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Psychoanalysis/ History Of Boot Camp Corrections term paper 18077. History of Boot Camp Corrections. Between And Graduate? In the criminal, military boot camp represents an difference, abrupt, often shocking transition to a new way of life. Discipline is strict and there is an Perfect Friendship is The of Men, emphasis on hard work, physical training, and unquestioning obedience to authority. The new private is told when to sleep, when to get up and when to difference and graduate, eat. He marches with his platoon everywhere he goes such as to meals and to training.

Orders must be obeyed instantly and Perfect Friendship, personal liberty is almost nonexistent. By the end of boot camp the new private has become a different person. Such was the and graduate, hope for Loss: A Stage of Writing a Research Paper, boot camp, or shock incarceration, programs in American prisons: that young, nonviolent offenders could be diverted from difference between a life outside the law using the same tactics successfully employed by the military to turn civilians into soldiers. Definition? This reliance on difference and graduate a military atmosphere still provokes controversy over boot camp programs, with proponents arguing that the rigid discipline promotes positive behavior. (Clear, 1997) (Cowels, 1995) Since their beginning in 1983 in Georgia, boot camps have spread to half the States and have gained wide popular appeal for their get tough policies. Proponents of boot camps cite their potential for rehabilitating offenders and Vygotsky and His Essay, curbing future criminal behavior. Opponents caution that more information is needed on a variety of issues including costs and the potential for abuse of power. Research into boot camps began with a 1988 study of Louisiana's boot camp program and continued with a multisite evaluation in difference between masters 1989. (Cowels, 1995) Fueled primarily by growth in Aspects Essay the number of offenders incarcerated during the past decade and between and graduate, changing views of the role of punishment and treatment in the correctional system, shock incarceration programs, or boot camps as they have been more recently called, have emerged as an criminal definition, increasingly popular alternative sanction for nonviolent crimes.

Boot camp programs operate under a military-like routine wherein young offenders convicted of less serious, nonviolent crimes are confined for a short period of time, typically from 3 to 6 months. Difference Masters And Graduate? (Parent, 1989) They are given close supervision while being exposed to a demanding regimen of strict discipline, physical training, drill, inspections, and physical labor. All the programs also incorporate some degree of military structure and discipline. They follow new strict rules which they are not use to Socio-cultural Theory, which include the following: (1) Basic training program inmates shall not enter the rooms of other inmates. Difference Between And Graduate? (2) Upon rising, inmates will make their beds in the military manner prescribed by staff and the beds will remain in this condition unless occupied. Definition? (3) No food, beverages, or other items from the dining hall will be permitted in and graduate the dormitories. (4) No talking is permitted during quiet time, study time or after lights out. (5) Inmates shall not place any pictures, photographs, calendars, posters, or writings of any type on swot analysis doors, walls, lockers, or on any other state equipment or property. (6) Rooms and lockers shall be kept neat and between and graduate, orderly in the manner prescribed by basic training program staff.(7) Cleanliness of common areas such as day rooms, hallways, and showers shall be the responsibility of all inmates assigned to that housing wing of the dormitory. (8) When leaving the dormitory for any reason, inmates will be in the uniform of the day as specified by the program director. Important Aspects Of Teaching? (9) Inmates shall contact the dormitory officer or supervisor about any personal problems, which might arise. If the problem cannot be resolved at this level, the inmate may submit his concerns in writing to the officer in difference between masters charge or program director. (America Online, 1994) (Cowels, 1995) Appearance and Hygiene: (1) Hair. Basic training program inmates will receive a military style haircut upon arrival in the program.

Inmates will subsequently receive haircuts every two weeks for the duration of the program. (2) Shaving. Loss: A Stage A Research? Basic training program inmates shall be clean shaven. Inmates shall shave every day unless it is determined by the institutional physician that shaving would be detrimental to the inmate's health. Masters? (3) Showers. Basic training program inmates shall shower daily. (4) Clothing. Basic training program inmates will be issued the required clothing specified for the basic training program. Inmates shall not alter or mark any clothing items issued. No other items of clothing will be permitted. Definition? (America Online, 1994) When the inmates first arrive they have an orientation which includes: (1) Inmate identification by photograph, name, and masters, DC number; (2) Initial reception and introduction to the basic training program, will include an explanation of the shock incarceration program and the community residential facilities; (3) Inventory of inmate personal property; (4) Explanation of criminal definition disciplinary procedures. (5) Haircuts; (6) Housing assignments; (7) Issuance of basic training program uniforms and explanation of basic training program dress code and inmate hygiene requirements. (America Online, 1994)

Programs also differ in whether activities such as work, community services, education, or counseling are incorporated in masters the schedule of activities. Criminal? There is some consistency in the goals of the programs, among them to reduce prison crowding and to change offender s behavior and thus their future involvement in crime. Some jurisdictions stress the need for intensive supervision after release if the behavioral changes brought about by shock incarceration are to continue in the community. Some States impose additional requirements, such as drug testing, while the offender is under parole supervision. Boot camp programs are generally designed for young, nonviolent offenders with their first felony conviction. (Cronin, 1994) These offenders usually volunteer for the program and difference, must meet physical and mental health requirements. Placement and release decisions vary from one program to another and Perfect is The Friendship of Men Essay, may be made by judges, corrections department administrators, or members of parole boards. (Cowels, 1995) Precursors of shock incarceration programs include shock probation and Scared Straight, which pursued specific deterrence objectives. Masters And Graduate? The Scared Straight program tried to deter young delinquents by general motors analysis making them fearful of prison through short, confrontational performances dramatized inside a prison by difference between masters hard-core inmates.(Cronin, 1994) Many current shock incarceration programs also seek to deter criminal behavior, but they have other significant goals as well. Criminal? The early shock probation programs locked up young adult offenders in difference between masters the prison population for a brief period so they could get a real experience with prison life.

In contrast to the boot camps, offenders were mixed with general population offenders, and there were no military aspects. Evaluations of the shock probation programs were not positive because participants failed at rates similar to those in comparison groups. Aspects Essay? In 1993 a survey sponsored by the General Accounting Office showed that 59 boot camp programs were operating in 29 States, with a total capacity of 10,065. Masters And Graduate? (Cowels, 1995) Only two States--Michigan and Texas--have reduced their capacity since then. The largest programs are in New York and Georgia; together these two States account for Aspects of Teaching Mathematics Essay, half the total capacity nationwide. Difference Masters And Graduate? (Cowels, 1995) Most programs accommodate 100 to 250 inmates and continue to limit participants to young, nonviolent first offenders who enter the boot camps voluntarily, primarily to shorten their prison terms. However, some States have raised the upper age limit to include offenders over 30, and some now allow more serious offenders, with only 28 percent of the States restricting boot camp eligibility to first offenders in 1993. Important Of Teaching? (Cowels, 1995) Even boot camp proponents, however, believe that the criminal justice system should still proceed cautiously in implementing programs until some of the on-going research and program development efforts are completed. Discussions have centered around issues such as: (1) The projected high cost of treatment-oriented programs because it is difficult to interpret the cost data from different States or make meaningful comparisons across States because of differences in masters methods of accounting. (2) Criteria to Socio-cultural, determine the between masters, most appropriate and rigorous medical and psychological screening processes. (3) Acquisition of more information about what actually happens in boot camp. General Motors? (3) Better assessment techniques to determine how offenders change in boot camp. (4) Staff qualifications, including the ability to difference between, impose discipline evenhandedly while taking account of individual differences. (5) Potential abuse of power and the effect it may have on both inmates and program staff. (6) The need for clear policies governing the criminal, use of masters immediate punishment, force, and profanity. (Cronin, 1994) (Parent, 1989) The American Correctional Association has developed standards for adult and juvenile boot camps. Research Perspectives of the National Institute of Justice During the mid-1980's, the Nation's prison population grew rapidly, crimes by younger offenders escalated steadily, and prisons outgrew their capacity.

Therefore, NIJ, the research arm of the Department of Justice, undertook the criminal definition, task of exploring the masters and graduate, boot camp concept. In 1988, NIJ sponsored Dr. Doris MacKenzie, then of Loss: of Writing Paper Louisiana State University, in evaluating the shock incarceration program in that State. The Louisiana Department of Public Safety and Correction's Intensive Motivational Program of Alternative Correctional Treatment (IMPACT), implemented in 1987, was then a two-phased boot camp program. Difference Masters And Graduate? In the first phase, offenders were incarcerated for general swot analysis, 90 to 180 days in a rigorous boot camp atmosphere. Following this, they were placed under intensive parole supervision. Difference And Graduate? This second phase required offenders to Perfect Friendship Friendship Essay, have at least four contacts a week with their supervising officers, adhere to a strict 8 p.m. to between and graduate, 6 a.m. curfew, perform community service, and work. In establishing the criminal definition, IMPACT program, Louisiana's major stated goal was to create a new sentencing option that would provide placement for inmates who would otherwise be sent to the State's crowded prison.

Other program goals were to provide participants with the life skills they would need to succeed in between masters and graduate becoming constructive members of society. Definition? The evaluation, designed to examine Louisiana's success in masters meeting its goals, examined how the program was implemented, changes in inmate behavior and Vygotsky and His Theory, attitude resulting from the program, and system-level changes such as costs and benefits. The evaluators found that staff saw the program as more than a way of getting tough with the masters and graduate, young offenders; both the staff and the inmates found their interaction to Friendship is The of Men, be more positive than in regular prison. Nonetheless, offenders found the boot camp regimen to be physically and mentally taxing, and many dropped out before completing the program. (Cronin, 1994) (Parent, 1989) Findings from the evaluation indicated that inmates who completed the program believed they had learned valuable lessons and skills, and their positive attitudes grew during the difference between masters and graduate, time they were in the program. By contrast, regular prison inmates had increasingly negative attitudes during their prison stays.They said they learned only that they did not want to return to prison.

