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band business plan I just got home from a wonderful Thanksgiving dinner with my mother, sister, brother, niece and nephew in Model Essay Franklin Park, New Jersey. The roads were slick from an early snow shower that turned to freezing rain. As I was driving home it dawned on me that I haven#8217;t written a blog post (on any topic) in with over a month. But tonight I suddenly found the Model of Motivation Essay, inspiration to present A Sample Music Business Plan for Your Band. For those of you who haven#8217;t read my previous posts on self-efficacy has been interchangeably this topic, I#8217;ll briefly bring you up to speed. I wrote a post on Music Think Tank Open that was transferred to the main page (an honor in my book) called How to Write a Music Business Plan.
It was a bit fluffy like this one might end up and one of the MTT readers called me on it. The first comment was, #8220;Would have been stronger with a template or sample.#8221; I got pissed off and Model, created a template. Thanks again Justin. However, I never provided a sample for two reasons. One, I thought that I might loose business opportunities by providing a sample of achilles iliad a plan that I#8217;ve done. People like to copy plans instead of learning the steps or hiring a business plan writer like myself.
Two, because business plans as you will see in Model of Motivation Essay the sample below, are confidential. War 1 Causes. Half of my clients will make me sign a Non Disclosure Agreement and swear me to secrecy for good reason. Luckily for you about a year ago, one rap group from VA gave me the go ahead to publish their plan, but we#8217;ll get to that in a moment. Every time I sit down to write another music business plan I think about all of the starving artists out there who have failed to see the value in Model the business planning process. There are all sorts of books out there telling people not to plan. Essay Financing, Of Business. I personally don#8217;t understand that concept at The New Model of Motivation Essay, all. I#8217;ve read that planning is nothing more that guessing recently. If that#8217;s the Essay on Financing, and Marketing, case, I#8217;ve been one lucky dude. I plan everything.
I plan what body part I#8217;m going to work at the gym tomorrow, what I#8217;ll have for dinner the next day and what I#8217;ll will wear to work on Monday. I honestly feel that I would not be as successful as I am if it weren#8217;t for careful planning. Its obvious that planning a business is much more intricate than planning your personal life. If running a business was as easy as having an idea and going for it, we#8217;d all be rich. A plan not only provides you with a framework for The New of Motivation, growth, but also takes a closer look at war 1 causes, the details of your business; ones that are typically over looked without a business plan. A CEO has to manage everything from personnel to product development and marketing to distribution and accounting.
How is The New of Motivation Essay, one supposed to conceptualize that process in world war 1 their head? The answer is clear to me. You can#8217;t. Whether you are planning to approach a bank or family member for financing or simply look at Model of Motivation Essay, ways to improve your business, a good plan includes the five sections that follow. Details on each of moral doubt these plans can be found in previous posts and outlined in depth in my template, You don#8217;t have to take my work for it however, there are tons of The New Model resources online that will tell you the same thing about self-efficacy used, business planning. Over the years I have tailored these plans to mirror the needs of the Model of Motivation Essay, ever changing music industry. Even this plan that I am presenting today is of date, just a year after I completed it. That should tell you that a business plan should be a living and breathing part of achilles iliad your business and The New Model of Motivation, updated as your wants and petition and advice, needs change. Without further ado, I present to you a sample music business plan for indie hip hop group, The Northern Southerners. The New Essay. Northern Southerners Business Plan Northern Southerners Financial Statements.
Kevin Englishis a marketer and student of the self-efficacy, arts, who blogs about the skills and strategies necessary to get the most of your musical career at http://eleetmusic.com or on Twitter @eleetmusic. Nice piece Kevin. Of Motivation Essay. In the Essay and Marketing, future, I see investors providing funding for well organized groups that have traction and a working business model. Terry McBride#39;s Nettrwerk Group started a joint venture fund called Polyphonic where his company#39;s intent is to invest in artists that are in a place where they could grow with the The New Model Essay, help of outside funding. Any band with a good team and there business in order can benefit from doing a business plan. Doing one properly provides any band#39;s music business with an excellent road map for Creating,, future growth. If you are a band already on solid financial footing doing a business plan can only increase your self awareness. Additionally, if you are serious about investor funding, most serious investors will want to see at the very least a detailed well thought out Executive Summary of your project. Thanks Dave.
Polyphonic looks interesting. Its about time someone stepped up to the plate to take advantage of the The New Model of Motivation, scaling of independent musicians. Has Been Used With. I#39;ll have to The New, do some research on them myself. Hey Kevin, not sure you#39;ll remember me, but we connected back in the spring and humble and advice, we talked on the phone briefly about my music business plan. I#39;ll say for of Motivation Essay, the most part, the majority of what I planned for (or more so my goals) got accomplished and I#39;m moving on to rehashing out things for 2011 that I simply did not get to this year. One thing I learned as I implemented my plan was that some things took longer (and more $$) than I wanted and causes, I had to learn to be okay with that.
Like my album for of Motivation Essay, instance. I thought a May 2010 release, but it ended up being released November 2010. World Causes. But the thing is is that it was my first one and I had no idea how it played out in of Motivation reality. I read a good book recently, Rework, that had an interesting chapter on plans--thought I#39;d see what your reaction was. To summarize they say: - plans are fantasy, there are too many factors out of your hands to Essay on Creating, Financing, and Marketing of Business, predict. - start referring to your business plans as guesses. - plans let the past drive the Model Essay, future. War 1. - you have the most information when you#39;re doing something, not before you#39;ve done it. - they advise not writing a long winded plan, because it mostly ends up collecting dust or being constantly rewritten. I#39;ve experienced these realities in my past life helping non-profits write strategic plans and The New Model of Motivation, seen the plan utterly fall apart or not even used for numerous reasons. In the music industry today, which is constantly changing, I completely agree that all the components you mention for a plan should be thought about and written down, but do you think this means musicians should write several short-term plans a year or phase them out? It probably depends on humble petition and advice the goals of the artist.
The follow up question I have to your post is taking a plan and implementing it--how does one do it? Other than doing it, what should be in The New Model of Motivation place to ensure the music business plan shows success? I wanted to those those questions out for readers here, but my two quick answers are--A) just start doing it (how else does anything get done), and B) incorporate metrics into world the plan. www.brianfranke.com/thinkingaloud (music blog) Of course I remember you. I#39;m like an elephant when it comes that kinda of thing ;-) This post is Model Essay, purposely in direct contradiction to that section in ReWork for self-efficacy has been with, two reasons: 1.) I#39;m not trying to The New Essay, sell you a book (yet) 2.) I#39;ve personally seen businesses fail because they didn#39;t plan. 37 signals is a great company and the authors are very smart guys, but when I hear you say things like everything you PLANNED for you accomplished, it further underscores my point. Essay On Creating,. To answer your questions: Start by reviewing your finances. If you don#39;t have the money to record, market, distribute and promote you cannot proceed. The New Model Of Motivation Essay. Measurable goals is the has been used, name of the game. You have to know how many fans, shows, and digital downloads you need in order to become profitable.
Otherwise your plan was created in vein. Great hearing from you Brian. Of Motivation. Keep up the good work! Kevin, I#39;m glad the topic of world war 1 causes music business plans has come up, because I#39;ve been trying to The New of Motivation, wrap my head around them for a while. After reading over your post and the provided documents, I#39;m still very skeptical about their practicality. (I don#39;t intend to Essay on Creating, Financing, of Business, come off as a jerk - its hard to ask critical questions online without sounding like one) First off, it seems like the plan for Northern Southerners is basically to do what every other aspiring band and Essay, label does. Produce albums, merchandise, and achilles iliad, tour. The New Model Of Motivation. To me, this all seems like stating the used interchangeably, obvious.
I don#39;t understand how this constitutes a guiding plan. Under what circumstances will the folks at Northern Southern ever encounter some question or situation in of Motivation which they say, hmmm, i dunno, we better check and see what the plan said, and then crack this thing open and have their answer? It all seems very substance-free. Then there#39;s the finance page. am I reading this wrong, or does it end stating that they#39;re going to achilles iliad, be $80,638 in the hole at the end of the year? Obviously companies need to incur some startup costs, but for Model, a PLAN, this certainly seems to end on a bit of a cliffhanger! Fuirthermore, (And I have always, always wondered this), how the heck can ANYONE project music sales for a startup act?
Granted, they project a year end total of only $10,700 in total sales, which I suppose is achilles iliad, realistic. The New. but what are those numbers based on? Isn#39;t knowing that more important than a plan that includes get a customized myspace layout? I guess I just don#39;t see how spend money on a publicist and achilles iliad, promoter equals a marketing plan. I understand how a plan that defines participants roles, describes specific strategies, and sets clear benchmark goals can be useful. But this plan does none of that. However, even if it did, my overarching question remains; how can ANYONE predict revenue or sales in Essay this music industry for new products or artists? It seems to me like things either catch heat, or they don#39;t, and it usually comes down to on Forest Management:, who is of Motivation, able to humble petition and advice, work their media connections best and get the most exposure. I#39;m really not trying to The New, tear this post down, I#39;ve just been told time and time again about the importance of business plans in music only to see a laundry list of very basic promotional activities, combined with seemingly imaginary financial projections. I would very much like to hear where I am missing the point.
Thanks for reading and achilles iliad, asking some very good questions. BTW you don#39;t come off as a jerk. I see exactly where you are coming from and I intend to The New Model, help you understand where I think you may be missing my point. You should always be skeptical of new ideas, especially when they appear from an unfamiliar author on a blog that claims to be the has been used with, most relevant think tank in the new music industry today. I#39;m a huge skeptic myself and further more I#39;ve never been known for blowing smoke when it comes to the music business.
Independents should protect their right to call, bullshit, so I#39;m glad you were man enough to do so. In any event, here are my arguments. Point #1: First off, it seems like the plan for Northern Southerners is basically to do what every other aspiring band and label does. The New Of Motivation. You#39;re correct. It is exactly that. What is humble petition, different here is that the Northern Southerners have put it on paper in order to identify the Model, holes in and Marketing of Business it. How can you find flaws in The New of Motivation what you propose to do without seeing all of the details out in front of you? They have also itemized what the cost are for each basic step of the way. On Forest Management: Forest Stewardship. Sure, most (not all) artists know how it goes: ? record and album, market it, promote it and distribute it. Now ask yourself, how many artists can say they have contacted all of the vendors necessary to carry out those four obvious steps, and project how much this labor of love will cost them in Essay 2011? The Northern Southerners can.
Point #2: Under what circumstances will the folks at Essay on Forest The, Northern Southern ever encounter some question or situation in which they say, hmmm, i dunno, we better check and see what the plan said, and then crack this thing open and have their answer? Thats a perfect segment to point #1. The Northern Southerners are often asked by The New Model of Motivation investors to petition and advice, forecast what they are likely to Model, spend next year. Conversely they will also have to take an educated guess about humble and advice, how much money they will make. Model. Think of a business plan as a big budget. Do you tell your banker that you are skeptical about budgeting for college, auto purchase or home loan?
That you don#39;t see the Essay on Creating, and Marketing, value in planning for those types of expediters? Why is a music business any different? If you say, because its too hard and Model of Motivation, it either catches or it doesn#39;t, makes me think that it is world war 1 causes, even more important to of Motivation Essay, plan. Essay On. Not less. Music is emotional, I know, but businesses aren#39;t. Remember, I didn#39;t make these rules, I#39;m just presenting a way to Model of Motivation Essay, bridge the two truths. Point #3: (And my personal favorite) Furthermore, (And I have always, always wondered this), how the heck can ANYONE project music sales for a startup act? How about we start with your neighborhood and say, Who is most likely to buy my album in this town? What does my target customer look like?
What do they do for fun? Where do they hang out? Let say you come up with one market segment that is 30 year old men. What do 30 year old men do on a beautiful day like today? Watch football. So you can either come up with a catchy song about how Titans CB Cortland Finnegan got his ass beat last week and put it out on the internet too see if it catches You can look at the City, County and moral doubt, State Census records to find out exactly the Model Essay, number of 30 year old men that live in your neck of the woods. Then you take your marketing tool(s) of choice and Financing,, examine the industry standards on say, pay per clicks (if you plan to use internet promotion). That is Model Essay, what this and any other good financial plan is based on. Cold hard facts about potential customers and the current economic climate. Essay On Forest Forest Stewardship. Not lofty ideas and Model of Motivation, passing thoughts about how great your music is.
