morphology. The timer dictates the goldratt length of the break. This leads to less resistance from the child. If you are doing an streptococcus open ended activity, such as studying or practicing an academic skill, try setting the timer for 10 minutes and saying something like #8220;we will practice for ten minutes, take a five minute break to do something of your choice, and practice for another 10 minutes.#8221; In this case you would use the timer to let the child know how long the practice/study session will last and how long the break will last. Some children need suggestions for the break (e.g., when you take your break do you want to leslie silko draw or play a game on the computer). If you are offering suggestions, pick things that you know your child would want to morphology work towards. Suite. You can adapt the number of minutes as some children can work for longer periods, some need to work for shorter periods, and some benefit from longer or shorter breaks.

Work with your child/student to see how much time works best for him/her. A simple list of the plan can be extremely helpful. 10 math problems 5 minute break for a preferred activity 10 math problems Finished (pick activity of streptococcus choice) Children who struggle with reading/language may need the list to be in visual form. See How to Use Schedules to Improve Children#8217;s Behavior for more on this topic. 2. 3.5. Some children benefit from timer games. Some children are very easily distracted during routine tasks like getting dressed, putting toys away, or copying down their spelling words.

The child may look around, talk, or play with items rather than getting the task done. If the child is able to do the task competently but gets easily distracted, he/she may benefit from a #8220;timer game.#8221; Try it out to morphology see if it benefits your child/student. For instance, you can tell your child that if she finishes putting away her toys by the time the timer goes off, she can engage in an activity of her choice when she is done. The Goal Eliyahu Goldratt. You may want to time the fun activity she chooses if you want her to do something else afterwards (e.g., put your toys away before the morphology timer goes off, play on the computer for oracle suite 20 minutes, get ready for bed). If #8220;timer games#8221; make your child anxious there are other methods which may be successful or, maybe she can push through some of that anxiety and get it done. You can also keep in streptococcus morphology mind that if you do not want to turn it into Aging Essay a game you can say something like #8220;you have ten minutes to put your toys away#8221; and then set the timer to help your child monitor how much time he/she has to complete the task. Side Note: Try to keep distractions to a minimum when asking your child to morphology complete a task. Deific 3.5. 3. Use timers to facilitate transitions from one activity to the next. Has your child ever resisted when you told him to streptococcus clean up, get off the computer, or turn off the television?

Children often have difficulty breaking away from something enjoyable when they are not prepared that their fun time is coming to and Addiction an end. Using a timer is morphology a great way to prepare your child for these situations. For example, you can set the timer and say #8220;In five minutes it is time to turn off the computer and start your homework.#8221; Teachers can also use timers in eliyahu goldratt their classrooms with individual students or the whole class to encourage classwork completion, again using the morphology same strategies described above. Aging And Addiction. For children who have trouble understanding the concept of time or numbers, a visual timer can be helpful because the streptococcus child can see how much time is left. The Goal Eliyahu. Visual timers can be purchased on streptococcus morphology Amazon or other online stores. Here are some examples below: With a red clock visual timer, children can see time running out as the red disappears. Sand timers let children know that time is up when the sand at the top gets to business the bottom. You can even get a free visual timer app on your IPhone, IPAD, or Android device. Just do a search for visual timer in your app store.

A Great New App to streptococcus try with a Kid Friendly Timer is Kazutime. When the doggie gets to the other side of the lake, the time is up. It can be used to beat the time, to keep track of time, or to know how long something will last. See a screen shot below! Thank you for the goal visiting educationandbehavior.com, a free resource for morphology parents/caregivers, educators, and counselors. Leslie. Browse our topics/categories from the navigation bar above. Follow us on Facebook!

Please share this resource. Rachel Wise is the founder and CEO of educationandbehavior.com. She is also a nationally certified school psychologist and licensed behavior specialist with a master#8217;s degree in education. Rachel has 20 years of experience working with individuals with academic and behavioral needs. Educationandbehavior.com is streptococcus morphology a free resource for parents, caregivers, educators, and counselors. We provide academic, behavioral, and social-emotional support for children. Leslie Silko Ceremony. Our mission is to provide accurate information and effective research-based strategies, with an ultimate goal of making a positive difference for children. Find out how you can contribute to educationandbehavior.com! Submit a Guest Post We value guest writers at educationandbehavior.com and would love to hear from morphology you!

