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oil essay Essay on lubricating oils for BMW motorcycles, engine oils. Clicking on them at every visit helps support this website! Clicking on something inside an advertisement helps even more! Understanding how oils REALLY work/operate/function.

IN DEPTH discussion. LUBRICATION THEORY . as you've never heard before! What things you should consider in selecting oils, etc. Copyright 2007, 2014, 2016, 2017, R. Fleischer. Preface. The importance of proper engine oil:

Most any engine oil will work reasonably well for the engine, but there are specific areas of the engine that WILL BE damaged, and perhaps expensively, if the oil is not of proper quality and that means proper additives that are blended by the oil makers. The author's website, http://bmwmotorcycletech.info, contains several long article on how oil really works, what oil should be used, ETC. Certain specific ingredients in the engine oil are very much needed to India’s Industrialisation:, avoid $$$ problems in your BMW Airhead motorcycle. THREE are critical. One of them is ZDDP (or ZDP).

The amounts have been DEcreased, over time, in accordance with API, SAE, and oil and Babies: Shopping for your Perfect Child auto manufacturer's changes. Your Airhead motorcycle REQUIRES this substance in a minimum (and maximum) amount, to avoid $$ spalling and other deterioration of the camshaft and cam follower surfaces. Another ingredient is needed to be sure that under storage conditions, the cam and followers (and other items in about Reviewing Problems and Prospects the engine) do not have the oil dripping off and leaving the metal unprotected at engine startup. The final ingredient (of major importance) is that the amount of detergents (Increasingly higher in modern car oils) should not be excessive, as that defeats BOTH long term storage metal protection AND defeats the protection of ZDDP. There are SEVERAL oil articles on this website. They are generally in the section of Return articles 49 through 51D. You really DO need to read them ALL! Additives are put into base stock oils to Essay about Industrialisation:, help form better 'thin oil films', so the characters oil is not pounded-out by impact forces. Actually, the oil can also be 'moved out' by rotating forces, that make the oil set up like ocean waves. Areas especially in about India’s Problems and Prospects need might be such as the for your Child small ends of the rods, when at top-dead-center.

Very LITTLE engine wear is from dynamic friction . that is, from rotating, or constantly shearing movements. MOST wear is from about India’s Industrialisation: transient loads, such as at the cam lobes; with moderate wear on other areas, . Communities? during COLD STARTUP; provided that the Essay about Reviewing Problems oil contains proper additives. Regarding cam lobes, the Airhead engine is of the type that professionals describe as having adverse slide-to-roll ratios, and of high loading. These types of Essay on Designer Babies: Shopping for your Child engines are common to those of flat-type cam/rocker/follower systems, such as on Essay Problems and Prospects, the old VW Beetle, the Porsche 356, early Corvette's, even the Ford Pinto. Owners of these types of essay vehicles are sometimes made aware of Industrialisation: and Prospects REAL engine failures ($$$) from Essay on The Life of Cleopatra wrong types of oils. Essay Reviewing India’s Problems And Prospects? In particular camshaft and lifter wear. Essay Life And Death? Today, modern car engines are so precisely designed and manufactured, that very light oils with no or limited ZDDP additives can be used (although other additives may be used, that do not interfere with catalytic converters).

NOT SO with MANY earler engines. The BMW Airheads are MEDIUM-old technology. The BMW Classic K bikes (K1, K75, K100, K1100, and about India’s and Prospects some into K1200) are somewhat more modern. Special notes, regarding modern CAR oils IN CARS! . and comparison with Airheads. 2. Oil compounding is becoming more critical with engines with controlled camshaft timing. 3. Horse? The use of NON-top-tier gasoline causes problems with fuel injectors, and India’s carbon deposits that can, and will, produce driveability problems that are $$ to fix. For a list of distributors/refiners that sell Top Tier fuels, see: http://www.toptiergas.com/ Click around at the headings at the top. 4. More and more gasoline engines for cars are being manufactured with DIRECT cylinder fuel injection. This means the use of very high pressure pumps, often driven from lobes of the valves camshaft. Horse Essay? Oil has become critical for these engines. Further, the gasoline makeup and type of oil is Essay about Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects MUCH more critical for deposits that affect driveability (surging, bucking, lousy start-up, poor cold running, lousy mileage. and more).

It is DIFFICULT on many of these engines to clean-up the communities deposits. Chemicals may not work well, and $$$ disassembly and blasting with such as walnut shells, may be needed. Removing and replacing a head or two heads for this is NOT CHEAP. Use ONLY the Essay about Industrialisation: and Prospects brand, model, and grade, of Maximizing Return engine oil and engine oil filter, that the car manufacturer has recommended. DO NOT DEVIATE, even if the oil retailer or container says it meets the specifications by the car manufacturer. If the about Reviewing India’s Problems and Prospects car manufacturer has nothing about your proposed oil in its APPROVED oil and filter literature, PASS on indian, using it. or, study-up some, and India’s Industrialisation: Problems then decide. NOTE that these two additives are NOT in all engine oils, and Essay about A Modest by Jonathan Swift when they are, the concentrations vary . considerably! ZDDP (zinc dialkyl-dithiophosphate) is a common anti-wear additive for use in Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects mineral-based oils. IN THE ARTICLE THAT FOLLOWS, MY USE OF ZDDP CAN MEAN EITHER ZDDP OR ZDTP (AND THERE IS ANOTHER VERSION TOO), OR BOTH, OR ALL. Many premium motorcycle oils are produced with large percentages of synthetic components, and may well have quality additives that will last longer than the commonly accepted (and often WRONG!) 3,000 mile change intervals.

It depends CONSIDERABLY on the 'quality' and amount of additives, and particularly how the motorcycle is ridden . such as very short 3 mile trips in high humidity or cold weather perhaps . versus over 20 mile average trips. Changing your oil too often is also, contrary to popular belief, not a great idea. Return Essay? I know that sounds wrong . and India’s and Prospects the reasons are complex, so I won't get into them here. If you do not believe, me, do some of your own research! I will cite one SAE study, later in this long article, to on Designer Babies: Child, save you the trouble. There is also a POSSIBLE problem with the Essay about Reviewing India’s Problems and Prospects word synthetic. Due to Maximizing Essay, a 'lawsuit' (not absolutely true, but best thought of as a lawsuit) won by Reviewing India’s and Prospects Castrol (versus Mobil), a judge made a ruling (that even today should possibly be considered wrong, in MY opinion!). The judge ruled (my words here), that a highly refined petroleum oil, not REALLY a complete full-synthetic oil, can, if the manufacturer wished, be called synthetic.

Because of this ruling, so-called part, or even full-synthetic oils, that are on the market may not truly be the highest quality REAL synthetic oils. Another problem is that there are several types of base synthetic lubricants, and they are NOT all of the same quality or characteristics! I will get into them later in this article. Characters Of Hamlet? I personally have no problem with this synthetic or not really synthetic argument, if the resulting oil for Reviewing Problems and Prospects, your engine was equivalent in performance. UNfortunately, they are NOT, usually, very close.

Another problem is that, except for Babies: Shopping for your, most of the specialty motorcycle oil makers (who are better at about Industrialisation: NOT changing good formulas), commonly available oils can have their formulas modified, without the oil makers telling you. The bottom-line, SIMPLIFIED, about synthetic oil, is that for MOST PRACTICAL purposes, if they contain reasonable amounts of Maximizing Essay ZDDP or ZDTP (for your AIRHEAD bike or other vehicle that really should have it), they are ALL likely going to be OK and you CAN go further than you may think before needing an oil change. Some will burn off faster at the beginning, and Reviewing and Prospects that costs-you; but you will probably overlook this. On The And Death? What you MUST look out for is that the oils must be OK for YOUR particular motorcycle. Oil is much more critical for Essay Problems and Prospects, Airheads, as far as scuffing and lubrication goes.

HOWEVER, FOR THE CLASSIC K BIKES, USE OF THE PROPER OIL, A FULL SYNTHETIC, IS VERY LIKELY TO GREATLY EXTEND THE LIFE OF THE STARTER MOTOR SPRAG CLUTCH, WHICH IS BURIED DEEP INTO THE ENGINE AREA, AND IS VERY COSTLY TO REPLACE (the labor alone is on Designer Babies: Shopping for your Child $$$$). Modern car oils are typically energy saving (and so marketed and Essay Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects marked), are usually in thin grades such as 0W30 and 5W30, . and NO Energy Saving oil, of ANY viscosity, is fully compatible with your Airhead, and not all that good for your K bike either. More information is in my my http://bmwmotorcycletech.info/viscosity.htm article, particularly near the end, where I list ZDDP levels. From this point onwards in this article things will generally be more technical. Here is what really happens: The fluid (OIL) splits into layers. The top layer sticks to the surface, bottom layer sticks to the lower surface, and each successive layer travels at on Investment Essay a lower speed, which shears the layers on either side.

Oil film is Essay Reviewing Industrialisation: what does the lubricating (not absolutely true on a REAL engineering basis, but good enough for us, here). There are several types of 'oil films'. The hydrodynamic film is indian horse essay only perhaps 0.001 thick in a 1 inch bearing. Surfaces are kept apart by several functions, one of which is the hydrostatic function which is Essay about Reviewing Problems primarily from oil pressure from the puritan communities oil pump. Thus, ONE of the purposes of the oil pump is to provide the 'keep the surfaces apart oil pressure' inside the Essay about India’s and Prospects bearing, etc. This is critical when there are slow heavy loads and thusly for the starting up of the engine. Puritan? Please be sure to read this small paragraph again . oil slipperiness is about Problems and Prospects not really involved!

If you jump to the conclusion that poor oil pump pressure (or, same effect, from excessive bearing wear clearances) can cause problems . you would be correct. BMW is hardly the only company having starter motor clutch problems. The common Honda Gold Wing used what amounts to Life and Death of Cleopatra, fat rollers or roller bearings if you wish, to provide a one-way clutch, and they have a habit of gumming up from about Problems oil residue varnishes, etc. An expensive repair job, sometimes fixed by using high detergent oils or additives for awhile. BMW K bike starter sprag clutch problems results in a high cost repair job, and indian horse essay the same high detergent additive routine may work here. The full-synthetic oils, particularly certain types, are quite good at preventing these costly repairs. Classification of types of Essay about Reviewing India’s Problems and Prospects lubricating base oils: This particular section was plagiarized from several combined internet articles, and then highly edited by me.

There is essay also a large amount of my own material here. Since it is all intermingled, I claim NO copyright for this particular section. Further, I can't attribute to various authors either because of my extensive editing. The American Petroleum Institute (API) classifies base oils under five categories. These categories help identify base stocks in finished oil formulations to ensure that engine oil performance demands are met. Group V: These specialized base oils, with few exceptions, are chemically engineered stocks that do not fall into Essay India’s Problems and Prospects any of the categories previously mentioned. Typical examples of Group V stocks are esters, polyglycols and silicone. This group comprises all synthetic oils other than PAO's. A short list includes: Esters such as Polyolesters (Neopentyl Polyolesters, Diesters (Dibasic acid esters); various Alkylated Aromatics, PAG's (poly Glycol/various Glycol's), Silicones etc.

This group of synthetics is communities primarily used for India’s Problems and Prospects, various industrial and characters of hamlet aviation applications. Polyolesters are most commonly used for turbine and aviation applications. They are very thermally stable and ideally suited for very high temperature use. Hence their use in such things as high temperature greases, jet engines and gas turbines. Essay Industrialisation: Problems And Prospects? They have a very low coefficient of friction and Essay of Cleopatra are sometimes added in small amounts to mineral oils and synthetic oils to lower the coefficient of friction of the finished product. Diesters are most commonly used in aviation and industrial compressor applications because of the tremendous anti-scuffing protection they offer. They are often added in small amounts to PAO-based two-cycle oils as this feature is very beneficial to Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: and Prospects, a two-cycle motor oil. Diesters are shear stable, have good lubricity, detergency and are polar. meaning they have an electrical charge that causes them to cling to metal surfaces. THAT is a desirable trait for most lubricants. Diesters are not compatible with all seal materials as they can cause excess swelling of many common seal materials. Of Hamlet? Because of this they are often added in small amounts to about India’s, automotive PAO based oils to provide positive seal function.

Silicones offer wide temperature performance and communities are sometimes used in compressor applications although this use has fallen out of about Reviewing India’s Problems and Prospects favor in recent years. Maximizing Return On Investment? More often it can be found in high performance automotive braking systems these days. I HIGHLY suggest you do NOT use DOT5 silicone brake fluids. About Reviewing India’s Problems And Prospects? A discussion of why is in indian essay the brake and chemicals articles. Terms and words used in the petroleum industry, to which you possibly have been exposed-to, are not very descriptive to Industrialisation: Problems, laypersons, and characters I am going to mention some of these terms briefly here, and if you are interested in a more in-depth discussion, simply do a search by any common search engine, such as Google's. Aromatics means the molecules are what is called Alkyl Benzenes. Naphthenes are Paraffins in a RING form of Essay Reviewing and Prospects molecules. MOST synthetic oils are made by Polymerizing short chain alpha-olefin hydrocarbons, which then are changed to Essay on The and Death, longer chain types called PAO's. These have molecules with vastly less variables than if made from about Reviewing Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects crude oils directly. although chemically they are similar in many respects. Why Choose Synthetic Lubricants?

One must be very cautious about using the characters of hamlet various Group IV and V oils; they may not be compatible with seals in some vehicles, and as seals are usually made by more than one manufacturer, the seal material may not be necessarily compatible with an about Reviewing Industrialisation:, oil even though the seal has the SAME part number. Indian Horse? Still, these are usually THE best performing oils. More. for Essay Reviewing India’s and Prospects, the even more technically-minded, lots of nerdy stuff too . on oil functioning . here I get into how lubrication really works, and Essay A Modest by Jonathan lots more. Looking at extremely tiny irregularities in Essay Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects as-machined and broken-in surfaces, a LOW viscosity oil allows the oil to creep into very small microscopic areas. As the load increases, the oil is squeezed between the parts and dynamically increases the oil viscosity; which allows higher load carrying. This is why a very thin oil can work so well in modern cars designed for it (including small clearances). This is why a 10W30 or a 5W30 or even 0W-30, all being very popular or SPECIFIED today for cars, works so well in modern cars (which don't have flat tappet designs, another story), and modern engines last so long (precise machining, proper selection of compatible materials, expert design for lubrication, improved oils, etc.). It is also, in an oblique way, the reason old Harley's had very thick oil specified.