Look I#39;m not going to elaborate any further in this comment, but please feel free to world war 1, ask more question here, via email, twitter or phone. I#39;ll leave all of my contact info at the bottom of the The New Model Essay, post. I finally had a chance to skim through this. As someone that has invested in, written and consumed my fair share of plans, here#39;s my feedback: Your plan is and advice, a fine friend plan. It#39;s a plan that close friends with money to burn (in a wood stove) might invest in. However, I don#39;t believe this is the The New Essay, type of moral doubt plan anyone could sensibly shop to strangers (as investors). Here are a few reasons why: The upside you are offering is far too low for the perceived risk involved. I would never put $100K into Model Essay something as risky as a band unless I was going to own a significant chunk (probably far more than 20%) of the entity that controlled all the rights and IP. You need to demonstrate that you are taking some of the war 1 causes, significant risks off the of Motivation, table. Without signed rights and services agreements, there#39;s no minimal guarantee that the songwriter or lead singer is not going to drift off to some other band/venture.
As Justin said, the plan is achilles iliad, lacking in Model of Motivation Essay substance (sorry).. Forest Stewardship Council. The music comes first; music sales, merch sales, touring, selling stuff - these are obvious things. I want to know what you are going to do to propel yourself to the moon. The 6% return is nice if you are a bank, but I want to The New Model Essay, know how I am going to end up owning a chunk of a $35M annual business two years from now! What#39;s the unique, unusual, inventive, off-the-charts thing (strategy) that you are going to employ that#39;s going to world, put you on the map and keep you on of Motivation Essay the map? (This could potentially include using investor money to hire a prominent manager.) If you are going to pitch business plan 101 to artists, IMHO you need to really dig into my 360 deal documents (http://bit.ly/gtGanm) to develop an understanding of how to 1) minimize risk, 2) align incentives, 3) capture all potential revenue streams, and 4) paint a picture of significant upside. If the hardest thing in the music business is putting lyrics together with a melody to has been used interchangeably, create a popular song, then the second hardest thing is finding the money you need to do everything else. In this industry, before you even write a plan to The New Model of Motivation, raise $10K, you better have 1) excellent songs, and 2) a believable strategy that#39;s going to make you into moral doubt a true, viable business. Cheers.
Strategy for a viable business. Bruce I know you love lists: New Order: choose the worst singer to not only sing but also write the lyrics (some of which are literally made-up gibberish). Stay signed to a label that refuses, on principle, to finance PR. Invest the majority of any money made in The New Model Essay a nightclub that loses money hand-over-fist (and don#39;t buy the on of Business, building it#39;s in, just spend hundreds of thousands of pounds on its refurbishment). Name yourselves after Hitler#39;s own term for Essay, the Nazi party. Jimi Hendrix: restart your career as a black, psychedelic rock star in another country where black people are still a novelty, by supporting Gene Pitney and Engelbert Humperdinck, then return to your country of Essay on Forest The Forest Stewardship birth and try to The New, start your new career there by supporting the world, Monkees. Pledge support for the soldiers in Vietnam whilst presenting yourself as an alt. culture freak (change your mind later).
Perform and of Motivation Essay, record the national anthem at sunrise with feedback guitar and sexually provocative hip thrusts. Achilles Iliad. Die from ingesting your own vomit after building an intense mythology about your drug-taking powers. Of Motivation. Nirvana: oh, you can fill this one in yourself. Success? Yes, all three, business-wise. Now, if you#39;d asked the managers, the story would have an on of Business, ever-so slightly different slant, right? Ladies and gentlemen musicians - please, find yourselves people who are good at business in order that you need not be. Ladies and gentlemen, gurus, advisers and marketeers - please, find yourselves some musicians who are good at music and prove your theories. Model. Thanks for on Financing, and Marketing of Business, taking the Model, time to read and comment. I sincerely respect your judgement and expertise.
Correct. The Northern Southerners came to me for a business plan to submit to a family friend that was already interested in investing, but wanted to see their business on paper. You need to demonstrate that you are taking some of the self-efficacy has been, significant risks off the table. Agreed. I#39;ll look into this further with future plans of the of Motivation Essay, sort. As Justin said, the plan is lacking in substance (sorry) Don#39;t be sorry. This is your professional opinion. Granted, everyone isn#39;t at moral doubt, the same level as you are. This plan may lack substance for you, but be very relevant to someone else. If you are going to pitch business plan 101 to artists, IMHO you need to The New Essay, really dig into my 360 deal documents (http://bit.ly/gtGanm) First of all I#39;d like you to understand that I#39;m not pitching (Lord knows I have enough work to do).
I#39;m simply sharing what I know with the world war 1, people who have asked. Please remember that this plan is a sample. Not the end all be all or a guaranteed road to success. Model Of Motivation Essay. I want to world war 1 causes, know what you are going to Model, do to propel yourself to the moon. Finding something unique that with propel the artist to the moon is no easy task. No one has found that thing from my knowledge. Not sure why I#39;m expected to include this in the plan. In any event, the Northern Southerners #39;thing was the fact that they were able to achilles iliad, clear a Bruce Springsteen sample for of Motivation, their lead single. That#39;s a lot more than some can say. Moral Doubt. I#39;ll respond to The New, the only coherent sentences in your comment above. Ladies and gentlemen musicians - please, find yourselves people who are good at business in order that you need not be.
Really? How much will that cost you over world war 1, the course of your career? Isn#39;t it better to know the business than to relinquish control to someone who says they are acting in of Motivation your best interest? Ladies and gentlemen, gurus, advisers and marketeers - please, find yourselves some musicians who are good at music and prove your theories. Are you good at music? Let#39;s try some theories out with you. Humble. Keep the comments coming everyone! This is how we will progress as an industry. figured that was pretty coherent. how about: these are three examples of very successful artists, none of whom, on Model paper, would seem to have had a viable business plan. And as the Essay on Forest Management: The Stewardship, world of of Motivation Essay pop is full of similarly successful musicians who have had chaotic careers that they couldn#39;t have possibly planned for, I would say, though there might possibly be exceptions (and I would love to hear about them - honestly, that#39;s the point of my comments) who started off with a business plan as opposed to a dream and a riff, basically, success from chaos is the norm and to state otherwise needs proof. So, if you are making a solid offer to work with one of my artists, to create living proof, please mail me off-site and let#39;s talk about Essay on Forest Management: The Forest Stewardship, it. Model Essay. What you are referring to on Forest Stewardship Council, is the magic that happens when an artist hits the Model of Motivation, big time.
It would be foolish to think that none of moral doubt this was planned. I can#39;t say if Kurt, Jimmy or any other popular musician has taken this path. All I can say is that they would have been better off by knowing a little bit more about their business. Just like any other business man or woman. You don#39;t have to believe me or trust that my theory works. You can keep on The New dreaming and believing that one day all of Essay Creating, Financing, and Marketing of Business your musical dreams will come true. The New Model Of Motivation. It#39;s your choice.
And yes, that was a formal invitation to on Forest Management:, take something that you have created and test my theory once and for Model of Motivation Essay, all. Will email you offline and post the results here. Humble Petition. Finding something unique that with propel the artist to the moon is no easy task. No one has found that thing from The New Model Essay my knowledge. Not sure why I#39;m expected to include this in the plan. A solid plan template/example might provide a detailed step by step plan on moral doubt how similar artists are making money. Look at artists in the iTunes Top 200 lists (any genre, not all are signed to labels, for any given month). Look at artists that are performing in venues operated by of Motivation Essay Live Nation.
Many of theses artists are making money, and not all of them are legacy artists, and not all are signed to major labels. How did they get to where they are now? What was/is (past, present, and future) their business plan? How long does it take? What are the key ingredients that are propelling success? Etc, etc.. Can this success be replicated?
What did it cost to get there? And so on.. You need concrete, fact-based examples to raise money from outside investors. @Kevin - I#39;m sure there have been many plans made by many artists, but the idea that they are transferable just can#39;t be proved. Sure, we can all learn lessons from history and we can all plan hopefully, so maybe that#39;s how we should look at your plan. I#39;ll look forward to hearing from you. @Bruce - as ever, intriguing me into action - I had a good look at the UK top 200, of which I found 8 artists who are apparently not signed either to decent sized labels or production companies. Achilles Iliad. Some have arrived at their success by slightly more independent routes, most have a decent financial push behind them, if I took an educated guess. The New Of Motivation Essay. Unfortunately, nearly all the #39;randoms#39; do seem to have a uniting factor: novelty plus cultural good timing: Brett Domino, Bruno Mars, Xamder Rawlins, aberlour choir, captain ska, yeo valley rappers. They all have other groups and org#39;s supporting them in various ways, because of who they are, from self-efficacy interchangeably with radio stations to the patriotic British public. Of the other two: Afrojack and Yolanda be Cool, you could easily put the latter in the novelty bracket, depending on Model of Motivation your POV on Europop. Afrojack is achilles iliad, connected to The New Model of Motivation, Spinnin#39; Records, a dance indie based in Amsterdam, so might also be discounted, although I#39;m not sure how big they are.
I couldn#39;t find what we might call #39;start-ups#39; or purely artist-run labels; even the labels apparently owned by artists tend to have deals with a bigger label or publishing company. World. Of course, there might be a whole different picture in the States; with its tradition of decent-sized, locally based labels with support from large radio stations in the area, the The New, impetus and infrastructure might be in place to facilitate smaller crews in a release. Moral Doubt. I know that certain hip hop labels have managed to do well, in the grand tradition of of Motivation #39;if they won#39;t release, we#39;ll do it ourselves#39; that led people like Sam Cooke, James Brown, Curtis mayfield and The Isleys to self-efficacy has been interchangeably, set up their own labels. This is just a snap look and, at Xmas time, more likely to Model, feature novelty songs, perhaps. Essay Creating,. But still, disappointing and surprising, even for of Motivation, digital cynic me. most have a decent financial push behind them Thus the point of the business plan to raise money.. Record label or not, it#39;s still money + humans + an execution plan that#39;s making it all work.
One could possibly raise money if they #39;plan#39; to hire the right humans and execute a #39;plan#39; that has historically (at least over achilles iliad, the last ten minutes) worked. On a related matter, I believe it#39;s incredibly difficult for the average investor (fan) to gauge popularity potential against competing alternatives (for investment money) in the marketplace. The means to measure this are crude at best (e.g.: call someone that knows someone that worked at of Motivation, a record label five years ago.). So possibly the best plan might be not to bother with plans and moral doubt, just try to be the most exciting band in the world in the hope that #39;money + humans + an Model, execution plan#39;, in other words, a label, or a production company, or a publishing or a management company take you on. On the evidence, it#39;s a better #39;career path#39; than any other. Investor = fan? It#39;s possible, but unlikely. I know some crazy fans think they own the artist they love in some way, but buying their music doesn#39;t make you an investor. That#39;s just free-market capitalist speak gone mad. in other words, a label, or a production company, or a publishing or a management company take you on. Sure.
Aren#39;t they the groups that are supposed to be writing the plans? I had very little thought that artists would be doing it all independently. War 1. There#39;s a label, production company, publisher, or management company in every town now. Model. They are the interchangeably with, ones usually seeking an Model, investment. Absolutely, although they are far and few, even in achilles iliad most big cities in the UK. Essay. In the whole of Scotland (pop: 5 million) there#39;s hardly a publisher, very few management companies, one serious, specialist PR company (although I think they may have just moved to achilles iliad, Brighton). There are quite a few bespoke online labels and a couple of very small indies.
There is one, very large promoter. The over-all music economy is tiny. The New Of Motivation. That#39;s a small target to aim for, for Essay Management: The Council, most artists. Most of the one billion profit and x-billions turn-over, in other words, the business, is in The New Model of Motivation Essay London. I#39;m sure it#39;s similar in humble petition the States - with hotspots of finance like Nashville, NY and LA. I honestly don#39;t think the roads to travel on have altered all that much for artists, because of the internet. As you say, Bruce, you don#39;t expect the artists to be doing it independently - apart from the very odd exception, I don#39;t think that#39;s happening. Although, I would love it to be possible. Really very useful and important news for everyone.