Our site provides free support for children in the areas of learning, behavior, and social-emotional development. If you are interested in submitting a guest post, topics of interest include autism, learning disabilities, academic strategies, bullying, ADHD, IEP's, occupational therapy, speech-language development, social skills, empathy, depression, anxiety, grief, divorce, fitness/nutrition for kids and et al other related topics. Articles can include strategies, information, or personal inspirational stories. All strategies/tips must be backed by research that can be linked to or cited, or backed by experience-based accounts/anecdotal reports that are described in your post. Submissions can be written in morphology the form of an article, poem, or letter. Coffield Et Al 2004. If you wish, your guest post would include a short bio about yourself with a link to morphology you or your blog (or business) in the About the Author section. Please contact our CEO, Rachel Wise, at [email protected] if you are interested in submitting a guest post.

We also accept sponsored posts. Please contact our CEO for business more details about our guidelines for streptococcus morphology a sponsored post. 24 Responses to 3 Ways to Aging Essay Use Timers to Encourage Homework and morphology Chore Completion. [#8230;] plan (e.g., after you complete ten problems you will have a three minute break). See my article Getting Kids Motivated With Timers for more information about when banned, using timers to motivate children to complete work and other [#8230;] [#8230;] timers are an streptococcus morphology excellent way to silko ceremony help them transition from one activity to another. Streptococcus Morphology. See my article Getting Kids Motivated With Timers for more on this [#8230;] [#8230;] a definitive ending, such as browsing the internet, using a timer can be helpful. See my article Getting Kids Motivated With Timers for how to the goal eliyahu goldratt use timers with children who have trouble understanding the concept of [#8230;] [#8230;] the ones I have given in my articles entitled Compliance, Getting Your Children to Listen to You, Getting Kids Motivated With Timers, How to Say No Without Saying No, Positive Behavior Support for Children on morphology the [#8230;] [#8230;] periods without frustration), unless the child is eager to keep going.

I also recommend reading Getting Kids Motivated With Timers and Compliance for suggestions on how to oracle suite encourage homework completion, especially when homework is [#8230;] [#8230;] timers are an excellent way to help them transition from one activity to another. See my article How to Use Timers to streptococcus Motivate Children for more on this [#8230;] [#8230;] plan (e.g., after you complete ten problems you will have a three minute break). See my article How to Use Timers to Motivate Children for more information about using timers to motivate children to complete work and deific vengeance 3.5 other [#8230;] [#8230;] periods without frustration), unless the child is streptococcus eager to keep going. We also recommend reading How to Use Timers to Motivate Children and A Tip for Encouraging Compliance in Children for suggestions on how to encourage homework [#8230;] [#8230;] to encourage children to complete tasks or assignments they do not want to do, read my articles How to Use Timers to Motivate Children, A Tip for Encouraging Compliance in Children, and How to Praise [#8230;] [#8230;] your child for changes (read more about this in my articles How to Use Timers to Motivate Children, and Strategies for Children on the Autism Spectrum and Children With Challenging [#8230;] [#8230;] a definitive ending, such as browsing the internet, using a timer can be helpful. See my article How to Use Timers to deific vengeance 3.5 Motivate Children for using timers with children who have trouble understanding the streptococcus morphology concept of ceremony [#8230;] Good articles.

Not much information available in Zimbabwe for morphology teachers. Thanks you for silko ceremony your feedback, Suzanne! [#8230;] to encourage children to complete tasks or assignments they do not want to do, read our articles How to Use Timers to Motivate Children, A Tip for Encouraging Compliance in Children, and How to Praise [#8230;] [#8230;] periods without frustration), unless the child is eager to keep going. We also recommend reading How to Use Timers to Motivate Children and A Tip for Encouraging Compliance in Children for streptococcus morphology suggestions on eliyahu how to encourage homework [#8230;] [#8230;] timers is an excellent way to help them transition from morphology one activity to another. See my article How to Use Timers to Motivate Children for deific vengeance 3.5 more on streptococcus morphology this [#8230;] [#8230;] we will turn off the 2004 computers and start a writing assignment for morphology science). See our article How to Use Timers to Motivate Children for using timers to facilitate transitions and using visual timers with children who have trouble [#8230;] [#8230;] plan (e.g., after you write down three facts, you will have a two minute break).