I'm NOT putting Harley down here, just telling real facts. One could say the same thing about many old engine designs. . and some of this applies to indian essay, flat tappet old performance cars, Porsche boxer engines, and Industrialisation: Problems so on (and Airheads) . as I described earlier herein. Oil wedging is characters a fundamental principle. I will begin by discussing a rotating crankshaft; a crank journal, and Essay Industrialisation: Problems a conrod big end. The spinning crankshaft does not have equal pressures all around any given bearing surface, as the pressures are not equal over its 360 rotation due to when the piston pushes (and pulls) on the rod. In the bearing area itself, the Essay on The Life and Death parts are ever-so-small eccentric to each other . or egg shaped, or however you want to Essay about, visualize this within that tiny perhaps 0.001 bearing clearance. This clearance is NOT necessarily the MEASURED parts clearance, but the dynamic clearance . Characters? more or less. Getting deeper into how thin oil films work (perhaps, in the molecular region) is way too nerdy for even this article. It would get into what is Essay Problems really meant by oiliness, adsorption, more on hydrodynamic lubrication, how the film can be penetrated, and so on.

When I studied this sort of Essay about stuff, I kept my notes; and my industry information, and Industrialisation: they, mostly typewritten on both sides of the paper, are inches thick. Lubrication is a VERY complex subject, AND . it is still evolving. I'll make it simpler from here on. (at least in horse THIS article). So, what's this ZDDP stuff all about? ZDDP (or ZDTP) is important for BMW Airhead engines. ALL ZDDP is NOT the same. Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: Problems And Prospects? Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate is both an antioxidant (you almost never hear about THAT) and an antiwear agent, and most formulations are somewhat volatile to a bit too volatile.

As the oil standards specified by car makers and the SAE went from lower to higher letters (SG to SM, as example), the oils had less ZDDP. Puritan Communities? Newer standards reduced sulfated ash, phosphorous, sulfur, and, of about Industrialisation: Problems course, zinc. The reduction in zinc was to keep $$$ catalytic converters from being contaminated . Essay On The Of Cleopatra? which reduces or eliminates their prime function. The other reductions were to lengthen the lifetime for the Oxygen Sensors on about Reviewing Industrialisation: and Prospects, modern cars and bikes. Think about what I just said about oxygen sensors.

You DO know that your K1100, etc., has one? Yes, that means you do not want a high ZDDP level for K bike oils, but you need SOME on the earliest of the K bikes (1983-1986) due to their design, which was changed in a few areas, and not really advertised as such for puritan communities, lubrication purpose. Thus, use of ZDDP and ZDTP in K bike oils is a trade-off. About Reviewing Industrialisation: And Prospects? I suggest medium-high levels for a very early Classic K bike. Most SM oils still contain some ZDDP, but in Maximizing Return a less volatile formulation. This prolongs cat converter life, but still provides some anti-wear protection for Essay Reviewing India’s Problems and Prospects, engines with what is called high slide-to-roll ratios. So, just as a hint, if your SM oil does contain ZDDP, then it MIGHT be OK, contrary to even BMW recommendations . but you need to KNOW. Getting the information, which includes the ZDDP concentration, is very UNlikely to be from reading the container printing.

Oil drain intervals, etc: I have mentioned how NOT changing oils TOO often is better . well, some, in total disbelief, have asked for Essay on The and Death, proof of Snowbum's crazy ideas . About Reviewing Industrialisation: And Prospects? So, I say, briefly: Oils, if properly filtered, can IMPROVE in some characteristics, as SOME miles pile up, and changing oil too often is NOT a good idea. Essay About Swift? One idea you might ponder upon (a tiny bit) is whether or not the oil manufacturers add too much of some additive, because they know it will be degraded over time and miles. For just one of a number of articles on this subject: http://papers.sae.org/2007-01-4133/ Obviously, there are limits. Viscosity improvers may be depleted too soon, if you extend oil changes too far. Essay Reviewing Industrialisation:? That means that 20W50 oil for your Airhead might be something else besides a 20W50, after enough miles. If you had a motorcycle with the GEARBOX being lubricated by the engine oil, things can be much worse for the oil, as the characters gears WILL shear the longer-chain-molecules of the oil. This changes the viscosity, but also has not pleasant effects on other oil qualities.

Such bikes should have the Essay about India’s Industrialisation: Problems oil changed more often, see your owner's booklet. Luckily, BMW Airheads and Classic K bikes have separate engine and gearbox oils. However, SOME oil shearing does occur on these bikes. If you are going on longer rides, say over 40 miles in mild weather, and most of your riding is on on Investment, such longer rides, and seldom quite short ones, you can likely SAFELY EXTEND oil changes. In some instances even two years and 10,000 miles, but this would be about the Essay Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: LIMIT, under very best conditions, and would be for indian horse essay, a Motorcycle specific, High Quality, FULL synthetic oil. For a high quality part-synthetic, such as Golden Spectro 4 in 20W50 or 10W40 grades, I advise changing oil at not over Essay about Problems and Prospects 1 year and 5000 miles, but SOME riders might be able to go a bit longer and to indian horse essay, 8000. See article 51B. Multiweight (multi-grade) oils are now vastly better than old-time single weight oils, for about Reviewing Industrialisation:, a variety of reasons.

Multiweight oils are typically manufactured using pour-point depressants to THIN the base oil . Indian Essay? so it flows and pumps easily when cold. They also add viscosity improvers to thicken the oil at India’s Industrialisation: Problems higher temperatures. There are limits to A Modest, this sort of Essay Problems thing, and it is tricky to make a quality oil that covers the SAE range of Essay on Designer Babies: Shopping Perfect 10W50, and about India’s Problems even 10W40, for DINO oils . and easier to do this type of oil compounding with part-synthetics or full-synthetics . which, naturally, cost more. Even back as little as. 1990, to get a good 10W40 oil was difficult (the standard was 10W30 for cars); today we have SOME 10W50 oils that are fairly good. NOTE that turbocharged cars often have very strict requirements for oil change intervals, and type of oils. Think about this . ask yourself WHY!

Do you now see why the use of proper oil and change interval for an AIRHEAD, is important? Very Specific Oil Recommendations . COMMENTS . For AIRHEADS: General notes for of hamlet, the above section: Do NOT use cheap energy saving (so marked, and probably have starburst symbol) car oils in your motorcycle, particularly NOT in Airheads. You CAN use them in an emergency. ***Fully synthetic oils may not allow your Airhead lifters (cam followers) to properly rotate!! I have NO direct experience! But, this bit of esoterica is ONE of the about Reviewing three reasons I have NOT fully recommended full-synthetic oils for Essay about A Modest, Airheads, unless conditions warrant. I believe the oils I have recommended, above, are OK in about Reviewing and Prospects this regard. Classic K bike engine oil recommendations: This applies to Babies:, K1, K75, K100, K1100, K1200.

Use BMW premium oil filters in about India’s Industrialisation: and Prospects your Airhead. Use the two-part hinged filter if you can. The K bike can safely use all sorts of filters, I use BMW branded ones, you don't have to on the K bikes. The K bike filter is about by Jonathan Swift upside down, so there is no need for a drain-back valve in its filter. NOTE: I do NOT like ANY FRAM oil filters. YES, there IS a reason to Essay about Reviewing, also NOT use K N AIR filters! ZINC. On Investment Essay? ZDDP.

ZDTP; 'special' break-in oils, etc. expanded section. Just what really is ZDDP. Essay Reviewing And Prospects? ETC. Yes, it is true, that that ZDDP has excellent anti-scuff properties. It was considerably later than ZDDP's introduction that it came into wide use for anti-scuffing. In the 1960s, high performance flat-tappet camshafts were common. On Designer Babies: Shopping Perfect? It was found that a zinc level of 0.07% was very helpful. Back in the 1960s, all new camshafts were generally phosphate-coated, and together with the ZDDP in the engine oil, the brand-new camshafts and lifters were protected from premature wear, particularly during the critical break-in period. As engines became more powerful, and pressures on Essay Industrialisation:, parts increased, the level of zinc was increased to 0.09%. Oils changed too, becoming much more complex, and additives for Essay Babies: Shopping Perfect, friction modifications, antioxidants, detergents, etc., became common and Essay about Reviewing India’s Problems and Prospects more sophisticated.

Fuel economy began to puritan, be of some concern, and the zinc content was continually increased, with premium and super-premium oils commonly having as much as 0.2% . into Essay Problems the 1980s and 1990s. ZDDP or ZDTP is and Death also helpful for K bike engines, but particularly the very earliest ones, which had some places with different metallurgy, such as different cam characteristics, etc. FEW know about Essay about Reviewing India’s Problems and Prospects that, for the K100. ZDDP protects valve tips and pushrod tips. Maximizing Essay? Anyplace where galling and India’s Problems and Prospects scuffing problems can exist, ZDDP is usually quite beneficial.

However, excessive amounts of ZDDP are not a good thing for Essay A Modest Proposal by Jonathan, such as a water-cooled BMW K bike engine, and all the Airheads. It is not zinc, but phosphorus content that is the Essay about biggest item of Maximizing on Investment Essay importance in ZDDP, as far as wear goes. Essay Reviewing Industrialisation: And Prospects? The SAE has published a well-known chart (to for communities, engineers) on the effect of differing loads versus phosphorus levels (there are other charts, zinc, etc. . not important right here). Most of these types of charts (there are a lot of Industrialisation: and Prospects them) are presented as lifter loads, in pounds, versus ZDDP or Phosphorus, and the criteria is scuffing of puritan parts. What is interesting about the charts is that the curve is NOT linear, particularly so at LOWER concentrations of phosphorus. At lower loadings, only about India’s Problems, a concentration of maybe 0.03% is needed. At higher loadings. which occurs with high lift cams or high pressures or both (easier to of hamlet, think of high performance engines) . concentrations of 0.08% are needed. Essay Problems? What is needed means that MORE than that amount is required, due to burn-off of the additives, and for a safety factor.

Additives cost more than the oil stock does. You can read into THAT quite a lot! You can also think about the fact that it takes ZINC to establish the horse essay proper glass layer from the phosphorus (Phosphates), and ZINC is about Reviewing and Prospects bad for cat converters . Return? so oil mfrs make compromises, that are not necessarily good for your Airhead bike! ZDDP amounts have been reduced every now and then in car engine oils, now ZDDP is almost completely eliminated. That is because the additive contaminated the $$$ catalytic converters. At the about Reviewing Industrialisation: and Prospects early stages of reductions, phosphorus limits were lowered to 0.10%, and Maximizing zinc levels were dropped also . but quite long ago.

In 2004 came the so-called Tier 2 emissions standards, and OEM warranties changed to Essay about India’s Problems, 10 years or 100K miles, and phosphorus dropped again, to Essay on Designer Shopping for your Perfect Child, 0.08% . and zinc went down to 0.09%. The levels are much lower now . or, gone. There is no question that, for newer generation car engines, modern oils are all that is Reviewing and Prospects needed. These oils and the more precise automated machining and improved metallurgy, various alloys, improved cooling, etc., are a big part of why car engines can last 250K+ miles these days. It is also the Essay about A Modest Proposal Swift reason that high mileages can be obtained on the Classic K bike engines, which contain a lot of the Essay Reviewing India’s Problems newer technologies. Establishing protective layers or very hard layers, on cams and Essay followers, is dealt with by Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: many small changes in modern engines. The result allows break-in of the cam and followers and other parts, when brand-new, without needing ZDDP. For most Airhead owners, that is hardly the problem, since their engine's parts were long-ago broken in, hopefully on ZDDP oils. Essay? BUT, the Essay about India’s Problems and Prospects zinc (and phosphorus) are needed continuously in Airheads; and indian essay if the cam, etc. , was NOT heat treated well-enough, or perhaps not broken in on a proper oil . deterioration will begin, sometimes rapidly, when using the wrong oil. I have PERSONALLY witnessed oil failures in this area of the Airhead engines.

High valve spring loads compound problems. In a nutshell, EPA regulations, SAE and engine makers and car makers have all 'conspired' against the type of oil YOU NEED for your Airhead. Luckily such oils are still available. There is some information on oils, with the heading title of Reviewing Industrialisation: and Prospects Information on acceptable engine oils: in this linked article: http://bmwmotorcycletech.info/oilcansimple. I suggest you either stop here read just that section in Essay about A Modest Proposal Swift that article then resume here, or make a note to read it after finishing this article, below. Some, particularly in racing or maybe just overly nerdy street vehicle owners who own old vehicles, may use a dedicated break-in oil with a ZDDP additive; they may also have used a coating on the cam, etc., during assembly, for Essay about Industrialisation: and Prospects, extra protection at first start-up.

I have been asked about this subject, so thought I would put the asked-for information here. A non-detergent break-in oil could be a straight 30W or a 10W30, you could add a ZDDP additive. You do not have to do that. Do you need, or should you use, these above super-special oils: Probably NOT. 800 or 900 is not nearly enough. Transmission, driveshaft, rear drive oils: There is characters ONE BRONZE, not brass, shim in the rear drives in the Airheads. BMW specified a GL5 oil. BMW knew what is correct, and I agree.

GL5 NOT GL4! in ALL AIRHEADS. 800 cc total oil). If you have problems shifting, try it for about Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects, a thousand miles or so, see if it helps. If not, you have other problems. It may increase the puritan communities lifetime for about India’s Industrialisation:, the bearings, etc. ABSOLUTELY DO NOT use the horse Dow M product with synthetic oils, and Essay about Problems and Prospects DO NOT increase the dose! For the Maximizing rear drive, you can use about 2%. Here is a link to an article about oils, especially for motorcycles, and Essay Reviewing it has some different, and interesting, viewpoints. It's a bit long, but worth the Essay Babies: Shopping read, and you may well like the Essay about Reviewing Problems and Prospects method of presenting the information.

To all of you out there reading this hugely long article: It is all YOUR choice. I have only tried to inform. Believe what you want. You will do that anyway. 01/25/2007: slight revisions and A Modest editing for clarity. Remove poor formatting. 01/22/2008: edit slightly for Essay about Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: Problems, clarity. 07/12/2008: minor clarifications.

07/14/2008: more clarifications. 02/27/2009: Added addendum #1, make minor corrections otherwise, in line with changes by SAE, etc. 03/09/2009: Final release, includes some changes in line with the essay latest oils available. 11/16/2009: Add last section. 01/21/2010: minor updates and clarifications; add script to India’s Industrialisation: Problems, code. 04/21/2010: Add to section on ZDDP. 06/18/2010: Updated airhead oil recommendations to include caveat on Mobil 1 V-Twin oil; changed the Essay Babies: Shopping for your Child commentary slightly for the Spectro GS4 20W50. 09/01/2010: added hyperlink to SAE article.

11/12/2010: slight updating, mostly for clarity and poor grammar. 11/18/2010: add ppm of zinc for 4T oil. 02/24/2011: was 52C. 04/10/2011: Fix K N article internal hyperlink and clean up entire article SOME. 08/03/2012: Get much deeper into synthetics, etc. 10/12/2012: revise layout; add QR code; add language code; update Google Ad-Sense code; update article contents; language button removed later on. 11/05/2013: Clean up article. still is messy. clarify a few details. 03/03/2014: Revise article for about Problems, clarity; add Ph and Z info on puritan, Delo, etc. 07/16/2014: Minor additions, no revisions.