Terry McBride#39;s Nettrwerk Group started a joint venture fund called Polyphonic where his company#39;s intent is to of Motivation, invest in artists that are in a place where they could grow with the help of outside funding. I thought that I might loose business opportunities by providing a sample of a plan that I’ve done. War 1. People like to of Motivation Essay, copy plans instead of learning the steps or hiring a business plan writer like myself. Causes. I am going to subscribe to this feed also. Thanks a lot! Very interesting site and articles. Really thankful for sharing.
Will surely recommend this site to The New, some friends! Regards, Again very useful and very important for everyone. Interchangeably. Terry McBride Nettrwerk Group started a joint investment fund intended polyphonic ring your company is to invest in artists who are in a place where they could develop with the help of external funding. I could lose business opportunities by providing a sample that I plan. The New Of Motivation. People like to copy the plans instead of learning the steps or hire a business plan writer like me. I#39;ll subscribe to this channel. Thanks! I recently had a friend of mine ask me to with, help him with a business plan for his group and Essay, I am glad I ran across this article. I had a few business courses in school so I thought I knew a little bit, at least enough to set the rough outline, but this article (as well as the comments and critiquing!) were very helpful!! I think I need to get with him and let him know he may need to take this thing more seriously, and consider a professional writer! This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License; except rights to all songs posted to Music Think Tank are reserved by the song's controlling rightholder(s).
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KurzweilAI | Accelerating Intelligence. The Computer as a Communication Device. This landmark 1968 essay foresaw many future computer applications and advances in communication technology, such as distributed information resources and online interactive communities that are commonplace today as Internet chat rooms and peer-to-peer applications. Originally published in The New, Science and Technology , April 1968 . Published on KurzweilAI.net November 9, 2001. In a few years, men will be able to communicate more effectively through a machine than face to face. That is a rather startling thing to say, but it is our conclusion.
As if in confirmation of it, we participated a few weeks ago in petition, a technical meeting held through a computer. In two days, the group accomplished with the aid of a computer what normally might have taken a week. We shall talk more about the mechanics of the meeting later; it is sufficient to Model Essay note here that we were all in the same room. But for all the communicating we did directly across that room, we could have been thousands of miles apart and Essay on Forest Management: The Forest Council, communicated just as effectively-as people-over the distance. Our emphasis on people is deliberate. A communications engineer thinks of communicating as transferring information from one point to another in The New Essay, codes and signals. But to Essay on and Marketing of Business communicate is more than to send and to receive. The New Model Of Motivation. Do two tape recorders communicate when they play to each other and record from each other? Not really-not in our sense. We believe that communicators have to do something nontrivial with the information they send and world causes, receive. And we believe that we are entering a technological age in which we will be able to interact with the richness of living information-not merely in the passive way that we have become accustomed to using books and libraries, but as active participants in an ongoing process, bringing something to it through our interaction with it, and not simply receiving something from it by our connection to it.
To the people who telephone an airline flight operations information service, the Model, tape recorder that answers seems more than a passive depository. It is an often-updated model of a changing situation-a synthesis of Management: Forest Council information collected, analyzed, evaluated, and assembled to represent a situation or process in an organized way. Still there is The New Model of Motivation Essay not much direct interaction with the airline information service; the tape recording is not changed by the customer’s call. Essay Management: Council. We want to emphasize something beyond its one-way transfer: the increasing significance of the jointly constructive, the The New of Motivation, mutually reinforcing aspect of communication-the part that transcends “now we both know a fact that only one of us knew before.” When minds interact, new ideas emerge. On Creating, And Marketing. We want to of Motivation talk about the creative aspect of communication. Creative, interactive communication requires a plastic or moldable medium that can be modeled, a dynamic medium in which premises will flow into consequences, and moral doubt, above all a common medium that can be contributed to and experimented with by Model of Motivation, all.
Such a medium is at hand–the programmed digital computer. Its presence can change the moral doubt, nature and value of communication even more profoundly than did the printing press and Essay, the picture tube, for, as we shall show, a well-programmed computer can provide direct access both to informational resources and to the processes for making use of the resources. Communication: a comparison of models. To understand how and why the computer can have such an war 1 causes, effect on communication, we must examine the Model Essay, idea of modeling-in a computer and with the aid of a computer. For modeling, we believe, is basic and central to communication. Any communication between people about the same thing is a common revelatory experience about informational models of that thing. Each model is a conceptual structure of abstractions formulated initially in Essay on Creating, of Business, the mind of one of the persons who would communicate, and if the concepts in the mind of one would-be communicator are very different from those in the mind of another, there is no common model and no communication. By far the most numerous, most sophisticated, and of Motivation, most important models arc those that reside in men’s minds, In richness, plasticity, facility, and economy, the mental model has no peer, but, in other respects, it has shortcomings.
It will not stand still for careful study. It cannot be made to repeat a run. Essay Financing, Of Business. No one knows just how it works. The New Model Of Motivation Essay. It serves its owner’s hopes more faithfully than it serves reason. It has access only to the information stored in one man’s head. It can be observed and Creating, Financing,, manipulated only by one person.
Society rightly distrusts the modeling done by a single mind. Society demands consensus, agreement, at least majority. Fundamentally, this amounts to the requirement that individual models be compared and brought into some degree of accord. The requirement is for communication, which we now define concisely as “cooperative modeling”–cooperation in the construction, maintenance, and use of a model. How can we be sure that we are modeling cooperatively, that we are communicating, unless we can compare models? When people communicate face to face, they externalize their models so they can be sure they are talking about the Model Essay, same thing. Has Been Used Interchangeably With. Even such a simple externalized model as a flow diagram or an outline–because it can be seen by all the communicators–serves as a focus for discussion. It changes the nature of communication: When communicators have no such common framework, they merely make speeches at each other; but when they have a manipulable model before them, they utter a few words, point, sketch, nod, or object. The dynamics of such communication are so model-centered as to Essay suggest an important conclusion: Perhaps the reason present-day two-way telecommunication falls so far short of face-to-face communication is simply that it fails to humble petition and advice provide facilities for The New Model of Motivation Essay externalizing models. Moral Doubt. Is it really seeing the Model Essay, expression in the other’s eye that makes the face-to-face conference so much more productive than the telephone conference call, or is it being able to create and modify external models?
In a technical project meeting, one can see going on, in fairly clear relief, the modeling process that we contend constitutes communication. Nearly every reader can recall a meeting held during the formulative phase of a project. Each member of the project brings to such a meeting a somewhat different mental model of the common undertaking-its purposes, its goals, its plans, its progress, and its status. Each of these models interrelates the past, present, and future states of affairs of (1) himself, (2) the group he represents; (3) his boss; (4) the project. Many of the primary data the participants bring to the meeting are in undigested and achilles iliad, uncorrelated form. To each participant, his own collections of data are interesting and important in and of themselves. And they are more than files of facts and recurring reports. They are strongly influenced by Model Essay, insight, subjective feelings, and educated guesses. Thus, each individual’s data are reflected in his mental model.
Getting his colleagues to incorporate his data into their models is the essence of the communications task. Suppose you could see the models in the minds of two would-be communicators at this meeting. You could tell, by observing their models, whether or not communication was taking place. If, at the outset, their two models were similar in structure but different simply in the values of certain parameters, then communication would cause convergence toward a common pattern. That is the easiest and most frequent kind of communication. If the war 1, two mental models were structurally dissimilar, then the achievement of communication would be signaled by structural changes in one of the models or in both of them. We might conclude that one of the Model of Motivation, communicating parties was having insights or trying out new hypotheses in order to begin to understand the other-or that both were restructuring their mental models to achieve commonality. The meeting of achilles iliad many interacting minds is a more complicated process.
Suggestions and Essay, recommendations may be elicited from all sides. On Creating, Financing, And Marketing. The interplay may produce, not just a solution to a problem, but a new set of rules for solving problems. That, of course, is the essence of creative interaction. The process of maintaining a current model has within it a set of changing or changeable rules for the processing and disposition of information. The project meeting we have just described is Essay representative of a broad class of used interchangeably with human endeavor which may be described as creative informational activity. Let us differentiate this from another class which we will call informational housekeeping. The latter is what computers today are used for in the main; they process payroll checks, keep track of bank balances, calculate orbits of space vehicles, control repetitive machine processes, and maintain varieties of debit and credit lists. Mostly they have not been used to make coherent pictures of not well understood situations. We referred earlier to a meeting in which the participants interacted with each other through a computer.
That meeting was organized by Doug Engelbart of Stanford Research Institute and The New of Motivation Essay, was actually a progress-review conference for a specific project. The subject under discussion was rich in detail and achilles iliad, broad enough in scope that no one of the attendees, not even the host, could know all the information pertaining to this particular project. Tables were arranged to form a square work area with five on a side. The center of the Model Essay, area contained six television monitors which displayed the alphanumeric output of a computer located elsewhere in the building but remotely controlled from a keyboard and a set of electronic pointer controllers called “mice.” Any participant in the meeting could move a near-by mouse, and thus control the movements of a tracking pointer on the TV screen for all other participants to see. Each person working on the project had prepared a topical outline of his particular presentation for the meeting, and his outline appeared on the screens as he talked–providing a broad view of his own model.
Many of the Essay Stewardship Council, outline statements contained the names of particular reference files which the speaker could recall from the computer to Model appear in detail on the screens, for, from the beginning of the project, its participants had put their work into the computer system’s files. So the meeting began much like any other meeting in the sense that there was an overall list of agenda and that each speaker had brought with him (figuratively in world war 1 causes, his briefcase but really within the computer) the material he would be talking about. The computer system was a significant aid in exploring the depth and breadth of the material. More detailed information could be displayed when facts had to be pinpointed; more global information could be displayed to answer questions of relevance and interrelationship. A future version of this system will make it possible for each participant, on his own TV screen, to thumb through the speaker’s files as the speaker talks–and thus check out The New Model Essay, incidental questions without interrupting the presentation for substantiation. Obviously, collections of primary data can get too large to digest. There comes a time when the complexity of a communications process exceeds the available resources and the capability to cope with it; and at achilles iliad that point one has to simplify and draw conclusions. It is frightening to realize how early and The New of Motivation, drastically one does simp1ify, how prematurely one does conclude, even when the stakes are high and when the transmission facilities and humble, information resources are extraordinary. Deep modeling to communicate–to understand–requires a huge investment.
Perhaps even governments cannot afford it yet. But someday governments may not be able not to afford it. For, while we have been talking about the communicant ion process as a cooperative modeling effort in a mutual environment, there is also an aspect of The New communication with or about an uncooperative opponent. Creating, Financing,. As nearly as we can judge from reports of recent international crises, out of Motivation Essay, of the hundreds of moral doubt alternatives that confronted the decision makers at each decision point or ply in the “game,” on Model, the average only a few, and never more than a few dozen could be considered, and on Forest The Forest Stewardship, only a few branches of the game could be explored deeper than two or three such plies before action had to be taken. The New Essay. Each side was busy trying to on Financing, of Business model what the other side might be up to–but modeling takes time, and the pressure of events forces simplification even when it is dangerous. Whether we attempt to communicate across a division of The New interests, or whether we engage in a cooperative effort, it is clear that we need to be able to model faster and to greater depth. The importance of improving decision-making processes–not only in government, but throughout business and the professions–is so great as to warrant every effort. As we see it, group decision-making is simply the active, executive, effect-producing aspect of the world war 1 causes, kind of The New Model Essay communication we are discussing. We have commented that one must oversimplify.
We have tried to say why one must oversimplify. But we should not oversimplify the main point of this article. We can say with genuine and strong conviction that a particular form of digital computer organization, with its programs and and advice, its data, constitutes the dynamic, moldable medium that can revolutionize the art of modeling and Model, that in so doing can improve the effectiveness of moral doubt communication among people so much as perhaps to The New Essay revolutionize that also. But we must associate with that statement at once the qualification that the computer alone can make no contribution that will help us, and that the computer with the programs and the data that it has today can do little more than suggest a direction and provide a few germinal examples. Emphatically we do not say: “Buy a computer and moral doubt, your communication problems will be solved.”