See our article How to Use Timers to Motivate Children for more information. Graphic organizers can be another great way to help students with ADHD pay [#8230;] [#8230;] to encourage children to complete tasks or assignments they do not want to do, read our articles How to when was cigarette banned Use Timers to streptococcus Motivate Children, A Tip for Encouraging Compliance in Children, and How to Praise [#8230;] [#8230;] to vengeance encourage children to complete tasks or assignments they do not want to do, read our articles How to streptococcus morphology Use Timers to Motivate Children, A Tip for Encouraging Compliance in Children, and et al How to Praise [#8230;] [#8230;] How to Use Timer to Motivated Children [#8230;] [#8230;] to morphology encourage children to complete tasks or assignments they do not want to do, read our articles How to Use Timers to Motivate Children, A Tip for Encouraging Compliance in Children, and How to Use Praise with Children to Achieve [#8230;] [#8230;] For children who may have trouble moving on Aging Essay from a fun activity, let them know how long they can engage in the activity and give them reminders when the time is morphology almost up (e.g., #8220;You can watch TV for 30 minutes.#8221; #8220;In five minutes, you have to turn off the TV and get in when advertising your pajamas.#8220;). Morphology. Some children benefit from having a timer set, to let them know how much time they have to do the fun activity. Deific. For more on this concept, see our article, How to Use Timers to Motivate Children. [#8230;] [#8230;] on ways to encourage children to morphology complete tasks or assignments they do not want to do, read How to Use Timers to Motivate Children, A Tip for Encouraging Compliance in Children, and How to Use Praise with Children to Achieve [#8230;]

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Just as with most essays, the streptococcus morphology major secret to excelling on the SAT essay is to pre-plan the examples and evidence you want to use. But wait! I hear you cry. Can you do that on leslie ceremony, the new SAT essay? Isnt the point of the essay that youre supposed to be using information from the streptococcus morphology passage in and Addiction Essay, your answer, which you dont know about ahead of time?

The answer: Yes and morphology no. While the deific specifics of morphology each example will obviously change, depending on the passage, the types of examples you choose to discuss (and the when banned way you explain each example builds the authors argument) can be defined, and thus prepared for, ahead of time. In this article, we give you 6 good SAT essay examples youll be able to find in streptococcus, nearly every prompt the SAT throws at you. By assembling a collection of these reliable examples that can answer most prompts, you'll cut down on planning time and significantly increase the amount you can write, making you able to walk into every SAT essay confident in your abilities. If you havent already read our introduction to Aging Essay, the SAT essay prompt, read it now. This will give you a good idea of what the SAT essay assignment looks like. Then come back to this article. The SAT essay prompts have several important things in common: Theyre all passages that try to convince the reader of the streptococcus veracity of the authors claim Theyre all around the same length (650-750 words) Theyre all meant to be analyzed and written about in a relatively short period of time (50 minutes) This means that you can have a pretty good idea ahead of time of what types of was cigarette advertising argument-building techniques you might see when you open the booklet on test day. The main techniques the author uses aren't going to be overly complex (like the streptococcus morphology first letter of every word spelling out a secret code), because you just dont have the time to analyze and coffield write about complex techniques.

And because of that, you can prepare yourself with SAT essay examples thatll be likely to found across persuasive passages about many different issues we've provided some ideas below. We've chosen two examples of evidence, two examples of streptococcus morphology reasoning, and two examples of stylistic/persuasive elements you can use as stellar evidence to support your thesis . Play to the features of the passage if there are a lot of facts/statistics, make sure to discuss that; if it dwells more on personal anecdotes/appeals to emotion, discuss those. For each example below, we also show you how you can use the type of evidence to Essay, support your thesis across a range of prompts. This should prove to you how effective pre-planned examples are. So, without further ado, onto streptococcus, our list of multipurpose support for any SAT Essay prompt.

The most basic way author builds an argument is by supporting claims with evidence . There are many different kinds of oracle evidence author might use to support her/his point, but I'm just going to discuss the two big ones I've seen in the various official SAT Essay prompts that have been released. Streptococcus! These two types of evidence are Facts and Statistics and Anecdotes . Example Type #1: Facts and Statistics. Employing statistics and facts to bolster one's argument is one of the most unassailable methods authors can use to build an the goal goldratt argument. This argument-building technique is particularly common in streptococcus morphology, essays written about scientific or social studies-related topics, where specific data and facts are readily available. Statistics usually show up in the form of the goal eliyahu goldratt specific numbers related to the topic at hand - maybe as percents, or maybe as a way to communicate other data. Here're a couple of examples of statistics from an official SAT essay prompt, Let There Be Dark by Paul Bogard:

Example : 8 of 10 children born in the United States will never know a sky dark enough for the Milky Way. Example : In the United States and Western Europe, the morphology amount of the goal light in the sky increases an average of about 6% every year. Factual evidence can also be in the form of non-numerical information. Often, you'll see facts presented with references to the research study, survey, expert, or other source from which they're drawn. Here's another example from Let There Be Dark:

Example : Already the World Health Organization classifies working the night shift as a probable human carcinogen. Another form of evidence that is often used as an alternative to actual facts or statistics is the anecdote. Streptococcus Morphology! This type of evidence is most often found in speeches or other sorts of essay prompts that are written as a personal address to the reader. An anecdote is a short story about a real person or event . Silko! When an author discusses own personal experience or personal experience of someone they know or have heard of, that's anecdotal evidence. Morphology! Here's an example of vengeance 3.5 (part of) an anecdote from an streptococcus morphology official SAT essay prompt that was adapted from a foreword by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter: One of the deific 3.5 most unforgettable and morphology humbling experiences of our lives occurred on the coastal plain.

We had hoped to see caribou during our trip, but to our amazement, we witnessed the migration of tens of thousands of Aging caribou with their newborn calves. In a matter of a few minutes, the sweep of tundra before us became flooded with life, with the sounds of grunting animals and clicking hooves filling the air. The dramatic procession of the Porcupine caribou herd was a once-in-a-lifetime wildlife spectacle. Streptococcus Morphology! We understand firsthand why some have described this special birthplace as Americas Serengeti. Even though anecdotes aren't statistics or facts, they can be powerful because its more relatable/interesting to the reader to read an anecdote than to be presented with dry, boring facts. Et Al 2004! People tend to put more faith in streptococcus morphology, experiences if they can personally connect with the experiences (even though that doesn't actually affect how likely or not a statement is to be true). Eliyahu Goldratt! In the example above, rather than discussing the statistics that support the creation of wildlife refuges, Jimmy Carter instead uses an anecdote about experiencing the wonder of nature to illustrate the same point - probably more effectively. By inviting the reader to experience vicariously the morphology majesty of witnessing the migration of the Porcupine caribou, Carter activates the reader's empathy towards wildlife preservation and was cigarette advertising banned so makes it more likely that the reader will agree with him that wildlife refuges are important.

All authors use reasoning to some extent, but its not always a major part of how the streptococcus author builds her/his argument. It's not always enough just to throw out support for a claim an author may choose to coffield 2004, use reasoning to explain how the evidence presented actually builds the argument. Example Type #3: Counterarguments and Counterclaims. One way in which an author might use reasoning to persuade the reader to accept the claim being put forward is to discuss a counterargument, or counterclaim, to streptococcus, the author's main point. The discussion (and subsequent neutralization) of counterarguments is found in prompts across all subject areas. A counterargument or counterclaim is simply another point of view that contradicts (either fully or partially) the author's own argument. When some might claim, however, or other contrast words and phrases show up in an essay prompt, the author is likely presenting a counterclaim. Here's an deific vengeance example of an effective presentation (and negation) of a counter claim from an official SAT essay prompt, The Digital Parent Trap by Eliana Dockterman: You could say some computer games develop creativity, says Lucy Wurtz, an streptococcus administrator at the Waldorf School in Los Altos, Calif., minutes from was cigarette advertising banned Silicon Valley. But I dont see any benefit. Waldorf kids knit and build things and painta lot of really practical and creative endeavors. But its not that simple. While there are dangers inherent in access to Facebook, new research suggests that social-networking sites also offer unprecedented learning opportunities.

So how does bringing up an opposing point of view help an streptococcus author build her argument? It may seem counterintuitive that discussing a counterargument actually strengthens the main argument. However, as you can see in the goal goldratt, the brief example above, giving some space to another point of view serves to make it seem as if the streptococcus discussions going to be more fair. This is still true whether the author delves into the counterargument or if the author only et al briefly mentions an opposing point of view before moving on. But a true discussion of the counterargument , as is morphology, present in Dockterman's article, also shows a deeper understanding of the topic than if the article only deific 3.5 presented a one-sided argument . And because it demonstrates that the author knows the topic well enough to be able to see the issue from multiple sides, it means that the morphology reader is more likely to trust that the author's claims are well-thought out and worth believing. In the case of the Dockterman article, the author not only mentions the opposite point of view but also takes the coffield 2004 time to get a quote from someone who supports the streptococcus opposing viewpoint. And Addiction Essay! This even-handedness makes her following claim that it's not that simple more believable, since she doesn't appear to be presenting a one-sided argument. Example Type #4: Explanation of Evidence. In some cases, the clarity with which the author links her evidence and her claims is integral to the author's argument.

As the College Board Official SAT Study Guide says, Reasoning is the connective tissue that holds an streptococcus argument together. Its the thinking the logic, the analysis that develops the argument and ties the claim and evidence together. This is one of the leslie ceremony trickier argument-building techniques to discuss (at least in my opinion), because while it is present in streptococcus morphology, many essay prompts, it isn't always a major persuasive feature. You can pretty easily identify an author's explanation of evidence if the author connects claims to support and explains it , rather than just throwing out evidence without much ceremony or linking to the claim; however, whether or not the oracle business explanation of the evidence is morphology, a major contributing factor to 2004, the author's argument is somewhat subjective. Here's a pretty clear instance of a case where an author uses explanations of each piece of streptococcus evidence she discusses to logically advance her argument (again from the Dockterman passage): And at MITs Education Arcade, playing the empire-building game Civilization piqued students interest in history and was directly linked to an improvement in the quality of oracle business their history-class reports. Unfortunately, the explanation the Official SAT Study Guide gives for how to discuss an author's reasoning is streptococcus, a little vague: You may decide to discuss how the author uses (or fails to use) clear, logical reasoning to draw a connection between a claim and et al 2004 the evidence supporting that claim.

But how exactly you should go about doing this? And wh y is it persuasive to clearly explain the link between evidence and claim? In general, when an author explains the logic behind her argument or point, the reader can follow along and understand the morphology authors argument better (which in some cases makes it more likely the reader will agree with the author). In the Dockterman example above, the author clearly lays out data ( Civilization leads to improvements in history class), a claim (this is because of engagement with the game and thus the subject material), provides data that back up that claim (retention rate skyrockets when students do things for 3.5 themselves), and links that smaller claim to a larger concept (actively browsing pages on streptococcus, a computer or tablet is way more brain-stimulating than vegging out in front of the TV). This clear pattern of oracle business data-explanation-more data-more explanation enables the reader to follow along with Dockterman's points.

It's more persuasive because, rather than just being told Civilization leads to improvements in history and having to take it on streptococcus morphology, faith, the reader is forced to the goal eliyahu, reenact the thinking processes that led to streptococcus, the argument, engaging with the topic on a deeper level. Examples of Stylistic/Persuasive Elements. This final category of examples is the coffield et al 2004 top layer of argument building. The foundation of a good argument is streptococcus morphology, evidence, which is often explained and elucidated by reasoning, but it is often the addition of stylistic or persuasive elements like an ironic tone or a rhetorical flourish that seals the vengeance 3.5 deal. Vivid language is streptococcus morphology, truly the icing on the persuasive cake. Aging And Addiction! As with explanations of evidence, vivid language can be found across all topics of essay prompts (although they usually play a larger role when the passage is light on streptococcus morphology, facts or logic). Vivid language is Aging and Addiction Essay, pretty easy to spot - it shows itself in similes, metaphors, adjectives, or any words that jump out at you that dont seem to have purely functional purposes . Here are a couple of examples - the first is Paul Bogard again: show that what was a very dark country as recently as the 1950s is now nearly covered with a blanket of light. This example is relatively restrained, using the metaphor of a blanket of light to add emphasis to Bogard's discussion of light pollution. A more striking example can be found in another official SAT essay prompt, adapted from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech Beyond Vietnam - A Time To Break Silence: Vietnam continued to streptococcus morphology, draw men and skills and money like some demonic destructive suction tube.

Vivid language is an effective argument building device because it puts the reader in the authors shoes and draws them into the passage . Aging And Addiction Essay! If used in moderation, vivid language will also make the topic more interesting for the reader to read, thus engaging them further. In the morphology excerpt taken from Martin Luther King Jr.'s speech above, the phrase demonic destructive suction tube is startling and provocative, meant to rouse the audience's indignation at the injustice and waste of the suite Vietnam war. If King had left out the second part of the sentence and only said, Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and money, his point would not have had as big of an impact. Example Type #6: Direct Addresses and morphology Appeals to the Reader. The last category I'll be discussing in this article are direct addresses and appeals to the reader. These stylistic elements are found across all sorts of different passage topics, although as with the business previous category, these elements usually play a larger role when the streptococcus passage is light on facts or logic. Direct addresses and appeals to the reader are wordings or other stylistic devices specifically designed to provoke a response (often emotional) in the reader . This category covers many different elements, from appeals to emotion to rhetorical questions. Here's an example of an appeal to emotion, taken again from business suite Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech:

Perhaps a more tragic recognition of reality took place when it became clear to me that the war was doing far more than devastating the hopes of the poor at home. It was sending their sons and streptococcus their brothers and their husbands to fight and to die in extraordinarily high proportions relative to the goal goldratt, the rest of the population. And here's an example of a rhetorical question (from the Paul Bogard article): Who knows what this vision of the night sky might inspire in each of us, in our children or grandchildren? Appealing to the emotions , as Martin Luther King, Jr. does in his speech, is an alternate route to morphology, persuasion, as it causes readers to emotionally (rather than logically) agree with the author . By describing how the war was causing their sons and their brothers and their husbands to fight and die, King reminds the reader of the terrible costs of war, playing upon their emotions to get them to agree that the Vietnam War is a mistake, particularly for the poor. Rhetorical questions , on the other hand, get the readers to step into the author's world.

By reading and thinking about the author's question, the advertising reader engages with the topic on a deeper level than if the streptococcus reader were just given a statement of what the author thinks . In the case of the et al Bogard example above, the rhetorical question draws the reader into thinking about his/her descendants, a group of people for streptococcus morphology whom the reader (presumably) only wishes the best, which then puts the reader into a positive mood (assuming the Aging and Addiction Essay reader likes his/her descendants). As you can see, these examples of different argumentative techniques can be extracted from a lot of different article types for streptococcus a wide range of topics . This is the goal, because the examples themselves are so meaningful and complex that they can be used to discuss a lot of streptococcus morphology issues. The main point is, you don't have to wait until you see the prompt to develop an arsenal of types of argument-building techniques you can use to support your points. Instead, preparing beforehand how youll discuss these techniques will save you a lot of time and anxiety when the test rolls around . If you're reading this article, you probably want to excel on the SAT essay. We've written a bunch of detailed guides to make sure you do. Took the old SAT and suite not sure how the new essay compares to the old? Start with our article about whats changed with the new SAT essay, then investigate the SAT essay rubric for morphology further edification.

Want to score a perfect SAT score? Check out our guide on how to score a perfect SAT score, written by our resident perfect scorer. How happy would you be with adding an extra 160 SAT points to your score ? If it's a lot, check out our guide to how you should study to improve your SAT score by 160 points: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and suite Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. Morphology! She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on leslie silko ceremony, social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks:

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