09/03/2014: Clarify some areas; do a further cleanup on 09/07/2014 finish on 09/24/2014. 12/26/2014: Add lengthy note near top about Reviewing India’s Problems modern car engines needed oils filters. Essay? Eliminate some font sizes, add minor notes corrections. 04/03/2015: Add simplified section. 05/01/2015: Update article.

03/10/2016: Update layout, eliminate duplications, update metacodes, format, clarify details. 09/25/2016: Update scripts, html, metacodes, slight changes in Industrialisation: layout/fonts/etc. Essay Life And Death? Improve details in section on transmission, rear drive, driveshaft oils. 05/31/2017: Reduce colors and fonts, minor text changes for clarity. Slight updates on zddp amounts per latest mfr information and testing.

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2012 in review Top 20 PR campaigns and Essay Reviewing Industrialisation: Problems, stunts of the year. For Your Perfect? 2012 was a good year to work in PR. The opportunities to piggyback on topical events, what with the Olympics, the Queen#8217;s Jubilee and Reviewing Problems, all the fun to be had at the expense of yet another ridiculous end of the world prophecy, were ample. On Investment? Brands and agencies around the about Reviewing India’s and Prospects world succeeded in capitalising and, of course, creating their own positive news, whilst some made huge errors in judgement, especially when it came to disasters and tragedies. Public relations is, for the public we practitioners attempt to relate to/with, almost scarily fleeting in its ability to essay really capture imaginations. Ask anybody that doesnt work in marketing and theyll struggle to about Industrialisation: Problems remember PR stunts, campaigns or aforementioned errors in judgement from the last week or two, let alone the last year. Fortunately though, for people that do study or work in publicrelationssocialmediadigitalmarketing for whom previous and Essay Proposal by Jonathan Swift, successful efforts can serve as case studies or inspiration, Ive taken the time to compile the best twenty public relations stunts and campaigns of the last twelve months, which just about happens to coincide with when I launched the Essay about Reviewing India’s Problems site. The examples are ordered by the number of times each post, all previously featured on PRexamples.com, has been visited, giving as accurate an estimation of popularity as any other metric. The link in each title takes you to each post, where youll be able to read more about it. Puritan Communities? Before I forget, if you, along with thousands of about and Prospects others, would like to communities receive the best PR stunts/campaigns of about Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: each week, directly to of hamlet your inbox, click here to Essay about Reviewing India’s Problems subscribe. Without further ado, I bring to you#8230; The Top Twenty PR (and marketing) campaigns and stunts of 2012, in reverse order#8230; 20.

Beer company leases an island most expensive PR stunt of the on Designer Babies: Shopping Child year? Castlemaine XXX leased an Essay Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: island off the coast of Australia and asked members of the puritan communities public to decide how it should be developed. Mental budget involved. 19. Coke Zero makes train commuters James Bond for a minute, post by Racepoint Groups Simon Hilliard (surprisingly attractive, athletic and obliging) members of the public were challenged to sprint their way through a busy station, packed with obstacles, in Essay India’s Industrialisation:, order to Essay on Designer Babies: Perfect Child win tickets to an exclusive Skyfall screening. About And Prospects? 18. Alton Towers 3D art lift stunt shocks shoppers a brilliant 3D art stunt gave the impression a lifts floor had collapsed, created to test peoples likely reaction to theme park Alton Towers new ride for Essay, 2012, Nemesis Sub-Terra. India’s Industrialisation: Problems And Prospects? 17. Simple PR wins: Muppets cupcakes sent to Stephen Fry to promote/celebrate (same thing) the launch of Swift The Muppets movie, character cupcakes were sent to prominent tweeters. Who then tweeted about them, thus letting millions of followers know about the film if they didnt already. PR doesnt need to be complicated.

16. Tweets written in the Sky by Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: Problems, Paddy Power stunt planes to support Team Europe at the Ryder Cup encouraging tweets sent to the Paddy Power Twitter profile to support Team Europe were written in Essay on Designer Babies: for your Child, 1,200ft tall letters by stunt planes. Although Paddy Power werent official sponsors, they received a great deal of coverage and even received a couple of Guinness World Records in the process. Essay About Reviewing Problems? 15. ?1k prize Sleeping Beauty stunt slammed a controversial campaign to promote the DVD release of arthouse film Sleeping Beauty, about a student who gets paid to lie unconscious while men manhandle her. Characters? Students were asked to submit a 2 minute video as to why they should sleep in a big bed in public (Waterloo Station, London) and be paid ?1,000 for doing so. 14. Fit as a Butchers Daughter racy campaign for Essay Reviewing, Rustlers , post by Essay Shopping for your, Leeds Met PR student Faye Oakey a social media campaign for every sun-averse web developers favourite brand of microwave burger caused a few raised eyebrows, adopting the sex sells attitude with a risque character to target 16-24 year old blokes. 13. Nandos delivered an Essay about and Prospects ultimatum in funny parody response Nandos were essentially, through ripping off a funny ad by insurance company Santam, blackmailed into donating free food to a childrens home.

All ended well and everybody came out Life gleaming. 12. Best anti-smoking campaign ever? this hidden camera charity campaign, where children asked smokers for help lighting their cigarettes, was as successful in increasing calls from Thai people hoping to quit smoking as it was garnering views and plaudits. About Industrialisation: And Prospects? 11. Oddbins anti-LOCOG stunt rewards Pepsi-drinking, Nike-wearing, Mastercard-using customers , post by Leeds Met PR student Faye Oakey a humorous quick and dirty PR protest against Olympic body LOCOGs Nazi-like enforcement of what brands could and couldnt say about characters, London 2012. Still with me? I don#8217;t know how to split into about India’s Industrialisation: Problems, pages, otherwise I would.

Here#8217;s the top ten, with a bit more information about each example: What? Less a PR campaign or stunt and more a demonstration of what keeping on top of social media can do for horse, a brand, this example relates to a motoring journalist who tweeted he didnt have a car and a follow-up from Skodas press office, who lent him a car and even threw in a free lunch. My thoughts: Ahhh, bribery. The fact this and the original blog on Car Dealer magazines site are so popular shows that people like a brand that goes over and above. James Baggott, the journalist in question, tweeted, got an unexpected response and for next to Reviewing Industrialisation: and Prospects no outlay, Skoda comes out of it looking very good indeed.

Set alerts and keep an eye on Twitter searches, people, all it takes is one tiny opportunity and you can capitalise. What? Billboards up and down the country featuring Gio, GoCompares operatic frontman, were being threateningly defaced. Characters Of Hamlet? Or were they? As it turns out, the about light-hearted jibes were part of the brands plan to kill the Essay on The Life and Death of Cleopatra character off, squeezing news coverage out of Essay Problems and Prospects their above the line spend. My thoughts: When your competitors mascots are inexplicably-popular talking Russian meerkats, you have to admire a brand who challenges that head-on. By piggybacking on the fact their ads were named Marketings most irritating ads of 2009 and Maximizing on Investment Essay, 2010, GoCompare showed they werent afraid to change and managed to show a sense of humour, whilst knowingly encouraging people to about Reviewing India’s question whether the billboard campaign was real or not, leading to members of the public sharing the ad online. What? To celebrate the 40 th year of McDonalds in Germany, members of the public were encouraged to create their very own burger. The winning burger would go on to be sold in the restaurant. The campaign roundup by agency Razorfish highlights some brilliant results, even stating that never before had a campaign brought in Essay Babies: Perfect Child, so many additional customers.

My thoughts: When Im asked how PR and particularly online campaigns can benefit sales, this is about Reviewing India’s Problems and Prospects, one I point to. It was well-executed and in the absence of many other full campaign overviews, gives me hope that digital work is being done out Proposal Swift there that isnt simply to see how many likes on Facebook a brand can get. What? To encourage commuters to avoid busy roads during the Essay Problems Olympics, TfL had the British volleyball team play in public outside of Essay Babies: Perfect Child notable London landmarks, wearing, well, not very much. My thoughts: You cant go far wrong with barely-dressed athletes in public, really. I saw lots of press coverage for Essay Reviewing India’s Problems and Prospects, it, all mentioning the GetAheadoftheGames.com site, which featured a tool to help commuters better plan journeys, so in that sense, Im sure it was successful. The post still gets quite a lot of traffic now, presumably not from Essay by Jonathan Swift, visitors intent on appreciating the PR benefits of the stunt. What?

To celebrate the Queens Jubilee, Marmite had a limited number of Maamite jars made, to be sold in Sainsburys. My thoughts: Quintessentially British (although Wikipedia tells me what would become Marmite was invented by a German), DDB piggybacked the news agenda brilliantly, creating something that wasnt too in-your-face and about Reviewing Problems, could actually pass for communities, a commemorative product. What? Students were asked to apply for a 6 week internship, where a guy and a girl would get to work and Essay about India’s Problems, party in the Jack Wills house, travel to America to Maximizing on Investment Essay attend a major Jack Wills event and get ?10,000 in university tuition fees paid for them. My thoughts: what student wouldnt want ?10,000 of the Industrialisation: Problems tuition fees paid for them? A nice opportunity and one that seemingly caught the attention of students Jack Wills target market judging by the volume of traffic this post still receives.

What? To stop people stealing your ice cream, Ben and about A Modest Proposal, Jerrys created a combination lock for tubs that the public could actually buy. My thoughts: Funny and Essay about Problems and Prospects, popular, this is a stunt that probably cost a little to set in motion, with the value seemingly in reinforcing the quality and desirability of the product. I cant imagine they sold many of the locks, but the press ate this stunt up. What? Dozens of humorous reviews started popping up on the Veet for Men Amazon product page, the majority of Essay on The which being cautionary tales for men intent on Veeting their nether-regions. Using a links: URL Google search, I can see that thousands of websites and Essay Reviewing Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects, forums, including media outlets, have both written about the product page and linked to it. My thoughts: Im convinced the PR/marketing team set the ball (pun intended) rolling before, as they would have hoped, members of the public got involved in a me too! I can be funny and tell knob gags! way. Im even more convinced now, months later.

In the link to Essay about A Modest Swift the example, youll find a quick breakdown of the regularity of reviews, before somebody started posting funny ones. I just cant believe a deluge of 5 star reviews, links and conversation around a product (which may or may not have resulted in increased sales after all, getting buyers there is half the battle) was ever the by-product of the publics wish to Essay about Problems and Prospects be funny. Nobody cares about brands enough. What? Journalists were sent a cash bribe and a personalised letter, thanking them in advance for their 5 out of 4 star review My thoughts: Whether the stunt had an effect on reviews and ultimately sales is of hamlet, unknown, but it was certainly a big hit on Twitter, where film reviewers were quick to tweet pictures of their letters and cash piles. This is an example of Reviewing a relevant PR idea executed very well; with just the right amount of humour (you are free to say whatever you wish. Just as John Lennon was free to refuse my father an autograph in 1980). Still havent seen the film. What? To launch TV channel TNT in indian horse essay, Belgium, members of the public were invited to about press a button, which, unbeknownst to them, set of a chaotic and Shopping, entertaining chain reaction#8230; My thoughts: I recently gave a talk to students in Leeds, where I classified good PR into three categories; campaigns that wow, campaigns that deliver [results/to goals] and campaigns that do both.

This definitely fits into the first category and Industrialisation:, whilst people Ive spoken to on The and Death about it have been quick to recall the stunt, very few could remember the company or the reason behind it. Whether it had more long-term impact in and Prospects, Belgium is anybodys guess. Essay On The? Sorry, there are no related posts. Have you read our most recent posts?

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essays of nature A subtle chain of countless rings. The next unto the farthest brings; The eye reads omens where it goes, And speaks all languages the rose; And, striving to be man, the worm. Mounts through all the spires of form. Introduction Our age is retrospective.

It builds the sepulchres of the fathers. It writes biographies, histories, and criticism. The foregoing generations beheld God and nature face to face; we, through their eyes. Why should not we also enjoy an original relation to the universe? Why should not we have a poetry and philosophy of insight and not of tradition, and Essay about Reviewing India’s Problems a religion by revelation to us, and not the history of theirs?

Embosomed for a season in nature, whose floods of life stream around and characters through us, and invite us by about India’s Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects, the powers they supply, to action proportioned to nature, why should we grope among the dry bones of the past, or put the living generation into masquerade out of its faded wardrobe? The sun shines to-day also. There is more wool and flax in the fields. There are new lands, new men, new thoughts. Let us demand our own works and laws and worship. Undoubtedly we have no questions to ask which are unanswerable. We must trust the perfection of the creation so far, as to believe that whatever curiosity the on The and Death, order of things has awakened in our minds, the Essay about India’s Problems and Prospects, order of things can satisfy. Every man's condition is a solution in hieroglyphic to those inquiries he would put. He acts it as life, before he apprehends it as truth. Essay A Modest Proposal By Jonathan! In like manner, nature is already, in its forms and tendencies, describing its own design.

Let us interrogate the great apparition, that shines so peacefully around us. Let us inquire, to what end is nature? All science has one aim, namely, to find a theory of nature. We have theories of races and of functions, but scarcely yet a remote approach to an idea of about Problems and Prospects, creation. Maximizing Essay! We are now so far from the Essay about Reviewing Industrialisation: Problems, road to truth, that religious teachers dispute and hate each other, and speculative men are esteemed unsound and frivolous. But to puritan a sound judgment, the most abstract truth is the most practical. Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. Its test is, that it will explain all phenomena. Now many are thought not only Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: unexplained but inexplicable; as language, sleep, madness, dreams, beasts, sex. Philosophically considered, the universe is indian essay, composed of Nature and the Soul.

Strictly speaking, therefore, all that is separate from us, all which Philosophy distinguishes as the NOT ME, that is, both nature and art, all other men andmy own body, must be ranked under this name, NATURE. In enumerating the values of nature and casting up their sum, I shall use the word in both senses; -- in its common and in its philosophical import. Essay India’s Problems! In inquiries so general as our present one, the inaccuracy is Babies: Shopping for your Perfect Child, not material; no confusion of thought will occur. Industrialisation: And Prospects! Nature, in the common sense, refers to essences unchanged by man; space, the air, the river, the leaf. Of Hamlet! Art is applied to the mixture of his will with the same things, as in a house, a canal, a statue, a picture. But his operations taken together are so insignificant, a little chipping, baking, patching, and washing, that in an impression so grand as that of the world on Reviewing India’s Industrialisation:, the human mind, they do not vary the result. Chapter I NATURE To go into solitude, a man needs to retire as much from his chamber as from society.

I am not solitary whilst I read and write, though nobody is with me. But if a man would be alone, let him look at the stars. The rays that come from those heavenly worlds, will separate between him and and Death what he touches. One might think the atmosphere was made transparent with this design, to give man, in the heavenly bodies, the perpetual presence of the about Industrialisation: and Prospects, sublime. Seen in the streets of cities, how great they are! If the stars should appear one night in a thousand years, how would men believe and adore; and preserve for many generations the Maximizing on Investment Essay, remembrance of the city of God which had been shown!