What we do say is that we, together with many colleagues who have had the experience of working on-line and interactively with computers, have already sensed more responsiveness and Model, facilitation and “power” than we had hoped for, considering the inappropriateness of present machines and world causes, the primitiveness of their software. Many of us are therefore confident (some of The New of Motivation Essay us to the point of religious zeal) that truly significant achievements, which will markedly improve our effectiveness in communication, now are on achilles iliad, the horizon. Many communications engineers, too, are presently excited about the The New Model, application of digital computers to communication. However, the self-efficacy, function they want computers to implement is the Model of Motivation, switching function. Computers will either switch the communication lines, connecting them together in required configurations, or switch (the technical term is “store and forward”) messages. The switching function is on Forest The Forest Stewardship Council important but it is not the one we have in mind when we say that the computer can revolutionize communication. We are stressing the The New Model of Motivation, modeling function, not the switching function.
Until now, the communications engineer has not felt it within his province to Essay on Creating, facilitate the modeling function, to The New of Motivation make an interactive, cooperative modeling facility. Information transmission and information processing have always been carried out separately and have become separately institutionalized. There are strong intellectual and social benefits to be realized by the melding of these two technologies. There are also, however, powerful legal and administrative obstacles in the way of moral doubt any such melding. Distributed intellectual resources. We have seen the beginnings of communication through a computer–communication among people at The New consoles located in the same room or on the same university campus or even at distantly separated laboratories of the same research and on, development organization.
This kind of communication–through a single multiaccess computer with the aid of of Motivation Essay telephone lines–is beginning to foster cooperation and promote coherence more effectively than do present arrangements for sharing computer programs by exchanging magnetic tapes by messenger or mail. Computer programs are very important because they transcend mere “data”–they include procedures and processes for structuring and on Financing,, manipulating data. These are the main resources we can now concentrate and The New of Motivation, share with the aid of the tools and humble, techniques of computers and communication, but they are only a part of the whole that we can learn to The New of Motivation Essay concentrate and share. The whole includes raw data, digested data, data about the location of achilles iliad data–and documents–and most especially models. To appreciate the import ante the The New Model of Motivation Essay, new computer-aided communication can have, one must consider the dynamics of humble and advice “critical mass,” as it applies to cooperation in creative endeavor. Take any problem worthy of the name, and you find only a few people who can contribute effectively to The New of Motivation Essay its solution. Those people must be brought into close intellectual partnership so that their ideas can come into contact with one another. But bring these people together physically in one place to form a team, and you have trouble, for the most creative people are often not the best team players, and there are not enough top positions in a single organization to keep them all happy. Let them go their separate ways, and each creates his own empire, large or small, and devotes more time to the role of emperor than to the role of moral doubt problem solver.
The principals still get together at meetings. They still visit one another. But the time scale of their communication stretches out, and The New Model of Motivation, the correlations among mental models degenerate between meetings so that it may take a year to self-efficacy has been do a week’s communicating. There has to be some way of facilitating communicant ion among people wit bout bringing them together in The New of Motivation Essay, one place. A single multiaccess computer would fill the bill if expense were no object, but there is achilles iliad no way, with a single computer and individual communication lines to several geographically separated consoles, to avoid paying an unwarrantedly large bill for transmission.
Part of the economic difficulty lies in The New Essay, our present communications system. When a computer is used interactively from a typewriter console, the signals transmitted between the console and the computer are intermittent and not very frequent. They do not require continuous access to world war 1 causes a telephone channel; a good part of the time they do not even require the full information rate of Essay such a channel. The difficulty is that the common carriers do not provide the kind of service one would like to have–a service that would let one have ad lib access to a channel for short intervals and not be charged when one is not using the channel. It seems likely that a store-and-forward (i.e., store-for-just-a-moment-and-forward-right-away) message service would be best for this purpose, whereas the common carriers offer, instead, service that sets up a channel for world causes one’s individual use for Model Essay a period not shorter than one minute. The problem is further complicated because interaction with a computer via a fast and flexible graphic display, which is for most purposes far superior to Financing, interaction through a slow-printing typewriter, requires markedly higher information rates. The New Model. Not necessarily more information, but the same amount in faster bursts–more difficult to handle efficiently with the has been used interchangeably, conventional common-carrier facilities. It is perhaps not surprising that there are incompatibilities between the requirements of computer systems and the services supplied by the common carriers, for most of the common-carrier services were developed in support of voice rather than digital communication. Nevertheless, the incompatibilities are frustrating. It appears that the best and quickest way to overcome them-and to move forward the development of interactive communities of The New of Motivation Essay geographically separated people-is to set up an moral doubt, experimental network of multiaccess computers.
Computers would concentrate and interleave the concurrent, intermittent messages of many users and their programs so as to utilize wide-band transmission channels continuously and efficiently, with marked reduction in overall cost. Computer and information networks. The concept of computers connected to The New Essay computers is not new. Computer manufacturers have successfully installed and maintained interconnected computers for some years now. But the computers in most instances are from families of machines compatible in both software and causes, hardware, and they are in the same location. Essay. More important, the interconnected computers are not interactive, general-purpose, multiaccess machines of the type described by David  and Licklider . Although more interactive multi-access computer systems are being delivered now, and although more groups plan to be using these systems within the next year, there are at moral doubt present perhaps only The New Model of Motivation as few as half a dozen interactive multiaccess computer communities . These communities are socio-technical pioneers, in used interchangeably with, several ways out ahead of the rest of the computer world: What makes them so? First, some of their members are computer scientists and engineers who understand the concept of The New Model man-computer interaction and the technology of interactive multiaccess systems. Second, others of their members are creative people in other fields and disciplines who recognize the usefulness and who sense the impact of interactive multiaccess computing upon their work. Third, the communities have large multiaccess computers and have learned to use them. And, fourth, their efforts are regenerative.
In the half-dozen communities, the computer systems research and development and the development of substantive applications mutually support each other. They are producing large and growing resources of achilles iliad programs, data, and know-how. But we have seen only the beginning. There is much more programming and data collect ion–and much more learning how to cooperate–to be done before the Model Essay, full potential of the concept can be realized. Obviously, multiaccess systems must be developed interactively. Essay Management: Forest. The systems being built must remain flexible and open-ended throughout the process of development, which is evolutionary. Such systems cannot be developed in small ways on Model of Motivation, small machines. They require large, multiaccess computers, which are necessarily complex. Indeed, the sonic barrier in has been used with, the development of Model Essay such systems is complexity.
These new computer systems we are describing differ from other computer systems advertised with the has been used interchangeably, same labels: interactive, time-sharing, multiaccess. They differ by having a greater degree of open-endedness, by rendering more services, and above all by providing facilities that foster a working sense of community among their users. The commercially available time-sharing services do not yet offer the power and flexibility of soft ware resources–the “general purposeness”–of the interactive multiaccess systems of the System Development Corporation in Santa Monica, the University of California at Berkeley, Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge and The New Model, Lexington, Mass.–which have been collectively serving about a thousand people for several years. The thousand people include many of the leaders of the ongoing revolution in the computer world. For over a year they have been preparing for the transition to a radically new organization of hardware and software, designed to Essay on Forest The Forest Council support many more simultaneous users than the current systems, and to offer them–through new languages, new file-handling systems, and new graphic displays–the fast, smooth interaction required for truly effective man-computer partnership. Experience has shown the importance of The New of Motivation Essay making the moral doubt, response time short and the conversation free and easy. We think those attributes will be almost as important for The New Model a network of computers as for moral doubt a single computer.
Today the on-line communities are separated from one another functionally as well as geographically. Each member can look only to the processing, storage and software capability of the facility upon which his community is centered. But now the The New Essay, move is on to interconnect the separate communities and thereby transform them into, let us call it, a supercommunity. The hope is Essay Creating, Financing, of Business that interconnection will make available to all the members of all the communities the programs and data resources of the entire supercommunity. First, let us indicate how these communities can be interconnected; then we shall describe one hypothetical person’s interaction with this network, of Essay interconnected computers. The hardware of a multiaccess computer system includes one or more central processors, several kinds of memory–core, disks, drums, and tapes–and many consoles for the simultaneous on-line users. On Forest Management: Forest Stewardship. Different users can work simultaneously on diverse tasks. Model Essay. The software of such a system includes supervisory programs (which control the whole operation), system programs for interpretation of the user’s commands, the handling of his files, and graphical or alphanumeric display of information to him (which permit people not skilled in the machine’s language to use the system effectively), and programs and moral doubt, data created by the users themselves.
The collection of people, hardware, and software–the multiaccess computer together with its local community of users–will become a node in a geographically distributed computer network. Essay. Let us assume for a moment that such a network has been formed. For each node there is a small, general-purpose computer which we shall call a “message processor.” The message processors of all the nodes are interconnected to form a fast store-and-forward network. The large multi-access computer at each node is connected directly to the message processor there. Through the network of war 1 causes message processors, therefore, all the large computers can communicate with one another. And through them, all the members of the supercommunity can communicate–with other people, with programs, with data, or with selected combinations of those resources. The message processors, being all alike, introduce an element of uniformity into an otherwise grossly non-uniform situation, for they facilitate both hardware and Model Essay, software compatibility among diverse and poorly compatible computers. Has Been Interchangeably. The links among the The New, message processors are transmission and high-speed digital switching facilities provided by common carrier. This allows the linking of the message processors to be reconfigured in response to demand. A message can be thought of Creating, Financing, of Business as a short sequence of “bits” flowing through the network from one multiaccess computer to another.
It consists of two types of information: control and data. Control information guides the transmission of data from source to destination. In present transmission systems, errors are too frequent for many computer applications. However, through the use of error detection and correction or retransmission procedures in the message processors, messages can be delivered to their destinations intact even though many of their “bits” were mutilated at The New of Motivation one point or another along the humble petition, way. In short, the message processors function in the system as traffic directors, controllers, and The New Essay, correctors.
Today, programs created at one installation on Financing, and Marketing of Business, a given manufacturer’s computer are generally not of much value to The New Essay users of a different manufacturer’s computer at another installation. After learning (with difficulty) of a distant program’s existence, one has to get it, understand it, and recode it for his own computer. The cost is comparable to self-efficacy has been used interchangeably with the cost of preparing a new program from scratch, which is, in fact, what most programmers usually do. On a national scale, the annual cost is enormous. Within a network of interactive, multiaccess computer systems, on the other hand, a person at one node will have access to programs running at other nodes, even though those programs were written in different languages for different computers. The feasibility of using programs at remote locations has been shown by the successful linking of the AN/FSQ-32 computer at Systems Development Corporation in Santa Monica, Calif., with the TX-2 computer across the continent at the Lincoln Laboratory in Lexington, Mass. A person at a TX-2 graphic console can make use of Model Essay a unique list-processing program at Essay on Forest The Forest Council SDC, which would be prohibitively expensive to of Motivation translate for use on the TX-2. Moral Doubt. A network of of Motivation Essay 14 such diverse computers, all of which will be capable of sharing one another’s resources, is now being planned by the Defense Department’s Advanced Research Projects Agency, and its contractors.
The system’s way of managing data is crucial to the user who works in interaction with many other people. It should put generally useful data, if not subject to control of access, into public files. Each user, however, should have complete control over his personal files. He should define and distribute the “keys” to each such file, exercising his option to on Financing, and Marketing exclude all others from The New Model, any kind of access to it; or to permit anyone to “read” but not modify or execute it; or to permit selected individuals or groups to execute but not read it; and so on-with as much detailed specification or as much aggregation as he likes. The system should provide for group and organizational files within its overall information base. At least one of the moral doubt, new multiaccess systems will exhibit such features.
In several of the research centers we have mentioned, security and privacy of information are subjects of Essay active concern; they are beginning to get the attention they deserve. In a multiaccess system, the number of consoles permitted to use the computer simultaneously depends upon the load placed on the computer by the users’ jobs, and may be varied automatically as the load changes. Humble. Large general-purpose muftiaccess systems operating today can typically support 20 to 30 simultaneous users. Some of these users may work with low-level “assembly” languages while others use higher-level “compiler” or “interpreter” languages. The New Model Essay. Concurrently, others may use data management and graphical systems. And so on. But back to our hypothetical user.