Boot camp offenders were involved in more positive activities during their time under community supervision than other parolees, probationers, and brave, boot camp dropouts, but during the 6-month supervision period, the positive activities of all groups declined. There was no significant difference among all the groups in difference between masters and graduate the percentage arrested during these 6 months. (Cowels, 1995) Cost savings per boot camp inmate were significant ($13,784) over Important the cost of the longer term incarceration that would have taken place, but these savings were somewhat offset by higher costs for the community supervision phase ($5,956), thus netting a total of $7,828 saved for each offender who completed the program instead of going to regular prison. (Cowels, 1995) The evaluators concluded that programs like IMPACT might achieve the goal of creating new sentencing options for some offenders who would otherwise spend longer terms in between masters prison. General Motors Swot? Around the same time that the Louisiana evaluation was being completed, the boot camp option was attracting considerable interest as an difference and graduate, alternative to traditional imprisonment for young offenders. Brave Religion? Boot camp programs were springing up in many parts of the country, but critics were calling for a guarded approach because of major concerns that needed to be thoroughly examined. (Cronin, 1994) In response, NIJ undertook a multisite evaluation of boot camp programs that began with a 1989 survey of difference between masters and graduate 50 State correctional jurisdictions to motors swot, determine what specific program components seemed to difference and graduate, work best and for what types of offenders. The survey identified 11 States with shock incarceration programs and spelled out the differences among them. For instance, in some programs judges selected offenders for this sanction. In others the decision lay with correctional department officials.

Different programs placed varying emphasis on rehabilitation, academic education, and vocational education. Perfect Friendship Is The? This information indicated a need to examine the efficacy of boot camp programs. (Cronin, 1994) This multisite evaluation studied boot camp programs in eight States (Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, New York, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and Texas) to develop a broader picture of how this popular new sanction was being applied. Difference And Graduate? In general, the study found that recidivism rates of those completing boot camp programs were similar to those for comparable offenders who spent a longer time in prison. Lower recidivism rates were found in three States, however--New York, Illinois, and Louisiana. Programs in these States had a strong therapeutic focus and included an intensive 6-month supervision phase on release into the community. The findings suggested that the boot camp experience alone is not sufficient for reducing recidivism. (Cowels, 1995) Even though the boot camp experience was found not to be the total answer for the reduction of recidivism, there is still many uses for it. Of Writing A Research? The data already shown shows that a lot of he inmates who first went to the boot camp style of between and graduate corrections were straightened out and scared to a point.

So just because the recidivism problem wasn t answered, boot camp corrections is still a very useful tool in the punishment of young offenders to hopefully scare them straight. America Online. Of Writing A Research Paper? Boot Camps. (1994): n. Online. Internet. 22 Apr. 1999. Available: Clear, Todd R, and Cole, George F. Difference? American Corrections. California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1997.

Cowels, Ernest L. Perfect Of Men? Boot Camp aftercare intervention. Washington, D.C: National Institute of Justice, 1995. Cronin, Roberta C. And Graduate? Boot Camps for adult and juvenile offenders. Washington, D.C: National Institute of Justice, 1994. Parent, Dale. Shock Incarceration: an overview of existing programs. Washington, D.C: National Institute of Justice, 1989.

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Difference between masters and graduate

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Difference Between Graduate and Masters

How to Write a Great Business Plan. Every seasoned investor knows that detailed financial projections for a new company are an act of imagination. Nevertheless, most business plans pour far too much ink on the numbers–and far too little on the information that really matters. Masters? Why? William Sahlman suggests that a great business plan is Friendship Friendship of Men Essay, one that focuses on a series of masters, questions. These questions relate to the four factors critical to the success of every new venture: the people, the Important of Teaching Mathematics opportunity, the difference between and graduate context, and the possibilities for both risk and reward. The questions about is The, people revolve around three issues: What do they know?

Whom do they know? and How well are they known? As for opportunity, the plan should focus on difference masters, two questions: Is the market for the venture’s product or service large or rapidly growing (or preferably both)? and Is the industry structurally attractive? Then, in addition to demonstrating an religion understanding of the context in which their venture will operate, entrepreneurs should make clear how they will respond when that context inevitably changes. Difference Between And Graduate? Finally, the plan should look unflinchingly at the risks the new venture faces, giving would-be backers a realistic idea of what magnitude of reward they can expect and religion, when they can expect it. A great business plan is not easy to compose, Sahlman acknowledges, largely because most entrepreneurs are wild-eyed optimists. But one that asks the right questions is a powerful tool. A better deal, not to mention a better shot at success, awaits entrepreneurs who use it.

Few areas of business attract as much attention as new ventures, and few aspects of between and graduate, new-venture creation attract as much attention as the business plan. Countless books and articles in the popular press dissect the topic. A growing number of Socio-cultural Theory Essay, annual business-plan contests are springing up across the United States and, increasingly, in other countries. Difference? Both graduate and undergraduate schools devote entire courses to the subject. Definition? Indeed, judging by all the hoopla surrounding business plans, you would think that the only things standing between a would-be entrepreneur and spectacular success are glossy five-color charts, a bundle of meticulous-looking spreadsheets, and a decade of month-by-month financial projections. Nothing could be further from the truth. Difference Between And Graduate? In my experience with hundreds of of Writing, entrepreneurial startups, business plans rank no higher than 2—on a scale from between masters and graduate, 1 to 10—as a predictor of a new venture’s success. And sometimes, in fact, the general motors more elaborately crafted the between masters document, the more likely the A Stage of Writing a Research venture is to, well, flop, for lack of a more euphemistic word.

What’s wrong with most business plans? The answer is relatively straightforward. Masters? Most waste too much ink on numbers and Vygotsky Socio-cultural Essay, devote too little to the information that really matters to intelligent investors. As every seasoned investor knows, financial projections for a new company—especially detailed, month-by-month projections that stretch out for more than a year—are an between masters and graduate act of imagination. Friendship Is The Of Men? An entrepreneurial venture faces far too many unknowns to predict revenues, let alone profits. Moreover, few if any entrepreneurs correctly anticipate how much capital and time will be required to accomplish their objectives. Typically, they are wildly optimistic, padding their projections.

Investors know about the padding effect and therefore discount the figures in between masters and graduate business plans. These maneuvers create a vicious circle of inaccuracy that benefits no one. Don’t misunderstand me: business plans should include some numbers. But those numbers should appear mainly in the form of a business model that shows the entrepreneurial team has thought through the key drivers of the venture’s success or failure. In manufacturing, such a driver might be the yield on a production process; in magazine publishing, the criminal definition anticipated renewal rate; or in software, the impact of using various distribution channels. The model should also address the break-even issue: At what level of sales does the business begin to make a profit? And even more important, When does cash flow turn positive? Without a doubt, these questions deserve a few pages in difference and graduate any business plan. Near the back. What goes at Vygotsky and His Socio-cultural, the front?

What information does a good business plan contain? If you want to speak the language of investors—and also make sure you have asked yourself the difference between masters and graduate right questions before setting out on the most daunting journey of a businessperson’s career—I recommend basing your business plan on the framework that follows. General Swot Analysis? It does not provide the kind of “winning” formula touted by some current how-to books and software programs for entrepreneurs. Nor is it a guide to brain surgery. Rather, the difference and graduate framework systematically assesses the Mathematics four interdependent factors critical to difference masters every new venture:

The People. The men and women starting and running the venture, as well as the outside parties providing key services or important resources for it, such as its lawyers, accountants, and suppliers. The Opportunity. A profile of the business itself—what it will sell and to whom, whether the business can grow and how fast, what its economics are, who and what stand in the way of Aspects Essay, success. The Context. The big picture—the regulatory environment, interest rates, demographic trends, inflation, and the like—basically, factors that inevitably change but cannot be controlled by the entrepreneur. Risk and difference between masters and graduate, Reward.

An assessment of everything that can go wrong and right, and a discussion of how the criminal definition entrepreneurial team can respond. Business Plans: For Entrepreneurs Only? The accompanying article talks mainly about business plans in a familiar context, as a tool for entrepreneurs. Masters And Graduate? But quite often, start-ups are launched within established companies. Do those new ventures require business plans? And if they do, should they be different from the plans entrepreneurs put together? The answer to the first question is an emphatic yes; the answer to general swot analysis the second, an equally emphatic no. All new ventures—whether they are funded by venture capitalists or, as is the difference between case with intrapreneurial businesses, by shareholders—need to pass the A Stage a Research Paper same acid tests. After all, the marketplace does not differentiate between products or services based on who is pouring money into difference between masters and graduate them behind the scenes. The fact is, intrapreneurial ventures need every bit as much analysis as entrepreneurial ones do, yet they rarely receive it. Instead, inside big companies, new businesses get proposed in the form of capital-budgeting requests.

These faceless documents are subject to detailed financial scrutiny and a consensus-building process, as the project wends its way through the chain of Perfect Friendship Friendship of Men Essay, command, what I call the “neutron bomb” model of project governance. However, in the history of between, such proposals, a plan never has been submitted that did not promise returns in excess of corporate hurdle rates. General Motors Analysis? It is only after the new business is launched that these numbers explode at the organization’s front door. That problem could be avoided in difference between masters and graduate large part if intrapreneurial ventures followed the guidelines set out in the accompanying article. Loss: Of Writing A Research? For instance, business plans for such a venture should begin with the résumés of all the people involved. Difference Between And Graduate? What has the Aspects of Teaching Mathematics Essay team done in between the past that would suggest it would be successful in the future, and so on? In addition, the new venture’s product or service should be fully analyzed in of Men Essay terms of its opportunity and context. Between And Graduate? Going through the process forces a kind of discipline that identifies weaknesses and strengths early on Vygotsky and His Theory Essay, and helps managers address both. It also helps enormously if such discipline continues after the intrapreneurial venture lifts off. When professional venture capitalists invest in new companies, they track performance as a matter of course. But in large companies, scrutiny of a new venture is often inconsistent.

That shouldn’t or needn’t be the masters and graduate case. A business plan helps managers ask such questions as: How is the new venture doing relative to projections? What decisions has the new world religion team made in response to new information? Have changes in the context made additional funding necessary? How could the difference between and graduate team have predicted those changes? Such questions not only keep a new venture running smoothly but also help an organization learn from its mistakes and triumphs. Many successful companies have been built with the brave new world religion help of venture capitalists. Many of the underlying opportunities could have been exploited by large companies.

Why weren’t they? Perhaps useful lessons can be learned by studying the difference and graduate world of independent ventures, one lesson being: Write a great business plan. The assumption behind the framework is that great businesses have attributes that are easy to identify but hard to assemble. They have an experienced, energetic managerial team from the top to criminal the bottom. The team’s members have skills and experiences directly relevant to the opportunity they are pursuing.

Ideally, they will have worked successfully together in the past. The opportunity has an attractive, sustainable business model; it is possible to create a competitive edge and defend it. Many options exist for expanding the scale and scope of the business, and these options are unique to the enterprise and its team. Value can be extracted from the business in a number of ways either through a positive harvest event—a sale—or by scaling down or liquidating. The context is favorable with respect to both the regulatory and difference masters, the macro-economic environments. Criminal? Risk is understood, and the team has considered ways to difference between and graduate mitigate the impact of difficult events. In short, great businesses have the four parts of the framework completely covered.

If only Perfect Friendship Essay reality were so neat. When I receive a business plan, I always read the résumé section first. Not because the people part of the new venture is the most important, but because without the right team, none of the other parts really matters. I read the résumés of the venture’s team with a list of masters, questions in mind. (See the insert “Who Are These People, Anyway?”) All these questions get at criminal, the same three issues about the between masters venture’s team members: What do they know? Whom do they know? and How well are they known? Fourteen “Personal” Questions Every Business Plan Should Answer. Where are the Important Aspects of Teaching Mathematics Essay founders from? Where have they been educated?

Where have they worked—and for whom? What have they accomplished—professionally and personally—in the past? What is their reputation within the masters and graduate business community? What experience do they have that is directly relevant to the opportunity they are pursuing? What skills, abilities, and knowledge do they have? How realistic are they about the venture’s chances for success and the tribulations it will face? Who else needs to be on the team? Are they prepared to recruit high-quality people? How will they respond to adversity? Do they have the mettle to make the criminal definition inevitable hard choices that have to be made? How committed are they to this venture?

What are their motivations? What and whom they know are matters of between masters and graduate, insight and experience. How familiar are the team members with industry players and dynamics? Investors, not surprisingly, value managers who have been around the block a few times. A business plan should candidly describe each team member’s knowledge of the new venture’s type of product or service; its production processes; and Essay, the market itself, from competitors to difference masters and graduate customers. It also helps to indicate whether the team members have worked together before.

Not played—as in roomed together in college—but worked . Investors also look favorably on a team that is Perfect is The Friendship of Men, known because the real world often prefers not to deal with start-ups. Between Masters And Graduate? They’re too unpredictable. That changes, however, when the new company is run by people well known to Vygotsky and His Theory suppliers, customers, and employees. Their enterprise may be brand new, but they aren’t. The surprise element of working with a start-up is somewhat ameliorated. Finally, the people part of a business plan should receive special care because, simply stated, that’s where most intelligent investors focus their attention.

A typical professional venture-capital firm receives approximately 2,000 business plans per year. These plans are filled with tantalizing ideas for new products and services that will change the world and reap billions in the process—or so they say. But the difference between fact is, most venture capitalists believe that ideas are a dime a dozen: only execution skills count. As Arthur Rock, a venture capital legend associated with the formation of such companies as Apple, Intel, and Teledyne, states, “I invest in people, not ideas.” Rock also has said, “If you can find good people, if they’re wrong about the product, they’ll make a switch, so what good is Important, it to and graduate understand the product that they’re talking about in religion the first place?” Business plan writers should keep this admonition in mind as they craft their proposal. Talk about the difference between and graduate people—exhaustively. And if there is nothing solid about Important Aspects of Teaching, their experience and abilities to difference between masters and graduate herald, then the entrepreneurial team should think again about Loss: A Stage a Research, launching the venture. When it comes to the opportunity itself, a good business plan begins by focusing on two questions: Is the total market for the venture’s product or service large, rapidly growing, or both?

Is the industry now, or can it become, structurally attractive? Entrepreneurs and investors look for large or rapidly growing markets mainly because it is between masters and graduate, often easier to obtain a share of a growing market than to brave fight with entrenched competitors for a share of a mature or stagnant market. Smart investors, in fact, try hard to and graduate identify high-growth-potential markets early in their evolution: that’s where the big payoffs are. And, indeed, many will not invest in a company that cannot reach a significant scale (that is, $ 50 million in annual revenues) within five years. HBR Guide to Building Your Business Case Ebook + Tools. As for Friendship Essay, attractiveness, investors are obviously looking for markets that actually allow businesses to make some money. But that’s not the no-brainer it seems. Between Masters? In the late 1970s, the computer disk-drive business looked very attractive. The technology was new and exciting. Dozens of companies jumped into the fray, aided by an army of professional investors.

Twenty years later, however, the thrill is gone for managers and investors alike. Disk drive companies must design products to A Stage of Writing meet the perceived needs of difference and graduate, original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and end users. Selling a product to Vygotsky and His Socio-cultural Theory OEMs is complicated. The customers are large relative to most of their suppliers. There are lots of competitors, each with similar high-quality offerings. Moreover, product life cycles are short and ongoing technology investments high. The industry is difference and graduate, subject to major shifts in swot technology and customer needs. Intense rivalry leads to lower prices and, hence, lower margins. In short, the disk drive industry is simply not set up to make people a lot of money; it’s a structural disaster area. The information services industry, by between masters, contrast, is paradise. Companies such as Bloomberg Financial Markets and First Call Corporation, which provide data to the financial world, have virtually every competitive advantage on their side.

First, they can assemble or create proprietary content—content that, by the way, is like life’s blood to thousands of money managers and Vygotsky Theory, stock analysts around the world. And although it is often expensive to develop the difference service and to motors acquire initial customers, once up and running, these companies can deliver content to customers very cheaply. Also, customers pay in advance of receiving the service, which makes cash flow very handsome, indeed. In short, the structure of the information services industry is difference between, beyond attractive: it’s gorgeous. The profit margins of Bloomberg and First Call put the disk drive business to shame. The Opportunity of a Lifetime—or Is It? Nine Questions About the Important Aspects of Teaching Essay Business Every Business Plan Should Answer. Who is the difference and graduate new venture’s customer?

How does the customer make decisions about buying this product or service? To what degree is the definition product or service a compelling purchase for the customer? How will the product or service be priced? How will the venture reach all the identified customer segments? How much does it cost (in time and resources) to acquire a customer?

How much does it cost to produce and deliver the product or service? How much does it cost to support a customer? How easy is it to retain a customer? Thus, the first step for entrepreneurs is to make sure they are entering an difference between masters and graduate industry that is large and/or growing, and one that’s structurally attractive. The second step is to make sure their business plan rigorously describes how this is the case. And if it isn’t the case, their business plan needs to specify how the venture will still manage to Friendship is The Friendship make enough of a profit that investors (or potential employees or suppliers, for that matter) will want to participate. Once it examines the new venture’s industry, a business plan must describe in detail how the company will build and launch its product or service into the marketplace. Between Masters? Again, a series of questions should guide the discussion. (See the insert “The Opportunity of a Lifetime—or Is It?”) Often the answers to these questions reveal a fatal flaw in the business.

I’ve seen entrepreneurs with a “great” product discover, for Important Aspects Mathematics Essay, example, that it’s simply too costly to find customers who can and will buy what they are selling. Economically viable access to customers is the key to business, yet many entrepreneurs take the Field of Dreams approach to between masters and graduate this notion: build it, and they will come. That strategy works in the movies but is not very sensible in the real world. It is not always easy to motors answer questions about the likely consumer response to difference between masters and graduate new products or services. The market is as fickle as it is unpredictable. (Who would have guessed that plug-in room deodorizers would sell?) One entrepreneur I know proposed to motors swot introduce an electronic news-clipping service. He made his pitch to a prospective venture-capital investor who rejected the difference plan, stating, “I just don’t think the dogs will eat the Friendship Friendship of Men Essay dog food.” Later, when the entrepreneur’s company went public, he sent the venture capitalist an difference between and graduate anonymous package containing an empty can of dog food and new world, a copy of his prospectus. If it were easy to predict what people will buy, there wouldn’t be any opportunities. The market is as fickle as it is unpredictable. Who would have guessed that plug-in room deodorizers would sell? Similarly, it is tough to guess how much people will pay for something, but a business plan must address that topic. Sometimes, the difference and graduate dogs will eat the dog food, but only at a price less than cost.

Investors always look for opportunities for analysis, value pricing—that is, markets in which the costs to produce the product are low, but consumers will still pay a lot for it. No one is dying to invest in a company when margins are skinny. Still, there is difference, money to be made in inexpensive products and services—even in commodities. A business plan must demonstrate that careful consideration has been given to the new venture’s pricing scheme. The list of questions about the new venture’s opportunity focuses on the direct revenues and the costs of producing and marketing a product. New World? That’s fine, as far as it goes.

A sensible proposal, however, also involves assessing the and graduate business model from a perspective that takes into account the investment required—that is, the Vygotsky and His Theory Essay balance sheet side of the between masters and graduate equation. Brave Religion? The following questions should also be addressed so that investors can understand the cash flow implications of pursuing an opportunity: When does the business have to difference masters and graduate buy resources, such as supplies, raw materials, and people? When does the Theory Essay business have to pay for them? How long does it take to acquire a customer? How long before the customer sends the business a check? How much capital equipment is required to support a dollar of sales? Investors, of course, are looking for businesses in which management can buy low, sell high, collect early, and pay late. The business plan needs to spell out how close to that ideal the new venture is expected to come.

Even if the answer is “not very”—and it usually is—at least the truth is out there to discuss. The opportunity section of a business plan must also bring a few other issues to the surface. First, it must demonstrate and analyze how an opportunity can grow—in other words, how the new venture can expand its range of products or services, customer base, or geographic scope. Often, companies are able to create virtual pipelines that support the economically viable creation of new revenue streams. In the publishing business, for example, Inc. magazine has expanded its product line to include seminars, books, and between, videos about entrepreneurship. Aspects Of Teaching Essay? Similarly, building on the success of its personal-finance software program Quicken, Intuit now sells software for electronic banking, small-business accounting, and tax preparation, as well as personal-printing supplies and on-line information services—to name just a few of difference, its highly profitable ancillary spin-offs.

Now, lots of business plans runneth over on the subject of the new venture’s potential for Paper, growth and difference and graduate, expansion. But they should likewise runneth over in explaining how they won’t fall into some common opportunity traps. One of those has already been mentioned: industries that are at their core structurally unattractive. But there are others. The world of invention, for example, is fraught with danger. Vygotsky Socio-cultural Theory Essay? Over the between masters past 15 years, I have seen scores of individuals who have devised a better mousetrap—newfangled creations from inflatable pillows for use on airplanes to automated car-parking systems. Few of Mathematics, these idea-driven companies have really taken off, however. I’m not entirely sure why. Sometimes, the inventor refuses to spend the money required by or share the difference between masters and graduate rewards sufficiently with the business side of the analysis company.

Other times, inventors become so preoccupied with their inventions they forget the customer. Whatever the reason, better-mousetrap businesses have an uncanny way of between and graduate, malfunctioning. Another opportunity trap that business plans—and entrepreneurs in general—need to pay attention to is the tricky business of Friendship Friendship of Men, arbitrage. Between? Basically, arbitrage ventures are created to take advantage of some pricing disparity in the marketplace. Loss: Of Writing? MCI Communications Corporation, for instance, was formed to offer long-distance service at a lower price than ATT. Some of the industry consolidations going on today reflect a different kind of difference between masters and graduate, arbitrage—the ability to buy small businesses at a wholesale price, roll them up together into a larger package, and take them public at a retail price, all without necessarily adding value in the process.

Whatever the reason, better-mousetrap businesses have an uncanny way of malfunctioning. Taking advantage of definition, arbitrage opportunities is a viable and potentially profitable way to enter a business. In the final analysis, however, all arbitrage opportunities evaporate. It is not a question of whether, only difference masters and graduate when. The trick in these businesses is to use the arbitrage profits to build a more enduring business model, and business plans must explain how and when that will occur. As for Aspects of Teaching, competition, it probably goes without saying that all business plans should carefully and masters, thoroughly cover this territory, yet some don’t. That is a glaring omission. For starters, every business plan should answer the following questions about the competition: Who are the new venture’s current competitors? What resources do they control?

What are their strengths and weaknesses? How will they respond to the new venture’s decision to enter the business? How can the new venture respond to its competitors’ response? Who else might be able to observe and exploit the same opportunity? Are there ways to co-opt potential or actual competitors by forming alliances?

Business is like chess: to be successful, you must anticipate several moves in advance. A business plan that describes an A Stage a Research insuperable lead or a proprietary market position is by definition written by naïve people. That goes not just for the competition section of the business plan but for the entire discussion of the opportunity. All opportunities have promise; all have vulnerabilities. A good business plan doesn’t whitewash the latter. Rather, it proves that the entrepreneurial team knows the good, the bad, and the ugly that the venture faces ahead. Opportunities exist in a context. At one level is the macroeconomic environment, including the level of economic activity, inflation, exchange rates, and interest rates. At another level are the wide range of government rules and difference between and graduate, regulations that affect the Perfect Essay opportunity and how resources are marshaled to exploit it. Examples extend from between masters, tax policy to the rules about raising capital for a private or public company.

And at is The Friendship of Men Essay, yet another level are factors like technology that define the limits of what a business or its competitors can accomplish. Context often has a tremendous impact on difference between masters, every aspect of the entrepreneurial process, from identification of opportunity to harvest. In some cases, changes in some contextual factor create opportunity. More than 100 new companies were formed when the airline industry was deregulated in the late 1970s. The context for financing was also favorable, enabling new entrants like People Express to go to the public market for swot, capital even before starting operations. Conversely, there are times when the difference context makes it hard to start new enterprises. Important Mathematics Essay? The recession of the early 1990s combined with a difficult financing environment for new companies: venture capital disbursements were low, as was the amount of between masters and graduate, capital raised in the public markets. (Paradoxically, those relatively tight conditions, which made it harder for new entrants to get going, were associated with very high investment returns later in the 1990s, as capital markets heated up.) Sometimes, a shift in context turns an unattractive business into an attractive one, and vice versa. Consider the case of a packaging company some years ago that was performing so poorly it was about to be put on criminal definition, the block. Then came the between masters and graduate Tylenol-tampering incident, resulting in multiple deaths.

The packaging company happened to have an efficient mechanism for installing tamper-proof seals, and in a matter of weeks its financial performance could have been called spectacular. Conversely, U.S. tax reforms enacted in 1986 created havoc for companies in the real estate business, eliminating almost every positive incentive to invest. Many previously successful operations went out of business soon after the new rules were put in place. Every business plan should contain certain pieces of brave religion, evidence related to context. First, the entrepreneurs should show a heightened awareness of the new venture’s context and how it helps or hinders their specific proposal.

Second, and more important, they should demonstrate that they know the venture’s context will inevitably change and between, describe how those changes might affect the Socio-cultural Theory business. Difference Between And Graduate? Further, the business plan should spell out what management can (and will) do in Friendship Friendship Essay the event the context grows unfavorable. Finally, the business plan should explain the ways (if any) in which management can affect context in a positive way. For example, management might be able to difference between have an impact on Friendship is The Essay, regulations or on and graduate, industry standards through lobbying efforts. The concept that context is fluid leads directly to brave new world religion the fourth leg of the framework I propose: a discussion of difference between and graduate, risk and how to manage it. I’ve come to think of a good business plan as a snapshot of an event in the future. That’s quite a feat to begin with—taking a picture of the unknown. But the best business plans go beyond that; they are like movies of the future.

They show the people, the opportunity, and criminal definition, the context from multiple angles. They offer a plausible, coherent story of what lies ahead. They unfold possibilities of action and reaction. Good business plans, in other words, discuss people, opportunity, and context as a moving target. Masters? All three factors (and the relationship among them) are likely to change over Socio-cultural Theory Essay, time as a company evolves from start-up to ongoing enterprise. Therefore, any business plan worth the time it takes to between write or read needs to general swot analysis focus attention on the dynamic aspects of the entrepreneurial process. When it comes to the matter of risk and reward in and graduate a new venture, a business plan benefits enormously from the inclusion of Vygotsky Theory Essay, two graphs. Difference And Graduate? Perhaps graphs is the wrong word; these are really just schematic pictures that illustrate the most likely relationship between risk and reward, that is, the relationship between the opportunity and its economics.

High finance they are not, but I have found both of these pictures say more to Paper investors than a hundred pages of charts and prose. The first picture depicts the amount of money needed to launch the new venture, time to positive cash flow, and the expected magnitude of the payoff. This image helps the investor understand the between and graduate depth and Important Mathematics, duration of negative cash flow, as well as the relationship between the investment and the possible return. Between And Graduate? The ideal, needless to say, is to have cash flow early and often. But most investors are intrigued by the picture even when the cash outflow is definition, high and long—as long as the cash inflow is more so. Of course, since the world of new ventures is populated by between masters and graduate, wild-eyed optimists, you might expect the picture to display a shallower hole and a steeper reward slope than it should. It usually does. But to be honest, even that kind of picture belongs in the business plan because it is a fair warning to investors that the new venture’s team is completely out of new world religion, touch with reality and should be avoided at all costs.

The second picture complements the first. It shows investors the range of difference between, possible returns and the likelihood of achieving them. The following example shows investors that there is criminal definition, a 15 % chance they would have been better off using their money as wall-paper. Difference Between? The flat section reveals that there is brave new world, a negligible chance of losing only a small amount of money; companies either fail big or create enough value to achieve a positive return. The hump in the middle suggests that there is a significant chance of earning between 15 % and 45 % in difference between and graduate the same time period. And finally, there is criminal, a small chance that the initial outlay of cash will spawn a 200 % internal rate of return, which might have occurred if you had happened to invest in Microsoft when it was a private company.

Basically, this picture helps investors determine what class of between, investment the business plan is presenting. Is the new venture drilling for North Sea oil—highly risky with potentially big payoffs—or is it digging development wells in Texas, which happens to be less of a geological gamble and probably less lucrative, too? This image answers that kind of question. It’s then up to the investors to definition decide how much risk they want to live with against what kind of odds. Again, the people who write business plans might be inclined to difference between skew the picture to make it look as if the probability of a significant return is downright huge and the possibility of loss is negligible. And, again, I would say therein lies the picture’s beauty. What it claims, checked against Important Aspects Mathematics Essay the investor’s sense of reality and difference between masters and graduate, experience, should serve as a simple pictorial caveat emptor. Of course, the future is hard to predict. Important Aspects Of Teaching? Still, it is possible to give potential investors a sense of the kind and class of between masters, risk and reward they are assuming with a new venture. All it takes is a pencil and two simple drawings. (See the insert “Visualizing Risk and Reward.”) But even with these drawings, risk is, well, risky. In reality, there are no immutable distributions of Loss: A Stage of Writing a Research Paper, outcomes.

It is ultimately the responsibility of management to change the distribution, to increase the likelihood and difference between masters, consequences of success, and to decrease the likelihood and implications of problems. One of the great myths about brave new world religion, entrepreneurs is that they are risk seekers. All sane people want to avoid risk. As Harvard Business School professor (and venture capitalist) Howard Stevenson says, true entrepreneurs want to capture all the masters reward and a Research Paper, give all the risk to others. The best business is a post office box to which people send cashier’s checks. Yet risk is unavoidable. So what does that mean for a business plan? It means that the plan must unflinchingly confront the risks ahead—in terms of people, opportunity, and context. What happens if one of the new venture’s leaders leaves?

What happens if a competitor responds with more ferocity than expected? What happens if there is difference masters and graduate, a revolution in Namibia, the source of a key raw material? What will management actually do ? Those are hard questions for an entrepreneur to pose, especially when seeking capital. General Analysis? But a better deal awaits those who do pose them and difference between masters and graduate, then provide solid answers. A new venture, for example, might be highly leveraged and therefore very sensitive to interest rates. Its business plan would benefit enormously by stating that management intends to hedge its exposure through the new world religion financial-futures market by purchasing a contract that does well when interest rates go up. That is the equivalent of difference masters, offering investors insurance. (It also makes sense for the business itself.)

Finally, one important area in the realm of risk/reward management relates to harvesting. Venture capitalists often ask if a company is “IPOable,” by which they mean, Can the company be taken public at some point in the future? Some businesses are inherently difficult to take public because doing so would reveal information that might harm its competitive position (for example, it would reveal profitability, thereby encouraging entry or angering customers or suppliers). Some ventures are not companies, but rather products—they are not sustainable as independent businesses. One of the greatest myths about entrepreneurs is that they are risk seekers. All sane people want to avoid risk. Therefore, the business plan should talk candidly about the end of the process. How will the investor eventually get money out of the general swot business, assuming it is successful, even if only marginally so? When professionals invest, they particularly like companies with a wide range of exit options. They like companies that work hard to preserve and difference between masters and graduate, enhance those options along the way, companies that don’t, for example, unthinkingly form alliances with big corporations that could someday actually buy them.

Investors feel a lot better about risk if the venture’s endgame is discussed up front. Loss: A Stage Of Writing Paper? There is an old saying, “If you don’t know where you are going, any road will get you there.” In crafting sensible entrepreneurial strategies, just the opposite is true: you had better know where you might end up and between and graduate, have a map for getting there. A business plan should be the place where that map is Socio-cultural Essay, drawn, for, as every traveler knows, a journey is a lot less risky when you have directions. Once a business plan is written, of course, the goal is to land a deal. That is a topic for another article in itself, but I will add a few words here.

When I talk to young (and old) entrepreneurs looking to finance their ventures, they obsess about the valuation and terms of the deal they will receive. Their explicit goal seems to be to minimize the dilution they will suffer in raising capital. Implicitly, they are also looking for difference between masters, investors who will remain as passive as a tree while they go about building their business. On the Perfect Friendship of Men Essay food chain of investors, it seems, doctors and dentists are best and difference masters and graduate, venture capitalists are worst because of the degree to which the latter group demands control and a large share of the returns. That notion—like the idea that excruciatingly detailed financial projections are useful—is nonsense.

From whom you raise capital is often more important than the terms. New ventures are inherently risky, as I’ve noted; what can go wrong will. When that happens, unsophisticated investors panic, get angry, and often refuse to advance the company more money. Sophisticated investors, by contrast, roll up their sleeves and help the company solve its problems. Often, they’ve had lots of experience saving sinking ships. They are typically process literate. They understand how to craft a sensible business strategy and a strong tactical plan. They know how to recruit, compensate, and Aspects of Teaching Mathematics Essay, motivate team members. Difference? They are also familiar with the Loss: of Writing Paper Byzantine ins and outs of going public—an event most entrepreneurs face but once in a lifetime.

This kind of know-how is worth the money needed to buy it. There is an old expression directly relevant to entrepreneurial finance: “Too clever by half.” Often, deal makers get very creative, crafting all sorts of payoff and option schemes. That usually backfires. My experience has proven again and again that sensible deals have the following six characteristics: They do not blow apart if actual differs slightly from difference between masters, plan. They do not provide perverse incentives that will cause one or both parties to behave destructively.

They are written on A Stage of Writing, a pile of difference masters and graduate, papers no greater than one-quarter inch thick. But even these six simple rules miss an important point. Of Writing A Research Paper? A deal should not be a static thing, a one-shot document that negotiates the difference between masters disposition of a lump sum. Instead, it is incumbent upon entrepreneurs, before they go searching for funding, to think about A Stage of Writing, capital acquisition as a dynamic process—to figure out how much money they will need and when they will need it. How is that accomplished? The trick is for the entrepreneurial team to treat the difference between masters new venture as a series of experiments. Before launching the whole show, launch a little piece of it. Convene a focus group to test the product, build a prototype and watch it perform, conduct a regional or local rollout of a service. Such an is The exercise reveals the difference masters and graduate true economics of the business and can help enormously in determining how much money the new venture actually requires and in what stages.

Entrepreneurs should raise enough, and investors should invest enough, capital to fund each major experiment. Experiments, of course, can feel expensive and risky. But I’ve seen them prevent disasters and A Stage, help create successes. I consider it a prerequisite of putting together a winning deal. Among the many sins committed by business plan writers is arrogance. In today’s economy, few ideas are truly proprietary.

Moreover, there has never been a time in between and graduate recorded history when the supply of capital did not outrace the supply of opportunity. Perfect Friendship Is The Of Men? The true half-life of opportunity is decreasing with the passage of time. A business plan must not be an albatross that hangs around the difference and graduate neck of the entrepreneurial team, dragging it into oblivion. Instead, a business plan must be a call for Aspects of Teaching Mathematics Essay, action, one that recognizes management’s responsibility to fix what is broken proactively and in real time. Risk is inevitable, avoiding risk impossible. Risk management is the masters and graduate key, always tilting the venture in favor of reward and and His Socio-cultural Theory, away from risk. A plan must demonstrate mastery of the entire entrepreneurial process, from identification of masters and graduate, opportunity to harvest.

It is not a way to separate unsuspecting investors from their money by hiding the fatal flaw. Definition? For in the final analysis, the only one being fooled is the entrepreneur. We live today in the golden age of entrepreneurship. Difference? Although Fortune 500 companies have shed 5 million jobs in the past 20 years, the overall economy has added almost 30 million. Many of those jobs were created by entrepreneurial ventures, such as Cisco Systems, Genentech, and Microsoft. Each of those companies started with a business plan. Is that why they succeeded? There is no knowing for sure. But there is little doubt that crafting a business plan so that it thoroughly and candidly addresses the ingredients of success—people, opportunity, context, and definition, the risk/reward picture—is vitally important.

In the absence of a crystal ball, in fact, a business plan built of the right information and analysis can only be called indispensable. William A. Sahlman is the Dimitri V. D’Arbeloff-MBA Class of 1955 Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School.

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alex skowron resume EAST SUBURBAN CATHOLIC. Coach: John Halloran (sixth year) Last year's record: 14-6-2 ESCC conference champions - lost to Deerfield 1-0 Class 3A regional final. Top players lost: Donald Kolb, Joe Monroe, Nick Sturm, Matt McHugh, Bobby Merlo. Between! Top players returning: Shane Einloth Sr. D, Phil Gross Sr.

D/MF, Ryan May Sr. GK, Tommy Miller Sr. D/MF, Aaron Ogunro Sr MF, Jimmy Ryan Sr, F. Jack Stefanski Sr. D, Ian Heinrich Jr. MF, Sean O'Bryan Jr. MF. Other notable players: Tommy Miller Sr. A Research! D/MF, Joe Purtell Sr. Difference Between! F, Blake Quaiyoom Sr. Vygotsky And His Socio-cultural Theory! MF/F, Justin Andreasik, Jr. D, Justin Gibbons Jr.

D, Pat Hannon Jr, D, Max Heinrich Jr. MF, Todd Holup Jr. Between Masters And Graduate! D, Mike Reed Jr. MF, Christian Avalos So. MF, Andrew Harwardt So. Important Of Teaching Mathematics Essay! GK, TJ Poll So.

D. Outlook: Carmel returns a good number of players this season. But the difference masters, Corsairs have upgraded their nonconference schedule, which could pose some challenges. Mathematics Essay! We've brought back the major core of our team back from last year, Carmel coach John Halloran said. Difference Between Masters And Graduate! We still need to earn it in every game. Our schedule will be a lot tougher this year.

FOX VALLEY (Fox Division) Coach: Mike McCaulou (seventh year) Last year's record: 7-17 - lost to Wheaton Academy in Class 2A regional semifinals. Top players lost: Albert Acosta, Jon Ayala, Sebastian Bibat, Andrew Bryan (Lake County), Jose Roman (Marian), Nick Schneider. Top players returning: Caleb Longenecker Sr. F, Asa Goldsmith Jr. D, Phillip Longenecker So. MF. Religion! Top newcomers: Jacob Fogarty Jr. D, Indy Reed Jr.

MF, James Garcia So. MF, Jason Koziol So. GK, Eder Lopez So. F, Other notable players: Bryant Olmos Sr. Difference And Graduate! D, Byron Perez Sr. MF, Kevin Anderson Jr. GK, Diego Gomez Jr. MF, Caleb Munk Jr. MF, Ryan Fontana So.

D, Kyle Martinez So. D. Outlook: Grayslake will rely on its youth to turn things around from last year. We do have a lot of players back, Grayslake Central coach Mike McCaulou said. Not a lot of the upperclassman. Perfect Is The Of Men Essay! Just youthful players picking up the difference between and graduate, game. The entire FVC plays a round robin this fall with the best records in each division becomes the general swot, champion. Coach: Adam DeCaluwe (fifth year) Last year's record: 6-15 - lost to Class 2A regional semifinal. Top players lost: Brian Stout (Hamline), Freddy Rosas. Top players returning: Richard Klarck Sr.

GK, Chris Meyers Sr. MF, Carson Klarck So. MF, Claudio Guerrero So. MF/F, Arnold Laroche-Bataille So. Between Masters And Graduate! MF, Michael Rohrer So. Vygotsky Socio-cultural Essay! D, Top newcomers: Cory Homan Sr. MF, Manny Martinez Sr. F, Sergo Mojica Sr. Difference Masters And Graduate! D, Ryan Retzke Sr. MF, Aleks Jovanovic Jr.

D, Ibra Perez-Vera Jr. D, Baruk Perez-Vera So. MF, Sintayehu Meyer So. MF, Other notable players: Andrew Rohrer Sr. D, Daniel Bazan Jr. D, Mark Lewis Jr. MF, Kip Wetter Jr. Criminal! MF/F, Outlook: Grayslake North lost 7 games by 1 goal last year, and that left its mark. We want our close games to be a lot better this year, Grayslake North coach Adam DeCaluwe said. We're hoping that with another year's experience under these boys' belts, they should be able to handle things a bit better and turn most of the losses into wins.

We would like to see our team record back to masters and graduate being above .500 with our schedule becoming tougher. Motors! NORTH SUBURBAN LAKE. Coach: Mike Schmitz (fourth year) Last year's record: 21-5 - Second in state, lost to Lyons 2-1 (OT) in masters Class 3A championship game. Top players lost: Jon Cerqua, Bret Harper (Elmhurst), Matt Hussey (Wheaton), Nick Janus (Wisconsin), John Jordan (IUPUI), Tim Kreutz (Michigan State), Max Methling, Eric Pothast (Marquette), Jack Rathe (Concordia-Mequon), Tyler Raineri, Top players returning: Jose Corral Sr. F, Luis Corral Sr. MF, Mark Osikowicz Sr. MF, Colin Rathe Sr. General Analysis! MF, Kyle Callender Jr. Masters! D. Jeff Kreutz Jr. Brave New World! GK, John Pothast Jr.

MF, Nate Holicky Jr. MF, Brendan Seeger Jr. MF. Top newcomers: Jake Changelon Sr. F (transfer from Carmel), Jorge Bermudez Jr. F, Greg Geimer Jr. Between! D, Alex Skowron Jr. F, Justin Marias Jr. MF, Matt Montemayer So.MF, Caleb Pothast Fr.

MF. Motors! Other notable players: Tom Doherty Sr GK, Nate Wille Sr. Masters! D, Carlos Fava Jr. D. Outlook: It was one of the best boys soccer classes in Aspects of Teaching Mathematics Essay Lake Zurich's school history a year ago. The Bears finished second in Class 3A and difference will have to criminal replace the difference masters, outstanding Division I talents of Eric Pothast, Nick Janus and Tim Kreutz to Friendship Friendship of Men make another run. We expect hard work and teamwork, Lake Zurich coach Mike Schmitz said. Difference! We do have a young team and good experience from last year. We will be looking for consistency as the season progresses.

Coach: Andy Bitta (25th year) Last year's record: 7-8-2 - lost to Stevenson in Class 3A regional semifinal. Top players lost: Andres Alvarez (Lake County), John Clark, Junior Cordova (Lewis), Kevin Fanning, Austin Gearing, Tim Grozier, Tim Kopera, Austin Slone. Paper! Top players returning: Andrew Bitta Sr GK, Miles McNeir, Sr. F, Marshall Hollingsworth Jr. MF, F, Sam Kaplan Jr. D, Joey Ruppert Jr. Difference! F. Top newcomers: Lloyd Chatfield Fr. MF, Austin Bitta So. F, Other notable players: Landon Eyre Sr.

D, Jose Ibarra-Luna Sr. D/MF, Jeff Janousek Sr. GK, Andy Loska Srt. D, Jay Russo Sr. Brave New World! D, Ethan Andrews Jr. D, Ellis Mathews Jr. GK, Griffin Pils Jr. F, Shane Reilly JR. Masters And Graduate! MF, Adam Witucki Jr.

D, Keenan Busse So. Important Of Teaching Essay! D, Tyler Gillespie So. MF, Tomide Owlabi So. MF/F, Outlook: Libertyville has youth and experience on its side this fall. And the Wildcats are setting some lofty goals their way. Our team goals are for the best record in conference, Bitta said. Masters And Graduate! We want to go far in the state tournament. Brave New World Religion! But we know it's one game at between masters a time.

Coach: Dave Ekstrom (22nd year) Last year's record: 5-13-5 - lost to Vygotsky Theory Essay Fremd in difference masters and graduate the Class 2A regional quarterfinal. Brave! Top players lost: Chris Best, Robert Glod, George Hernandez, Nick Franz, Juan Jaimes, Will Lardner, Nico Monroy, Tyler Neubauer (Lake County) , Kirk Remeikis, Juan Reynoso (Lake County). Top players returning: Eder Alcantar Sr. MF/F, Jon Dimitriou Sr MF, Saul Figueroa Sr. MF, Zach Guthrie Sr. D, Daniel Marcos Sr. D, Gabriel Marcos Sr. MF, Javier Ramirez Sr F, Nate Brune Jr.

D, Chistian Mata Jr. Between Masters And Graduate! F, Top newcomers: Matt Iwaniuk Sr. GK, Brandon Asher Jr. MF, Jason Dimitriou Jr. MF, Leo Rodriguez Jr. MF. Motors! Other notable players: Kevin Searle Sr. D, Angel Marcos Jr. MF, Luis Montenegro Jr.

F, Alex Nambo So. F. Outlook: Mundelein made a big change, moving Javier Ramirez out difference between of the general motors analysis, back from and graduate goalkeeper to scorer up front at forward. Also, Coach Dave Ekstrom has reached his 400th win between boys and girls in the opening week of the Perfect Friendship Essay, season. Between! Meanwhile, the Mustangs several experienced players. Important Aspects Of Teaching! We do have a lot of good players back that play together as a team, Ekstrom said. As long as we play the system we'll be OK, but if we get away from difference and graduate it things will be difficult for us.

Coach: Mark Schartner (22nd year) Last year's record: 17-4 - lost to Deerfield in the Class 3A sectional semifinal. Top players lost: Yonda Abogunrin, Greg Golovan, Gordy Gurson (Memphis), Steven Johnson (Trinity), Alan Nadelman, Shawn Singh. Top players returning: Ryan Crane Sr., Peter Gambino Sr., Justin George Sr., Auturo Hernandez Sr., Johnny Watrach Sr., Top newcomers: Jr. Definition! MF, Robby Thomashow Jr. Difference Masters! Scott Miller So. MF, Toshiki Nimi So. MF, Other notable players: Todd Kevin Sr. Swot! MF, Noel Lopez Sr.

F, Larry Luna Sr. D, Ben Lund Sr. MF, Avery Rosenbloom Sr. Difference Between And Graduate! D, Jacob Azriel Jr. GK, Zach Erny Jr. Definition! F, Max Gonzalez Jr. F, Joseph Hugener So. Masters And Graduate! F, Rick Lekakh Jr. D, Ryan Lovett Jr. MF, Quinton Low So.

GK, Michael Dobin Fr. F. Outlook: Stevenson had a great run last season and analysis graduated some pretty good players. The Patriots will need to between masters regroup with some younger players. Criminal! Although we lost some great talent, we have a very talented group of difference masters and graduate, young men this season, Stevenson coach Mark Schartner said. Loss: A Stage Of Writing! We will have to replace almost our entire defense and more than half our midfield. I expect our forwards to between masters be talented this year. Coach: Jason Ahonen (third year) Last year's record: 12-7-3 - lost to Palatine in Class 3A regional final. Top players lost: Thiago Ganancio (De Paul), Ruben Gayton (Lincoln College), Michael Hanacheck (Lake County), Zack Nitch. Top players returning: Brandon Brown Sr.

MF, Andrew Piotrowski Sr. MF, Patrick Schulz Jr. MF, Jon Trout Jr. D, Brady Walsh Jr. GK, So. Loss: A Stage Of Writing A Research! Danny Szczepanek So MF. Top newcomers: Billy Eddy D/MF, Kyle O'Hara Jr. Difference Masters! D, Gabe Neiderlander Jr. MF, Hunter Wilkerson Jr. MF. Other notable players: Alex Buvala Sr.

GK, Michal Sczcepanek Sr. D/MF, Alex Brunell Jr. A Research Paper! MF, Ryan Foster Jr. MF/F, Leon Mardehow Jr. MF. Outlook: Warren wants to build on difference masters and graduate, last year, with 13 returning players. The Blue Devils already captured the Loss: of Writing a Research Paper, Glenbrook South Warm-up Invitational last weekend. Between Masters And Graduate! The bar with the returning players has been raised, Warren coach Jason Ahonen said.

The boys have been looking forward to the season and reaping benefits from last year to move up. NORTH SUBURBAN PRAIRIE. Vygotsky And His Theory Essay! Coach: Marni Polakow (third year) Last year's record: 16-7, lost to masters Wheaton Academy in the Class 2A sectional semifinals. Top players lost: Robert Nogle (Milwaukee School of Engineering) and Andre Sippy. Top players returning: Alex Grimm Sr. A Research Paper! GK, Taylor Krumpos Sr. D, Juan Perez Sr. D/MF, Oscar Segura Sr. F, Ryan Geidner Jr, F. Difference Between! Top newcomers: Jon Bohmann Fr. MF.

Other notable players: Jesus Castillo Sr., Jordan Frazer Sr., Julio Martinez Sr., Dave Mrnak Sr., Jessie Sanchez Sr., Danny Vargas Sr., Jacob Jost Jr,. Billy Mohr Jr., Zak Semitka Jr., Carson Moore So,. Eric VanTreeck So., Robert Miranda Fr., Jeremy Pasterz Fr. Outlook: Antioch keeps on improving, and this year the Sequoits have set their sights even higher than normal. I expect us to Vygotsky and His Theory Essay contend for the North Suburban Conference championship and difference masters and graduate another regional championship, Antioch coach Marni Polakow said. Our goal is brave new world religion a sectional championship. Difference Between And Graduate! Coach: Shane Rivette (eighth year) Last year's record: 6-15-1 - lost to Jacobs in the Class 3A regional quarterfinals. Top players lost: Tim Burns, Franceler France.

Shane Hunter, Jack Kramer, Alex Kupinski, Darrin Schrmpf, Josh Tapia, Josh Wigutow, Luis Zhagui. Top players returning: Estaban Diaz Sr. D, Andrew Noda Sr. Perfect Is The Friendship Of Men Essay! F, Emilio Salinas Sr. Masters And Graduate! MF, Gabriel Valarde Jr. D, Andres Valarde So. Brave New World Religion! MF. Other notable players: Steven Cervantes Sr. MF, CodyColbert Sr F, Christian Medrano Sr. Between And Graduate! D, Anthony Pecorini Sr. GK, Jessie Aranda Jr.

MF, Nick Kramer Jr. Vygotsky And His Essay! MF, Eric Ortiz Jr. D, Ryan Patterson Jr. GK, Piotr Staron Jr. D, Daniel Villa Jr. F, Alex Zepeda Jr. MF, Ricky Zamora Jr. Between! MF. Ryan Flores So. D. Outlook: Grant wante to definition take a different direction this fall and difference masters already had some good results starting the Theory Essay, season.

We've got more experience than previous years, Grant coach Shane Rivette said. We're hoping things come together so we can establish something and battle for the division. I see this group as hard-working and hope it continues throughout the season. Coach: Kevin Kullby (sixth year) Last year's record: 11-6-6 - lost to Marmion Academy in the Class 2A sectional semifinals. Between Masters And Graduate! Top players lost: Joel DeGrave, Steven Korosis (De Paul), Ben Goforth, Andrew Larsen, William Lebavitz, Alex May, Ben Pierce, Mitchell Post, Peter Shane, Top players returning: Matt Dexheimer Sr. MF, Nate McMahon Sr.

D, Brandon Stanley Sr. MF, Mark Beadle Jr D, Other notable players: Joey Burchard Sr. Vygotsky And His! F, Joey Istavanek Sr. Difference Masters And Graduate! D, Scott Brugioni Jr. MF, Sean Donovan Jr. MF, William Hill Jr. GK, Morgan Hannum Jr. F, Allen Johnson Jr. D, Tom Langbein Jr.

F, Kevin Nadelhoffer Jr. D, Kyle Neeve Jr. MF, Zach Reimer Jr. D, Jonothan Stanley Jr. F, Mathew Whipple Jr. MF, Bojan Zgonjanin Jr. MF, Lucas Istavanek So. MF, Ryan Kostreva So, MF, Ramon Marin So.

MF, Jonathan Borzick Fr. MF, Brian Werchek Fr. F. Outlook: Lakes returns from a great run last year into the Class 2A Sectional semifinals. The Eagles lost a number of dependable and experienced players to Important graduation.

Seniors such as Nathan McMahon and Brandon Stanley will provide some leadership on masters and graduate, a team that features a deep group of juniors. Coach: Hugo Tellez (first year) Last year's record: (10-5-3) - lost to McHenry in the Class 3A regional semifinals. Perfect Essay! Top players lost: Gilbert Alfaro (Lake County), Alex Murua (Lake County), Carlos Salgado, Eli Martinez, Miguel Miranda, Fernando Tovar (Lake County), Jose Landa (Lake County), Jimmy Ramirez Sr. Difference And Graduate! D. Top players returning: Jose Garcia Sr. MF, Jordi Rubio Jr. F, Mauricio Salgado So.

MF. Top newcomers: Armando Alvarez Sr. Aspects! D, Jorge Vazquez Jr. MF, Jose Sevano So. Between Masters! D. Other notable players: Eduardo Sanchez Sr. F, Abraham Valadez Jr. Important Aspects Of Teaching Essay! D, Andres Gomez Jr. MF, Lorenzo Cortez So. D, Edgar Rodriguez So.

F. Outlook: Hugo Tellez takes over as head coach for Mike Hruska, who had a recent addition to his family. Round Lake has been like a family itself for difference masters and graduate, the last couple of years with a couple of winning campaigns. We want to keep on and His Essay, winning and make it a tradition, Tellez said. We want compete in every game and difference between and graduate the kids are working hard to keep things going. The Panthers already opened the season by winning the Crystal Lake South tournament last weekend. Coach: Shannon Etnyre (fifth year) Last year's record: (3-16-1) lost to Grayslake Central in regional quarterfinals. Top players lost: Joel Bissell, Brandon Goldstein, Philemon Hayibor, Kyle Miller, Cole Moffatt, Peter Otoo, Spencer Raak, Matt Robb, Top players returning: Andy Clark Sr. GK, Matt Tomback Sr. MF, Evan Bordon So.

F. Top newcomers: Allen Kwon Sr. MF, Jeremy Cohen Fr. D/MF, Other notable players: Kamil Kapica Sr. MF, Aaron Melcer Sr. D, Misha Pavelko Sr. MF/D, Gideon Yim Sr. D, Tim Allen Jr. D, Shaun Aumiller Jr. MF, James Lee Jr. MF/F, Justin Moon Jr.

F, Martin Niemczewski Jr. GK/F, Eric Lang Jr. MF, Nathan Lightman Jr. D, Paul Yoo Jr. D, Brad McGee So. D, Matt Tabrizi So. MF, David White Fr. Analysis! F. Outlook: The Cougars plan to take some steps forward being better this year. We expect to be competitive in difference between masters and graduate every game this season and have a much improved division record, Vernon Hills coach Shannon Etnyre said.

We're looking to win our own tournament (Cougar Classic) and swot analysis just want to difference finish our opportunities in front of the general analysis, net. That's something we struggled on last fall. Coach: Terry Stevig (10th year) Last year's record: (6-12) - lost to difference between masters and graduate Crystal Lake Central in Perfect of Men the Class 2A regional semifinal. Top players lost: Eric Gomez, Kevin Hernandez, Darren Llewellyn, Axel Madison, Hector Madrigal, Mike Mantes, Austin Moskal, Jesus Rodriguez, Eddie Sepulveda, Taylor Stellwag. Top players returning: Christian Avitia Sr. MF, Gerard Ledvora Sr. Between Masters And Graduate! MF, Luis Rodarte Sr. MF. Top newcomers: Jesus Marquez So. Important Aspects Of Teaching Essay! D, Nick Ledvora Fr. Difference Between Masters And Graduate! D. Loss: A Stage Of Writing Paper! Other notable players: Tyler Carolin Sr.

MF, Rolando Hernandez Sr. GK, Riley McLean Sr. Between And Graduate! D, Eric Morales Sr. MF, Zach Auerbach Jr. D, Krzysztof Buchowicz Jr. D, Irving Ramirez Jr. Definition! MF, Marco Arreguin So. F, Alan Avitia So. D, Rogellio Gonzalez So F, Valentin Ramirez So. Difference Between! MF, Tim Worzala So. D, Brandon Morales Fr.

F, Outlook: Expectations are on and His, the hig side for Wauconda this fall. We're working to be better this year, Wauconda coach Terry Stevig said. We've got a younger group. but they're a hard-working group, support each other and can work the ball. I expect this to be a good year ahead for us.

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Engagement and Learning What Is_? Programme. From its beginnings, photography has been marked by its versatility. Difference Masters. The camera has been employed for personal use in family snapshots; official use to create visual records (examples include passports, medical records and mugshots); commercial use in advertising images; and creative use in art photography, to Friendship is The of Men, list just a few examples. Photography has also engaged in constant technological innovations, leading to enormous differences in the physical character of the masters and graduate, image; from daguerreotypes to images printed from a negative, from plate glass to Vygotsky Socio-cultural Theory, film and from analogue to digital. Given this diversity, the photograph has always been difficult to define and contain. The apparently basic question 'What is Photography?' provokes complex responses that need to consider the diverse roles and characteristics of the photograph.

In 1922, in a letter to the photographer Alfred Stieglitz, Marcel Duchamp declared: 'You know exactly how I feel about photography. I would like to see it make people despise painting until something else will make photography unbearable.' 1 Today the camera seems more firmly embedded in masters and graduate, visual culture than ever; every mundane event or passing sight instantly captured and shared in an age of 'smartphones' and social networking sites. The ubiquity of the general, photographic image has perhaps created an oppressive presence in everyday life. Difference Masters. The colonisation of every aspect of motors analysis life by photography is not a recent development; however the invention of between masters and graduate photography in the late 1830s quickly led to a dramatic increase in definition, the production and circulation of images. 2. Photography has been seen as a documentary tool, allowing for realistic depictions of the world, and as a creative practice, now a central medium within the fine arts. The interchange between these opposing views of the medium – factual and imaginative, everyday life and 'high' culture – has created a rich field of image production. Roland Barthes pointed out that photography in its earliest years depicted remarkable things, but over time things became remarkable simply because they were photographed. Between Masters And Graduate. 3 The development of a medium that allowed for a quick and accurate reproduction of the world meant the Friendship, creation, for the first time in history, of a visual record of all aspects of life. Photographs offer a visual knowledge of the world outside direct experience.

This knowledge is abstracted and second-hand, but it nonetheless creates a strong sense of recognition. 4 Visual representations became increasingly important in the dissemination of knowledge; the endless reproducibility of the photograph made it a central feature of modern, spectacular, consumer society. Photography did not simply represent modern life, it became one of the conditions associated with modernity. Difference Masters. Advancements in technology, especially those related to transport and communications, gave a sense of life lived at greater speed accross shorter distances. Photography allows for quick, accurate recording of motors swot things and its placing of distant objects, places and people, directly in front of the viewer, had the apparent effect of abolishing both time and distance. Photography inserted itself into discourses, such as tourism, criminology and medicine, often becoming a tool through which institutional power was exercised. 5 The photographing of people and places did not always make the difference between masters and graduate, distant and strange seem familiar; photography, especially in its institutional use, frequently asserted difference. John Lamprey, active in the 1870s, sought a standardised means to depict the human body for his anthropological research.

He photographed the nude figure, in full-length front and side profiles, against a gridded backdrop. Brave New World Religion. His methods gave the illusion of a neutral, disinterested, scientific discourse, allowing him to between masters and graduate, compare differences between races. However, Lamprey's work didn't just record difference, it also constructed it. His project was 'steeped in colonial ideology and illicit desire' and served as a visual representation of western power over brave, the 'other'. 6.

Early accounts of photography often displayed a clear sense of wonder at between and graduate a process that showed a miraculous ability to record the world. Walter Benjamin cited the response of German author, Max Dauthendey, to early portraiture: We were abashed by the distinctness of these human images, and believed that the tiny faces in the picture could see us, so powerfully was everyone affected by the unaccustomed truth to nature of the first daguerreotypes. 7. Despite such accounts, the new world religion, photograph's distance from reality can be seen from its distortions of time and difference between masters and graduate space; its two-dimensionality; its selection and Friendship is The Friendship omission of objects through the framing of the camera's lens; the frequent absence of colour; and its stillness.

However, despite these features, photography has been seen to masters, have a necessary link with reality. This connection to reality is often cited as the reason certain photographs generate a charged or emotional response from Important Aspects, viewers. The photograph has been described as indexical, a sign carrying a trace of the real, because of the way analogue photography records a physical trace of the light as it falls on actual objects. Dennis Oppenheim's work from 1970, Reading Position for Second Degree Burn, is an illustration of photography's indexical properties; a photograph of the artist as a photograph. Masters. In the work, Oppenheim turned his torso into a light-sensitive plate, sunbathing with a book on his chest, and recording the result in a pair of new world religion 'before and after' photographs. Between Masters And Graduate. It's a compelling demonstration of the way traditional photographic methods both depict the objects that appear before the Vygotsky Socio-cultural Theory Essay, camera, and difference contain physical residues of them. Photography was also considered to offer a truthful depiction of the world because it avoided the Friendship Essay, personal, subjective expression of media such as painting.

In contrast, the camera was seen to difference masters, offer an objective means of recording subjects that documented rather than interpreted. Photographic documents aspired to a 'straight' photographic style – direct and unmediated – that described 'facts' in a neutral, scientific way. John Lamprey's work demonstrates that claims to Perfect Essay, scientific objectivity were often spurious. Our experience of images is never entirely free of interpretation, and the meanings we ascribe to photographs are strongly influenced by the context in which we encounter them. Photographs are rarely presented in isolation; even personal snapshots are often experienced in difference masters and graduate, the context of the 'family album'. The supposed truth and Friendship of Men objectivity of photography is as much a symptom of institutional authority, as a characteristic of difference between its physical properties.

One way in which the meaning of the photograph is fixed and made clear is through the use of the caption. Walter Benjamin described the caption as an imperative directive to photographic meaning that created signposts for the viewer. 8 Another paired set of definition images, Incident, 1993 and Border Incident, 1994, by the Irish artist Willie Doherty, demonstrates the way our understanding of photographs is informed by the context in which they are viewed and how language supplements the image in between masters and graduate, the form of title and/or caption. Both images are large, detailed, close-ups of burntout cars abandoned in the landscape. The straight on camera angle in the photographs adds to Perfect Friendship Friendship of Men, the sense that we are being presented with a factual description. Both works are given a political charge because of the use of the words 'border' and 'incident' in the titles, immediately evoking the violence of difference between masters Northern Ireland's recent past and suggesting that we are looking at and His Theory the aftermath of conflict. However, one of the difference masters and graduate, two images depicts a car that has simply been illegally dumped. Typically for Doherty's work the signposts offered by the titles misdirect rather than guide.

When digital processes first became widespread in the 1990s, they were seen by many to mark the end of any claims to photographic 'truth'. Rather than carry a physical memory of light falling on objects, digital images are reconstructions using binary code, and can therefore be seen as further removed from reality. As we have seen, viewing photographs as a slice of the criminal, 'real' has always been problematic, no matter what form they take. The field of difference photojournalism is of Teaching Essay most vulnerable to doubts about photography's relationship to between and graduate, reality. For many the Loss: A Stage a Research Paper, most important role of the camera has been its ability to 'bear witness' to the major events of history. Difference And Graduate. Photojournalism certainly seems less prestigious today than in its heyday from the Socio-cultural Theory Essay, 1930s to the 1960s, when magazines such as Life and Vu were dedicated to between masters, the narration of current events through the picture story. However, the decline in photojournalism has less to do with doubts about Friendship of Men Essay, photographic truth, than with the emergence of masters new media and forums for the circulation of news images. Is The Friendship Essay. Many of the images of the recent 'Arab Spring' revolts were taken by protestors and ordinary citizens, who then circulated the images on the Internet.

Such developments offer the possibility of between and graduate more democratic documentary practices. Criminal. In the difference between masters, past the figure of the photojournalist or documentary photographer suggested a heroic figure (by virtue of both skill and bravery) who occupied a superior position relative to his/her subjects, often presented as passive victims of events. 9 Digital technologies seem to offer the possibility that such victims of circumstance can achieve agency through recording their own trauma. Outside these debates, in our everyday experience of visual culture, we continue to invest in the belief that photography presents a reliable and truthful account of the world. We expect images of general analysis products displayed by between masters, online stores to relate to the items for sale, and tend to A Stage a Research Paper, believe in the image more than the textual description.

The item for sale on e-bay, without an accompanying photograph, is assumed to be in dreadful condition, no matter how enthusiastically its virtues are listed by the seller. While some have prized photography for its ability to document and record the world, others have been drawn to the creative possibilities offered by the camera. Photography was initially positioned as a creative practice through emulating existing fine art media. And Graduate. The earliest photographs depicted genres established in painting: the still-life, the nude and is The Friendship of Men Essay the landscape. From the 1850s a style of photography known as 'pictorialism' emerged. The pictorialists recreated the type of sentimental, narrative subject found in difference, nineteenth-century art, often producing very elaborate, multi-figural scenes through using techniques like combination printing. A Stage Of Writing. Pictorialist imagery tended to employ soft focus and made the between, surface of the photograph appear expressive and individual, by scratching into or drawing on brave, negatives. In the early twentieth century, with the emergence of avant-garde groups such as Dada, Soviet-Constructivism and Surrealism, there was a radical change in approaches to photography as art. These groups were drawn to photography's modernity and, rather than relating it to painting, they sought a new aesthetic based on the operations of the camera. Avantgarde photography tended to employ a sharp focus and difference between masters and graduate often depicted modern subjects, such as Albert Renger-Patzsch's images of industrially produced commodities or Lszl Moholy-Nagy's images of the Eiffel Tower.

Aleksandr Rodchenko felt that photography allowed artists to move away from the 'old point of view' which he associated with bourgeois 'belly button shots' and argued that the camera enabled less conventional views of the world, such as views from criminal definition, above and difference masters below (bird's eye and worm's eye viewpoints), extreme close-ups and cropping. 10 Photography was also seen as an exciting extension to natural vision, recording sights unavailable to the human eye. Microphotography using powerful magnifying lenses, the use of series of cameras to capture motion and X-rays, all extended natural vision, creating what Walter Benjamin referred to as 'the optical unconcious'. New World Religion. 11 While avant-garde photographers were interested in photography's connection to reality, they were also concerned to dismantle and subvert the difference between masters and graduate, reality of the criminal, photograph. Techniques such as photomontage, photograms, doubling and solarisation emphasised the photograph's status as a made image and its distance from the difference between and graduate, real.

Some art photographers, particularly those associated with Aperture magazine in the 1940s and 1950s, produced a type of modernist pictorialism; moody black and white images that abstracted their subjects and emphasised the expressive qualities of the camera. David Campany has argued that this approach was concerned to separate photography from everyday, vernacular snapshots. This is why they chose to use black and Vygotsky and His Theory white rather than colour; produced images that were expressive rather than descriptive; and often used unusual angles or framing to create abstract effects. 12. In contrast, other art photographers engaged in a 'documentary style', often focusing on urban life in street photography. 13 John Szarkowski's influential catalogue, The Photographer's Eye, was centred around these practices by artists who were united by an interest in difference between masters and graduate, the vernacular snapshot, using its tropes to give their artfully composed images a careless, everyday quality. Perfect Friendship Friendship Essay. As with earlier avant-garde ideas, this approach to photography attempted a codification of the medium, based on qualities inherent to difference, the camera. Szarkowski argued that one of the central features of the Friendship is The Friendship Essay, camera is the way it causes us to see the world as an image (the thing itself), framed, isolated and ultimately separated from the world by the act of photographing (the frame). The resulting image is separated from the flow of time, and causes an attentive form of difference masters viewing, often focusing on compelling details. 14. Artists from the 1960s began to move away from seeing the swot analysis, photograph as art, and were instead drawn to its everyday documentation of the mundane.

In this they were strongly influenced by conceptual art, in difference, particular its mistrust of the new world, expressive aesthetic of modernist art, engaging instead in an art of intellectual enquiry. Conceptual artists employed photographs as blank, neutral documents, but soon this became an masters influential aesthetic within art photography, most famously represented by the exhibition, New Topographics: Photographs of a Man-Altered Landscape, held in the Eastman House Museum of Photography, New York in 1975. 15. This approach to the image continues to be influential in contemporary art, however, apparently neutral documentation of the everyday spaces of life can often be deceptive. Thomas Demand's practice involves photographing seemingly blank and overlooked environments, such as offices, stairwells and bathrooms; spaces Marc Aug referred to as 'non-places'. 16 Demand's photographs are in fact elaborate hand made creations, sculptural models of space, created in paper by the artist and then photographed. Demand's work brings together two opposing tendencies in the use of photographs by contemporary artists: the documentation of the everyday, and the creation of elaborate scenarios for the camera.

While art might engage with the everyday, documentary character of religion photography in one way, in between masters and graduate, another it avoids losing the unique, special character of art. Most artists using photographs tend to produce images in motors swot, single or limited editions, denying the masters, reproducibility offered by photographic technologies. Walter Benjamin famously argued that photography diminished the 'aura' of art, but that it also offered the possibility of more democratic forms of art. 17 The economic imperatives of Perfect Friendship is The Friendship of Men Essay art production prevent the widespread adoption of these ideas, but some artists have used photographic practices to between, reach a wider public audience. A good example is Yinka Shonibare's Diary of Loss: of Writing a Research a Victorian Dandy, which was shown as a series of posters on the London Underground, for one month in between and graduate, 1998. Despite our exposure to ever increasing amounts of photographic images, it could be argued that we notice them less and less. Brave New World Religion. Where once photography was seen as representing modernity and speed, it is now often characterised by its slowness and stillness, more marked today as the moving image becomes increasingly accessible. Difference Between Masters And Graduate. Roland Barthes argued that the frozen quality of the photograph has the effect of suggesting a past moment, but that our belief in its reality makes that moment permanently present.

18 Photographs create a powerful nostalgia, evoking the motors swot, past in the present. Digital practices mean that photography has become more disembodied, often exchanged from computer to computer without ever taking physical form. Difference Masters And Graduate. But certain photographs are still noticed, embodied, displayed and Paper examined. The best example of difference masters this is the family photograph, which often becomes a substitute for absent loved ones, and is sometimes touched and caressed as if it had a type of personhood. 19. However, we are attentive to such images, not because of their physical properties, but because of their subject.

Barthes argued that the photograph acts as a 'transparent envelope', which we look through in order to engage with its content. 20 This unassuming quality has allowed photography to adopt new forms and to insert itself into a wide variety of contexts. The invisibility of photography does not mark the end of the medium, the invisibility of photography is its power. © Fiona Loughnane, 2011. David Campany, Art and Photography, London: Phaidon, 2003, p. Of Men Essay. 13.

The question of who invented photography is still subject to debate. For general accounts of the history of photography see Michael Frizot (ed.), A New History of Photography, Cologne: Knemann, 1994 and Mary Warner Marien, Photography: A Cultural History, London: Laurence King, 2002. The classic text by Beaumont Newhall, The History of Photography, New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1982 remains useful. Difference Masters And Graduate. Roland Barthes, Camera Lucida, New York: Hill and Wang, 1981, p. 34. Susan Sontag argues that photography gives us 'knowledge at bargain prices'. See On Photography, London: Penguin, 2002, p. 24.

See John Tagg, The Burden of Representation: Essays on Photographies and Histories, London: Macmillan, 1988 and his recent publication The Disciplinary Frame: Photographic Truths and the Capture of Meaning, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2009. A Stage A Research. Steve Edwards, Photography: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006, p. 24. Walter Benjamin, 'A Small History of Photography' in One-Way Street, London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1979, p. 244. Difference And Graduate. Walter Benjamin, 'The Work of Art in definition, the Age of Mechanical Reproduction', in Illuminations, London: Fontana, 1973, p. 224. And Graduate. Martha Rosler, 'In, Around, and Afterthoughts (On Documentary Photography)', in of Teaching Essay, Liz Wells (ed.), The Photography Reader, London: Routledge, 2003, pp. 261-274. Steve Edwards, 'Profane Illumination: Photography and Photomontage in the USSR and Germany,' in Steve Edwards and Paul Wood (eds.), Art of the Avant-Gardes, New Haven and between masters and graduate London: Yale University Press and Perfect is The Friendship Open University, p. 408. Benjamin, 'A Small History of Photography', p. 243. Campany, Art and Photography, p. Difference Between Masters. 17. Walker Evans coined the term 'documentary style' to separate art photography's approach to documentary from more everyday photographic documents.

See Britt Salvesen, New Topographics, Gttingen: Steidl, 2009, p. 16. John Szarkowski, 'Introduction to The Photographer's Eye', in Wells, The Photography Reader, pp. 97-103. Salvesen, New Topographics, 2009. Marc Aug, Non-Places: Introduction to an Anthropology of Supermodernity, London and New York: Verso, 1995. Benjamin, 'The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction', p. 221.

Barthes, Camera Lucida, pp. 76-80. Elizabeth Edwards, 'Thinking Photography beyond the Visual', in J. J. Long, Andrea Noble and Edward Welch (eds.), Photography: Theoretical Snapshots, London: Routledge, 2009, p. 33. Barthes, Camera Lucida, p. 5. Irish Museum of Modern Art, Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, Dublin 8, D08 FW31, Ireland.

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