But every night come out these envoys of beauty, and light the universe with their admonishing smile. The stars awaken a certain reverence, because though always present, they are inaccessible; but all natural objects make a kindred impression, when the mind is open to their influence. Nature never wears a mean appearance. Neither does the wisest man extort her secret, and Essay about Reviewing lose his curiosity by by Jonathan, finding out all her perfection. Nature never became a toy to a wise spirit. The flowers, the animals, the mountains, reflected the wisdom of his best hour, as much as they had delighted the simplicity of his childhood.

When we speak of nature in this manner, we have a distinct but most poetical sense in the mind. We mean the integrity of impression made by manifold natural objects. Essay About India’s Problems! It is this which distinguishes the stick of Maximizing on Investment, timber of the wood-cutter, from the tree of the poet. The charming landscape which I saw this morning, is indubitably made up of some twenty or thirty farms. Miller owns this field, Locke that, and Manning the woodland beyond. But none of them owns the Essay India’s, landscape.

There is a property in the horizon which no man has but he whose eye can integrate all the parts, that is, the poet. This is the best part of these men's farms, yet to indian horse this their warranty-deeds give no title. To speak truly, few adult persons can see nature. Most persons do not see the sun. At least they have a very superficial seeing. The sun illuminates only the Essay Reviewing Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects, eye of the horse essay, man, but shines into the eye and the heart of the child. The lover of nature is about Problems and Prospects, he whose inward and outward senses are still truly adjusted to each other; who has retained the spirit of infancy even into the era of A Modest Proposal by Jonathan, manhood. His intercourse with heaven and earth, becomes part of his daily food. In the presence of nature, a wild delight runs through the man, in spite of real sorrows. Nature says, -- he is my creature, and maugre all his impertinent griefs, he shall be glad with me. Not the sun or the summer alone, but every hour and season yields its tribute of delight; for every hour and change corresponds to and authorizes a different state of the mind, from breathless noon to grimmest midnight.

Nature is a setting that fits equally well a comic or a mourning piece. In good health, the air is a cordial of incredible virtue. About Industrialisation: Problems And Prospects! Crossing a bare common, in snow puddles, at twilight, under a clouded sky, without having in my thoughts any occurrence of special good fortune, I have enjoyed a perfect exhilaration. Essay For Your! I am glad to the brink of fear. In the woods too, a man casts off his years, as the snake his slough, and at about India’s and Prospects, what period soever of life, is always a child. In the woods, is communities, perpetual youth. Within these plantations of God, a decorum and Essay Reviewing India’s and Prospects sanctity reign, a perennial festival is dressed, and the guest sees not how he should tire of them in a thousand years.

In the woods, we return to reason and faith. There I feel that nothing can befall me in Proposal Swift life, -- no disgrace, no calamity, (leaving me my eyes,) which nature cannot repair. Standing on the bare ground, -- my head bathed by the blithe air, and uplifted into infinite space, -- all mean egotism vanishes. I become a transparent eye-ball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the Reviewing India’s Industrialisation:, Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or particle of God. The name of the nearest friend sounds then foreign and accidental: to be brothers, to be acquaintances, -- master or servant, is then a trifle and a disturbance. I am the lover of uncontained and immortal beauty. In the wilderness, I find something more dear and connate than in streets or villages. Essay On The And Death Of Cleopatra! In the tranquil landscape, and especially in the distant line of the horizon, man beholds somewhat as beautiful as his own nature.

The greatest delight which the fields and woods minister, is the suggestion of an occult relation between man and the vegetable. I am not alone and unacknowledged. Reviewing And Prospects! They nod to me, and I to them. The waving of the boughs in the storm, is new to me and old. It takes me by surprise, and yet is Maximizing on Investment Essay, not unknown. Its effect is like that of a higher thought or a better emotion coming over me, when I deemed I was thinking justly or doing right. Yet it is certain that the power to produce this delight, does not reside in nature, but in man, or in a harmony of both. It is Essay about Reviewing India’s Problems, necessary to use these pleasures with great temperance. For, nature is not always tricked in holiday attire, but the same scene which yesterday breathed perfume and Essay on The and Death glittered as for the frolic of the nymphs, is overspread with melancholy today. About And Prospects! Nature always wears the colors of the spirit. To a man laboring under calamity, the heat of his own fire hath sadness in Essay Life it.

Then, there is a kind of contempt of the landscape felt by and Prospects, him who has just lost by Maximizing Return, death a dear friend. The sky is less grand as it shuts down over Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects, less worth in indian horse the population. Chapter II COMMODITY Whoever considers the final cause of the world, will discern a multitude of usesthat result. They all admit of being thrown into Industrialisation: and Prospects one of the following classes; Commodity; Beauty; Language; and Discipline. Under the general name of Commodity, I rank all those advantages which our senses owe to nature. This, of course, is a benefit which is temporary and mediate, not ultimate, like its service to the soul. Yet although low, it is perfect in its kind, and is the Essay on The Life, only use of nature which all men apprehend. The misery of man appears like childish petulance, when we explore the steady and prodigal provision that has been made for his support and delight on this green ball which floats him through the heavens. What angels invented these splendid ornaments, these rich conveniences, this ocean of air above, this ocean of water beneath, this firmament of earth between? this zodiac of lights, this tent of Essay about Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: Problems, dropping clouds, this striped coat of climates, this fourfold year? Beasts, fire, water, stones, and corn serve him.

The field is at Essay on Designer for your Perfect Child, once his floor, his work-yard, his play-ground, his garden, and his bed. More servants wait on man. Than he 'll take notice of. ------ Nature, in its ministry to man, is not only the material, but is also the Essay about India’s, process and Essay on The of Cleopatra the result. About Industrialisation: Problems And Prospects! All the parts incessantly work into each other's hands for the profit of man. The wind sows the seed; the about by Jonathan Swift, sun evaporates the sea; the wind blows the vapor to the field; the ice, on the other side of the planet, condenses rain on Reviewing India’s Problems, this; the rain feeds the plant; the plant feeds the animal; and thus the endless circulations of the divine charity nourish man.

The useful arts are reproductions or new combinations by the wit of man, of the same natural benefactors. He no longer waits for favoring gales, but by means of steam, he realizes the indian essay, fable of Aeolus's bag, and carries the two and thirty winds in the boiler of his boat. To diminish friction, he paves the road with iron bars, and, mounting a coach with a ship-load of men, animals, and merchandise behind him, he darts through the country, from town to town, like an eagle or a swallow through the air. By the aggregate of these aids, how is the face of the world changed, from the era of Noah to about India’s Industrialisation: and Prospects that of Napoleon! The private poor man hath cities, ships, canals, bridges, built for him. He goes to the post-office, and the human race run on his errands; to the book-shop, and the human race read and write of all that happens, for him; to the court-house, and nations repair his wrongs. He sets his house upon the road, and the human race go forth every morning, and shovel out the snow, and cut a path for him. But there is no need of specifying particulars in this class of uses. The catalogue is endless, and Return on Investment Essay the examples so obvious, that I shall leave them to the reader's reflection, with the Essay about India’s and Prospects, general remark, that this mercenary benefit is puritan communities, one which has respect to a farther good. A man is fed, not that he may be fed, but that he may work.

Chapter III BEAUTY A nobler want of man is served by nature, namely, the love of Beauty. The ancient Greeks called the world , beauty. Such is the constitution of all things, or such the plastic power of the human eye, that the primary forms, as the sky, the mountain, the tree, the animal, give us a delight in and for themselves; a pleasure arising from Essay Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: outline, color, motion, and grouping. This seems partly owing to the eye itself. The eye is the best of artists. Essay For Your! By the mutual action of its structure and of the Problems, laws of light, perspective is produced, which integrates every mass of objects, of what character soever, into a well colored and shaded globe, so that where the particular objects are mean and unaffecting, the landscape which they compose, is on The, round and Essay India’s Problems symmetrical. And as the eye is the best composer, so light is the first of painters. There is no object so foul that intense light will not make beautiful.

And the stimulus it affords to the sense, and a sort of infinitude which it hath, like space and time, make all matter gay. Even the corpse has its own beauty. But besides this general grace diffused over nature, almost all the individual forms are agreeable to the eye, as is proved by our endless imitations of some of them, as the acorn, the grape, the pine-cone, the wheat-ear, the egg, the Life, wings and forms of most birds, the lion's claw, the serpent, the butterfly, sea-shells, flames, clouds, buds, leaves, and the forms of many trees, as the palm. For better consideration, we may distribute the aspects of Beauty in Essay Reviewing India’s Problems a threefold manner. 1. First, the simple perception of natural forms is a delight. The influence of the forms and actions in nature, is characters of hamlet, so needful to man, that, in its lowest functions, it seems to lie on the confines of commodity and beauty. To the body and mind which have been cramped by noxious work or company, nature is medicinal and restores their tone. The tradesman, the attorney comes out of the Essay Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects, din and craft of the street, and sees the sky and the woods, and is a man again. In their eternal calm, he finds himself.

The health of the eye seems to demand a horizon. We are never tired, so long as we can see far enough. But in other hours, Nature satisfies by its loveliness, and without any mixture of corporeal benefit. I see the indian, spectacle of morning from the hill-top over against my house, from day-break to sun-rise, with emotions which an angel might share. The long slender bars of cloud float like fishes in the sea of Industrialisation:, crimson light. From the earth, as a shore, I look out into that silent sea.

I seem to partake its rapid transformations: the active enchantment reaches my dust, and I dilate and conspire with the morning wind. How does Nature deify us with a few and cheap elements! Give me health and a day, and I will make the pomp of emperors ridiculous. The dawn is my Assyria; the sun-set and moon-rise my Paphos, and unimaginable realms of faerie; broad noon shall be my England of the senses and the understanding; the night shall be my Germany of mystic philosophy and dreams. Not less excellent, except for our less susceptibility in the afternoon, was the charm, last evening, of a January sunset. The western clouds divided and about A Modest Swift subdivided themselves into pink flakes modulated with tints of unspeakable softness; and about and Prospects the air had so much life and sweetness, that it was a pain to come within doors. What was it that nature would say?

Was there no meaning in the live repose of the valley behind the mill, and which Homer or Shakspeare could not reform for me in words? The leafless trees become spires of Essay A Modest by Jonathan, flame in the sunset, with the blue east for Essay about Reviewing Industrialisation: Problems, their back-ground, and the stars of the dead calices of flowers, and every withered stem and stubble rimed with frost, contribute something to the mute music. The inhabitants of cities suppose that the on The Life of Cleopatra, country landscape is Essay about India’s Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects, pleasant only half the year. I please myself with the graces of the winter scenery, and believe that we are as much touched by indian horse, it as by the genial influences of summer. To the attentive eye, each moment of the year has its own beauty, and in the same field, it beholds, every hour, a picture which was never seen before, and which shall never be seen again. The heavens change every moment, and reflect their glory or gloom on the plains beneath. The state of the crop in the surrounding farms alters the expression of the earth from week to week. The succession of Essay Reviewing India’s Problems and Prospects, native plants in the pastures and roadsides, which makes the puritan communities, silent clock by which time tells the Essay Problems and Prospects, summer hours, will make even the divisions of the day sensible to characters a keen observer. The tribes of birds and insects, like the plants punctual to their time, follow each other, and the year has room for all.

By water-courses, the variety is Essay India’s and Prospects, greater. In July, the Maximizing Return on Investment Essay, blue pontederia or pickerel-weed blooms in large beds in the shallow parts of our pleasant river, and swarms with yellow butterflies in continual motion. Art cannot rival this pomp of purple and gold. Essay Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: Problems And Prospects! Indeed the river is a perpetual gala, and boasts each month a new ornament. But this beauty of Nature which is seen and felt as beauty, is the least part.

The shows of Essay A Modest Proposal Swift, day, the dewy morning, the Essay India’s Problems, rainbow, mountains, orchards in blossom, stars, moonlight, shadows in characters of hamlet still water, and the like, if too eagerly hunted, become shows merely, and mock us with their unreality. Go out of the Essay Reviewing Problems, house to see the moon, and 't is mere tinsel; it will not please as when its light shines upon your necessary journey. The beauty that shimmers in the yellow afternoons of October, who ever could clutch it? Go forth to find it, and it is puritan communities, gone: 't is Essay about Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: and Prospects, only a mirage as you look from the on Designer for your Perfect Child, windows of diligence. 2. The presence of a higher, namely, of the spiritual element is essential to its perfection. The high and divine beauty which can be loved without effeminacy, is that which is found in combination with the human will. Beauty is the Reviewing Industrialisation: Problems, mark God sets upon virtue. Every natural action is Maximizing Return, graceful. Every heroic act is also decent, and causes the place and the bystanders to shine. We are taught by great actions that the Essay about Problems, universe is the property of every individual in it.

Every rational creature has all nature for his dowry and estate. It is his, if he will. He may divest himself of it; he may creep into a corner, and abdicate his kingdom, as most men do, but he is entitled to the world by his constitution. In proportion to Babies: for your the energy of his thought and Essay about India’s Industrialisation: and Prospects will, he takes up the world into himself. All those things for which men plough, build, or sail, obey virtue; said Sallust. The winds and waves, said Gibbon, are always on the side of the ablest navigators. So are the sun and moon and all the stars of heaven.

When a noble act is Maximizing on Investment Essay, done, -- perchance in a scene of great natural beauty; when Leonidas and Industrialisation: Problems his three hundred martyrs consume one day in dying, and Life and Death the sun and moon come each and look at them once in the steep defile of Essay Reviewing Problems, Thermopylae; when Arnold Winkelried, in the high Alps, under the characters of hamlet, shadow of the avalanche, gathers in about Reviewing Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects his side a sheaf of Austrian spears to break the line for his comrades; are not these heroes entitled to add the beauty of the scene to the beauty of the deed? When the bark of Columbus nears the shore of characters of hamlet, America; -- before it, the Essay about Reviewing India’s Problems, beach lined with savages, fleeing out of all their huts of cane; the sea behind; and the purple mountains of the Indian Archipelago around, can we separate the man from the living picture? Does not the New World clothe his form with her palm-groves and savannahs as fit drapery? Ever does natural beauty steal in like air, and envelope great actions. When Sir Harry Vane was dragged up the Tower-hill, sitting on a sled, to suffer death, as the champion of the English laws, one of the multitude cried out to him, You never sate on so glorious a seat. Charles II., to intimidate the citizens of London, caused the Essay Babies: Shopping for your, patriot Lord Russel to be drawn in an open coach, through the principal streets of the city, on about Reviewing Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects, his way to the scaffold. But, his biographer says, the multitude imagined they saw liberty and virtue sitting by his side. In private places, among sordid objects, an act of truth or heroism seems at once to draw to itself the sky as its temple, the sun as its candle.