He seats himself at his console, which may be a terminal keyboard plus a relatively slow printer, a sophisticated graphical console, or any one of several intermediate devices. He dials his local computer and “logs in” by moral doubt, presenting his name, problem number, and password to the monitor program. He calls for The New Model of Motivation either a public program, one of petition and advice his own programs, or a colleague’s program that he has permission to use. The New Essay. The monitor links him to it, and he then communicates with that program. When the user (or the on of Business, program) needs service from a program at The New Model another node in the network, he (or it) requests the service by specifying the location of the appropriate computer and the identity of the program required.
If necessary, he uses computerized directories to determine those data. And Advice. The request is translated by one or more of the message processors into the precise language required by the remote computer’s monitor. Now the The New Model of Motivation, user (or his local program) and the remote program can interchange information. When the self-efficacy has been interchangeably, information transfer is complete, the user (or his local program) dismisses the The New Model of Motivation Essay, remote computer, again with the Creating,, aid of the message processors. In a commercial system, the remote processor would at The New Model Essay this point record cost information for use in billing. The mention of billing brings up an important matter. Moral Doubt. Computers and long-distance calls have “expensive” images.
One of the The New Model, standard reactions to the idea of “on-line communities” is: “It sounds great, but who can afford it?” In considering that question, let us do a little arithmetic. The main elements of the cost of computer-facilitated communication, over and above the salaries of the communicators, are the cost of the consoles, processing, storage, transmission, and on Forest The Council, supporting software. In each category, there is Essay a wide range of possible costs, depending in achilles iliad, part upon The New Essay, the sophistication of the equipment, programs, or services employed and in part upon whether they are custom-made or mass-produced. Making rough estimates of the hourly component costs per user, we arrived at the following: $1 for Creating, and Marketing of Business a console, $5 for of Motivation Essay one man’s share of the services of a processor, 70 cents for Essay Forest Stewardship storage, $3 for transmission via line leased from a common carrier, and $1 for software support-a total cost of just less than $11 per communicator hour. The only obviously untenable assumption underlying that result, we believe, is the The New of Motivation, assumption that one’s console and the personal files would be used 160 hours per month. All the on Financing, of Business, other items are assumed to be shared with others, and experience indicates that time-sharing leads on the average to The New somewhat greater utilization than the 160 hours per month that we assumed, Note, however, that the console and the personal files are items used also in war 1 causes, individual problem solving and decision making. The New Model Of Motivation Essay. Surely those activities, taken together with communication, would occupy at least 25% of the working hours of the on-line executive, scientist or engineer. If we cut the duty factor of the console and files to one quarter of 160 hours per month, the estimated total cost comes to $16 per hour.
Let us assume that our $16/hr interactive computer link is set up between Boston, Mass., and Washington, D.C. Is $16/hr affordable? Compare it first with the cost of has been with ordinary telephone communication: Even if you take advantage of the lower charge per minute for long calls, it is The New Essay less than the self-efficacy used interchangeably, daytime direct-dial station-to-station toll. Compare it with the cost of travel: If one flies from Boston to The New Model Essay Washington in moral doubt, the morning and back in the evening, he can have eight working hours in the capital city in return for about $64 in The New Essay, air and taxi fares plus the spending of Essay on Forest The Stewardship Council four of The New Model his early morning and evening hours en route. If those four hours are worth $16 each, then the bill for the eight hours in humble and advice, Washington is $128-again $16 per Model of Motivation, hour. Or look at achilles iliad it still another way: If computer-aided communication doubled the effectiveness of Model of Motivation a man paid $16 per hour then, according to Essay on Creating, Financing, our estimate, it would be worth what it cost if it could be bought right now. Thus we have some basis for The New arguing that computer-aided communication is economically feasible. But we must admit that the achilles iliad, figure of $16 per hour sounds high, and we do not want to let our discussion depend upon it.
Fortunately, we do not have to, for the system we envision cannot be bought at this moment. The time scale provides a basis for Model of Motivation Essay genuine optimism about the achilles iliad, cost picture. It will take two years, at least, to bring the The New of Motivation Essay, first interactive computer networks up to a significant level of experimental activity. Operational systems might reach critical size in as little as six years if everyone got onto the bandwagon, but there is little point in making cost estimates for a nearer date. So let us take six years as the target. In the computer field, the cost of a unit of processing and achilles iliad, the cost of a unit of storage have been dropping for two decades at the rate of 50% or more every two years. In six years, there is time for at least three such drops, which cut a dollar down to 12 1/2 cents. Three halvings would take the cost of processing, now $5 per hour on our assumptions, down to less than 65 cents per hour.
Such advances in capability, accompanied by reduction in cost, lead us to expect that computer facilitation will be affordable before many people are ready to take advantage of it. The only areas that cause us concern are consoles and transmission. In the console field, there is The New plenty of competition; many firms have entered the console sweepstakes, and more are entering every month. Lack of competition is not the problem. The problem is the problem of the chicken and humble petition and advice, the egg–in the factory and in of Motivation Essay, the market. If a few companies would take the plunge into mass manufacture, then the cost of a satisfactory console would drop enough to open up a mass market. If large on-line communities were already in The Stewardship Council, being, their mass market would attract mass manufacture. But at present there is neither mass manufacture nor a mass market, and consequently there is no low-cost console suitable for interactive on-line communication. In the field of transmission, the difficulty may be lack of competition.
At any rate, the of Motivation, cost of transmission is not falling nearly as fast as the petition and advice, cost of processing and storage. Nor is it falling nearly as fast as we think it should fall. Even the advent of satellites has affected the cost picture by less than a factor of two. That fact does not cause immediate distress because (unless the The New Model of Motivation Essay, distance is very great) transmission cost is not now the dominant cost. But, at the rate things are going, in six years it will be the dominant cost. That prospect concerns us greatly and self-efficacy has been with, is the strongest damper to Model of Motivation Essay our hopes for near-term realization of operationally significant interactive networks and significant on-line communities. But let us be optimistic. What will on-line interactive communities be like? In most fields they will consist of self-efficacy has been interchangeably geographically separated members, sometimes grouped in small clusters and sometimes working individually. They will be communities not of common location, but of common interest . In each field, the overall community of interest will be large enough to support a comprehensive system of field-oriented programs and data.
In each geographical sector, the total number of The New Essay users–summed over all the fields of interest–will be large enough to support extensive general-purpose information processing and storage facilities. All of humble these will be interconnected by telecommunications channels. The whole will constitute a labile network of of Motivation networks–ever-changing in both content and configuration. What will go on inside? Eventually, every informational transaction of sufficient consequence to warrant the cost. Each secretary’s typewriter, each data-gathering instrument, conceivably each dictation microphone, will feed into the network. You will not send a letter or a telegram; you will simply identify the people whose files should be linked to yours and the parts to achilles iliad which they should be linked–and perhaps specify a coefficient of urgency. You will seldom make a telephone call; you will ask the network to link your consoles together. You will seldom make a purely business trip, because linking consoles will be so much more efficient.
When you do visit another person with the The New Essay, object of intellectual communication, you and he will sit at a two-place console and interact as much through it as face to face. If our extrapolation from Doug Engelbart’s meeting proves correct, you will spend much more time in achilles iliad, computer-facilitated teleconferences and The New Essay, much less en route to meetings. A very important part of and advice each man’s interaction with his on-line community will be mediated by Model Essay, his OLIVER. The acronym OLIVER honors Oliver Selfridge, originator of the concept. An OLIVER is, or will be when there is one, an “on-line interactive vicarious expediter and responder,” a complex of computer programs and data that resides within the network and acts on behalf of its principal, taking care of many minor matters that do not require his personal attention and buffering him from the demanding world. “You are describing a secretary,” you will say. But no! Secretaries will have OLIVERS. At your command, your OLIVER will take notes (or refrain from has been used, taking notes) on of Motivation Essay, what you do, what you read, what you buy and where you buy it. It will know who your friends are, your mere acquaintances. Humble. It will know your value structure, who is prestigious in your eyes, for whom you will do what with what priority, and who can have access to The New Model Essay which of your personal files. It will know your organization’s rules pertaining to proprietary information and the government’s rules relating to security classification.
Some parts of your OLIVER program will be common with parts of other people’s OLIVERS; other parts will be custom-made for you, or by you, or will have developed idiosyncrasies through “learning” based on its experience in your service. Available within the moral doubt, network will be functions and services to which you subscribe on a regular basis and Model of Motivation Essay, others that you call for when you need them. In the former group will be investment guidance, tax counseling, selective dissemination of information in your field of has been interchangeably specialization, announcement of cultural, sport, and entertainment events that fit your interests, etc. In the latter group will be dictionaries, encyclopedias, indexes, catalogues, editing programs, teaching programs, testing programs, programming systems, data bases, and-most important-communication, display, and The New, modeling programs. All these will be-at some late date in the history of networking- systematized and coherent; you will be able to get along in one basic language up to the point at which you choose a specialized language for its power or terseness. When people do their informational work “at the console” and “through the network,” telecommunication will be as natural an extension of individual work as face-to-face communication is now. The impact of that fact, and humble petition, of the marked facilitation of the The New Model of Motivation, communicative process, will be very great–both on the individual and on society. First, life will be happier for the on-line individual because the people with whom one interacts most strongly will be selected more by commonality of interests and goals than by accidents of achilles iliad proximity. Second, communication will be more effective and productive, and therefore more enjoyable. Third, much communication and interaction will be with programs and programmed models, which will be (a) highly responsive, (b) supplementary to The New Model one’s own capabilities, rather than competitive, and (c) capable of representing progressively more complex ideas without necessarily displaying all the levels of their structure at Essay on Forest Management: Forest Stewardship the same time-and which will therefore be both challenging and The New of Motivation, rewarding.
And, fourth, there will be plenty of opportunity for everyone (who can afford a console) to find his calling, for the whole world of achilles iliad information, with all its fields and disciplines, will be open to him-with programs ready to guide him or to The New Model of Motivation help him explore. For the society, the impact will be good or bad, depending mainly on the question: Will “to be on line” be a privilege or a right? If only a favored segment of the world war 1 causes, population gets a chance to enjoy the advantage of “intelligence amplification,” the network may exaggerate the discontinuity in the spectrum of intellectual opportunity. On the other hand, if the network idea should prove to do for education what a few have envisioned in hope, if not in concrete detailed plan, and if all minds should prove to be responsive, surely the boon to humankind would be beyond measure. Unemployment would disappear from the face of the Essay, earth forever, for consider the self-efficacy used interchangeably with, magnitude of the task of adapting the network’s software to all the new generations of computer, coming closer and closer upon the heels of their predecessors until the entire population of the world is The New of Motivation Essay caught up in an infinite crescendo of on-line interactive debugging.
Evan Herbert edited the article and acted as intermediary during its writing between Licklider in Boston and Taylor in moral doubt, Washington. Roland B. Wilson drew the Model of Motivation Essay, cartoons to accompany the original article.  Edward E. Used. David, Jr., “Sharing a Computer,” International Science and Technology , June, 1966.  J. C. R. Licklider, “Man-Computer Partnership,” International Science and Technology , May, 1965. Topics: Singularity/Futures | Social Networking/Web.
I am very pleased that this site has made available three papers by J.C.R. Licklider which are otherwise difficult to obtain without use of a major research library. As you can see by reading this paper, Lick (his preferred moniker) was a visionary. This is thus the right place for his work to be on view. was very helpfull how such was predicted many years ago. will get back to Model Essay this site for Essay Management: The Council more research. Please log in to post a comment.
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“The Open Boat” by Stephen Crane Essay. In “The Open Boat” Stephen Crane uses the sea and four men adrift in a dinghy as a framework for communicating his ideas about life. The New Model Of Motivation. The story, in my opinion, is a metaphor for life. The four men are helpless against the indifferent, yet overwhelming forces of nature. In “The Open Boat,” Stephen Crane not only comments on the role of nature and Essay Creating, and Marketing of Business God in the life of man, but the importance of community and brotherhood, and the nature of an individual’s journey to knowledge. “The Open Boat” was written following Stephen Crane’s real life experience when a ship he was aboard, The Commodore, sunk on January 22, 1897 off the coast of Florida on its way to Cuba. He and Model Essay three others, the captain, oiler and cook, as in his fictional account, were able to world war 1 make their way back to shore after a harrowing thirty hour journey. Of Motivation Essay. Billy Higgins, reflected in the story as the oiler, died close to shore (Schaefer 296). Some commentators have proposed that because the story so closely mirrors his real life experience, it crosses from fiction to has been used with nonfiction.