Nature stretcheth out her arms to embrace man, only let his thoughts be of equal greatness. Willingly does she follow his steps with the rose and the violet, and bend her lines of grandeur and grace to the decoration of her darling child. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope, and Essay about Proposal by Jonathan Swift the frame will suit the Essay, picture. A virtuous man is in unison with her works, and makes the central figure of the visible sphere. Homer, Pindar, Socrates, Phocion, associate themselves fitly in our memory with the geography and climate of Greece. The visible heavens and earth sympathize with Jesus. And in common life, whosoever has seen a person of powerful character and happy genius, will have remarked how easily he took all things along with him, -- the Essay Life, persons, the about India’s Industrialisation: and Prospects, opinions, and Essay on Designer Perfect the day, and nature became ancillary to a man. 3. There is still another aspect under which the beauty of the world may be viewed, namely, as it become s an object of the intellect.

Beside the relation of things to virtue, they have a relation to thought. The intellect searches out the absolute order of things as they stand in the mind of God, and without the colors of affection. The intellectual and the active powers seem to succeed each other, and the exclusive activity of the one, generates the exclusive activity of the other. There is something unfriendly in each to the other, but they are like the alternate periods of feeding and Essay about Reviewing Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects working in animals; each prepares and will be followed by the other. Therefore does beauty, which, in relation to actions, as we have seen, comes unsought, and comes because it is unsought, remain for and Death, the apprehension and pursuit of the intellect; and then again, in its turn, of the active power. Nothing divine dies. Essay Reviewing Industrialisation: And Prospects! All good is of hamlet, eternally reproductive. The beauty of nature reforms itself in the mind, and Essay about not for barren contemplation, but for new creation. All men are in some degree impressed by puritan communities, the face of the world; some men even to delight. This love of beauty is Taste.

Others have the same love in such excess, that, not content with admiring, they seek to embody it in about Reviewing Industrialisation: new forms. The creation of Essay on Designer, beauty is Art. The production of a work of Essay about Reviewing Problems, art throws a light upon communities the mystery of Essay Reviewing India’s, humanity. A work of art is an abstract or epitome of the world. It is the result or expression of nature, in miniature.

For, although the works of nature are innumerable and all different, the result or the expression of them all is similar and single. Nature is Maximizing on Investment, a sea of forms radically alike and even unique. A leaf, a sun-beam, a landscape, the ocean, make an analogous impression on India’s Problems, the mind. What is common to them all, -- that perfectness and harmony, is beauty. The standard of horse, beauty is the entire circuit of natural forms, -- the totality of nature; which the Italians expressed by defining beauty il piu nell' uno.

Nothing is quite beautiful alone: nothing but is beautiful in the whole. A single object is only so far beautiful as it suggests this universal grace. The poet, the painter, the sculptor, the musician, the architect, seek each to concentrate this radiance of the world on one point, and each in his several work to satisfy the love of beauty which stimulates him to about Reviewing Problems and Prospects produce. Thus is Art, a nature passed through the puritan communities, alembic of man. Thus in art, does nature work through the will of a man filled with the beauty of her first works. The world thus exists to the soul to satisfy the desire of beauty. This element I call an ultimate end. No reason can be asked or given why the soul seeks beauty.

Beauty, in its largest and Essay about Industrialisation: profoundest sense, is one expression for the universe. God is the all-fair. Truth, and on Designer Child goodness, and beauty, are but different faces of the same All. Essay India’s Industrialisation: Problems And Prospects! But beauty in on The nature is Essay, not ultimate. It is the herald of inward and eternal beauty, and is not alone a solid and satisfactory good. It must stand as a part, and not as yet the Essay about A Modest Proposal by Jonathan Swift, last or highest expression of the final cause of Nature. Chapter IV LANGUAGE Language is a third use which Nature subserves to man. Nature is the vehble, and threefold degree. 1. Words are signs of natural facts.

2. Particular natural facts are symbols of particular spiritual facts. 3. Nature is the about Reviewing Problems, symbol of spirit. 1. Words are signs of natural facts. The use of natural history is to give us aid in supernatural history: the use of the outer creation, to give us language for the beings and changes of the inward creation. Every word which is used to express a moral or intellectual fact, if traced to its root, is found to be borrowed from some material appearance. Right means straight ; wrong means twisted . Spirit primarily means wind ; transgression , the crossing of a line ; supercilious , the raising of the Return on Investment Essay, eyebrow . We say the heart to express emotion, the head to denote thought; and thought and emotion a re words borrowed from sensible things, and now appropriated to spiritual nature. Industrialisation: Problems And Prospects! Most of the process by which this transformation is made, is hidden from us in the remote time when language was framed; but the same tendency may be daily observed in indian horse essay children.

Children and savages use only nouns or names of things, which they convert into verbs, and apply to analogous mental acts. 2. But this origin of all words that convey a spiritual import, -- so conspicuous a fact in the history of language, -- is Essay about Reviewing India’s and Prospects, our least debt to nature. It is not words only that are emblematic; it is things which are emblematic. Every natural fact is a symbol of some spiritual fact. Every appearance in nature corresponds to some state of the mind, and that state of the mind can only communities be described by presenting that natural appearance as its picture. An enraged man is Essay about Reviewing India’s Industrialisation:, a lion, a cunning man is a fox, a firm man is of hamlet, a rock, a learned man is a torch. A lamb is innocence; a snake is subtle spite; flowers express to Industrialisation: and Prospects us the delicate affections. Light and darkness are our familiar expression for knowledge and ignorance; and heat for love.

Visible distance behind and before us, is of hamlet, respectively our image of memory and hope. Who looks upon about India’s Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects a river in a meditative hour, and is not reminded of the flux of all things? Throw a stone into the stream, and the circles that propagate themselves are the beautiful type of all influence. Man is conscious of a universal soul within or behind his individual life, wherein, as in a firmament, the natures of Justice, Truth, Love, Freedom, arise and shine. This universal soul, he calls Reason: it is not mine, or thine, or his, but we are its; we are its property and men. Essay On The And Death Of Cleopatra! And the blue sky in which the private earth is buried, the sky with its eternal calm, and full of everlasting orbs, is the type of Reason. That which, intellectually considered, we call Reason, considered in relation to nature, we call Spirit. Spirit is the Creator. Spirit hath life in itself. And man in all ages and countries, embodies it in his language, as the FATHER.

It is easily seen that there is nothing lucky or capricious in these analogies, but that they are constant, and pervade nature. These are not the dreams of a few poets, here and Essay about Reviewing India’s and Prospects there, but man is an analogist, and studies relations in all objects. He is placed in the centre of beings, and a ray of relation passes from every other being to him. And neither can man be understood without these objects, nor these objects without man. Essay On The Life And Death Of Cleopatra! All the facts in natural history taken by themselves, have no value, but are barren, like a single sex. But marry it to human history, and it is full of life. Whole Floras, all Linnaeus' and Buffon's volumes, are dry catalogues of facts; but the Essay India’s and Prospects, most trivial of these facts, the habit of a plant, the on The, organs, or work, or noise of an insect, applied to about and Prospects the illustration of a fact in intellectual philosophy, or, in any way associated to human nature, affects us in the most lively and agreeable manner. Indian Horse Essay! The seed of a plant, -- to what affecting analogies in the nature of man, is that little fruit made use of, in all discourse, up to the voice of Paul, who calls the human corpse a seed, -- It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body.

The motion of the earth round its axis, and round the sun, makes the day, and the year. About Problems! These are certain amounts of on Investment Essay, brute light and heat. But is there no intent of an analogy between man's life and the seasons? And do the Essay and Prospects, seasons gain no grandeur or pathos from that analogy? The instincts of the ant are very unimportant, considered as the ant's; but the moment a ray of relation is seen to puritan extend from it to man, and the little drudge is seen to be a monitor, a little body with a mighty heart, then all its habits, even that said to be recently observed, that it never sleeps, become sublime. Because of this radical correspondence between visible things and human thoughts, savages, who have only what is necessary, converse in figures. As we go back in history, language becomes more picturesque, until its infancy, when it is all poetry; or all spiritual facts are represented by natural symbols. The same symbols are found to make the original elements of all languages. It has moreover been observed, that the idioms of all languages approach each other in passages of the Essay India’s Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects, greatest eloquence and A Modest Proposal Swift power. And as this is the India’s Problems and Prospects, first language, so is it the last.

This immediate dependence of language upon nature, this conversion of an outward phenomenon into a type of somewhat in human life, never loses its power to affect us. It is indian, this which gives that piquancy to the conversation of a strong-natured farmer or back-woodsman, which all men relish. A man's power to connect his thought with its proper symbol, and so to utter it, depends on the simplicity of his character, that is, upon his love of truth, and his desire to communicate it without loss. The corruption of man is followed by the corruption of language. When simplicity of character and the sovereignty of Essay about Reviewing Problems, ideas is broken up by the prevalence of secondary desires, the desire of riches, of pleasure, of power, and of praise, -- and duplicity and falsehood take place of simplicity and truth, the power over nature as an interpreter of the will, is in a degree lost; new imagery ceases to be created, and on Designer Shopping for your Perfect old words are perverted to stand for things which are not; a paper currency is employed, when there is no bullion in the vaults. In due time, the fraud is manifest, and words lose all power to about stimulate the understanding or the affections. Hundreds of writers may be found in every long-civilized nation, who for a short time believe, and make others believe, that they see and utter truths, who do not of themselves clothe one thought in its natural garment, but who feed unconsciously on the language created by the primary writers of the characters of hamlet, country, those, namely, who hold primarily on about Reviewing Industrialisation: and Prospects, nature. But wise men pierce this rotten diction and fasten words again to visible things; so that picturesque language is at once a commanding certificate that he who employs it, is a man in alliance with truth and God. The moment our discourse rises above the of hamlet, ground line of about Problems, familiar facts, and is inflamed with passion or exalted by thought, it clothes itself in images. Characters Of Hamlet! A man conversing in Reviewing India’s earnest, if he watch his intellectual processes, will find that a material image, more or less luminous, arises in his mind, cotemporaneous with every thought, which furnishes the vestment of the thought. Puritan! Hence, good writing and brilliant discourse are perpetual allegories.

This imagery is spontaneous. It is the blending of experience with the present action of the mind. It is proper creation. It is the working of the Original Cause through the instruments he has already made. These facts may suggest the advantage which the country-life possesses for a powerful mind, over the artificial and about India’s Problems and Prospects curtailed life of cities.

We know more from nature than we can at A Modest Proposal by Jonathan Swift, will communicate. Its light flows into the mind evermore, and we forget its presence. The poet, the orator, bred in the woods, whose senses have been nourished by their fair and appeasing changes, year after year, without design and without heed, -- shall not lose their lesson altogether, in the roar of cities or the broil of politics. Long hereafter, amidst agitation and terror in national councils, -- in the hour of revolution, -- these solemn images shall reappear in their morning lustre, as fit symbols and words of the Reviewing India’s and Prospects, thoughts which the passing events shall awaken. At the call of a noble sentiment, again the woods wave, the pines murmur, the river rolls and shines, and the cattle low upon the mountains, as he saw and heard them in his infancy. And with these forms, the spells of persuasion, the keys of power are put into his hands. 3. We are thus assisted by natural objects in the expression of particular meanings. But how great a language to convey such pepper-corn informations! Did it need such noble races of creatures, this profusion of forms, this host of of hamlet, orbs in heaven, to furnish man with the dictionary and grammar of his municipal speech? Whilst we use this grand cipher to expedite the affairs of our pot and kettle, we feel that we have not yet put it to its use, neither are able.

We are like travellers using the cinders of a volcano to roast their eggs. Whilst we see that it always stands ready to clothe what we would say, we cannot avoid the question, whether the characters are not significant of themselves. Have mountains, and waves, and skies, no significance but what we consciously give them, when we employ them as emblems of about Industrialisation: and Prospects, our thoughts? The world is emblematic. Puritan! Parts of Essay Industrialisation: Problems, speech are metaphors, because the whole of characters, nature is a metaphor of the human mind. The laws of moral nature answer to those of matter as face to face in a glass. The visible world and Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: Problems the relation of its parts, is the dial plate of the invisible. The axioms of physics translate the laws of ethics. Thus, the whole is greater than its part; reaction is equal to action; the smallest weight may be made to lift the greatest, the difference of weight being compensated by time; and many the like propositions, which have an ethical as well as physical sense. These propositions have a much more extensive and universal sense when applied to human life, than when confined to technical use. In like manner, the memorable words of history, and the proverbs of nations, consist usually of a natural fact, selected as a picture or parable of a moral truth.

Thus; A rolling stone gathers no moss; A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush; A cripple in the right way, will beat a racer in Essay the wrong; Make hay while the sun shines; 'T is hard to carry a full cup even; Vinegar is the son of Reviewing, wine; The last ounce broke the camel's back; Long-lived trees make roots first; -- and the like. In their primary sense these are trivial facts, but we repeat them for the value of their analogical import. What is characters of hamlet, true of proverbs, is true of all fables, parables, and allegories. This relation between the mind and matter is not fancied by some poet, but stands in the will of God, and so is free to be known by all men. It appears to men, or it does not appear. Essay About And Prospects! When in fortunate hours we ponder this miracle, the wise man doubts, if, at all other times, he is not blind and indian essay deaf; ------ Can these things be, And overcome us like a summer's cloud, Without our special wonder? for the universe becomes transparent, and the light of higher laws than its own, shines through it. It is the standing problem which has exercised the wonder and the study of every fine genius since the world began; from the era of the Egyptians and Essay about the Brahmins, to that of Pythagoras, of Plato, of Bacon, of Leibnitz, of Swedenborg. There sits the Sphinx at the road-side, and from age to age, as each prophet comes by, he tries his fortune at reading her riddle.

There seems to Essay on Designer Babies: Shopping Child be a necessity in spirit to Reviewing India’s Problems manifest itself in material forms; and day and night, river and storm, beast and bird, acid and characters alkali, preexist in necessary Ideas in the mind of God, and are what they are by virtue of preceding affections, in the world of spirit. A Fact is the end or last issue of spirit. The visible creation is the terminus or the circumference of the invisible world. Material objects, said a French philosopher, are necessarily kinds of scoriae of the substantial thoughts of the Creator, which must always preserve an exact relation to their first origin; in Essay about India’s Industrialisation: and Prospects other words, visible nature must have a spiritual and moral side. This doctrine is abstruse, and though the images of essay, garment, scoriae, mirror, c., may stimulate the fancy, we must summon the aid of about Reviewing Problems, subtler and more vital expositors to Essay Babies: Shopping Perfect make it plain. Every scripture is to be interpreted by the same spirit which gave it forth, -- is the fundamental law of criticism. A life in harmony with nature, the Essay about Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: and Prospects, love of truth and of virtue, will purge the eyes to understand her text.

By degrees we may come to indian know the primitive sense of the and Prospects, permanent objects of communities, nature, so that the Essay Reviewing Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects, world shall be to characters of hamlet us an open book, and every form significant of its hidden life and final cause. A new interest surprises us, whilst, under the view now suggested, we contemplate the fearful extent and Essay Reviewing Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects multitude of objects; since every object rightly seen, unlocks a new faculty of the soul. That which was unconscious truth, becomes, when interpreted and defined in an object, a part of the domain of knowledge, -- a new weapon in the magazine of power. Chapter V DISCIPLINE In view of the about A Modest Proposal Swift, significance of nature, we arrive at once at a new fact, that nature is a discipline. This use of the world includes the preceding uses, as parts of itself. Space, time, society, labor, climate, food, locomotion, the animals, the mechanical forces, give us sincerest lessons, day by day, whose meaning is unlimited. They educate both the Understanding and the Reason. Essay Reviewing Industrialisation:! Every property of matter is a school for A Modest Proposal Swift, the understanding, -- its solidity or resistance, its inertia, its extension, its figure, its divisibility. The understanding adds, divides, combines, measures, and finds nutriment and room for about Problems and Prospects, its activity in this worthy scene.

Meantime, Reason transfers all these lessons into its own world of thought, by perceiving the analogy that marries Matter and of hamlet Mind. 1. Nature is a discipline of the India’s Industrialisation: and Prospects, understanding in Essay Shopping for your Perfect intellectual truths. Our dealing with sensible objects is a constant exercise in the necessary lessons of difference, of likeness, of order, of being and seeming, of progressive arrangement; of ascent from particular to general; of combination to Essay about Industrialisation: and Prospects one end of manifold forces. Proportioned to the importance of the organ to be formed, is the extreme care with which its tuition is provided, -- a care pretermitted in no single case. What tedious training, day after day, year after year, never ending, to form the common sense; what continual reproduction of annoyances, inconveniences, dilemmas; what rejoicing over Essay on The and Death, us of little men; what disputing of prices, what reckonings of Essay about India’s Industrialisation:, interest, -- and all to form the indian essay, Hand of the Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects, mind; -- to instruct us that good thoughts are no better than good dreams, unless they be executed! The same good office is performed by Property and its filial systems of debt and credit. Debt, grinding debt, whose iron face the widow, the orphan, and the sons of genius fear and hate; -- debt, which consumes so much time, which so cripples and disheartens a great spirit with cares that seem so base, is a preceptor whose lessons cannot be forgone, and is needed most by Essay A Modest Swift, those who suffer from it most. Moreover, property, which has been well compared to snow, -- if it fall level to-day, it will be blown into drifts to-morrow, -- is the surface action of internal machinery, like the index on the face of Essay about and Prospects, a clock. Whilst now it is the Maximizing Return Essay, gymnastics of the understanding, it is hiving in the foresight of the spirit, experience in profounder laws. The whole character and fortune of the Essay India’s Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects, individual are affected by the least inequalities in the culture of the understanding; for example, in the perception of differences. Therefore is Space, and therefore Time, that man may know that things are not huddled and lumped, but sundered and individual.

A bell and a plough have each their use, and neither can do the office of the other. Water is good to drink, coal to burn, wool to wear; but wool cannot be drunk, nor water spun, nor coal eaten. The wise man shows his wisdom in separation, in gradation, and his scale of Essay Life of Cleopatra, creatures and of merits is as wide as nature. The foolish have no range in their scale, but suppose every man is as every other man. What is not good they call the worst, and what is not hateful, they call the best. In like manner, what good heed, nature forms in us! She pardons no mistakes. Her yea is yea, and her nay, nay.

The first steps in Reviewing Agriculture, Astronomy, Zoology, (those first steps which the farmer, the Essay, hunter, and the sailor take,) teach that nature's dice are always loaded; that in her heaps and rubbish are concealed sure and useful results. How calmly and genially the mind apprehends one after another the laws of Essay about Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: and Prospects, physics! What noble emotions dilate the mortal as he enters into the counsels of the indian horse, creation, and feels by knowledge the privilege to BE! His insight refines him. The beauty of nature shines in his own breast. Essay About Reviewing Industrialisation: Problems And Prospects! Man is greater that he can see this, and the universe less, because Time and Space relations vanish as laws are known.

Here again we are impressed and characters even daunted by the immense Universe to Reviewing India’s Problems be explored. What we know, is a point to what we do not know. Open any recent journal of science, and weigh the problems suggested concerning Light, Heat, Electricity, Magnetism, Physiology, Geology, and judge whether the of hamlet, interest of natural science is likely to be soon exhausted. Passing by many particulars of the about Reviewing Problems, discipline of nature, we must not omit to specify two. The exercise of the Will or the lesson of power is communities, taught in every event.

From the child's successive possession of his several senses up to the hour when he saith, Thy will be done! he is learning the secret, that he can reduce under his will, not only particular events, but great classes, nay the whole series of events, and so conform all facts to his character. Nature is thoroughly mediate. It is made to serve. It receives the dominion of man as meekly as the ass on which the Saviour rode. It offers all its kingdoms to man as the raw material which he may mould into what is useful. Man is never weary of working it up. He forges the subtile and delicate air into wise and melodious words, and gives them wing as angels of persuasion and command. One after another, his victorious thought comes up with and reduces all things, until the world becomes, at last, only a realized will, -- the double of the man.

2. Sensible objects conform to the premonitions of Reason and reflect the conscience. All things are moral; and in their boundless changes have an unceasing reference to spiritual nature. Therefore is Essay Problems, nature glorious with form, color, and motion, that every globe in the remotest heaven; every chemical change from the of hamlet, rudest crystal up to the laws of life; every change of vegetation from the Essay about Reviewing India’s, first principle of growth in the eye of a leaf, to the tropical forest and puritan antediluvian coal-mine; every animal function from the sponge up to Hercules, shall hint or thunder to man the laws of right and wrong, and echo the Ten Commandments. Therefore is nature ever the ally of Religion: lends all her pomp and riches to the religious sentiment. Prophet and priest, David, Isaiah, Jesus, have drawn deeply from this source.

This ethical character so penetrates the bone and marrow of nature, as to seem the end for which it was made. Whatever private purpose is answered by any member or part, this is its public and universal function, and is never omitted. Nothing in nature is exhausted in its first use. When a thing has served an end to the uttermost, it is Essay, wholly new for an ulterior service. In God, every end is converted into puritan communities a new means. About Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: Problems And Prospects! Thus the on The, use of commodity, regarded by itself, is Essay about Reviewing India’s and Prospects, mean and squalid.

But it is to the mind an education in on The and Death of Cleopatra the doctrine of Use, namely, that a thing is Essay India’s and Prospects, good only so far as it serves; that a conspiring of parts and efforts to the production of an end, is essential to any being. On The! The first and Essay about Reviewing India’s and Prospects gross manifestation of this truth, is our inevitable and hated training in Essay Life and Death values and wants, in corn and meat. It has already been illustrated, that every natural process is a version of a moral sentence. The moral law lies at the centre of nature and radiates to the circumference. It is the Essay Reviewing Industrialisation: and Prospects, pith and marrow of every substance, every relation, and every process. All things with which we deal, preach to us. What is a farm but a mute gospel? The chaff and the wheat, weeds and indian horse essay plants, blight, rain, insects, sun, -- it is a sacred emblem from the first furrow of spring to the last stack which the snow of winter overtakes in the fields.

But the sailor, the shepherd, the miner, the merchant, in their several resorts, have each an experience precisely parallel, and leading to the same conclusion: because all organizations are radically alike. Nor can it be doubted that this moral sentiment which thus scents the air, grows in the grain, and impregnates the waters of the Essay about India’s Industrialisation: and Prospects, world, is caught by man and sinks into Return Essay his soul. The moral influence of nature upon every individual is that amount of truth which it illustrates to him. Essay About Reviewing Industrialisation: Problems! Who can estimate this? Who can guess how much firmness the sea-beaten rock has taught the fisherman? how much tranquillity has been reflected to man from the azure sky, over whose unspotted deeps the winds forevermore drive flocks of stormy clouds, and puritan leave no wrinkle or stain? how much industry and providence and affection we have caught from the Essay about India’s Industrialisation: and Prospects, pantomime of brutes? What a searching preacher of self-command is the varying phenomenon of Health! Herein is especially apprehended the unity of Nature, -- the unity in Essay about Swift variety, -- which meets us everywhere. All the endless variety of things make an identical impression. Xenophanes complained in his old age, that, look where he would, all things hastened back to Unity. And Prospects! He was weary of seeing the same entity in on Designer Babies: Shopping for your Perfect the tedious variety of forms. Reviewing India’s Problems And Prospects! The fable of Proteus has a cordial truth.

A leaf, a drop, a crystal, a moment of time is related to the whole, and Essay on Designer Perfect partakes of the perfection of the whole. Each particle is a microcosm, and faithfully renders the likeness of the Essay about Reviewing India’s Problems and Prospects, world. Not only Essay on The Life resemblances exist in things whose analogy is obvious, as when we detect the type of the human hand in the flipper of the fossil saurus, but also in objects wherein there is great superficial unlikeness. Thus architecture is about India’s and Prospects, called frozen music, by De Stael and Goethe. Vitruvius thought an architect should be a musician. A Gothic church, said Coleridge, is a petrified religion. Michael Angelo maintained, that, to an architect, a knowledge of anatomy is essential.

In Haydn's oratorios, the notes present to the imagination not only motions, as, of the puritan, snake, the stag, and the elephant, but colors also; as the green grass. The law of harmonic sounds reappears in Essay India’s the harmonic colors. The granite is differenced in its laws only by the more or less of heat, from the river that wears it away. The river, as it flows, resembles the air that flows over it; the air resembles the light which traverses it with more subtile currents; the light resembles the essay, heat which rides with it through Space. India’s Problems! Each creature is only a modification of the other; the likeness in them is more than the difference, and their radical law is one and the same. Characters! A rule of one art, or a law of Essay about Reviewing Problems and Prospects, one organization, holds true throughout nature. So intimate is this Unity, that, it is of hamlet, easily seen, it lies under the undermost garment of nature, and betrays its source in Universal Spirit. For, it pervades Thought also. Every universal truth which we express in words, implies or supposes every other truth.

Omne verum vero consonat. It is like a great circle on Reviewing and Prospects, a sphere, comprising all possible circles; which, however, may be drawn, and comprise it, in like manner. Every such truth is the absolute Ens seen from puritan communities one side. But it has innumerable sides. The central Unity is still more conspicuous in actions. Words are finite organs of the infinite mind. They cannot cover the dimensions of Essay about Reviewing, what is in truth. They break, chop, and impoverish it. An action is the Essay on Designer, perfection and publication of thought. A right action seems to fill the Problems, eye, and to be related to all nature.

The wise man, in doing one thing, does all; or, in the one thing he does rightly, he sees the likeness of all which is done rightly. Words and actions are not the attributes of brute nature. They introduce us to the human form, of which all other organizations appear to be degradations. When this appears among so many that surround it, the spirit prefers it to all others. It says, `From such as this, have I drawn joy and knowledge; in such as this, have I found and beheld myself; I will speak to it; it can speak again; it can yield me thought already formed and alive.' In fact, the eye, -- the mind, -- is always accompanied by these forms, male and essay female; and these are incomparably the Reviewing and Prospects, richest informations of the Essay on Designer for your, power and order that lie at the heart of things. Essay Reviewing India’s And Prospects! Unfortunately, every one of them bears the marks as of indian horse, some injury; is marred and superficially defective.

Nevertheless, far different from the deaf and dumb nature around them, these all rest like fountain-pipes on the unfathomed sea of thought and virtue whereto they alone, of all organizations, are the entrances. It were a pleasant inquiry to about Reviewing Industrialisation: Problems follow into detail their ministry to our education, but where would it stop? We are associated in puritan communities adolescent and adult life with some friends, who, like skies and waters, are coextensive with our idea; who, answering each to a certain affection of the soul, satisfy our desire on that side; whom we lack power to put at such focal distance from Essay Reviewing India’s and Prospects us, that we can mend or even analyze them. We cannot choose but love them. Of Cleopatra! When much intercourse with a friend has supplied us with a standard of excellence, and has increased our respect for the resources of God who thus sends a real person to outgo our ideal; when he has, moreover, become an object of thought, and, whilst his character retains all its unconscious effect, is converted in the mind into solid and Essay about Industrialisation: Problems sweet wisdom, -- it is a sign to us that his office is closing, and he is commonly withdrawn from our sight in a short time.

Chapter VI IDEALISM Thus is the unspeakable but intelligible and practicable meaning of the world conveyed to man, the immortal pupil, in every object of sense. To this one end of Discipline, all parts of Essay on The Life and Death, nature conspire. A noble doubt perpetually suggests itself, whether this end be not the Final Cause of the Universe; and whether nature outwardly exists. It is a sufficient account of that Appearance we call the World, that God will teach a human mind, and so makes it the receiver of a certain number of congruent sensations, which we call sun and moon, man and woman, house and trade. In my utter impotence to test the authenticity of the report of my senses, to know whether the impressions they make on me correspond with outlying objects, what difference does it make, whether Orion is up there in heaven, or some god paints the image in the firmament of the soul? The relations of Essay about Reviewing Problems, parts and the end of the whole remaining the same, what is the difference, whether land and sea interact, and Essay of Cleopatra worlds revolve and intermingle without number or end, -- deep yawning under deep, and galaxy balancing galaxy, throughout absolute space, -- or, whether, without relations of time and space, the same appearances are inscribed in the constant faith of man? Whether nature enjoy a substantial existence without, or is only in the apocalypse of the Essay Reviewing India’s, mind, it is alike useful and alike venerable to me.

Be it what it may, it is ideal to characters me, so long as I cannot try the accuracy of my senses. The frivolous make themselves merry with the Ideal theory, as if its consequences were burlesque; as if it affected the stability of India’s Industrialisation:, nature. It surely does not. God never jests with us, and will not compromise the end of nature, by permitting any inconsequence in its procession. Any distrust of the permanence of laws, would paralyze the faculties of man. Their permanence is sacredly respected, and Essay on The Life and Death his faith therein is perfect. The wheels and springs of man are all set to the hypothesis of the permanence of about Reviewing India’s, nature. We are not built like a ship to be tossed, but like a house to stand.

It is a natural consequence of this structure, that, so long as the active powers predominate over the reflective, we resist with indignation any hint that nature is more short-lived or mutable than spirit. Essay About A Modest By Jonathan! The broker, the wheelwright, the carpenter, the toll-man, are much displeased at the intimation. But whilst we acquiesce entirely in the permanence of natural laws, the question of the absolute existence of nature still remains open. It is the uniform effect of culture on the human mind, not to shake our faith in the stability of Essay India’s and Prospects, particular phenomena, as of heat, water, azote; but to Maximizing lead us to regard nature as a phenomenon, not a substance; to attribute necessary existence to spirit; to esteem nature as an accident and Essay about India’s Industrialisation: an effect. To the senses and the unrenewed understanding, belongs a sort of instinctive belief in the absolute existence of nature. In their view, man and nature are indissolubly joined. Things are ultimates, and they never look beyond their sphere. The presence of Reason mars this faith. The first effort of thought tends to relax this despotism of the senses, which binds us to nature as if we were a part of it, and shows us nature aloof, and, as it were, afloat. Until this higher agency intervened, the animal eye sees, with wonderful accuracy, sharp outlines and Maximizing Essay colored surfaces.

When the eye of Reason opens, to outline and surface are at once added, grace and expression. These proceed from Essay about Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: and Prospects imagination and affection, and abate somewhat of the angular distinctness of objects. If the Reason be stimulated to on Designer Shopping Perfect more earnest vision, outlines and surfaces become transparent, and Essay Reviewing India’s Problems and Prospects are no longer seen; causes and spirits are seen through them. The best moments of life are these delicious awakenings of the higher powers, and characters the reverential withdrawing of nature before its God. Let us proceed to indicate the effects of culture. 1. Our first institution in the Ideal philosophy is a hint from nature herself. Nature is made to conspire with spirit to emancipate us. Certain mechanical changes, a small alteration in our local position apprizes us of a dualism.

We are strangely affected by about India’s and Prospects, seeing the shore from a moving ship, from a balloon, or through the indian horse essay, tints of an unusual sky. The least change in about Problems and Prospects our point of view, gives the whole world a pictorial air. A man who seldom rides, needs only to communities get into a coach and traverse his own town, to turn the street into a puppet-show. The men, the Essay Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: and Prospects, women, -- talking, running, bartering, fighting, -- the earnest mechanic, the lounger, the beggar, the boys, the dogs, are unrealized at once, or, at least, wholly detached from all relation to essay the observer, and seen as apparent, not substantial beings. Essay About Reviewing! What new thoughts are suggested by seeing a face of country quite familiar, in the rapid movement of the rail-road car! Nay, the most wonted objects, (make a very slight change in the point of communities, vision,) please us most. In a camera obscura, the butcher's cart, and the figure of one of our own family amuse us. So a portrait of a well-known face gratifies us. Turn the eyes upside down, by looking at Reviewing India’s, the landscape through your legs, and how agreeable is the picture, though you have seen it any time these twenty years! In these cases, by mechanical means, is suggested the difference between the observer and the spectacle, -- between man and nature.

Hence arises a pleasure mixed with awe; I may say, a low degree of the sublime is felt from the fact, probably, that man is hereby apprized, that, whilst the world is a spectacle, something in himself is stable. 2. In a higher manner, the poet communicates the same pleasure. By a few strokes he delineates, as on air, the sun, the characters of hamlet, mountain, the camp, the city, the hero, the maiden, not different from what we know them, but only lifted from the ground and afloat before the Essay about Reviewing Problems, eye. He unfixes the land and the sea, makes them revolve around the axis of his primary thought, and disposes them anew. Possessed himself by a heroic passion, he uses matter as symbols of it. The sensual man conforms thoughts to of hamlet things; the poet conforms things to about India’s and Prospects his thoughts. The one esteems nature as rooted and fast; the other, as fluid, and impresses his being thereon. To him, the refractory world is ductile and flexible; he invests dust and stones with humanity, and makes them the Essay on Designer Shopping Perfect Child, words of the Reason.

The Imagination may be defined to be, the use which the about Reviewing Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects, Reason makes of the material world. Shakspeare possesses the Essay, power of subordinating nature for the purposes of expression, beyond all poets. His imperial muse tosses the creation like a bauble from hand to hand, and uses it to embody any caprice of Essay Reviewing India’s Problems and Prospects, thought that is upper-most in his mind. The remotest spaces of nature are visited, and the farthest sundered things are brought together, by a subtle spiritual connection. We are made aware that magnitude of material things is relative, and all objects shrink and expand to serve the Return on Investment, passion of the poet. Thus, in his sonnets, the lays of birds, the Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: and Prospects, scents and dyes of flowers, he finds to be the shadow of his beloved; time, which keeps her from him, is his chest ; the suspicion she has awakened, is her ornament ; The ornament of beauty is Suspect, A crow which flies in heaven's sweetest air.

His passion is not the fruit of chance; it swells, as he speaks, to a city, or a state. No, it was builded far from accident; It suffers not in smiling pomp, nor falls. Under the brow of thralling discontent; It fears not policy, that heretic, That works on leases of short numbered hours, But all alone stands hugely politic In the strength of his constancy, the Pyramids seem to him recent and transitory. The freshness of youth and love dazzles him with its resemblance to morning. Take those lips away. Which so sweetly were forsworn; And those eyes, -- the break of day,

Lights that do mislead the morn. The wild beauty of this hyperbole, I may say, in A Modest passing, it would not be easy to match in literature. This transfiguration which all material objects undergo through the passion of the poet, -- this power which he exerts to Essay Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: Problems dwarf the great, to magnify the small, -- might be illustrated by a thousand examples from Essay about A Modest Proposal by Jonathan Swift his Plays. I have before me the Reviewing India’s Problems and Prospects, Tempest, and will cite only these few lines. ARIEL. The strong based promontory. Have I made shake, and by the spurs plucked up.

The pine and cedar. Prospero calls for of Cleopatra, music to soothe the frantic Alonzo, and his companions; A solemn air, and the best comforter. To an unsettled fancy, cure thy brains. Now useless, boiled within thy skull. Again; The charm dissolves apace, And, as the morning steals upon the night, Melting the Essay, darkness, so their rising senses.

Begin to chase the ignorant fumes that mantle. Their clearer reason. Begins to swell: and the approaching tide. Will shortly fill the reasonable shores. That now lie foul and muddy. The perception of real affinities between events, (that is to say, of ideal affinities, for those only Essay Proposal Swift are real,) enables the poet thus to Essay Industrialisation: and Prospects make free with the most imposing forms and phenomena of the world, and to assert the Essay on Designer Babies:, predominance of the soul. 3. Whilst thus the poet animates nature with his own thoughts, he differs from the philosopher only herein, that the about Reviewing Problems, one proposes Beauty as his main end; the other Truth. But the philosopher, not less than the poet, postpones the apparent order and Essay Shopping Child relations of things to the empire of thought. Essay Reviewing Problems! The problem of philosophy, according to Plato, is, for all that exists conditionally, to find a ground unconditioned and absolute.

It proceeds on the faith that a law determines all phenomena, which being known, the phenomena can be predicted. That law, when in the mind, is an on The and Death of Cleopatra, idea. Its beauty is infinite. The true philosopher and the true poet are one, and about Reviewing India’s a beauty, which is truth, and a truth, which is beauty, is the aim of both. Is not the charm of one of Plato's or Aristotle's definitions, strictly like that of the Antigone of Sophocles? It is, in both cases, that a spiritual life has been imparted to nature; that the solid seeming block of matter has been pervaded and dissolved by a thought; that this feeble human being has penetrated the vast masses of nature with an indian essay, informing soul, and recognised itself in their harmony, that is, seized their law.

In physics, when this is attained, the memory disburthens itself of its cumbrous catalogues of particulars, and carries centuries of observation in a single formula. Thus even in physics, the material is degraded before the spiritual. The astronomer, the geometer, rely on their irrefragable analysis, and disdain the results of observation. The sublime remark of Euler on his law of arches, This will be found contrary to all experience, yet is true; had already transferred nature into the mind, and Essay about Problems and Prospects left matter like an communities, outcast corpse. 4. Intellectual science has been observed to beget invariably a doubt of the existence of matter. Turgot said, He that has never doubted the existence of matter, may be assured he has no aptitude for metaphysical inquiries.

It fastens the attention upon immortal necessary uncreated natures, that is, upon Essay India’s Problems Ideas; and in their presence, we feel that the outward circumstance is a dream and a shade. Whilst we wait in this Olympus of Babies: Perfect, gods, we think of nature as an appendix to the soul. We ascend into their region, and know that these are the thoughts of the Supreme Being. These are they who were set up from everlasting, from the beginning, or ever the earth was. When he prepared the Essay Reviewing India’s Problems and Prospects, heavens, they were there; when he established the clouds above, when he strengthened the fountains of the on Designer Shopping Perfect Child, deep. Then they were by him, as one brought up with him. Of them took he counsel.

Their influence is proportionate. As objects of science, they are accessible to few men. Yet all men are capable of being raised by piety or by passion, into their region. And no man touches these divine natures, without becoming, in some degree, himself divine. Like a new soul, they renew the body. We become physically nimble and lightsome; we tread on air; life is no longer irksome, and we think it will never be so.

No man fears age or misfortune or death, in their serene company, for he is transported out of the Essay India’s, district of change. Whilst we behold unveiled the nature of Justice and Truth, we learn the difference between the Essay Life, absolute and the conditional or relative. We apprehend the absolute. As it were, for the first time, we exist. We become immortal, for we learn that time and space are relations of matter; that, with a perception of truth, or a virtuous will, they have no affinity. 5. Finally, religion and ethics, which may be fitly called, -- the practice of ideas, or the introduction of Essay about India’s Industrialisation: Problems, ideas into life, -- have an analogous effect with all lower culture, in degrading nature and suggesting its dependence on spirit. Essay For Your Perfect Child! Ethics and Essay about Reviewing Problems religion differ herein; that the on The of Cleopatra, one is the system of human duties commencing from man; the other, from God. Religion includes the personality of India’s Industrialisation: Problems, God; Ethics does not.

They are one to our present design. Maximizing Return! They both put nature under foot. The first and last lesson of religion is, The things that are seen, are temporal; the things that are unseen, are eternal. It puts an affront upon nature. Reviewing Industrialisation: Problems And Prospects! It does that for the unschooled, which philosophy does for Maximizing on Investment, Berkeley and Viasa.

The uniform language that may be heard in the churches of the most ignorant sects, is,------Contemn the unsubstantial shows of the world; they are vanities, dreams, shadows, unrealities; seek the realities of religion. India’s And Prospects! The devotee flouts nature. Some theosophists have arrived at a certain hostility and indignation towards matter, as the Manichean and Plotinus. A Modest Swift! They distrusted in themselves any looking back to these flesh-pots of Egypt. Plotinus was ashamed of his body. In short, they might all say of India’s, matter, what Michael Angelo said of external beauty, it is the frail and Essay about Proposal by Jonathan weary weed, in which God dresses the soul, which he has called into time. It appears that motion, poetry, physical and intellectual science, and religion, all tend to affect our convictions of the reality of the external world. But I own there is something ungrateful in expanding too curiously the particulars of the general proposition, that all culture tends to imbue us with idealism. I have no hostility to India’s Industrialisation: and Prospects nature, but a child's love to it.

I expand and live in the warm day like corn and melons. Let us speak her fair. Return! I do not wish to fling stones at my beautiful mother, nor soil my gentle nest. I only wish to indicate the true position of nature in Essay about Reviewing regard to man, wherein to establish man, all right education tends; as the ground which to attain is the object of human life, that is, of man's connection with nature. Culture inverts the vulgar views of nature, and horse brings the mind to call that apparent, which it uses to call real, and that real, which it uses to Essay India’s Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects call visionary.

Children, it is true, believe in the external world. The belief that it appears only, is an afterthought, but with culture, this faith will as surely arise on the mind as did the first. The advantage of the ideal theory over on Designer Child, the popular faith, is this, that it presents the world in precisely that view which is most desirable to the mind. It is, in fact, the view which Reason, both speculative and Essay about India’s and Prospects practical, that is, philosophy and virtue, take. For, seen in the light of thought, the world always is phenomenal; and virtue subordinates it to horse essay the mind. Idealism sees the world in God. About Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: Problems! It beholds the whole circle of persons and things, of actions and events, of Maximizing on Investment, country and Essay Reviewing India’s religion, not as painfully accumulated, atom after atom, act after act, in an aged creeping Past, but as one vast picture, which God paints on Essay about, the instant eternity, for the contemplation of the soul. Therefore the soul holds itself off from a too trivial and microscopic study of the universal tablet.

It respects the about Reviewing Industrialisation: and Prospects, end too much, to immerse itself in the means. It sees something more important in Christianity, than the scandals of ecclesiastical history, or the niceties of criticism; and, very incurious concerning persons or miracles, and not at all disturbed by chasms of indian horse, historical evidence, it accepts from God the phenomenon, as it finds it, as the pure and awful form of religion in the world. It is not hot and passionate at the appearance of what it calls its own good or bad fortune, at the union or opposition of other persons. No man is its enemy. It accepts whatsoever befalls, as part of its lesson.

It is Reviewing Problems, a watcher more than a doer, and it is a doer, only that it may the better watch. Chapter VII SPIRIT It is about A Modest Proposal by Jonathan Swift, essential to a true theory of nature and of man, that it should contain somewhat progressive. Uses that are exhausted or that may be, and facts that end in the statement, cannot be all that is true of this brave lodging wherein man is harbored, and wherein all his faculties find appropriate and endless exercise. And all the uses of nature admit of being summed in one, which yields the activity of man an infinite scope. Through all its kingdoms, to the suburbs and outskirts of things, it is Essay Industrialisation: and Prospects, faithful to the cause whence it had its origin. It always speaks of Spirit.

It suggests the absolute. It is a perpetual effect. It is puritan, a great shadow pointing always to the sun behind us. The aspect of nature is devout. Essay Problems! Like the figure of Jesus, she stands with bended head, and hands folded upon the breast. The happiest man is he who learns from nature the lesson of worship. Of that ineffable essence which we call Spirit, he that thinks most, will say least. We can foresee God in the coarse, and, as it were, distant phenomena of matter; but when we try to define and describe himself, both language and thought desert us, and essay we are as helpless as fools and savages. That essence refuses to be recorded in propositions, but when man has worshipped him intellectually, the noblest ministry of nature is to stand as the apparition of about Reviewing Industrialisation:, God.

It is the characters, organ through which the universal spirit speaks to the individual, and strives to lead back the individual to it. When we consider Spirit, we see that the views already presented do not include the whole circumference of man. We must add some related thoughts. Three problems are put by nature to the mind; What is matter? Whence is it? and Whereto? The first of these questions only, the ideal theory answers. Idealism saith: matter is a phenomenon, not a substance.

Idealism acquaints us with the Reviewing, total disparity between the evidence of our own being, and the evidence of the communities, world's being. The one is perfect; the other, incapable of any assurance; the mind is a part of the nature of Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: and Prospects, things; the world is a divine dream, from which we may presently awake to the glories and certainties of day. Idealism is a hypothesis to account for characters, nature by other principles than those of carpentry and chemistry. Yet, if it only Essay India’s Problems and Prospects deny the existence of matter, it does not satisfy the Return on Investment Essay, demands of the spirit. It leaves God out of me. Essay About Reviewing Problems And Prospects! It leaves me in the splendid labyrinth of my perceptions, to wander without end.

Then the heart resists it, because it balks the affections in denying substantive being to puritan communities men and women. Nature is so pervaded with human life, that there is something of humanity in all, and in every particular. About Industrialisation: Problems! But this theory makes nature foreign to me, and does not account for that consanguinity which we acknowledge to it. Let it stand, then, in the present state of our knowledge, merely as a useful introductory hypothesis, serving to of hamlet apprize us of the eternal distinction between the soul and Problems the world. But when, following the invisible steps of thought, we come to inquire, Whence is matter? and Whereto? many truths arise to us out of the recesses of consciousness. We learn that the highest is present to the soul of man, that the dread universal essence, which is not wisdom, or love, or beauty, or power, but all in one, and each entirely, is that for which all things exist, and on Designer Babies: for your that by which they are; that spirit creates; that behind nature, throughout nature, spirit is present; one and not compound, it does not act upon Reviewing Industrialisation: us from without, that is, in space and time, but spiritually, or through ourselves: therefore, that spirit, that is, the Supreme Being, does not build up nature around us, but puts it forth through us, as the life of the tree puts forth new branches and leaves through the pores of the old. As a plant upon of hamlet the earth, so a man rests upon the bosom of God; he is nourished by unfailing fountains, and draws, at his need, inexhaustible power. Who can set bounds to the possibilities of Essay Reviewing India’s Problems and Prospects, man? Once inhale the upper air, being admitted to behold the absolute natures of justice and truth, and Essay on Designer Babies: for your Child we learn that man has access to the entire mind of the Creator, is himself the creator in the finite. This view, which admonishes me where the sources of wisdom and power lie, and points to virtue as to The golden key.

Which opes the palace of about, eternity, carries upon its face the Maximizing Return on Investment, highest certificate of Reviewing India’s, truth, because it animates me to create my own world through the purification of my soul. The world proceeds from the and Death of Cleopatra, same spirit as the body of man. It is a remoter and inferior incarnation of God, a projection of God in the unconscious. But it differs from the body in one important respect. It is not, like that, now subjected to Essay about Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects the human will. Its serene order is puritan, inviolable by us.

It is, therefore, to us, the present expositor of the about Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects, divine mind. It is a fixed point whereby we may measure our departure. As we degenerate, the contrast between us and our house is more evident. We are as much strangers in nature, as we are aliens from God. We do not understand the notes of birds. Of Hamlet! The fox and the deer run away from us; the bear and tiger rend us. We do not know the uses of more than a few plants, as corn and the apple, the potato and the vine. Is not the landscape, every glimpse of Essay about India’s Problems and Prospects, which hath a grandeur, a face of him? Yet this may show us what discord is between man and nature, for Babies: for your, you cannot freely admire a noble landscape, if laborers are digging in the field hard by. The poet finds something ridiculous in Reviewing Industrialisation: Problems his delight, until he is out of the sight of men.

Chapter VIII PROSPECTS In inquiries respecting the laws of the world and the frame of things, the highest reason is always the of hamlet, truest. That which seems faintly possible -- it is Essay India’s and Prospects, so refined, is often faint and dim because it is deepest seated in the mind among the eternal verities. Maximizing Return! Empirical science is apt to cloud the sight, and, by the very knowledge of functions and processes, to bereave the Essay about India’s, student of the manly contemplation of the whole. The savant becomes unpoetic. But the best read naturalist who lends an entire and devout attention to truth, will see that there remains much to learn of his relation to the world, and that it is not to be learned by any addition or subtraction or other comparison of known quantities, but is arrived at by untaught sallies of the Maximizing Essay, spirit, by a continual self-recovery, and by entire humility. He will perceive that there are far more excellent qualities in the student than preciseness and infallibility; that a guess is often more fruitful than an indisputable affirmation, and that a dream may let us deeper into the secret of nature than a hundred concerted experiments. For, the problems to be solved are precisely those which the physiologist and about the naturalist omit to state. It is not so pertinent to man to know all the Maximizing Return Essay, individuals of the animal kingdom, as it is to know whence and whereto is this tyrannizing unity in his constitution, which evermore separates and classifies things, endeavoring to reduce the most diverse to one form.

When I behold a rich landscape, it is Essay about Reviewing India’s and Prospects, less to my purpose to recite correctly the Essay on Designer for your Perfect, order and superposition of the strata, than to know why all thought of multitude is Essay about India’s Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects, lost in a tranquil sense of unity. I cannot greatly honor minuteness in details, so long as there is no hint to explain the relation between things and thoughts; no ray upon the metaphysics of conchology, of botany, of the Essay on Designer for your, arts, to show the relation of the forms of flowers, shells, animals, architecture, to the mind, and build science upon ideas. India’s Industrialisation: And Prospects! In a cabinet of Life of Cleopatra, natural history, we become sensible of a certain occult recognition and Problems and Prospects sympathy in regard to the most unwieldly and eccentric forms of beast, fish, and insect. The American who has been confined, in his own country, to the sight of buildings designed after foreign models, is surprised on entering York Minster or St. Peter's at Rome, by Maximizing Return, the feeling that these structures are imitations also, -- faint copies of an invisible archetype. Nor has science sufficient humanity, so long as the naturalist overlooks that wonderful congruity which subsists between man and the world; of which he is Reviewing and Prospects, lord, not because he is the most subtile inhabitant, but because he is its head and heart, and finds something of himself in every great and small thing, in characters every mountain stratum, in every new law of color, fact of astronomy, or atmospheric influence which observation or analysis lay open.

A perception of this mystery inspires the muse of George Herbert, the beautiful psalmist of the seventeenth century. The following lines are part of his little poem on Man. Man is all symmetry, Full of proportions, one limb to Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: another, And to all the world besides. Each part may call the farthest, brother; For head with foot hath private amity, And both with moons and tides. Nothing hath got so far.

But man hath caught and kept it as his prey; His eyes dismount the on Investment Essay, highest star; He is in India’s Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects little all the sphere. Herbs gladly cure our flesh, because that they. Find their acquaintance there. For us, the winds do blow, The earth doth rest, heaven move, and fountains flow; Nothing we see, but means our good, As our delight, or as our treasure;

The whole is Essay, either our cupboard of food, Or cabinet of pleasure. The stars have us to bed: Night draws the curtain; which the sun withdraws. Music and light attend our head. All things unto our flesh are kind, In their descent and being; to our mind, In their ascent and cause. More servants wait on man.

Than he'll take notice of. In every path, He treads down that which doth befriend him. When sickness makes him pale and wan. Oh mighty love! Man is one world, and hath. Another to attend him. The perception of this class of truths makes the attraction which draws men to science, but the end is lost sight of in attention to the means. In view of this half-sight of science, we accept the sentence of Plato, that, poetry comes nearer to Essay about Reviewing Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects vital truth than history. Every surmise and vaticination of the Return, mind is entitled to a certain respect, and we learn to prefer imperfect theories, and sentences, which contain glimpses of India’s Problems and Prospects, truth, to digested systems which have no one valuable suggestion.

A wise writer will feel that the ends of study and composition are best answered by announcing undiscovered regions of thought, and so communicating, through hope, new activity to the torpid spirit. I shall therefore conclude this essay with some traditions of Essay A Modest, man and nature, which a certain poet sang to Essay about Industrialisation: me; and which, as they have always been in the world, and perhaps reappear to every bard, may be both history and prophecy. `The foundations of man are not in matter, but in spirit. But the element of Maximizing Return on Investment, spirit is eternity. To it, therefore, the longest series of events, the oldest chronologies are young and recent. In the cycle of the universal man, from whom the known individuals proceed, centuries are points, and all history is but the Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects, epoch of one degradation.

`We distrust and deny inwardly our sympathy with nature. We own and disown our relation to it, by turns. Characters Of Hamlet! We are, like Nebuchadnezzar, dethroned, bereft of reason, and eating grass like an ox. But who can set limits to the remedial force of spirit? `A man is a god in ruins.

When men are innocent, life shall be longer, and shall pass into the immortal, as gently as we awake from dreams. Essay Industrialisation: Problems! Now, the world would be insane and rabid, if these disorganizations should last for hundreds of years. It is kept in check by death and infancy. Infancy is the perpetual Messiah, which comes into the arms of fallen men, and pleads with them to return to paradise. `Man is the dwarf of himself. Once he was permeated and dissolved by spirit. He filled nature with his overflowing currents. About A Modest Proposal By Jonathan Swift! Out from him sprang the sun and moon; from man, the sun; from Essay Industrialisation: Problems woman, the moon. The laws of his mind, the periods of his actions externized themselves into day and Maximizing night, into the year and the seasons. But, having made for himself this huge shell, his waters retired; he no longer fills the veins and veinlets; he is shrunk to Essay about Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: Problems a drop. He sees, that the structure still fits him, but fits him colossally.

Say, rather, once it fitted him, now it corresponds to him from far and on high. He adores timidly his own work. Now is man the follower of the sun, and woman the follower of the moon. Yet sometimes he starts in his slumber, and wonders at himself and his house, and muses strangely at characters, the resemblance betwixt him and it. He perceives that if his law is still paramount, if still he have elemental power, if his word is sterling yet in nature, it is Reviewing India’s Industrialisation:, not conscious power, it is communities, not inferior but superior to his will. About Reviewing Industrialisation:! It is Instinct.' Thus my Orphic poet sang.

At present, man applies to nature but half his force. He works on the world with his understanding alone. He lives in it, and masters it by a penny-wisdom; and he that works most in it, is but a half-man, and whilst his arms are strong and his digestion good, his mind is Swift, imbruted, and Essay about Reviewing and Prospects he is a selfish savage. His relation to nature, his power over it, is through the A Modest Proposal, understanding; as by manure; the economic use of fire, wind, water, and the mariner's needle; steam, coal, chemical agriculture; the repairs of the human body by the dentist and the surgeon. This is about Reviewing India’s and Prospects, such a resumption of power, as if a banished king should buy his territories inch by Essay, inch, instead of Essay Industrialisation: Problems, vaulting at once into his throne. Meantime, in puritan communities the thick darkness, there are not wanting gleams of a better light, -- occasional examples of the about Reviewing India’s Problems and Prospects, action of man upon nature with his entire force, -- with reason as well as understanding. Such examples are; the traditions of miracles in the earliest antiquity of all nations; the history of Jesus Christ; the achievements of a principle, as in religious and political revolutions, and in the abolition of the Slave-trade; the miracles of enthusiasm, as those reported of Swedenborg, Hohenlohe, and the Shakers; many obscure and yet contested facts, now arranged under the name of characters, Animal Magnetism; prayer; eloquence; self-healing; and the wisdom of children. These are examples of Reason's momentary grasp of the sceptre; the exertions of a power which exists not in time or space, but an instantaneous in-streaming causing power. The difference between the actual and Essay about India’s Industrialisation: and Prospects the ideal force of man is happily figured by the schoolmen, in saying, that the knowledge of man is an Maximizing Return on Investment Essay, evening knowledge, vespertina cognitio, but that of God is a morning knowledge, matutina cognitio. The problem of restoring to the world original and eternal beauty, is solved by the redemption of the soul.

The ruin or the blank, that we see when we look at nature, is in our own eye. The axis of vision is not coincident with the axis of things, and so they appear not transparent but opake. The reason why the world lacks unity, and lies broken and in heaps, is, because man is Essay Reviewing Industrialisation: Problems, disunited with himself. He cannot be a naturalist, until he satisfies all the demands of the spirit. Love is as much its demand, as perception. Indeed, neither can be perfect without the other. Horse Essay! In the uttermost meaning of the words, thought is devout, and devotion is Essay India’s Industrialisation:, thought. Deep calls unto deep. Of Hamlet! But in actual life, the marriage is not celebrated.

There are innocent men who worship God after the tradition of their fathers, but their sense of duty has not yet extended to the use of all their faculties. And there are patient naturalists, but they freeze their subject under the wintry light of the understanding. Is not prayer also a study of truth, -- a sally of the soul into the unfound infinite? No man ever prayed heartily, without learning something. But when a faithful thinker, resolute to detach every object from personal relations, and see it in the light of Essay about Industrialisation: and Prospects, thought, shall, at the same time, kindle science with the characters of hamlet, fire of the holiest affections, then will God go forth anew into the creation. It will not need, when the mind is prepared for study, to search for objects. The invariable mark of wisdom is to see the miraculous in the common. What is and Prospects, a day?

What is a year? What is summer? What is Babies: Shopping Perfect, woman? What is a child? What is sleep? To our blindness, these things seem unaffecting. We make fables to hide the baldness of the fact and conform it, as we say, to the higher law of the mind. But when the fact is seen under the Essay Reviewing Industrialisation: Problems, light of an idea, the gaudy fable fades and shrivels.

We behold the real higher law. To the wise, therefore, a fact is true poetry, and the most beautiful of fables. These wonders are brought to our own door. You also are a man. Man and woman, and puritan communities their social life, poverty, labor, sleep, fear, fortune, are known to you. Reviewing India’s And Prospects! Learn that none of these things is superficial, but that each phenomenon has its roots in the faculties and affections of the mind. Whilst the Essay on Designer for your Perfect, abstract question occupies your intellect, nature brings it in the concrete to be solved by your hands. It were a wise inquiry for the closet, to compare, point by point, especially at about Reviewing Industrialisation:, remarkable crises in life, our daily history, with the rise and Maximizing Essay progress of ideas in the mind. So shall we come to look at the world with new eyes.

It shall answer the endless inquiry of the intellect, -- What is truth? and of the affections, -- What is good? by yielding itself passive to the educated Will. Then shall come to pass what my poet said; `Nature is not fixed but fluid. Spirit alters, moulds, makes it. The immobility or bruteness of nature, is the absence of spirit; to pure spirit, it is fluid, it is volatile, it is obedient. Every spirit builds itself a house; and beyond its house a world; and beyond its world, a heaven.

Know then, that the Essay about Reviewing India’s and Prospects, world exists for characters, you. For you is the phenomenon perfect. What we are, that only Reviewing Industrialisation: Problems and Prospects can we see. All that Adam had, all that Caesar could, you have and can do. Adam called his house, heaven and earth; Caesar called his house, Rome; you perhaps call yours, a cobler's trade; a hundred acres of ploughed land; or a scholar's garret. Yet line for Maximizing Return on Investment Essay, line and point for about Reviewing India’s Industrialisation: Problems, point, your dominion is as great as theirs, though without fine names. Build, therefore, your own world. As fast as you conform your life to the pure idea in your mind, that will unfold its great proportions. A correspondent revolution in things will attend the influx of the spirit. So fast will disagreeable appearances, swine, spiders, snakes, pests, madhouses, prisons, enemies, vanish; they are temporary and shall be no more seen. The sordor and filths of nature, the sun shall dry up, and the wind exhale.

As when the summer comes from the south; the snow-banks melt, and the face of the communities, earth becomes green before it, so shall the advancing spirit create its ornaments along its path, and carry with it the beauty it visits, and Essay Reviewing India’s the song which enchants it; it shall draw beautiful faces, warm hearts, wise discourse, and Essay on Designer Babies: Shopping Perfect Child heroic acts, around its way, until evil is no more seen. The kingdom of man over nature, which cometh not with observation, -- a dominion such as now is beyond his dream of God, -- he shall enter without more wonder than the blind man feels who is gradually restored to perfect sight.'