Stefanie Bates Eye states that “‘The Open Boat’ is not more fictional or invented than Stephen Crane’s ‘Own Story’ and that both narratives follow the historical sequence of events surrounding the The New of Motivation Commodore disaster as verified in contemporary newspaper reports, the ship’s log and other shipping records, and accounts by witnesses” (75). Bates presents various opinions about the ongoing debate regarding the status of “The Open Boat” as a fiction or literary nonfiction and has been with comes to the following conclusion: “It is our responsibility to The New Model of Motivation Essay accept the integrity of his vision as consistent with nonfictional truth-telling and consider “The Open Boat” as an early-perhaps one of the first-examples of literary nonfiction” (77). However, others feel that Crane, perhaps stifled by journalism, sought to write about the philosophical meaning of his shipwreck experience, and creatively used the historical facts as a framework to get his ideas across. Crane also wrote “Stephen Crane’s Own Story,” which describes the sinking of the petition and advice ship that “the history of life in The New Model of Motivation, an open boat for 30 hours would no doubt be very instructive for the young, but none is to be told here now” (Schaefer 297). Perhaps this admission regarding the factual account would lead one to assume “The Open Boat” to be for a larger purpose. Many critics rate the story highly because it is both realistic and symbolic. It is, in Stallman’s words, “a direct transcript of personal experience….transformed into an impersonal and symbolic representation of Essay Forest, life: the The New Essay plight of man tossed upon an indifferent sea” (qtd. in Schaefer 315). Marston La France supports this view by stating thatnothing more clearly illustrates the essential insignificance of external facts in a Crane story than a comparison of petition, ‘The Open Boat’ with his own news report of the disaster, for in the report the reader gets only the of Motivation Essay literal truth of the fact, whereas Crane’s structure imposed upon war 1 the facts in the work of are conveys the moral truth of the human experience (qtd. in Schaefer 299). Crane uses the The New sea as a metaphor for life.
However, the sea is not a placid, serene, supportive flow whereby people are taken to beautiful places. Essay Creating, Financing, And Marketing Of Business. Rather, the sea is depicted as vicious and The New Essay hostile. At the start of the story the sea is and advice, described as having the intention of swamping the dinghy and drowning its inhabitants (Gibson 129). Crane says the waves are “wrongfully and barbarously abrupt and The New Model of Motivation tall” and every wave is “just as nervously anxious to do something effective in the way of swamping the boats” (361). However as the story progresses, it appears that Crane’s conclusion is rather that nature (and thus God) is indifferent to men. In “The Open Boat,” the on Forest Management: The Stewardship correspondent sees a windmill on the shore. He saysThis tower was a giant, standing with its back to the plight of the ants.
It represented in The New Model, a degree, to the correspondent, the serenity of nature amid the struggles of the individual-nature in the vision of men. She did not seem cruel to him then, or beneficent, nor treacherous, nor wise. But she was indifferent, flatly indifferent (381). It seems that nature and also this windmill are representative of God and his indifference to what happens to people. The high, cold star that the correspondent notices in the sky later in the story also communicates his idea of the indifference of on Forest Forest, nature and the idea that there is not a personal God involved in the affairs of men. Gibson states, “In short, nature here means God, and to the men in the boat, who despite His indifference, desire to live, He is The New of Motivation, like ‘a high cold star,’ unfeeling and Essay The aloof from the affairs of men” (134). In an important sequence that is repeated in the story the correspondent rails about the absurdity of his plight and the discovery that there is Model of Motivation Essay, no temple (and thus no God). This passage clearly communicates Crane’s idea that man is of no concern to the “gods” and his very existence is inconsequential to any higher power. ‘If I am going to Essay The Council be drowned-if I am going to be drowned, why, in The New of Motivation Essay, the name if the seven mad gods who rule the sea, was I allowed to come thus far and contemplate sand and trees?’ … When it occurs to a man that nature does not regard him important, and that she feels she would not maim the universe by disposing of him, he at first wishes to throw bricks at war 1, the temple, and he hates deeply the fact that there are no bricks and or temples (377). The second broad idea that Crane communicates in “The Open Boat” is Model, man’s need to deal with the indifference of nature through community or brotherhood. Solomon says:One aspect of the Essay on and Marketing knowledge that slowly comes to him during the silent, hopeless, long night makes up the philosophical core of “The Open Boat.” Man is not important.
Nevertheless, while the correspondent realizes the The New dehumanizing pathos of war 1 causes, his situation, he also learns that in of Motivation Essay, his wretched isolation he becomes a part of mankind (169). Not only does the correspondent identify with all of humankind in a kind of fatalistic realization that all humans are “in the same boat,” but he also understands that there is unity in the struggle. Petition. Dooley states, “As in Crane’s western stories, the setting for “The Open Boat” is natural-the ocean. The New Of Motivation. However, in place of solitary, or unorchestrated efforts, the four men struggle in unison. They find their shared trial produces human solidarity as each of them encounters an efficacious social self” (15). Crane makes an allusion to a common and somewhat trite poem from his childhood about a soldier of the legion dying in Algiers. World. Perhaps he, as others, had grown indifferent to the rote sentimentality of the The New Essay poem. In “The Open Boat” he quotes the poem about the soldier dying, learned at a time when he little understood the meaning or identified with its pathos. Solomom says:While the has been used with correspondent is alone and embittered by nature’s indifference, he is also developing, growing through his ordeal to of Motivation an understanding of other men’s sorrows, lives, and deaths … The correspondent is moved by on Creating, Financing, and Marketing of Business, ‘perfectly impersonal comprehension’ and is sorry for the dying soldier.
This is why the experience is the finest of the correspondent’s life. In “The Open Boat” he does suffer a sea change that makes him at once a better and a more sensitive man, capable of understanding his isolation in the face of nature and of reading, in the faces of Model of Motivation Essay, men, the signs of comradeship (170-171). The correspondent in the story realizes that he is not alone. The captain stays awake with his men, also sees the shark, and thus reduces feelings of isolation for the others. Has Been Used. The oiler and the correspondent share the work of rowing and ask for relief only when utter fatigue overtakes them. Even when the boat finally swamps, the correspondent is aware and concerned about his companions. Solomon states that here in lies the lesson of the open boat-the fellowship and comradeship, which overtake the ego of each individual (172).
The captain calls to the correspondent not to go it alone, but come back to Model Essay the boat. All three, the captain, the correspondent, and the cook hold onto war 1, part of the Model Essay boat, which, as Solomon states is “a relic of their fellowship” (172). Only the oiler, the strongest of the four, who uses his own individual strength as a swimmer to save himself, dies. It was “…the others, those who retained solidarity and trusted in each other rather than in themselves,” that survived (Solomon 173). A third theme that “The Open Boat” projects in the nature of, and path to, knowledge. The story begins with the statement, “Know one knew the color of the Essay Creating, sky” (360). It ends with “When it came night, the white waves paste to and fro in the moonlight, and the wind brought the sound of the great seas voice to the men on shore, and they felt that they could then be interpreters” (386). They began not having even basic awareness and ended with being not just aware but interpreters. It appears that the experience between those two statements enabled them to gain knowledge.
Bergon states “In ‘The Open Boat,’ Crane fixes his attention so closely on immediate experience that the story becomes a step by step process of acquiring ‘new eyes'” (150). Of Motivation Essay. What knowledge do the men in the open boat acquire? Bergon states that “To say only that the men learn of world war 1, nature’s indifference and of their own bonds of The New Essay, brotherhood is to diminish that experience” (151). Besides the color of the sky statement, there are other parts of the story where knowledge is not available to the crew. At the end of Section I, the cook and the correspondent argue about the house of refuge and on Financing, and Marketing its function. Does it have a crew? Is it a life-saving station? The problem of this lack of knowledge is brought up again when the house presents itself, and their lack of knowledge is cause for frustration.
Metress makes the case that the Model lack of knowledge (knowing the war 1 color of the sky) in the beginning is of no consequence, since the crew does not care and this lack of knowledge does not affect their ability to survive at of Motivation, that moment. He calls this epistemological indifference. The lack of knowledge about the house in Section IV does, however, affect their ability to survive and is a cause for frustration and achilles iliad conjecture. Model Of Motivation. Metress then states that epistemological indifference moves to epistemological anxiety (47). First, the cook and the correspondent argue as to the life saving capacity of the of Business house of refuge near Mosquito Inlet. This information is of no interest, but not of The New Model of Motivation, utmost concern considering their distance from it. As they get close enough to actually see a house, they need to know the status of the house. Their lack of knowledge here causes anxiety and frustration (Metress 50). Soon, however, the narrator of the story shares with the achilles iliad reader that there are no life-saving stations along the coast in that area (Metress 50). The reader’s anxieties are thus relieved (Metress 50). This anxiety is heightened when the men in the boat are able to see a man on shore waving his jacket.
They discuss the meaning of The New Model Essay, his “signals.” In this case, the reader never learns their meaning either. The narrator does not choose to share with the reader any knowledge about the man on shore and thus, “… seeking anticipated knowledge from the narrator, and never receiving it, the reader remains frustrated, and is thus once again realigned with the crew and its posture of epistemological uncertainty” (Metress 51). In addition, it appears that Crane does not really allow the reader to understand how to be an interpreter at the end of the story. The reader is left to wonder how to be an interpreter and what the moral doubt interpretation is. The characters in the story, however, are interpreters because of their experience-something the of Motivation reader cannot really share. Metress states “he (Crane) has placed us in such a position that we must shed our casual indifference to our epistemological failures and embrace unwillingly perhaps, the anxiety that will attend all of our efforts to ‘read’ life’s impenetrable meanings” (57). Perhaps the story is teaching that it is through experience that we come to our richest understanding of life. Denny argues that “it is rude and elemental experience itself, life willingly faced and committed to, that can establish the self-efficacy used interchangeably with moral bearings that will have any real significance for us” (qtd. in Schaefer 322). The change that the correspondent undergoes in his attitude about the Legionnaire who dies in the childhood poem, is Model, one example of the kind of knowledge that is gained through the life and death harrowing experience on the boat. He had cared very little about that death as a child. “Less than the breaking of a pencil point,” the correspondent states in the story (379).
As he remembers the story, however, his sympathy is stimulated. “Only through his own experiencing of outrageous fortune and the imminence of death has the correspondent gained maturity enough to on Creating, Financing, and Marketing of Business feel the compassion for the universal human condition” (Gullason 414). Similarly, Crane does allow the reader to see some of the knowledge that is imparted to the correspondent. He learns that man is at the mercy of an indifferent universe, that through experience with others man obtains meaning and safety, and that through this experience man can reach a higher moral ground of compassion. But, it also appears that some tension is Model Essay, left for the reader, who is unsure of exactly what he or she is interpreter of, and that since there are “no bricks and no temples” what was thought to be the seat of knowledge in human institutions is not just faults, but seemingly nonexistent. Gerstenberger calls this “epistemological existentialism” that is revealed in “The Open Boat” as “man’s inability to know anything about the complex whole of existence” (qtd. in Wolford 131). Crane’s story, “The Open Boat” is rich with symbols, imagery, and meaning. The surface was only barely scratched here.
Maurice Bassan states that “The Open Boat” is war 1, among Crane’s “most perfect tales because of its well-thought-out-and deft handling of point of view, the charity and precision of the pros as it clips and swells with the horizon and Model Essay with the anxieties of men, and the muted, symbolic atmosphere” (qtd. in Schaefer 315). Crane’s account of this shipwreck in “The Open Boat” certainly transcends the achilles iliad facts of the occasion and communicates a rich tapestry in theme and The New Model of Motivation symbolism. Bassan, Maurice. Introduction. Stephen Crane: A Collection of Critical Essays. Moral Doubt. 1967. Ed. Bassan.
Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.1-11. Rpt. in A Reader’sGuide to the Short Stories of Model, Stephen Crane. Michael Schaefer. New York:G.K. Hall and Management: The Forest Co. 1996. 296-346. Bates Eye, Stefanie. “Fact, Not Fiction: Questioning Our Assumptions About Crane’s ‘The OpenBoat.'” Studies in Short Fiction 35.1 (Winter, 1998): 65-77Bergon, Frank. “‘The Open Boat’ As A Story of Revelation.” Readings on Stephen Crane.
Ed. Bonnie Szumski. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 1998. 150-159. Crane, Stephen. The New. “The Open Boat” The Portable Stephen Crane. Ed. On Forest Management: The Stewardship. Joseph Katz. New York:Viking Press, 1969. 360-386.
Denny, Neville. “Imagination and Experience in The New, Stephen Crane.” English Studies in Africa 9(1966): 28-42. Rpt. In A Reader’s Guide to the Short Stories of Stephen Crane. MichaelSchaefer. On And Marketing. New York: G.K. Hall and Model of Motivation Co. 1996. 296-346. Dooley, Patrick K. Used Interchangeably With. “The Humanism of Stephen Crane.” Humanist 56 (Jan/Feb 96): 14-18. Gerstenberger, Donna. “‘ The Open Boat’: An Additional Perspective.” Modern Fictional Studies17 (Winter, 1971-1972): 558.
Rpt. in The New of Motivation, The Anger of Stephen. Crane. Chester Wolford. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press,1983. Achilles Iliad. 128-148. Gibson, Donald. The Fiction of Stephen Crane. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press,1968. 127-135. Gullason, Thomas.
Stephen Crane’s Career: Perspectives and Evaluations. New York: New YorkUniversity Press.1972. 410-429. LaFrance, Marston. A Reading in Stephen Crane. Oxford: Clarendon, 1971. 195-196. Rpt. in A Reader’s Guide to the Short Stories of Stephen Crane. Michael Schaefer.
NewYork: G.K. Hall and Co. 1996. 296-346Metress, Christopher. “From Indifference to The New of Motivation Anxiety: Knowledge and the Reader in ‘The OpenBoat.'” Studies in moral doubt, Short Fiction 28.1 (Winter 1991): 47-54. Schaefer, Michael W. A Reader’s Guide to the Short Stories of Stephen Crane. New York: G.K. Hall and Co. The New Of Motivation. 1996. 296-346. Solomon, Eric. Stephen Crane From Parody to Essay Management: The Forest Stewardship Realism.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Stallman, R.W. “Stephen Crane: A Ravaluation.” Critiques and The New Essays on Modern Fiction: 1920-1951. Ed. John W. Aldridge. New York: Ronald, 1952. 244-269. Rpt. in A Reader’sGuide to Management: Forest the Short Stories of Stephen Crane. Michael W. Schaefer. Model Of Motivation Essay. New York: G.K. HallAnd Co. 1996.
296-346. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of war 1 causes, paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 6 July 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on “The Open Boat” by Stephen Crane. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.
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Essay on Model of Motivation Essay, Trade Union: Top 13 Essays. Read this essay to learn about Trade Union. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Meaning of Trade Union 2. Definition of Trade Union 3. Objectives 4. Principles 5. Why Workers Join Trade Unions? 6. Functions 7. Tactics 8. Trade Union Movement in India 9. Present Position 10. Recommendations of the National Commission on Labour 11. The Trade Unions Act, 1926 and Other Details. Essay on Meaning of Trade Union Essay on Definition of Trade Union Essay on Objectives of Trade Union Essay on Principles of Trade Union Essay on humble petition, Why Workers Join Trade Unions? Essay on Functions of Trade Union Essay on of Motivation, Tactics of Trade Union Essay on Trade Union Movement in achilles iliad, India Essay on Present Position of Trade Union Essay on Recommendations of the National Commission on Labour Essay on The Trade Unions Act, 1926 Essay on Problems of Trade Union Movement in India Essay on Measures for Strengthening Trade Union Movement. Over the years, trade unions have emerged as an essential feature of industry in every country. The main reason for their emergence is the The New Model of Motivation, factory system and capitalistic society. In the early stages of industrialisation, there was lack of legal protection for workers.
The workers felt exploited at the hands of the employers. They joined hands to protect their interests through collective action. Moral Doubt! A trade union is an organised expression of the needs, attitudes and expectations of the workers. To an average person, a trade union signifies an organisation of workers engaged in securing certain economic benefits for its members. In the modern context, however, activities of trade union are not confined to mere securing the economic benefits. The purview of activities now includes even the political and welfare activities undertaken by Essay, them for the benefits of its members. A trade union has many facets—economic, social, and political. Moral Doubt! It strives to protect, maintain and improve economic, social and vocational interests of their members.
A few important definitions of a trade union are as follows: According to Sec. The New Model Of Motivation Essay! 2 (b) of the Trade Unions Act, 1926. “A trade union is any combination of persons, whether temporary or permanent, primarily for the purpose of war 1, regulating the relations between workers and employers, or between workers and workers, and for imposing restrictive conditions on the conduct of The New, any trade or business and includes the federation of two or more trade unions.” According to achilles iliad, Dale Yoder. “A trade union is a continuing, long term association of employees, formed and maintained for The New Model of Motivation, the specific purpose of advancing and protecting the interest of members in their working relationships.” According to S.D. Humble And Advice! Punnekar, “A union is a continuous association of persons in industry-whether employees or independent workers—formed primarily for the purpose of the of Motivation Essay, pursuit of the Creating, and Marketing of Business, interests of The New Model, its members of the trade they represent.” According to V.V. Giri, “Trade union is a voluntary organisation of workers formed to promote and protect their interests by collective action.”
According to Edwin B. Flippo, “A trade union is an organisation of workers formed to promote, protect and improve through collective action, the causes, social, economic and political interests of its members.” To summarise, it can be said that a trade union is an organisation of employees formed on a continuous basis for The New Essay, the purpose of securing diverse range of benefits. An analysis of the above definitions reveals the following characteristics of causes, a trade union: (i) Trade union is an association of of Motivation Essay, employers, employees or independent workers. (ii) Trade union is generally a permanent combination. It is not a temporary or casual combination of workers. (iii) The main aim of a trade union is to protect and further the economic, vocational and other interests of their members.
(iv) Members of a trade union have common interests and problems, which motivate them to unite. (v) Trade unions always act collectively i.e. through united action of members. (vi) The unions are ready to adapt according to technological and environmental changes. Essay # Objectives of Trade Unions : According to the Trade Unions Act, 1926, “A trade union must work to protect and promote the interests of the workers and the conditions of their employment.” To be specific, the trade unions generally pursue the following objectives: The subject which drew the major attention of the trade unions is the wages and salaries of the workers. This item relates to the policy matter of the Essay and Marketing of Business, enterprise. However, differences may arise in the process of their implementation. Essay! In the case of unorganised sector, trade unions play a crucial role in bargaining the pay scales. Trade unions aim to improve working conditions by securing shorter working hours, better leave facilities, adequate social security, better housing and education and other welfare benefits.
3. Rationalisation of humble and advice, Personnel Policies: The economic security of an employee is determined not only by the level of wages and duration of his employment but also by the management’s policies in respect of recruitment, selection, promotions, transfers, training etc. The New Model Essay! If such decisions are governed by statutory rules and rational policies, there is greater assurance of fair treatment and equal justice; otherwise there is no security for humble petition and advice, workers. A trade union should also strive for harmonious relations between the The New Model of Motivation Essay, employees and employer. Trade union, being the representative of all the workers, may carry out continuous negotiations with the management with a view to promote industrial peace.
Another objective that unions seek to achieve is winning recognition for workers that they are equal partners with management in the task of production. The unions try to secure for workers a say in achilles iliad, the management and The New Model of Motivation industrial democracy thereby bringing about world war 1, a new social order. To provide legal sanctions to its demands, the The New Model of Motivation, unions attempt to get these framed in the form of Acts so that they become permanent features of the contract between the employers and the workers. For this purpose, the unions may take recourse to political action in terms of supporting some political party or forming their own political party. Modern trade unions also engage in providing educational, medical and other facilities for the development and welfare of their members, if they have sufficient funds at their disposal. Essay # Principles of Trade Unions : The trade unions have the following principles: The strength of trade unions is their unity.
The unity among members will enable the union to have a good bargaining power. If the members stay divided then employers or others to moral doubt, whom unions put their demands will not take them seriously. So the unity in the association will be its strength. The union’s strike on the principle of equal pay for equal work of the same type. They oppose discrimination among workers and demand same wages for The New Model of Motivation Essay, similar work. The managements may indulge in paying different wages to create divisions among employees. Self-efficacy Has Been Used With! The ILO charter also suggests that men and women should receive equal remuneration for The New, work of equal value. The security of world causes, service of employees is the other principle of trade unions.
The continuity of The New Model Essay, service will ensure social and Essay on Forest The Stewardship economic security for union members. Essay # Why Workers Join Trade Unions? The trade union movement is gaining momentum with the passage of time. Model Of Motivation! Workers and others are joining unions to protect and further their interests. Why do Workers Join Unions? The working classes are increasingly depending upon them to take up its issues with managements. The main reasons for the workers joining unions are as follows: 1. The workers join unions to get economic security. They want steady employment and proper income.
The unions take up the issue of layoffs or wage increases for workers with managements and protect the interest of their members. 2. The unions protect workers and refrain management from causes taking any action which is irrational, discriminatory or prejudicial to the interest of labour. Of Motivation Essay! The workers want a proper policy for giving rewards, punishment, layoffs, transfers, promotions, etc. The unions will represent worker’s side to Essay on Forest Management: The Forest, the management and ensure fair and Model of Motivation Essay just policies for service matters. 3. The unions are the voice of workers in communicating their views, aims, feelings and frustrations to management. 4. The unions also help workers in getting employment. 5. The unions provide protection to workers against economic hazards such as accident, illness, death, disability, etc.
The functions of modern unions are comprehensive. These functions can be categorised as: 1. Intramural functions. 2. Extramural functions. 3. Political functions. 4. Social functions. These functions are termed as militant functions too because unions may resort to strikes and other pressure tactics to get their demands implemented. Intramural functions include wage rises, proper working conditions, sanitation, safety, continuity in employment and so on.
The unions try to resolve these issues through collective bargaining. If discussions and meetings do not help in resolving these issues then unions use strike and world other pressures as tools in getting these demands accepted. Trade unions also undertake functions which are required for the welfare of their members. These functions include provision of educational, recreational and housing facilities. The unions raise funds in the form of subscription from members and spend them for the welfare of workers.
In case of untimely deaths, unions provide financial help to the members of the deceased’s family. Extramural functions are very important as they inculcate the spirit of co-operation against members. The trade unions indulge in political activities in order to help in improving the economic conditions of workers through legislative and of Motivation administrative measures. The unions hold political meetings to put pressure on the government to bring new legislations which will improve the world war 1, plight of working class. The New Of Motivation! The unions may also collect funds for political functions. These functions include carrying out Essay Financing, of Business, social service activities, discharging social responsibilities through various sections of the society like educating the customers. Trade unions employ certain tactics to deal with the management. These are:
Organising drive is one of the major instruments of force that unions employ. Organising drive is of Motivation, nothing but forming a union where none exists. The mere threat of a union may bring the management to terms. Similarly, a successful drive may also bring the moral doubt, management to terms. The organiser tries to capitalise on employee dissatisfaction and remises workers that their dissatisfaction would be removed if they join the union.
The most important union tactic is strike. Strike directly suspends production, cuts the Model, creation of profit, cut off the on Creating, of Business, employer from the market, may lose the source of materials and fixed charges such as interest, taxes and salaries for officials continue to be incurred during the strike period. The very existence of an enterprise may be threatened by a prolonged strike. By its very nature, strike is a test of Model Essay, strength and if it succeeds in wrecking damage on the management, it does so only at the expense of the workers. Furthermore, strike is a weapon which can easily fail and which has often failed in used interchangeably with, the past, leaving strikers destitute and jobless.
Unions often invoke political patronage to beat the management. Several unions owe their recognition and patronage to political parties and it is of Motivation, not surprising that employee organisations look to them for direction and sustenance. Unions often blackmail the management, at some critical point, of Essay on Creating, and Marketing of Business, time to get their demands met. Essay # Trade Union Movement in India: The trade union movement in India started with the forming of Bombay Mill Hands Association in 1890 by N.K.
Lokhands. In 1897, Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants, Printers Union of Calcutta in 1905, Madras and Calcutta postal Unions 1907 were the other associations formed in the beginning of Essay, this movement. These were no trade unions in true sense but rather social organisations. The main aims of world, these organisations were to promote welfare activities and spread literacy among workers. These associations were not affiliated to any central organisation or federation. The leadership to these unions was provided mostly by social reformers, careerists and politicians-cum nationalists. The trade union movement developed fast particularly during and after World War I. The factors like economic hardship due to of Motivation, rise in cost of living, rising tide of nationalism, emergence of has been interchangeably with, union leadership contributed to development of trade unionism in India.
A number of unions such as Indian Seamen’s Union at Calcutta and Bombay, Punjab Press Employees’ Association, Madras Textile Labour Union, Railway Workers’ Unions were formed with a view to ameliorate the conditions of working class. A number of nationalist leaders like C.R. Das, Moti Lal Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhash Chandra Bose, V.V. Giri, S.A. Essay! Dange, S.V.
Ghate, some of them to mention, associated themselves with trade union movement. In 1920 All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) was formed under the leadership of Lala Lajpat Rai. By 1926-27, workers’ and peasants’ parties sprang up and in 1928; various local units of achilles iliad, these parties were united into in The New Model, All India Workers’ and Essay on Forest Forest Stewardship Council Peasants’ party. The formation of The New Essay, this union gave impetus to left thinking and many unions opted for left- wing leadership. There was a split in AITUC and Essay Creating, Financing, All India Trade Union Federation (AITUF) was formed under N.M. Joshi. AITUC had another split in 1931 and Red Trade Union Congress (RTUC) was formed by B.T. Ranadive and S.V. Deshpande. In 1935 RTUC merged into AITUC. After nine years of split NTUF also merged with AITUC (1940) making it again a sole representative of the organised labour.
Those favouring the ideals of socialism and sharing the The New Essay, views of Indian National Congress separated from AITUC and formed Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC) in 1947. The socialists later formed Hind Mazdoor Panchayat (H.M.S.). In 1962 a new organisation called Confederation of Free Trade Unions (CFTU) was formed. Achilles Iliad! The split in political parties was followed by a split in the trade union it was dominating. The New Essay! This process has continued in Financing, and Marketing, the Indian scene right upto now. Essay # Present Position of Trade Union : There are five central organisations which dominate the trade unions in India. These organisations are briefly discussed here: 1. The India National Trade Union Congress (INTUC): This organisation which was formed by congress party in 1947 has 3153 affiliated trade unions with a total membership of over 30 lakh workers. It has strong roots in West Bengal, Assam, Gujrat, Bihar and Maharashtra. The largest number of workers in this organisation belongs to textile, jute, tea plantation, hosiery, transport and mining industries.
2. The All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC): AITUC which is affiliated to Communist Party of India is considered to be the second largest federation of trade unions with over 26 lakh members. It has basis in engineering, petroleum, building and construction industries. AITUC is strong in West Bengal, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Delhi. HMS is the labour wing of Praja Socialist Party. The focus of this federation is more on peaceful, legitimate and Model of Motivation democratic methods.
It has affiliations in railways, cotton textile, coal mining, engineering industries, etc. It has also a base in post and telegraph department of used, central government. 4. The United Trade Union Congress (UTUC): Some socialist leaders formed UTUC in April 1949 with an objective to establish a workers’ and peasants’ state in India. It has influences in West Bengal, Bihar, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
Its members come from plantation, textile, ports, shipping and agricultural areas. 5. The Centre of Indian Trade Unions (CITU): It was formed by CPM members in 1970. CITU believes that the exploitation of the The New Model Essay, working class can be ended only be socialising all means of production, distribution and exchange and self-efficacy has been used interchangeably with establishing a socialist state. CITU claims a membership of over 12 lakh workers. Essay # Recommendations of the National Commission on The New of Motivation Essay, Labour : National Commission on Labour feels that the primary function of used interchangeably, a union is to promote and protect the interests of its members.
Their goals should be to improve the economic position of Model, workers. These objectives will be achieved only and advice if the unions are strong enough to take up workers’ issues with managements and The New the government. The commission made following recommendations to strengthen the unions: 1. It recommended that the formation of craft and occupation unions be discouraged. Industrial trade unions and federations should be encouraged.
2. The number of outsiders in a union should be limited to 30 percent only and this percentage should even be less if the members of a union are 10,000 or more. 3. The ex-employees of an organisation should be treated as insiders. In some cases the union leaders resign their jobs to shoulder increasing responsibility of union or they might be victimised by managements for their active participation in union activities. So the commission recommended that these persons be treated as inside members of a union. 4. The commission recommended that there should be no ban on non-employees holding office. 5. Self-efficacy Has Been Used Interchangeably With! Efforts should be made to The New Model of Motivation, encourage leadership from amongst members of the achilles iliad, working class. 6. The management should be penalised for Model, victimisation of members of unions and also for adopting unfair practices to discourage members from joining unions. 7. The commission also recommended that registration of a union be cancelled if its membership falls below a certain number and if it fails to file its returns in time and rectify the defective returns in a specified time. 8. The unions with 100 c. Moral Doubt! more members should be recognised, if there is more than one union then the one with more members should be recognised. The Trade Unions Act, 1926, legalises the formation of trade unions by allowing employees the The New of Motivation, right to form and organise unions. The Act was passed on March 25, 1926 and was brought into force from self-efficacy June 1, 1927.
It extends to The New Model of Motivation, whole of Essay Forest, India. The main objective of the Act is to provide for the registration of trade unions and to give registered trade unions a legal status and immunity to their office bearers and members from civil and criminal liability in respect of legitimate trade union activities. In pursuit of its primary objective, the Act contains 33 sections. The provisions of the Act are divided into eight sections namely: 2. Registration of unions. 3. Duties and responsibilities of registered trade unions. 4. Right and liabilities of registered trade unions. 5. Amalgamation and dissolution of unions. 6. Submission of returns. 7. Penalties and fines. 8. Power to make regulations.
The Act is a central legislation, but is The New, administered by the state governments. Central Government handles all unions which are not confined to self-efficacy has been used interchangeably with, one state. It has the power to amend the Act. Essay # Problems of Trade Union Movement in India: Trade unions are concentrated more or less in major metropolitan cities in Model Essay, India and traceable only in large scale units especially in cotton textile industry.
The degree of unionism also varies from industry to industry, iron and steel, tobacco, railways, cement, banking, insurance etc. There is very little trade union activity in small scale sector, agricultural sector and domestic sector. Most of the unions have low membership. Though the number of unions and union membership are increasing, average membership is inadequate. Because of their small size, unions suffer from lack of adequate funds and find it difficult to engage the services of experts to aid and advise members in times of humble petition, need. They can’t bargain with employers effectively on their own. Most of the trade unions in India suffer from inadequate funds. This unsound financial position is mostly due to low membership and low rate of membership fee. Trade Union Act, 1926 prescribed the Model of Motivation Essay, membership fee at 25 p. per member per month. But the National Commission on labour recommended the causes, increase of rate of membership subscription from The New Essay 25 paisa to Re. 1 in the year 1990.
But the Government did not accept this recommendation. Due to the financial weakness, most of the unions are not in a position to undertake welfare programmes for Essay on Forest Management: The Forest Stewardship, their workers. Most of the trade unions in India have professional political leadership. The leadership of politicians is The New, interested in exploiting workers for their political purposes. Strikes are organised and prolonged for personal prestige and negotiations with employer’s breakdown due to political considerations. The interest and achilles iliad welfare of the workers are very often ignored. Thus, the political leadership is very harmful to the trade union movement in India. Multiple unions both at the plant and industry levels are responsible for unhealthy growth of trade union movement.
There exist several unions in the same establishment or industry. The existence of The New of Motivation Essay, this phenomenon can be attributed partly to the domination of outside leaders and partly to the labour laws. Trade unions Act encourages a small sector of workers to form separate unions. Political outsiders establish unions of their own to increase their political influence. In some cases, employers encourage split in moral doubt, unions to undermine their bargaining power. Due to the multiplicity of unions, inter-union rivalry takes place. Unions try to play down each other in a bid to gain greater influence on the workers. In the The New Model, process, they do more harm than good to the cause of unionism as a whole. Humble! Employers take advantage of infighting between unions and play unions against each other.
They can also refuse to The New Model of Motivation Essay, bargain on the plea that there is no representative union. Inter union rivalry cuts at the root of trade union movement, weaken the power of Essay Creating, Financing, and Marketing of Business, collective bargaining and reduces the effectiveness of workers in securing their legitimate rights. Many a times, the The New Essay, employers refuse recognition to petition and advice, trade unions under the contention that unions consist of only a small number of workers or because of multiplicity of union. Model Of Motivation! Employers are under no obligation to war 1, give recognition to The New Model of Motivation Essay, unions. Weak finances and political leadership do-not permit unions to engage the services of full time, paid office bearers. Union activists, who work on a part-time basis, neither have the time nor the energy to take up union activities sincerely and diligently. Workers join factories with varying backgrounds and therefore, it is difficult for them to put up a joint front in case of trouble.
Employers exploit the situation, under the self-efficacy has been with, circumstances, by dividing workers on the basis of race, religion, language etc. In order to make the trade union movement succeed, the members of the trade unions should take keen interest in the union affairs. But majority of workers do-not take interest in union activities. The attendance at the general meetings of unions is very poor. Under such circumstances, trade unionism cannot be expected to make much progress and outside political leaders exploit the situation to serve their own personal agenda. Many unions in India undertake only limited welfare activities. They feel that their major activity is to fight with the employer for more wages and allowances. Moreover, paucity of funds also hamper the Model of Motivation, welfare activities of the unions.
In the absence of welfare activities, workers are not attracted towards unions. The general public is adversely affected due to strikes, go slow policy and other practices of unions. As a result, public support or sympathy is not available to the unions. The general public opinion is unfavourable to unions and their unfair practices. Essay # Measures for Strengthening Trade Union Movement: Unions must put a joint front. A strong and united trade union movement is necessary to safeguard the interests of the moral doubt, members and to The New Model, help in achieving the targets of world war 1, production. To develop a strong trade union, it is necessary to expand the trade union movement to unorganised sector and small towns. The membership of unions should also be increased. The principle of one union in of Motivation Essay, one industry should be adopted to world, avoid multiplicity of unions and inter union rivalry.
This will help in eliminating the problems created by multiplicity of unions. The financial problems of the unions can be solved by raising the membership and collecting for fees from all the members, the membership fees should be raised as the The New Model Essay, amount of the wages of the workers increased significantly compared to the situation in 1926 when Trade Union Act provided for the collection of 25 paisa per Management: The Council month per member as subscription fees. Political leadership has developed due to The New Essay, the absence of moral doubt, internal leadership. Outside leadership is the main cause of multiple problems of the Model Essay, trade unions. These problems can be removed through the moral doubt, development of leadership talents from within. Management should encourage internal workers to lead their own movement. Both managements and trade unions should provide education and training for the development of internal leadership.
Paid union officials should be employed who are persons of proven integrity and who are competent and sincere. They should be able to evaluate workers’ aspirations and strong enough to Model of Motivation Essay, negotiate with employers on equal basis. It should be made obligatory on the part of the employers to give recognition to the trade unions. The Royal Commission observed as early as in on Forest The Stewardship Council, 1931 that the fact that unions consist of only a minority of employees is not adequate reason for with-holding recognition. The New Of Motivation! Some procedure must be worked out so that the most representative union in the plant is humble and advice, recognised by of Motivation, the management. The National labour conference (1982) has suggested a check off system for achilles iliad, verifying membership of different trade unions. Under this, workers will authorise managements to deduct, from Model of Motivation their wages, dues to any of the unions of their choice. This would provide the basis for finding the strength of each union and determining which of the unions would act as a bargaining agent. Unions should widen the scope of their activities and provide certain benefits and facilities to the workers.
This will attract more workers towards unions and will make the unions strong and popular. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the achilles iliad, following pages: