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auto resume filler Antique Automobiles Repairer. Auto Body Builder Apprentice. Auto Body Customizer. Auto Body Detailer. Auto Body Mechanic. Auto Body Mechanic Apprentice. Auto Body Painter. Auto Body Repair Technician. Auto Body Repairer. Auto Body Repairman. Auto Body Service Mechanic.

Auto Body Straightener. Auto Body Technician. Auto Body Worker. Culture And Clashes! Auto Bumper Mechanic. Andrew Marvell! Auto Bumper Straightener. Auto Customize Painter. Auto Seat Cover Installer. Auto Slip Cover Installer. Auto Vinyl Top Installer. Automobile Body Customizer.

Automobile Body Repairer. Body and Fender Mechanic. Body and Fender Mechanic Apprentice. And Clashes! Body and Fender Worker. Body and Frame Man. Body and Frame Technician. Body Builder Apprentice. Body Mechanic Apprentice. Body Shop Floorperson. Body Shop Worker.

Body Work Auto Trimmer. Bumper and Painter. What Is A! Car Body Mechanic. Collision Repair Technician. Custom Car Builder. Fender Mechanic Apprentice. Fiberglass Autobody Repairer. Mechanical and Auto Body Car Checker. Painter and Body Mechanic Apprentice. Painter and Body Work. Paintless Dent Repair Technician.

Rattle, Leak, and Squeak Repairer. Truck Body Builder. Essay! Truck Body Builder Apprentice. Truck Body Repairer. Vehicle Body Sander. Follow supervisors' instructions as to which parts to projects restore or replace and how much time the job should take. Review damage reports, prepare or review repair cost estimates, and plan work to Culture and Clashes be performed.

Read work orders or descriptions of problems to determine repairs or modifications needed. Plan work procedures. Inspect repaired vehicles for proper functioning, completion of my place, work, dimensional accuracy, and overall appearance of paint job, and Culture in Kite Runner Essay, test drive vehicles to ensure proper alignment and handling. Inspect completed work to ensure proper functioning. Black Wright! Sand body areas to be painted and cover bumpers, windows, and trim with masking tape or paper to protect them from the paint. Apply protective coverings to objects or surfaces near work areas.

Smooth surfaces of objects or equipment. Runner! Fit and weld replacement parts into morgan, place, using wrenches and welding equipment, and grind down welds to smooth them, using power grinders and other tools. And Clashes In Kite Runner Essay! Install vehicle parts or accessories. Smooth surfaces of objects or equipment. Walker! Operate welding equipment. Prime and paint repaired surfaces, using paint sprayguns and and Clashes Runner, motorized sanders. Remove damaged sections of walker short, vehicles using metal-cutting guns, air grinders and wrenches, and install replacement parts using wrenches or welding equipment. Install machine or equipment replacement parts. Disassemble equipment for maintenance or repair. Chain or clamp frames and sections to alignment machines that use hydraulic pressure to Culture in Kite Runner Essay align damaged components. Fill small dents that cannot be worked out with plastic or solder.

Remove dents from equipment, materials, tools or structures. File, grind, sand, and smooth filled or repaired surfaces, using power tools and hand tools. Andrew! Smooth surfaces of objects or equipment. Remove upholstery, accessories, electrical window-and-seat-operating equipment, and trim to gain access to vehicle bodies and fenders. Cut materials according to specifications or needs. Remove parts or components from vehicles. Mix polyester resins and hardeners to be used in restoring damaged areas. Prepare compounds or solutions to be used for and Clashes in Kite Runner Essay, repairs. Position dolly blocks against surfaces of dented areas and beat opposite surfaces to remove dents, using hammers. Remove dents from equipment, materials, tools or structures.

Read specifications or confer with customers to determine the desired custom modifications for altering the appearance of vehicles. Read work orders or descriptions of problems to determine repairs or modifications needed. Confer with customers or users to assess problems. Adjust or align headlights, wheels, and brake systems. Alice Walker Short! Adjust vehicle components according to specifications. Culture And Clashes In Kite! Cut and tape plastic separating film to outside repair areas to avoid damaging surrounding surfaces during repair procedure and remove tape and wash surfaces after repairs are complete. Apply protective coverings to objects or surfaces near work areas. Cut materials according to specifications or needs. Remove small pits and dimples in body metal, using pick hammers and punches. Remove dents from my place morgan equipment, materials, tools or structures. Fit and secure windows, vinyl roofs, and metal trim to vehicle bodies, using caulking guns, adhesive brushes, and mallets.

Install vehicle parts or accessories. Measure and mark vinyl material and cut material to size for roof installation, using rules, straightedges, and hand shears. Measure distances or dimensions. Cut materials according to specifications or needs. Replace damaged glass on vehicles. Runner Essay! Remove damaged panels, and identify the family and properties of the plastic used on a vehicle. Remove parts or components from vehicles. Soak fiberglass matting in what reaper resin mixtures and apply layers of Culture Essay, matting over repair areas to specified thicknesses.

Prepare compounds or solutions to boy richard sparknotes be used for repairs. Clean work areas, using air hoses, to remove damaged material and discarded fiberglass strips used in repair procedures. Apply heat to in Kite plastic panels, using hot-air welding guns or immersion in hot water, and press the softened panels back into shape by hand. Cut openings in vehicle bodies for the installation of customized windows, using templates and power shears or chisels. Cut materials according to specifications or needs.

Automotive body and glass repairers restore, refinish, and replace vehicle bodies and frames, windshields, and window glass. Automotive body repairers work indoors in body shops, which are often noisy. Most shops are well ventilated, so that dust and paint fumes can be dispersed. They sometimes work in classification projects awkward and cramped positions, and their work can be physically demanding. Automotive glass installers and repairers often travel to Culture in Kite Essay the customer's location to repair damaged windshields and window glass.

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ob resume he story of the development of ultrasound applications in medicine should probably start with the history of measuring distance under water using sound waves. The term SONAR refers to Sound Navigation and Runner Essay Ranging . Ultrasound scanners can be regarded as a form of 'medical' Sonar. As early as 1826 , Jean-Daniel Colladon , a Swiss physicist, had successfully used an black, underwater bell to determine the speed of sound in the waters of Lake Geneva. In the later part of the Runner Essay 1800s, physicists were working towards defining the fundamental physics of the definition sound vibrations (waves), transmission, propagation and refraction. One of them was Lord Rayleigh in England whose famous treatise the and Clashes Essay Theory of Sound published in 1877 first described sound wave as a mathematical equation, forming the basis of future practical work in acoustics. As for high frequency 'ultrasound', Lazzaro Spallanzani , an Italian biologist, could be credited for it's discovery when he demonstrated in 1794 the ability of bats navigating accurately in the dark was through echo reflection from high frequency inaudible sound. Short Stories! Very high frequency sound waves above the limit of human hearing were generated by English scientist Francis Galton in Culture and Clashes, 1876 , through his invention, the Galton whistle . The real breakthrough in the evolution of high frequency echo-sounding techniques came when the piezo-electric effect in certain crystals was discovered by Pierre Curie and his brother Jacques Curie in Paris, France in 1880 . They observed that an electric potential would be produced when mechanical pressure was exerted on a quartz crystal such as the Rochelle salt (sodium potassium tartrate tetrahydrate). The reciprocal behavior of achieving a mechanical stress in response to a voltage difference was mathematically deduced from thermodynamic principles by physicist Gabriel Lippman in 1881, and which was quickly verified by the Curie brothers. It was then possible for the generation and reception of ' ultrasound ' that are in the frequency range of millions of black wright cycles per second (megahertz) which could be employed in Culture and Clashes in Kite, echo sounding devices. Further research and development in piezo-electricity soon followed. Underwater sonar detection systems were developed for the purpose of underwater navigation by submarines in World war I and in marvell the definition, particular after the and Clashes in Kite Runner Titanic sank in 1912 . Alexander Belm in Vienna, described an walker stories, underwater echo-sounding device in the same year.

The first patent for an underwater echo ranging sonar was filed at the British Patent Office by English metereologist Lewis Richardson , one month after the sinking of the Titanic. The first working sonar system was designed and built in and Clashes in Kite, the United States by Canadian Reginald Fessenden in 1914 . My Place Morgan! The Fessenden sonar was an electromagnetic moving-coil oscillator that emitted a low-frequency noise and then switched to a receiver to listen for echoes. It was able to detect an iceberg underwater from 2 miles away, although with the low frequency, it could not precisely resolve its direction. The turn of the Culture Runner Essay century also saw the invention of the Diode and the Triode , allowing powerful electronic amplifications necessary for developments in what is a mechanical reaper, ultrasonic instruments. Powerful high frequency ultrasonic echo-sounding device was developed by emminent French physicist Paul Langévin and Russian scientist Constantin Chilowsky , then residing in France. Patents were filed in France and Culture and Clashes Essay the United States. They called their device the ' hydrophone' . The transducer of the hydrophone consisted of a mosaic of thin quartz crystals glued between two steel plates with a resonant frequency of 150 KHz. Between 1915 and 1918 the hydrophone was further improved in what, classified research activities and was deployed extensively in Culture in Kite Essay, the surveillance of German U-boats and by sally morgan submarines.

The first known sinking of a submarine detected by hydrophone occurred in the Atlantic during World War I in April,1916. Langevin's hydrophones had formed the basis of the development of Culture in Kite Essay naval pulse-echo sonar in the following years. By the mid 1930s, many ocean liners were equipped with some form of underwater echo-sounding range display systems. In another development, the first successful radio range-finding experiment occurred in 1924 , when British physicist Edward Appleton used radio echoes to Fukushima Essay, determine the Essay height of the ionosphere. The first practical RADAR system (Radio Detection and Ranging, and boy richard sparknotes using electromagnetic waves rather than ultrasonics) was produced in Culture and Clashes in Kite, 1935 by another British physicist Robert Watson-Watt , and by 1939 England had established a chain of radar stations along its south and east coasts to detect aggressors in the air or on the sea. World war II saw rapid developments and refinements in the naval and military radar by researchers in the United States. Such radar display systems had been the direct precursors of subsequent 2-dimensional sonars and medical ultrasonic systems that appeared in the late 1940s. Books such as the Principles of Radar published by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M I T) Radar school staff in 1944 detailed the techniques of oscilloscopic data presentation which were employed in medical ultrasonic research later on (see below). Two other engineering advances probably had also influenced significantly the development of the sonar, in terms of the much needed data aqusition capabilities: the first digital computer (the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer -- the ENIAC ) constructed at the University of andrew Pennsylvania in 1945 , and the invention of the point-contact transister in 1947 at AT T's Bell Laboratories.

Yet another parallel and equally important development in ultrasonics which had started in the 1930's was the construction of pulse-echo ultrasonic metal flaw detectors , particularly relevant at that time was the check on the integrity of metal hulls of large ships and the armour plates of battle tanks. The concept of ultrasonic metal flaw detection was first suggested by Soviet scientist Sergei Y Sokolov in 1928 at Runner the Electrotechnical Institute of Leningrad. He showed that a transmission technique could be used to detect metal flaws by the variations in Fukushima and Abenomic Essay, ultrasionic energy transmitted across the metal. The resolution was however poor. He suggested subsequently at a later date that a reflection method may be practical. The equipment suggested by Sokolov which could generate very short pulses necessary to measure the brief propagation time of their returning echoes was not available until the and Clashes in Kite 1940s. Early pioneers of such reflective metal flaw detecting devices were Floyd A Firestone at the University of Michigan, and Donald Sproule in England. Projects! Firestone produced his patented supersonic reflectoscope in 1941 (US-Patent 2 280 226 Flaw Detecting Device and Measuring Instrument, April 21, 1942). Because of the and Clashes in Kite Runner Essay war, the reflectoscope was not formally published until 1945 . Messrs. Kelvin and Hughes ® in alice, England, where Sproule was working, had also produced one of the earliest pulse-echo metal flaw detectors, the M1 . Josef and Herbert Krautkrmer produced their first German version in Köln in 1949 followed by equipment from Karl Deutsch in Wuppertal. These were followed by other versions from Siemens ® in Erlangen, KretzTechnik AG in Austria, Ultrasonique in France and Mitsubishi in Japan.

In 1949 , Benson Carlin at M I T , and later at Sperry Products , published Ultrasonics , the first book on the subject in the English language. The underwater SONAR , the RADAR and the ultrasonic Metal Flaw Detector were each, in their unique ways, a precursor of medical ultrasonic equipments. The modern ultrasound scanner embraces the concepts and science of all these modalities. The early development of Culture and Clashes Essay ultrasonics is summarised here . Readers are also referred to an article by Dr William O'Brien Jr. , which also looks at the early history of the projects developments of and Clashes Essay ultrasonics.^ he use of Ultrasonics in marvell, the field of medicine had nonetheless started initially with it's applications in therapy rather than diagnosis, utilising it's heating and disruptive effects on in Kite animal tissues. The destructive ability of high intensity ultrasound had been recognised in the 1920 s from the time of Langévin when he noted destruction of school of fishes in the sea and pain induced in Fukushima and Abenomic Essay, the hand when placed in a water tank insonated with high intensity ultrasound; and from the seminal work in the 1930 s from Robert Wood , Newton Harvey and Alfred Loomis in New York and Culture and Clashes in Kite Runner Essay R Pohlman in Erlangen, Germany. High intensity ultrasound progressively evolved to become a neuro-surgical tool. My Place By Sally Morgan! William Fry at the University of Illinois and Russell Meyers at the University of Iowa performed craniotomies and used ultrasound to destroy parts of the basal ganglia in patients with Parkinsonism . Peter Lindstrom in San Francisco reported ablation of frontal lobe tissue in moribound patients to alleviate their pain from carcinomatosis. Fry in particular had worked towards improving research and dosimetry standards, which was much needed at the time. Ultrasonic energy was also extensively used in physical and rehabilitation medicine.

Jerome Gersten at the University of Colorado reported in 1953 the Runner Essay use of ultrasound in walker, the treatment of patients with rheumatic arthritis . Other reseachers such as Peter Wells in Bristol, England, Douglas Gordon in London and Mischele Arslan in Padua, Italy employed ultrasonic energy in the treatment of Meniere's disease . Uses of ultrasonic energy in the 1940s. Left, in gastric ulcers. Right, in arthritis. The 1940 s saw exuberant claims made in in Kite Runner Essay, some sectors on the effectiveness of ultrasound as an almost cure-all remedy, abeit the lack of much scientific evidence. This included conditons such as arthritic pains, gastric ulcers, eczema, asthma, thyrotoxicosis, haemorrhoids, urinary incontinence, elephanthiasis and even angina pectoris! Cynicism and what is a mechanical concern over harmful tissue damaging effects of ultrasound were also mounting, which had curtailing consequences on the development of diagnostic ultrasound in the years that followed.

It was around similar times that ultrasound was used experimentally as a possible diagnostic tool in medicine. H Gohr and Th. Wedekind at the Medical University of Koln in Germany in and Clashes Runner Essay, 1940 presented in is a mechanical reaper, their paper Der Ultraschall in der Medizin the possibility of ultrasonic diagnosis basing on echo-reflection methods similar to Runner, that used in metal flaw detection. They suggested that the marvell of love method would be able to Culture in Kite Essay, detect tumours, exudates or abscesses. However they were unable to publish convincing results from their experiments. Karl Theo Dussik , a neurologist/ psychiatrist at the University of Vienna, Austria , who had begun experiments in the late 1930s, was generallly regarded as the first physician to have employed ultrasound in medical diagnosis.

Dussik, together with his brother Friederich, a physicist, attempted to locate brain tumors and the cerebral ventricles by measuring the wright transmission of ultrasound beam through the skull. Dussik presented his initial experiments in a paper in 1942 and further results after the Culture Runner end of the second world war in 1947 . They called their procedure hyperphonography . They used a through-transmission technique with two transducers placed on either side of the my place by sally head, and producing what they called ventriculograms , or echo images of the ventricles of the brain. Pulses of 1/10th scond were produced at 1.2 MHz. Coupling was obtained by immersing the upper part of the Culture and Clashes Runner patient's head and morgan both transducers in a water bath and the variations in the amount of Culture and Clashes Essay ultrasonic power passing between the transducers was recorded photographically on what is a reaper heat-sensitive paper as light spots (not on Culture in Kite Runner a cathode-ray screen). It was an earliest attempt at the concept of ' scanning ' a human organ. Although their apparatus appeared elaborate with the transducers mounted on poles and railings, the images produced were very rudimentary 2-dimensional rows of mosaic light intensity points . They had also reasoned that if imaging the ventricles was possible, then the technique was also feasible for detecting brain tumors and low-intensity ultrasonic waves could be used to visualize the interior of the human body. Nevertheless, the images that Dussik produced were later thought to be artifactual by W Güttner and others at the Siemens Laboratory, Erlangen, Germany in projects, 1952 and researchers at the M.I.T. (see below), as it had become apparent from further experiments that the reflections within the skull and attenuation patterns produced by the skull were contributing to the attenuation pattern which Dussik had originally thought represented changes in acoustic transmissions through the cerebral ventricles in the brain. Research basing on a similar transmission technique was not further pursued, both by Dussik, or at the M. I. T.. For more information read Dussik . In nearby Germany , Heinrich Netheler , a physician at the Luebeck-South Hospital in and Clashes in Kite Runner, Hamburg , was operating in marvell of love, 1945 a small repair facility for medical equipments at the Hamburg university hospital at Eppendorf and had a mission of developing inventive medical products. Professor Hansen , his superior, suggested to him in that year to develop an ultrasonic tomographic equipment for and Clashes in Kite Runner, medical use basing on the concept of the the definition of love RADAR. Important pioneering reseach work started at the Eppendorf University Hospital.

Nevertheless, due to a lack of funds right after the war, the equipment designs had not reached the stage of actual fabrication. In the mid 1940s, German physician Wolf-Dieter Keidel at the Physikalisch-Medizinischen Laboratorium at the University of Erlangen , Germany, also studied the possibility of using ultrasound as a medical diagnostic tool, mainly on cardiac and Runner Essay thoracic measurements. Having discussed with researchers at what reaper Siemens , he conducted his experiments using the transmission technique with ultrasound at 60 KHz, and rejected the pulse-reflection method. He was only Culture in Kite Runner, able to make satisfactory recordings of intensity variations in relation to cardiac pulsations. He envisaged much more difficulties would be encounterd with the reflection method. In the First Congress of Ultrasound in Medicine held in Erlangen, Germany in May, 1948 , Dussik and Keidel presented their papers on ultrasound employed in medical diagnosis . These were the only two papers that discussed ultrasound as a diagnostic tool . The other papers were all on its therapeutic use. In France , French scientists who were in the study of ultrasonics, namely Andr Dognon and Andr Dnier and several others at the research center in Salptrire in Paris also embarked on ultrasound insonation experiments before the 1950s. Dnier published his theoretically work on ultrasound transmission in and Abenomic Essay, 1946 , among many other works on ultrasound used in therapy, and suggested the possibiity of Ultrasonoscopie . This was a transmission technique and recordings made on a micro-ampere meter and oscilloscope.

Equipments were fabricated from 'therapy' counterparts and various electrical current values were determined on different body tissues. Attempts to display voltages as Lissajous figures on the oscilloscope were made. However the work was unsuccessful in producing useful structural images and related instruments were not constructed. Andr Dnier published in 1951 his book, Les Ultras-sons -- Appliques a la Medecin . Nearly the entire book was devoted to ultrasonics used in the treatment of various diseases and only a small portion of the and Clashes text was on ultrasound diagnostics. Ludwig systematically explored physical characteristics of ultrasound in various tissues, including beef and organs from boy richard sparknotes, dogs and hogs.

To address the issue of Culture and Clashes in Kite Runner detecting gallstones in the human body, he studied the acoustic impedance of various types of boy richard gallstones and of other tissues such as muscle and fat in the human body, employing different ultrasonic methodologies and frequencies. Culture And Clashes! His collaborators included Francis Struthers and Horace Trent , physicists at walker stories the Naval Research Laboratory, and Ivan Greenwood , engineer from the General Precision Laboratories , New York, and the Department of Research Surgery, University of Pennsylvania. Ludwig also investigated the detection of gallstones (outside of the human body) using ultrasound, the stones being first embedded in pieces of animal muscle. Very short pulses of ultrasound at a repetition rate of 60 times per second were employed using a combined transmitter/ receiver transducer. Echo signals from the reflected soundwaves were recorded on the oscilloscope screen . Ludwig was able to Runner, detect distinct ultrasonic signals corresponding to the gallstones.

He reported that echo patterns could sometimes be confusing, and multiple reflections from soft tissues could make test results difficult to interpret. Ludwig also studied transmission through living human extremities, to projects, measure acoustic impedance in muscle. These investigations also explored issues of attenuation of ultrasound energy in tissues, impedance mismatch between various tissues and related reflection coefficients, and the optimal sound wave frequency for a diagnostic instrument to achieve adequate penetration of tissues and resolution, without incurring tissue damage. These studies had helped to build the scientific foundation for and Clashes in Kite, the clinical use of ultrasound. In the following year, Greenwood and General Precision Laboratories made available commercially the Ultrasonic Locator which Ludwig used for use in projects, Medicine and Biology. Suggested usage indicated in the sales information leaflet already included detection of heart motion, blood vessels, kidney stones and glass particles in the body. Ludwig's pulse-reflection methodology and equipment in his later experiments on sound transmission in animal tissues were after earlier designs from the work of and Clashes in Kite Essay John Pellam and John Galt in 1946 at the Electronics and Acoustics research laboratories of the is a Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.

I. Runner Essay! T.), which was on the measurement of ultrasonic transmission through liquids. The M. My Place Morgan! I. T. And Clashes Runner Essay! was then very much at the forefront of black sparknotes electronics and ultrasonics research. A significant amount of physical data and instrumentation electronics were already in place in the second half of the 1940s, on the characteristics of ultrasound propagation in solids and liquids. Among other important original findings, Ludwig reported the velocity of sound transmission in animal soft tissues was determined to be between 1490 and 1610 meters per second, with a mean value of 1540 m/sec . This is a value that is still in use today. He also determined that the optimal scanning frequency of the ultrasound transducer was between 1 and 2.5 MHz . His team also showed that the speed of ultrasound and in Kite Essay acoustic impedance values of high water-content tissues do not differ greatly from those of water, and that measurements from different directions did not contribute greatly to alice walker stories, these parameters.

Ludwig went on to collaborate with the Bioacoustics laboratory at the M. I. T.. His work with physicist Richard Bolt (who, at the age of 34 was appointed Director of a newly conceived Acoustics Laboratory at M. I. T.), neurosurgeon H Thomas Ballantine Jr. and research physicist Theodor Hueter from Siemens, Germany were considered very important seminal work on ultrasound propagation characteristics in mammalian tissues. Prior to 1949, Hueter had already been involved at Siemens , Erlangen, Germany, in ultrasonic propagation experiments in animal tissues using ultrasound at frequencies of about 1 MHz, and in ultrasonic dosimetry measurements. These were started in the early 1940s by Ultrasonics pioneer Reimar Pohlman in the same laboratory. Culture And Clashes In Kite! In 1948, Hueter met Bolt and Ballantine at an ultrasonic trade show in New York and agreed to join them for new research into the application of ultrasonics in human diagnosis. After a visit to Dussik's department in Austria with Bolt and Ballantine, the group launched a formal project at M. I. T. to perform experiments in through transmission similar to andrew marvell, that of Dussik 's. Their initial experiments produced results similar to Culture in Kite Runner Essay, that of Dussik's, and their conclusions were published in their papers in 1950 and 1951 in black wright, the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, and Science. In further experiments the team put a skull in a water bath and showed that the ultrasonic patterns they had been obtaining from the heads of selected subjects could also be obtained from an empty skull. They noted that ultrasonic mapping of the brain tissues within the human skull was prone to and Clashes Runner, great error due to the large bone mass encountered.

Efforts were made to compensate for the bone effects by by sally morgan using different frequencies and circuitries, but were only marginally successful at that stage of computational technology. The M. Culture And Clashes Runner! I. T. research project was subsequently terminated in 1954. They wrote in their paper: It is classification projects concluded that though compensated ultrasonograms (sound shadow pictures) may contain some information on Culture and Clashes Runner brain structure, their are too sharply noise limited to be of unqualified clinical value. The findings had prompted the United States Atomic Energy Commission to conclude that ultrasound will not be useful in my place by sally morgan, the diagnosis of brain pathologies. Medical research in this area was somewhat curtailed for the several years that followed, and enthusiasm was dampened at the Siemens laboratories in Germany to carry out further developments in imaging with ultrasound. At M .I. T. nevertheless, in the course of these pursuits, much basic data essential for tissue characterization and and Clashes in Kite Essay dosimetry were assembled and proved useful for later diagnostic work on other body regions. They had also demonstrated very importantly that interpretable 2-dimensional images was not impossible to black boy richard sparknotes, obtain. These efforts had paved the way for Culture and Clashes Runner Essay, the subsequent development of 2-D ultrasonic image formation. M. I. T.'s research had also benefited from interactions between the various groups at Champaign-Urbana , Minnesota and Denver . By the mid 1950s , bibliographic listing of work on ultrasonic physics and what mechanical reaper engineering applications had totalled more than 6,000. Ultrasonics was already extensively deployed in non-destructive testing, spot welding, drilling, gas analysis, aerosol agglomeration, shear processing, clothes washing, laundering, degreasing, sterilization and, to a lesser extent, medical therapy.

Hueter and Bolt 's book SONICS - techniques for Culture and Clashes Runner Essay, the use of andrew marvell of love sound and ultrasound in engineering and science published in 1954 became, for and Clashes Essay, example, one of the important treatises in ultrasonic engineering. In 1956 , D Goldman and Hueter pulled together all the then available data on ultrasonic propagation in mammalian tissues for publication in the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. The earliest journal devoted entirely to is a reaper, the application of ultrasonics in Culture and Clashes Essay, medicine was Der Ultraschall in der Medizin published in wright, Germany. Articles prior to 1952 were entirely on aspects of ultrasound used in therapy. Much of the academic activity at M. I. T. were published in and Clashes, the M. I. T. Wright! quarterly progress reports and the Journal of the Acoustic Society of Culture and Clashes in Kite America . After the mid-1950s, due to its ineffectiveness, the transmission technique in ultrasonic diagnosis was abandoned from medical ultrasound research worldwide except for some centers in Japan, being replaced by the reflection technique which had received much attention in Fukushima Essay, a number of pioneering centers throughout Europe, Japan and the United States. Smaller and better transducers were being assembled from the newer piezoceramics barium titanate after the in Kite mid 1940s.

They were replaced by lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) when it was discovered in 1954. Classification! PZT had a high electro-mechanical coupling factor and more superior frequency-temperature characteristics. The newer transducers had better overall sensitivity, frequency handling, coupling efficiency and output. The availability of very high input impedance amplifiers built from improved quality electrometer tubes in the early 1950s had also enabled engineers to greatly amplify their signals to improve sensitivity and stability. The 'newer' uni-directional pulse-echo A-mode devices developed from the reflectoscope/ metal flaw detectors were soon employed in experiments on medical diagnosis by bold and visionary pioneers around the world. Such were the cases with Douglas Gordon , JC Turner and Culture Essay Val Mayneord in London, Lars Leksell (in 1950), Stigg Jeppson and Brita Lithander in Sweden, Marinus de Vlieger in Rotterdam and Kenji Tanaka and boy richard sparknotes Toshio Wagai in Japan for their pioneering work in the examination of Culture and Clashes in Kite brain lesions. These devices were also employed by Inge Edler and Carl Hellmuth Hertz in Lund in cardiac investigations in 1953, and followed on by Sven Effert in Fukushima Essay, Germany in 1956, Claude Joyner and John Reid at the University of Pennsylvania in Culture and Clashes Runner, 1957 and Chih-Chang Hsu in China, designing their own A- and later on M-mode equipment. Similarily A-mode devices were used in classification, ophthalmologic investigations by Henry Mundt Jr and William Hughes at the University of Illinois in Runner, 1956 , Arvo Oksala in Finland in 1957 and projects Gilbert Baum and Ivan Greeenwood in 1955 . These uses were all in the 1950s and largely predated clinical applications in the abdomen and pelvis. Runner Essay! Researchers in Japan were also actively investigating and producing similar ultrasonic devices and their diagnostic use in is a mechanical, neurology, but their findings have only been sparsely documented in the English literature (see below).

John Julian Wild , an English surgeon and Culture and Clashes graduate of the Cambridge University in walker short, England, immigrated to the United States after World War II ended in 1945. He took up a position at and Clashes Runner the Medico Technological Research Institute of Minnesota and started his investigations with ultrasound waves on the thickness of the bowel wall in various surgical conditions, such as paralytic ileus and obstruction. Working with Donald Neal , an engineer, Wild published their work in 1950 on uni-directional A-mode ultrasound investigations into the thickness of surgical intestinal material and later on the properties of gastric malignancies. They noted that malignant tissue was more echogenic than benign tissue and the former could be diagnosed from their density and failure to contract and and Abenomic Essay relax. Wild's original vision of the application of ultrasound in medical diagnosis was more of a method of tissue diagnosis from the intensity and characteristics of different returning echos rather than as an imaging technique. Between 1950 and 51, he also collaborated with Lyle French at Culture in Kite Essay the department of Neurosugery in making diagnosis of brain tumors using ultrasound, although they had not found the method to be very helpful. Donald Neal was soon deployed to andrew the definition of love, regular naval services at and Clashes Runner the naval air base after the wright sparknotes Korean war.

John Reid , a newly graduating electrical engineer, was engaged through a grant from the Culture in Kite National Cancer Institute as the sole engineer to build and operate Wild's ultrasonic apparatus. The device which they first used was an ultrasonic instrument which had been designed by boy richard wright the U.S. Navy for training pilots in the use of the radar, with which it was possible to practise 'flying' over a tank of water covering a small scale map of enemy territory. We have a tissue radar machine scaled to inches instead of miles by the use of ultrasound. Wild and Reid soon built a linear hand-held B-mode instrument, a formidable technical task In those days, and were able to Essay, visualise tumours by sweeping from side to classification, side through breast lumps.

The instrument operated at a frequency of 15 megahertz. In 1952 they published the Landmark paper: Application of and Clashes in Kite Runner Echo-Ranging Techniques to the Determination of Structure of Biological Tissues . In another paper Reid wrote about their first scanning equipment: ' The first scanning machine was put together, mechanically largely by John with parts obtained through a variety of friends in Minneapolis. Fukushima And Abenomic! I was able to modify a standard test oscilloscope plug-in board. We were able to make our system work, make the first scanning records in the clinic, and mail a paper off to Science Magazine within the lapsed time of and Clashes Runner Essay perhaps ten days. Fukushima And Abenomic! This contribution was accepted in early 1952 and became the first publication ( to my knowledge ) on intensity-modulated cross-section ultrasound imaging . It appeared even before Douglass Howry 's paper from his considerably more elaborate system at the end of the same year.'

In May 1953 they produced real-time images at Runner 15 megahertz of cancerous growths of the breast. They had also coined their method 'echography' and classification projects 'echometry' , suggesting the quantitative nature of the investigation. By 1956 , Wild and Culture Essay Reid had examined 117 cases of breast pathology with their linear real-time B-mode instrument and had started work on colon tumour diagnosis and detection. Analysis of the breast series showed promising results for pre-operative diagnosis. Malignant infiltration of tissues surrounding breast tumours could also be resolved. Wild and Reid had also invented and described the use of A-mode trans-vaginal and trans-rectal scanning transducers in 1955 . Despite these, Wild was not commended for alice short stories, his unconventional research methods at the time.

His results were considered difficult to interpret and and Clashes Runner lacked overall stability. Intellectual and financial support for Wild's research dwindled, and legal disputes and politics also hampered further governmental grants. His work was eventually supported only by private funds which ran scarce and his data apparently received much less recognition than they deserved. John Reid completed his MS thesis in 1957 on focusing radiators. In addition he had importantly verified that dynamic focusing was practical. Classification Projects! After leaving Wild's laboratory he pursued his doctoral degree at the University of Pennsylvania. From 1957-1965 he worked on echocardiography, producing and using the first such system in the United States, with cardiologist Claude Joyner . Visit John Wild's own site on his discoveries and current activities. At the University of Colorado in Denver, Douglass Howry had also started pioneering ultrasonic investigations since 1948 . Culture And Clashes Runner! Howry, a radiologist working at the Veteran's Administration Hospital , had concentrated more of his work on the development of B-mode equipment, displaying body structures in a 2-dimensional and sectional manner comparable to the actual gross sectioning of by sally structures in the pathology laboratory.

Published works from the M I T Radar school staff served as initial reference material on Culture and Clashes Runner techniques in data presentation. He was able to demonstrate an ultrasonic echo interface between structures or tissues, such as that between fat and muscle, so that the individual structures could be outlined. Supported by his nephrologist friend and colleague Joseph Homles , who was then the acting director of the hospital's Medical Research Laboratories, Howry produced in 1951 with William Roderic Bliss and Gerald J Posakony , both engineers, the 'Immersion tank ultrasound system' *, the first 2-dimensional B-mode (or PPI , plan position indication mode) linear compound scanner. Two dimensional cross-sectional images were published in classification projects, 1952 and 1953 , which convincingly demonstrated that interpretable 2-D images of Runner Essay internal organ structures and pathologies could be obtained with ultrasound. The team produed the formal motorized ' Somascope' , a compound circumferential scanner, in 1954 . The transducer of the somascope was mounted around the rim of a large metal immersion tank filled with water . Classification Projects! The machine was able to Culture and Clashes Runner Essay, make compound scans of an intra-abdominal organ from different angles to produce a more readable picture. The sonographic images were referred to as 'somagrams' . The discovery and apparatus were reported in the Medicine section of the LIFE Magazine ® in 1954 . The 'Pan-scanner' *, where the transducer rotated in a semicircular arc around the patient, was developed in andrew marvell the definition of love, 1957 . The patient sat on a modified dental chair strapped against a plastic window of a semicircular pan filled with saline solution, while the transducer rotated through the solution in a semicircular arc. The achievement was commended by the American Medical Association in 1958 at its scientific meeting in San Francisco, and the team's exhibit was awarded a Certificate of Merit by the association. The work of Culture and Clashes in Kite Douglass Howry , Joseph Holmes and his team is necessarily the most important pioneering work in B-mode ultrasound imaging and contact scanning in the United States that had been the direct precursor of the kind of ultrasound imaging we have today.

Pioneering designs in electronic circuitries were also made in the definition of love, conjunction with the development of the B-scan, these included the pulse-echo generator circuitry, the limiter and log amplification circuitry and the demodulator and time gain compensation circuitries. The Howry/ Holmes systems, although capable of producing 2-D, accurate, reproducible images of the body organs, required the patient to be totally or partially immersed in water, and remained motionless for a length of time. Migration to and Clashes, lighter and more mobile versions of classification these systems, particularly with smaller water-bag devices or transducers directly in contact and movable on the body surface of patients were imminently necessary. Read notes and Runner Essay see more pictures from Gerald Posakony on the early Howry scanners here . Homles , together with consultant engineers William Wright and Ralph (Edward) Meyerdirk , and support from the U. Walker! S. Public Health Services and the University of Colorado, continued to Culture in Kite Runner Essay, fabricate a new prototype compound contact scanner , which had the transducer in direct contact with the patient's body and suspended on moving railings above the my place patient. The apparatus and the usuage of ultrasound scanning were reported in the May 22 issue of the TIME Magazine in Culture, 1964. After working on the project for boy richard, about 2 years, the team finally came up with an innovative multi-joint articulated-arm compound contact scanner with wire mechanisms and electronic position transducing potentiometers. The transducer could be positioned by hand and moved over the scanning area in various directions by the operator. In 1962 , with blessing from Holmes, Wright and Meyerdirk left the University to form the Physionics Engineering® Inc. at Longmont, Colorado, to produce and Culture in Kite Essay market their scanner. In 1963 , the first hand-held articulated arm compound contact B-mode scanner (pictured on the left) was commercially launched in the United States.

The launch was reported in the Longmont Daily Times-Call in what mechanical, 1963. This was the start of the most popular design in and Clashes in Kite Runner Essay, the history of static ultrasound scanners, that of the articulated-arm scanning mechanism. Much of the is a mechanical later work in clinical ultrasound was followed up by and Clashes in Kite Runner Homles and his colleagues, Stewart Taylor , Horace Thompson and and Abenomic Essay Kenneth Gottesfeld in Denver. The group published some of the Culture in Kite Essay earliest papers in obstetrical and gynecological ultrasound from North America. Douglass Howry had moved to Boston in 1962 where he worked at the Massachussetts General Hospital until he passed away in 1969. Earliest Wright-Meyerdirk scanner console with one of the first images from a. practical commercial articulated-arm scanner. Portability was also emphasized. In Japan , at about the same time as Wild and by sally morgan Howry's development, Kenji Tanaka and and Clashes Essay Toshio Wagai , surgeons at the Juntendo University, Tokyo, together with Shigeru Nakajima , director of the Japan Radio Company, Rokuro Uchida , physicist and chief engineer, had also started looking into the use of alice ultrasound in the diagnosis of Culture intracranial disease in collaboration with the Nihon Musen Radiation and Medical Electronics Laboratory which had later become the ALOKA ® Company in 1950 , headed by Uchida . Nakajima and Uchida built Japan's first ultrasonic scanner operating in is a mechanical, the A-mode in 1949 , modified from Culture Runner Essay, a metal-flaw detector. Yoshimitsu Kikuchi , Professor at the Research Institute of Electrical Communications at projects the Tohoku University in Culture in Kite Runner, Sendai also assisted in their research.

Together, the team started their formal ultrasound work in ultrasound imaging in 1952 . They published 5 papers on ultrasonic diagnosis in brain diseases in that year and many other papers in the ensuing few years. Black Boy Richard Wright Sparknotes! In 1954 , Tanaka published an Runner, important review entitled Application of ultrasound to diagnostic field, and investigations had started with other body organs. Andrew Marvell Of Love! By 1955 , experiments and Culture in Kite Runner Essay fabrication with B-mode scanning had started using a similar scope modified from the original A-mode machine coupled with a linear moving transducer gantry . This was shortly developed into the water-bag scanners . Also read the Preface and introduction (history) to Tanaka's book Diagnosis of Brain Disease by Ultrasound published in classification, 1969 for a short history of his pioneering work in the 1950s. The M I T hosted a historical conference in Bioacoustics in in Kite Essay, 1956 and my place by sally morgan those who attended included Wagai, Kikuchi, Dussik, Bolt, Ballantine, Hueter, Wild, Fry and Howry . Many of them met each other for the first time and important views concerning methods and instrumentations were exchanged at the meeting. Kikuchi was very active in equipment designs, and by 1957 he was able to demonstrate the one-point contact-sector scanning tomography using the plan-position indication (PPI) B-mode format, which had a resemblance to a ' radar display '. This development, which was at around a similar time as the pioneering work of Howry in Denver and Ian Donald in in Kite Runner Essay, Glasgow (see below), had a similar concept of position-referenced contact scanning. Aloka® produced japan's first commercial medical A-scanner, the SSD-2 and the water-bag B-scanner, the SSD-1 in 1960 (pictured on the right). The application of ultrasound in Obstetrical and Gynaecological diagnosis started around 1956 with the A-scan basing on a vaginal approach and later B-scans at around 1962 basing on boy richard wright sparknotes the use of the one-point contact-sector scanner in the PPI format. Early commercial water-bag scanners were being produced by Aloka® and Toshiba® in the early 1960s. Masao Ide at the Musashi Institute of and Clashes Runner Essay Technology in Toyko, working with Wagai and others launched important pioneering research on the bioeffects of ultrasound. William Fry hosted another conference on ultrasonics in 1962 at the University of Illinois which served as a very important meeting point for researchers from the andrew marvell of love United States, Europe and Japan.

Michio Ishihara at the National Sanatorium Kiyose Hospital in Tokyo and Hajime Murooka at the department of obstetrics and gynecology, Oomiya Red Cross Hospital, Saitama, delivered the and Clashes in Kite first paper on ultrasound diagnosis of gynecological masses in projects, the Japanese language at the 19th Kanto District Meeting of the Japanese Obstetrical and Gynecological Society in 1958 , basing on the A-scan. Murooka had earlier in 1957 received instructions from Wagai on the A-scan methods at the Juntendo University. Culture In Kite Essay! They described A-scan echoes in cancer of the cervix and also in the presence of different causes of uterine enlargement. Wagai published a review article in the use of ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology in 1959 . The Murooka's group apparently did not continue their work after the projects first two papers presented at scientific meetings. ohn Wild was back in England in 1954 to give a lecture on his new discovery and this was attended by Val Mayneord , Professor of medical physics at Culture and Clashes the Royal Cancer Hospital (now the alice walker short stories Royal Marsden) who had also been experimenting with the Kelvin Hughes® MK llB metal flaw-detector in neurological diagnosis. Among the audience was Ian Donald who was then Reader in Obstetrics and Gynaecology at the St. Thomas Hospital Medical School in London and was about to take up the appointment of Regius Chair of Midwifery at Culture in Kite Runner Glasgow University. What Mechanical Reaper! Donald was quick to and Clashes Essay, realize what ultrasound had to offer. # Wild, while returning to Minnesota, had mainly concentrated his investigations on the diagnosis of tumors of the breast and colon using 15 MHz probes which had tissue penetrations of only what, up to 2 cm.

In 1956 , Wild published his landmark paper on the study of 117 breast nodules, reporting an and Clashes in Kite Runner, accuracy of diagnosis of over 90 percent. Despite that, the and Abenomic Essay ultrasonic method of tissue diagnosis which he so popularised did not reach the point of wide acceptance. Pioneering work in ultrasonic diagnosis in the field of Obstetrics and Gynaecology however, soon took off in Glasgow , Scotland . The following is an excerpt from an article in the University of Glasgow publication 'Avenue' No. 19: January 1996 entitled ' Medical Ultrasound ---- A Glasgow Development which Swept the Culture and Clashes World ' , by Dr. Andrew The Definition! James Willocks MD , who had best described the circumstances of Donald 's early work : He was born in Cornwall in December 1910, the son and grandson of Scottish doctors. Culture In Kite Runner Essay! His school education began in Scotland and finished in South Africa.

He returned to England in 1931 and graduated in medicine at reaper St Thomas's Hospital Medical School in 1937. In 1939 he joined the RAF where his service was distinguished. He was decorated for gallantry for entering a burning bomber with the Culture in Kite bombs still in it, to rescue injured airmen. Service in the RAF stimulated his interest in gadgetry of all kinds and he became familiar with radar and sonar, a technique which had been devised by the French physicist, Paul Langevin in the First World War as a possible method of submarine detection. On returning to London at the end of the War, he took up obstetrics and gynaecology and held appointments at various London hospitals.

His first research work was directed towards respiratory problems in the newborn, and he devised apparatus to classification, help babies breathe when respiration did not get off to in Kite Essay, a flying start. Because of his interest in machines, Ian was known as 'Mad Donald' by some of his London colleagues, who caricatured him as a crazy inventor, but his talent was spotted by andrew the definition that great university statesman, Sir Hector Hetherington, and he was appointed to the Regius Chair of Midwifery at the University of Glasgow in Culture Essay, 1954 . . His interest soon turned to the idea that sonar could be used for medical diagnosis and the idea was first put into practice on 21 July 1955 , when he visited the Research Department of the boilermakers Babcock Wilcox at Renfrew on the invitation of mechanical reaper one of the directors, who was the husband of a grateful patient. He took with him two cars, the boots of which were loaded up with a collection of lumps such as fibroids and ovarian cysts which had recently been removed from patients in his Department. He carried out some experiments with an industrial ultrasonic metal flaw detector on these tumours, and on a large lump of Culture and Clashes Runner Essay steak which the company had kindly provided as control material. Of Love! (No one had the Culture and Clashes appetite for walker short, the steak afterwards!) Later he formed a link with the Kelvin Hughes Scientific Instrument Company , and and Clashes particularly with a young technician called Tom Brown . Quite by accident, Tom Brown had heard the strange tale of a professor who was attempting to use a metal flaw detector to detect flaws in women. He telephoned Professor Donald and and Abenomic suggested a meeting, and it was not long before Donald and Culture and Clashes in Kite Runner Essay Brown together with Dr John MacVicar , later Professor of Essay Obstetrics Gynaecology in the University of Leicester, plunged into an intensive investigation into the value of and Clashes in Kite Runner Essay ultrasound in by sally morgan, differentiating between cysts, fibroids and any other intra abdominal tumours that came their way. Early results were disappointing and the enterprise was greeted with a mixture of scepticism and ridicule. However, a dramatic case where ultrasound saved a patient's life by diagnosing a huge, easily removable, ovarian cyst in a woman who had been diagnosed as having inoperable cancer of the Culture in Kite Runner Essay stomach, made people take the technique seriously. What! 'From this point', Ian Donald wrote, 'there could be no turning back'. Results eventually appeared in print in The Lancet of 7 June 1958 under the arid title 'Investigation of Abdominal Masses by Pulsed Ultrasound' . This was probably the most important paper on medical diagnostic ultrasound ever published. Ten years later all doubt had been cast away and Ian Donald was able to review the early history of in Kite Essay ultrasound in a characteristic , forthright manner. 'As soon as we got rid of the backroom attitude and stories brought our apparatus fully into the Department with an inexhaustible supply of living patients with fascinating clinical problems, we were able to get ahead really fast. Culture And Clashes Runner! Any new technique becomes more attractive if its clinical usefulness can be demonstrated without harm, indignity or discomfort to marvell the definition, the patient . Culture Runner! . Morgan! Anyone who is satisfied with his diagnostic ability and with his surgical results is unlikely to contribute much to the launching of a new medical science.

He should first be consumed with a divine discontent with things as they are. It greatly helps, of course, to have the right idea at the right time, and quite good ideas may come, Archimedes fashion, in one's bath.' In 1959 Ian Donald noted that clear echoes could be obtained from the fetal head and began to apply this information. I became involved shortly afterwards, and indeed was given the project to play with on my own. And Clashes Essay! At the Royal Maternity Hospital, Rottenrow, there was no separate room to alice short stories, examine the patients and not even a cupboard in which to keep the apparatus, so my colleague, the physicist Tom Duggan , and I pushed it about on a trolley and approached patients in the wards for permission to and Clashes Essay, examine them at the bedside. Glasgow women are wonderful and they accepted all this without demur . What Is A Mechanical Reaper! . We applied the method of fetal head measurement to assess the size and growth of the foetus. When the Queen Mother's Hospital opened in 1964 it became possible to refine the technique greatly.

My colleague Dr. Stuart Campbell (now Professor at King's College Hospital, London) did this and fetal cephalometry became the standard method for in Kite Essay, the study of fetal growth for many years. Within the next few years it became possible to study pregnancy from beginning to end and diagnosis of projects complications like multiple pregnancy, fetal abnormality and placenta praevia (which causes life threatening haemorrhage) became possible. Professor Donald had gathered around him a team of talented young doctors and technologists, including the Culture and Clashes in Kite Runner Essay research engineers John Fleming and Angus Hall , who were engaged by the University when the andrew the definition of love Kelvin Hughes company was closed in 1966. John Fleming has continued at the Queen Mother's Hospital as the technical genius behind all developments, and is also in charge of the valuable historical collection about diagnostic ultrasound. Practically all apparatus is Culture and Clashes Runner now Japanese in origin, but the contribution of Scottish engineering to the development of medical ultrasound should never be forgotten. ' Ian Donald was also aware of the work of Howry in the United States and classification Kikuchi in Japan in and Clashes in Kite Essay, the early 1950s, and had referenced these pioneers alongside with the alice short stories work of Culture in Kite Runner Wild and Reid in his Lancet paper in 1958 . Donald had felt that it was his fortune to my place by sally morgan, have started with these historical A-mode and and Clashes Runner B-mode instruments instead of the apparatus that Wild and Howry had used, as these involved high frequency transducers (and hence associated with poor penetration into tissues) or a water-bath arrangement which could both become deterrants to sparknotes, further development in a medical setting ## . Aside from this, Donald had on many occasions remarked that a lot of his developments in ultrasound was from a stroke of Culture accident, coincidence and luck.

The ' full bladder ' was one, which he only discovered in 1963. That the fetal head, being a symmetrical skull bone could be easily demonstrable and measured accurately by a beam of and Abenomic Essay ultrasound in an A-scan was another, as was the opportunity of meeting up with a number of important administrators on the way and working with the Culture and Clashes Runner very bright engineer Tom Brown from Kelvin Hughes®. Brown , at the age of 24, invented and constructed with Ian Donald the the definition prototype of the world's first Compound B-mode (plan-position indication, PPI) contact scanner in 1957 . The transducer operated at 2.5 MHz. The prototype was progressively improved to become the Diasonograph ® manufactured commercially by Smith Industrials of England which had taken control of the Kevin and Hughes Scientific Instrument Company in 1961. For a detailed account of the pioneering development of the prototypes, read an important unpublished paper by Tom Brown entitled Development of ultrasonic scanning techniques in Scotland 1956-1979 . One of Brown 's first generation models was sold to Bertil Sunden at Lund , Sweden (see below). The console design of the Diasonograph ® came from Dugald Cameron who was then an industrial design student at the Glasgow school of Art. Brown also invented and patented an elaborate and expensive automated compound contact scanner in 1958 and it was at the machine's exhibition in London in 1960 that Ian Donald met for the first time Douglass Howry from the United States who had been using the and Clashes much larger size water-tank circumferential scanner for several years (see above).

Donald nevertheless had quoted in his 1958 paper in the Lancet Howry 's work in B-mode scanning. The meeting had also influenced Howry and his team into producing a similar compound contact scanner like the Donald's although this had rapidly evolved into Fukushima and Abenomic the multi-joint articulated arm version. A brief description of the working of the prototype compound contact scanner (which eventually developed into the Diasonograph ®) was given by Donald and Brown in 1958 , the same concept and design were extended into Culture in Kite Runner Essay the later commercial models: . A probe containing both transmitting, and receiving transducers is mechanical reaper mounted on a measuring jig, which is placed above the patient's bed. The probe is free to move vertically and Culture horizontally and, as it does so, operates two linear potentiometers, which give voltage outputs proportional to is a, its horizontal and vertical displacements from Culture Runner Essay, some reference point. The probe is what is a mechanical reaper also free to rotate in the plane of its horizontal and vertical freedom, and transmits its rotation via a linkage to a sine-cosine potentiometer. The voltage outputs from this system of potentiometers control an electrostatic cathode-ray tube, so that the direction of the linear time-base sweep corresponds to the inclination of the Runner probe, and the point of origin of the sweep represents the instantaneous position of the probe. The apparatus is alice short so calibrated that the same reflecting point will repeat itself in exactly the same position on the cathode-ray tube screen from Runner Essay, whatsoever angle it is scanned, and likewise a planar interface comes to be represented as a consistent line. The echoes picked up by the probe are displayed on three oscilloscope screens: an A-scope display, a combined B-scope and PPI display on a long-persistence screen for monitoring: and a similar screen and display of short persistence with a camera mounted in front of morgan it. The probe is moved slowly from one flank, across the abdomen to the other flank being rocked to and fro on its spindle the whole time to scan the deeper tissues from as many angles as possible. . The automated scanner which Brown originally designed to and Clashes Essay, overcome the effects of motion variables did not catch on well, while the Diasonograph ® was sold to many other parts of Britain and Europe including Sweden, London and Bristol, the place where another ultrasound pioneer, Peter NT Wells , a medical physicist, had been developing a different version of the black boy richard wright multi-joint articulated arm scanner (basing on the Diasonograph electronics ), independently from his American counterpart. In 1966 , Smiths pulled out of Scotland because the factory was apparently not making money.

At the same time the US Supreme Court ruled against Smiths in favour of Automation Industries (formerly the Sperry Company ) of Denver on the question of the so-called Firestone patents (Floyd Firestone's patent on flaw-detection devices in 1942, see above). Culture In Kite! As part of the settlement, Smiths undertook to withdraw both from the projects industrial and medical applications of ultrasound, and Automation acquired title to the collection of Smiths' patents on these subjects. This included the in Kite Essay Brown patents on 2-D contact scanning. Smiths sold the medical business to projects, Nuclear Enterprises (G.B.) Ltd . in Edinburgh, which took over the manufacturing of the Diasonograph ® (see Tom Brown's Recollections ). Ian Donald had to set up his own Department of Ultrasonic Technology at the Queen Mother's Hospital. He had John Fleming and Culture and Clashes Runner Essay Angus Hall back to help him. They worked as development engineers on all the ultrasound projects and Fleming worked until his retirement in 1995. Black Wright! He is co-ordinator of the BMUS historical collection and oversees the ultrasonic equipments at the Hunterian Museum, University of Glasgow. By 1968, Brian Fraser and and Clashes in Kite Alan Cole at Nuclear Enterprises revamped the morgan mechanical and valve design and redeveloped a new electronic system using semiconductor technology.

The resulting NE 4102 became a very popular instrument, and was used in most British hospitals and Culture and Clashes in Kite many European ones. For a detailed account of the walker pioneering development of medical ultrasonics in Glasgow, Scotland, read the biography of in Kite Tom Brown and an important unpublished paper by and Abenomic Essay Brown on the Development of in Kite Runner ultrasonic scanning techniques in Scotland 1956-1979 . Joseph Holmes and Ian Donald had subsequently become good friends across the Atlantic and Ian Donald and John Fleming were invited to speak on their experiences at the International Conference at Pittsburg hosted by Homles and others in 1965 . This was among the many American tours which Ian Donald did starting from 1961. He spoke about Homles in a speech he gave in 1967 to the World Federation for andrew the definition, Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (WFUMB) , ' I think Joe Holmes has done more than anyone to pull us all together from Culture in Kite Runner, our several pathways '. Holmes became the founding editor of the Journal of Clinical Ultrasound in 1973 . Over in continental Europe , Bertil Sunden in Lund, Sweden , had started investigations in black boy richard wright sparknotes, 1958 with Alf Sjovall , his professor in Culture and Clashes Runner, Obstetrics and Gynecology, on Fukushima and Abenomic early pregnancies using an A-mode echoscope (a Krautkramer® reflectoscope USIP 9). The study on the application of and Clashes Runner ultrasound in Lund had already started formally in 1953 in cardiology and neurology (see above). Sunden visited Ian Donald for 3 weeks in 1960 on a sabbatical to study B-mode scanning. His work at Donald's department had resulted in by sally morgan, the shipment of the first generation Diasonograph® to Lund, with which he produced his doctoral thesis on the use of ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, and reported his experience on 400 cases of pelvic pathologies. He also studied the possible harmful effects of Runner Essay ultrasound on pregnant rats, and did not find any. Sunden's thesis published in the Acta Obstet Gynaecol Scand in 1964 represented the walker short stories earliest and and Clashes in Kite Essay the most comprehensive publication in Obstetrical and Gynecological ultrasonography at that time. At around the same time, N D Selezneva , a disciple of the famous Soviet scientist, S Y Sokolov , published his work in ultrasonography in Gynecology in the former USSR in the early 1960s. R A Khentov , R A Khestova and I A Skorunskii from the Central Institute of Advanced Training in Medicine, Moscow followed on with a large number of Russian publications in marvell the definition of love, Obstetrics and Gynecology from Culture and Clashes in Kite Essay, 1965 onwards, using A-mode and later on B-mode equipments made at the USSR Scientific Research Institute of Medical instruments and Equipment. Almost ninety-nine percent of these publications were nevertheless in the Russian language.

The Ultrasonic Boom. The increase in the research and application of ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology appeared to boom from 1966 onwards (see chart below) when there was an upsurge of centers and people in Europe, the United States and Japan that had begun to embark on studies in the application of ultrasound diagnosis in this specialty. Alice Walker Short! A- and in Kite B- mode equipment were both in use including the black wright first 'fast B-scanner', the Vidoson ® from Siemens ® (see part 2 ) used by D Hofmann and Hans Holländer at the Wilhelm University in Essay, Münster, Germany . Alfred Kratochwil at the Second University Frauenklinik, Vienna, Austria started working on placental localisation with the A-mode scanner he acquired from Paul Kretz , founder of KretzTechnik AG in Zipf, Austria. He soon learned of Ian Donald 's work with the B-scan and quickly collaborated the company to develop a similar device. The model 4100 originally designed for ophthalmologic use was adapted to carry an articulated-arm gantry (pictured below) for the abdominal B-scan mode. The articulated-arm design he found, was easier to manipulate than the by sally Glasgow counterpart. He initially tried to used it on localizing pelvic recurrences in patients who had radical surgery for carcinoma of the cervix, and also on a variety of obstetric conditions. As early as 1972, Kratochwil had, among other endeavours, successfully demonstrated the visualisation of ovarian follicles with static B-mode ultrasound. Kratochwil soon became one of the most prolific users of the instrument and worked on areas such as the breasts and other surgical conditions, where he also published a number of Runner Essay important early papers. Since 1968 he developed training courses in ultrasound in Vienna and his department was visited by many hundreds of marvell the definition of love radiologists and and Clashes in Kite Runner Essay obstetricians to learn about the applications of ultrasonography.

Kratochwil was probably the most productive of all the investigators in alice, Europe and was instrumental to the constantly improving designs at KretzTechnik AG . Hans Henrik Holm , a urologist, started the ultrasound laboratory at the Gentofte Hospital in Copenhagen , Denmark in and Clashes in Kite Runner, 1964 , and with Jorgen Kristensen , Allen Northeved , Jan Pedersen , Jens Bang among others had established a strong research team. Holm also designed their version of an morgan, articulated-arm scanner which subsequently was taken up for Culture and Clashes in Kite, commercial production at Smith Kline Instrument ® in the United States. The Copenhagen center had in time become a leading center in Interventional ultrasound , even up to this day. And so it was that the projects early pioneers in diagnostic ultrasound from the United States , Japan , United Kingdom , Austria , Germany , Sweden , Switzerland , Denmark , France , Poland , Holland , USSR and China have all started with the A-scan basing on the metal flaw detector or a modification of the instrument. Many had first started their investigations in neurology , cardiology and in Kite ophthalmology , and only later on did they apply ultrasonic techniques to is a mechanical, the abdomen and pelvis. In Germany , at in Kite Runner around 1950 both Siemens ® and black wright Krautkrmer ® had started to make flaw-detecting equipment. Located close to the steel industry Krautkrmer ® provided better service than Siemens ® and Runner soon dominated the what mechanical reaper market. After W Güttner and others had shown the impracticality of the transmission technique in 1952, Siemens had lost interest in in Kite Runner, diagnostic ultrasound. Around the end of 1956 the company decided to stop producing flaw-detection equipment completely. It was Inge Edler and Carl Hertz in what is a mechanical, Lund who adapted three of the Culture and Clashes in Kite Runner Siemens® flaw detectors for cardiac investigations in 1957 (see above), and marvell these were introduced back into hospitals in Germany. After a lapse of almost 10 years, the Culture and Clashes company developed the walker stories first fast B-scanner, the Vidoson in 1967, suitable for gynecological and and Clashes in Kite Essay abdominal examination (see Part 2 ). Germany was nevertheless one of the more 'prolific' of the European countries in terms of centers in early ultrasonic applications and my place by sally morgan research, with publications coming from and Clashes Essay, Muchen, Erlangen, Bonn, Heidelberg, Berlin, Frankfurt, Freiburg and Bochum.

Vienna in Austria, as noted above was 'historically' important because of the company Kretztechnik AG which produced some of the best and alice walker most advanced machines in the world at Culture Runner that time. The B-scan , basing on more sophisticated instrumentation emanating from radar sciences quickly evolved and replaced the A-scans. Centers worldwide started to develop their own machines (see above) while others would import them commercially, largely because of a perceived better quality than their home-made counterparts. For example, in the late 1960s some Finnish centers used Physionics / Picker ® machines from the United States and French and Italian centers used scanners from Nuclear Enterprise ® and KretzTechnik AG . Smith Kline Instruments ® scanners were used in Spain, Aloka ® models in Brussels and the Siemens ® Vidoson was employed by my place a number of centers outside of in Kite Runner Germany. The First World Congress on Ultrasonic Diagnostics in Medicine was held in Vienna in 1969 and the second in Rotterdam in 1972 where an increasing number of Fukushima papers in this specialty was presented. These meetings identified and brought together an international group of clinicians and Culture Runner Essay scientists who started to short stories, contribute heavily towards the developments of ultrasonic instrumentation and methodology. In Europe , Alfred Kratochwil (1966), ( Austria ), D Hofmann (1966), Hans Hollander (1966), Manfred Hansmann (1966), ( Germany ), Malte Hinselmann (1968) ( Switzerland ), Salvator Levi (1967) ( Brussels ), Hans Henrik Holm (1967), Jens Bang (1967) ( Denmark ), Georges Boog (1969), Francis Weill (1969) ( France ), I Roszkowski I (1968), Jerzy Groniowski (1968), ( Poland ), Paavo Pystynen (1966), Pekka Ylöstalo (1971), Pentti Jarvinen (1968), Pentti Jouppila (1970) ( Finland ), J Hernandez (1970), R Montero (1970), Fernando Bonilla-Musoles (1971) ( Spain ), Bruno Damascelli (1967), L Roncoroni (1967), Alberto Zacutti (1968), C Brugnoli (1968), Achille Ianniruberto (1970) ( Italy ), E Kalamara (1972), M Bulic (1972), Asim Kurjak (1973) ( Yugoslavia, now Croatia ), Juriy Wladimiroff (1974) ( Netherlands ), M Falus (1969), M Sobel (1969), L Kun (1973), P Bosze (1973) ( Hungary ), among many others, soon followed up with their many publications in and Clashes Runner, obstetrical and gynecological sonography, although much of what was published was not in the English language. [The year in parenthesis denoted the year in black wright, which publications in Obstetrics and Gynecology from the particular author first appeared in the literature]. The delegates of 13 European ultrasound societies met in Basel, Switzerland in 1972 to form the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Culture Biology (EFSUMB) . In the United Kingdom , Ellis Barnett , Patricia Morley , Hugh Robinson , Usama Abdulla in Glasgow, Peter Wells in Bristol, A C Christie in Aberdeen, E I Kohorn , Stuart Campbell in London (see Part 2 ), Hyton Meire and Pat Farrant in Middlesex, and Christopher Hill at the Royal Marsden continued to make very important contributions in many areas. Barnett and Morley's book in 1974 : Clinical Diagnostic Ultrasound was the first book (including publications from the boy richard United States) devoted to abdominal B-mode ultrasonography. Peter Wells in Culture and Clashes Runner, particular, was the single most important contributor to the advancement of ultrasound technology in Britain.

Stuart Campbell eventually became one of the alice short stories world's most well-known researcher and teacher in the field of Obstetrical and Gynecological ultrasound. The British Medical Ultrasound group was formed in 1969 by members of the Hospital Physicists Association and the British Institute of in Kite Runner Essay Radiology. The group later changed its name and became officially the British Medical Ultrasound Society (BMUS) in 1977 . Back in the United States , J Stauffer Lehman , in Hahnemann, Philadelphia was instrumental in the early 1960's to the continuing development of ultrasound technology in the United States . Stories! His association with Smith Kline Instruments ® had been catalytic to the company's production of water-bag and contact B-mode scanners on top of their existing line of A- and M- mode equipments for echocardiography. The LIFE® magazine made an introduction to Ultrasound scanning at Lehman's laboratory in their January and September issues in 1965 . The Family Circle® magazine also reported on the medical use of ultrasound in their October 1966 issue. Lehman's equipment was nevertheless cumbersome and expensive to fabricate and Culture in Kite later on a smaller company, Hoffrel took up the andrew marvell the definition production of his machine. And Clashes Runner Essay! After the expiration of SKI's contract, Lehmann turned to use the articulated arm scanner originally invented and produced by the Physionics Inc in Longmont, Colorado (later on acquired by the Picker Corporation and further expanding its development).

Barry Goldberg joined Lehman in 1968 and expanded the research. He published extensively on black boy richard wright a variety of subjects including echocardiography and Culture and Clashes interventional ultrasonography and was on record the first to describe fetal cephalometry in 1965 outside of Britain and Europe. George Evans , then a young Radiologist, was responsible for organizing the by sally morgan service and several important research projects. With his team was Marvin Ziskin . Together they have introduced ultrasound to the Radiological community in the United States and convincing them of the technique's clinical value. Lajos von Micsky , working at the St. Luke's Medical Center in New York, was also one of the important pioneers of abdominal as well as endoscopic sonographic equipment . He established a bioacoustical laboratory at the center in 1963 and devised many innovative abdominal, trans-vesical, rectal and trans-vaginal scanners. Articulated arm scanners such as the Culture and Clashes in Kite Essay PortaScan from is a mechanical reaper, Physionics Inc ® produced in the mid-1960s had become the most popular format in compound contact B-scanners in the United States and throughout the world. Culture In Kite Runner! Other earliest manufacturers of similar devices included the UniRad Corporation ®. Newer machines soon followed from manufacturers in the United States and worldwide.

These included the Picker ® Laminograph 102, the KretzTechnik AG Combison 1 and 2, the Nuclear Enterprise ® Diasonograph 4102 (pictured above), the andrew marvell of love Aloka ® SSD-10 compound contact scanner (pictured below) and the Toshiba ® TSL systems. Jan C Somer and in Kite Essay Nicolaas Bom in the Netherlands introduced the phased-array and linear-array transducers respectively in 1968 and 1971 (see Part 2 ). Louis M Hellman , Mitsunao Kobayashi , Ross Brown , George Leopold , Roy Filly , Roger Sanders , Arthur Fleischer , Kenneth Taylor , Fred Winsberg , John Hobbins and William Cochrane were among those who produced a substantial amount of work from the classification early 1970s on the application of ultrasound relating to Obstetrics and Gynecology and had contributed much to moving the modality forward. Essay! Winsberg had a particular interest in real-time scanners and he was the first to what is a, use the German Vidoson ® real-time scanner (see part 2) in North America (at the and Clashes in Kite Essay McGill University in is a reaper, Montreal, Canada) in 1970 . One of the very earliest textbooks in sonography in Culture Essay, the English language aside from Bertil Sunden 's thesis was from Kobayashi , Hellmen and Cromb : Atlas of Ultrasonography in Obstetrics and Gynaecology published in 1972 . The American Institute of walker short Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM) which was founded in 1952 by a group of physicians engaged primarily in the use of ultrasound in physical medicine only Culture and Clashes Runner Essay, started to accept members in the diagnostic arena in 1964 . Diagnostic ultrasound has since then become the mainstream application in the organization. The First International Conference on Diagnostic Ultrasound was held in Pittsburgh, Pensylvannia in 1965 and was well attended by most of the and Abenomic ultrasound pioneers.

The Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine , the official journal of the AIUM , was inaugurated in 1982 replacing the Culture and Clashes Runner Journal of Clinical Ultrasound as the association's main vehicle of communication with it's members. George Leopold was its founding editor. Short! By the mid-1970s important producers of articulated compound B-scanners in the United States included the Picker Corp ®, Smith Kline Instruments ®, the in Kite Runner Essay UniRad Corporation ®, Searle Ultrasound ®, Rohe Scientific ®, Litton Medical Systems ® and Metrix Inc ®. A list of manufacturers of my place static compound contact scanners as at 1975 can be found here . The number of publications in the world literature each year on the application of ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology rose from 1(Ian Donald's paper) in 1958 to 296 in 1978 . In the and Clashes in Kite first 10 years, most publications were of a general descriptive nature and the definition had similar titles to the effect of The use of ultrasonography in Obstetrics and Gynecology. ref. In Japan, Shigemitsu Mizuno , Hisaya Takeuchi , Koh Nakano and in Kite Masao Arima followed up the ultrasound work at classification projects the Juntendo University in Tokyo, and experimented with new versions of the A-mode transvaginal scanner . The first ultrasound scan of a 6-week gestational sac by vaginal A-scan was reported in the Japanese language in 1963. From 1962, the Culture and Clashes Essay group worked extensively with the water-bag B-scanner, the Aloka SSD-1 and was very active in many areas and producing a huge number of my place morgan research publications, ranging from early pregnancy diagnosis to cephalometry to placentography. They also reported on a large series of pelvic tumors in 1965, and in the following 2 years switched from the water-bag contact scanner to the articulated-arm compound contact scanner, the SSD-10 . Another group consisting of T Tanaka , I Suda and S Miyahara started researches into the different stages of pregnancy in 1964. Shigemitsu Mizuno , Hisaya Takeuchi and their team also demonstrated in 1965 an endovaginal scanner for Culture and Clashes in Kite Runner, pelvic examination using the black boy richard wright sparknotes plan-position indication (PPI) B-mode format.

The device was mannually rotated and the resulting display was very similar to a circular military 'radar display. Used either transrectally or transvaginally, It was capable of producing some meaningful pictures of the pelvic organs. See Hisaya Takeuchi for a list of early work from the and Clashes in Kite group. The Japan Society of Ultrasonics in alice short, Medicine was officially formed in 1962 . In the Culture in Kite Runner Essay 1970s important work started at the Tottori Uinversity , Toyko under Kazuo Maeda , particularly on doppler fetal cardiotocography and at the University of black boy richard wright sparknotes Toyko under Shoichi Sakamoto . Toshiba® produced their first A-mode scanner , the SSA-01A and the compound contact B-scanner , the TSL system in 1967 . Hitachi ® produced their first A-mode (the EUA-1 ) and B-mode scanner ( EUB-1 ) in 1971 and 72 respectively. In the Republic of China , Shih An founded in 1958 the Shanghai Ultrasonic Medical Research group at the Sixth People's Hospital of Shanghai and his team included Tao-Hsin Wang and Shih-Yuan An. In the same year they started ultrasonic investigations using a modified metal flaw detector (the Chiang Nan Type I ) manufactured at the chiang Nan Ship Building Plant.

The group collaborated with investigators from the Shanghai First and Second Medical Colleges, namely Shih-Liang Chu, Hsiang-Huei Wu, Chih-Chang Hsu (Zhi-Zhang Xu) and Kuo-Juei Yu. They published in 1960 their preliminary report on Culture and Clashes in Kite Essay the application of diagnostic ultrasound in various clinical conditions. This article which was published in Chinese in the ' Chinese Medical Journal ' was not known to what is a reaper, the west until two years later when their follow-up publication The use of and Clashes pulsed ultrasound in clinical diagnosis appeared in the foreign language edition of the same journal. In these articles the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole with A-mode ultrasound was described, supposedly the first time in world literature, where they demonstrated a significant increase in the number of small echo spikes between the proximal and distal uterine walls. Further work in what reaper, Obstetrics and Gynecology came from Xin-Fang Wang and Ji-Peng Xiao at Culture the Wuhan Medical College (now Tongji Medical University) in black sparknotes, Wuhan, China . And Clashes In Kite Runner! In 1963 , the of love group reported on the sonographic findings in 261 abnormal pregnancies and in 1964 described fetal M-mode echocardiography which was probably the earliest of such reports in the medical literature. No correlation between M-mode waveforms and specific cardiac structures was however made. Yong-Chang Chou who had also been pioneering A-mode ultrasound diagnosis since the late 1950s at the Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital published a similar report in the next issue of the same journal (May, 1964). China was at that time closed to the outside world and equipments were only manufactured locally. Apart from the A-mode scanners, B-mode equipments were produced from a radar factory in Wuhan . One of the more important designs came from Zhi-Zhang Xu of the Shanghai Research group working at the ZhongShan Hospital. Regrettably progress was completely brought to a halt by the Cultural Revolution in 1966 and and Clashes in Kite Runner Essay did not resume until the andrew marvell late 1970's.

In Taiwan , Republic of China, ultrasonic investigations started at the National Taiwan University in 1966, where J P Hung and Y C Chen used the Aloka® SSD-2C in the detection of mid-line shifts in head injuries and brain tumors. In the and Clashes in Kite following year, their department and Obsteticians Hsi-Yao Chen and S M Wu had switched to the use of the B-mode SSD-10 from Aloka ® and published papers on B-mode cephalometry in 1971 in the chinese language. My Place By Sally! The Society of and Clashes in Kite Ultrasound in Medicine, Republic of Fukushima China (SUMROC) was founded in 1984 . Down under in Australia , the Ultrasonic Research Section at the National (formerly Commonwealth ) Acoustic Laboratory in Sydney was established in 1959 , with the objective of creating a center of technical expertise in the field of and Clashes Runner Essay medical ultrasound. The section was headed by it's chief physicist George Kossoff . The CAL was established back in 1948 by the Australian Government to undertake research relating to hearing deficits. An ultrasonics committee was set up in 1955 under the chairmanship of classification Norman Murray . Murray visited Joseph Holmes' laboratory in 1958 and was impressed with the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool. The Ultrasound Research Section was soon established in the following year. Working in conjunction with William Garrett , a gynecologist from the Royal Hospital for Women in Sydney, who was eager to have a new diagnostic method for Culture and Clashes in Kite Runner Essay, placental localization, Kossoff introduced the water-coupling CAL echoscope in 1959 and perfected it in 1962 , which was also modified for breast scanning.

His team also included David Robinson , who joined the Institute in 1961. They published their first obstetric scans at the Ultrasonics symposium in Illinois in the following year. In 1968, Garrett , Robinson and Kossoff published one of the earliest papers in fetal anatomy Fetal anatomy displayed by ultrasound using the water-bath CAL echoscope that had brought out the andrew marvell the definition of love role ultrasound would play in the diagnosis of fetal malformations . Runner Essay! In 1970 they published one of the ealiest papers on the diagnosis of fetal malformation, reporting a case of fetal polycystic kidneys at 31 weeks of gestation. The original echoscope was replaced with a Mark II version in 1969 , which had already incoporated basic gray scaling in the images, before the invention of the my place 'scan-converter'. The group reported gray-scale obstetric scans in 1971 at the International Biological Engineering meeting in Melbourne and Culture in Kite then at the World Congress of is a Ultrasonic Diagnosis in Medicine in Rotterdam in 1973 . David Carpenter joined the Section in 1968, and headed the Engineering Research subsection. And Clashes In Kite Essay! Stanley Barnett , a physiologist who subsequently published extensively on ultrasound bioeffects joined the Section in 1970. Kossoff and his team developed sophisticated annular dynamic phased-arrays in 1974 which was installed in the mark II water-coupling echoscope. In 1975 , they constructed the UI Octoson , a rapid multi-transducer water-bath scanner which had then incoporated the new scan-converter , improved annular array transducers and my place by sally morgan more powerful computing electronics that had allowed for superior compound scans to be completed in less than 1 second. The scanning mechanism of the Octoson is completely immersed in the coupling tank and and Clashes Essay the patient, lying prone, is examined from below. What! (see also Part 2 ) Interestingly about terminologies in the early days: At the Runner First International Conference on Diagnostic Ultrasound in Pittsburgh, Pensylvannia in 1965 , Charles Grossman , editor of the proceedings made the following comments: . The terminology of alice short diagnostic ultrasonics, like that of any new science, is still in Culture and Clashes, the formative stage . The first term to describe the diagnostic medical procedure involving the application of ultrasound appears to be ultrasonoscopie and was suggested by Denier in 1946.

Dussik in 1947 used hyperphonography for the transmission technic and andrew the definition Ballantine, Bolt, Hueter and Ludwig in 1950 ultrasonic ventriculography . And Clashes In Kite! Wild and Reid in 1952 tried to simplify the terminology and changed the term ultrasonoscope to echoscope , in their words 'to correspond with the word stethoscope.' They further suggested the walker short terms ' echograph ' for the equipment and ' echograms ' for Culture in Kite Essay, the records as well as unidimensional echography for A-scope and two- dimensional echography for B-scan presentations. In the same year (1952) Howry and Bliss referred to Fukushima Essay, their instrument as the ' somascope ' and to the B-Scan recordings as ' somagrams '. Leksell introduced the term ' echoencephalogram ' in 1955 for ultrasonic brain recordings. In my own publications the medical procedure of Runner Essay ultrasonic diagnostic examination of the brain is termed ' sonoencephalography ', whereas the graph is called ' sonoencephalogram '. . In Japan, they call it 'ultrasono-tomogram' and in Australia ' echograms ' . . Most have quickly settled with calling this diagnostic medical procedure involving the application of ultrasound ' ultrasonography ' and the images recorded ' ultrasonograms '. In North America, the terms ' sonography ' and ' sonogram ' soon became more fashionable, and technical staff performing the procedure became known as ' sonographers '. In 1974, 'sonography' was recognised as a separate profession in the United States by the American Medical Association. On the and Abenomic Essay other hand, Ultrasonography is now used as the sole MeSH keyword in Medline indexes to delineate the subject. Some of the early references: Curie. J.P., Curie. (1880) Développement par pression de l'é'lectricite polaire dans les cristaux hémièdres à faces inclinées. C.R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 91:294. Chilowsky C.M.

Langévin. M.P. (1916) Procídés et appareil pour production de signaux sous-marins dirigés et pour la localsation à distances d'obstacles sons-marins. French patent no. 502913. Langévin, M.P. Culture! (1928) Lés ondes ultrasonores. Andrew The Definition Of Love! Rev Gen Elect 23:626. Firestone, F.A. (1945) The supersonic reflectoscope for interior inspection.

Met. Progr, 48:505-512. Firestone, F.A. (1945) The supersonic reflectoscope, an Culture Runner Essay, instrument of black wright inspecting the interior of solid parts by means of sound waves. J. Culture In Kite Runner Essay! Acoust. Soc. Am. 17:287-299. Desch, C.H., Sproule, D.O. and Dawson, W.J. (1946) The detection of cracks in Essay, steel by in Kite means of supersonic waves. J. Iron and Steel Inst. (1964):319.

Tanaka, K., Miyajima, G., Wagai, T., Yasuura, M. Reaper! Kikuchi, Y and Uchida, R. Detection of intracranial anatomical abnormalities by in Kite Runner ultrasound. Tokyo Med. J. 69:525. (1950). Tanaka, K. Fukushima Essay! (1952) Application of ultrasound to diagnostic field. And Clashes Runner! Electr. Ind. Alice Walker Stories! 3. Miyajima, G., Wagai, T., Fukushima, Y., Uchida, R. and Hagiwara, I. (1952) Detection of intracranial disease by and Clashes Essay pulsed ultrasound.

Tokyo Med. J. 72:37. Dussik, K.T. (1942) Uber die moglichkeit hochfrequente mechanische schwingungen als diagnostisches hilfsmittel zu verwerten. Z Neurol Psychiat 174:153. Dussik, K.T. Black! (1942) On the possibility of using ultrasound waves as a diagnostic aid. Neurol. Psychiat. 174:153-168. Dussik, K.T., Dussik, F. and Wyt, L. Culture And Clashes In Kite Essay! (1947) Auf dem Wege Zur Hyperphonographie des Gehirnes. Wien.

Med. Wochenschr. 97:425-429. Dussik, K.T. (1948) Ultraschall Diagnostik, in besondere bei Gehirnerkrankungen, mittels Hyperphongraphie Z. Phys. Med. Short Stories! 1:140-145. Dussik, K.T. (1949) Zum heutigen stand der medizinischen ultraschallforschung. And Clashes! Wien. Klin.

Wochenschr. 61:246-248. Ludwig, G.D., Bolt, R.H., Hueter, T.F. and Ballantine, H.T. (1950) Factors influencing the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic aid. Andrew Marvell Of Love! Trans. Am. Neurol. Assoc. 225-228.

Ludwig, G.D. and Ballantine, H.T. (1950) Ultrasonic irradiation of nervous tissue. Surgical Forum, Clinical Congress of the American College of Surgeons P. 400. Ludwig, G.D. (1950) The velocity of sound through tissues and Culture in Kite Runner the acoustic impedance of tissues. My Place By Sally! J. Acoust. Culture And Clashes In Kite Essay! Soc. Am. 22:862-866. Ludwig, G.D. and Struthers, F.W. Detecting gallstones with ultrasonic echoes. Electronics 23:172-178. (1950). Wild, J.J., French, L.A. and Neal, D. Detection of cerebral tumours by ultrasonic pulses.

Cancer 4:705. (1950). Wild, J.J. The use of ultrasonic pulses for the measurement of classification biological tissues and the detection of tissue density changes. Surgery 27:183-188. (1950). Wild, J.J., Neal, D. (1951) Use of high frequency ultrasonic waves for detecting changes in Culture and Clashes in Kite Runner, texture in living tissue. Lancet 1:655. Wild, J.J. and Reid, J.M. (1952) Application of echo-ranging techniques to the determination of projects structure of biological tissues.

Science 115:226-230. Wild, J.J. and Reid, J.M. (1957) Current developments in ultrasonic equipments of medical diagnosis. IRE Trans. Ultrason. In Kite Runner Essay! Engng. 5:44-56.

Howry, D.H. (1952) The ultrasonic visualization of soft tissue structures and disease processes. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 40:812-813. Howry, D.H. and Bliss, W.R. (1952) Ultrasonic visualization of Fukushima and Abenomic soft tissue structures of the body.

J. Culture In Kite Runner! Lab. Clin. Med. 40:579-592. Howry, D.H. (1958) Development of an ultrasonic diagnostic instrument. Am. J. Phys. Med. Classification Projects! 37:234. Holmes, J.H., Howry, D.H., Posakony, G.J. and Culture Essay Cushman, C.R. (1954) The ultrasonic visualization of soft tissue structures in the human body. Trans.

Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc. 66:208-223. Donald, I., MacVicar, J. and Brown, T.G. (1958) Investigation of abdominal masses by pulsed ultrasound. Walker! Lancet 1:1188-1195.

Donald, I. (1961) Ultrasonic radiations: Diagnostic applications. Tools of Biological Research 3rd Series. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. pp. 148-155. Donald, I. And Brown, T.G. (1961) Diagnostic applications of ultrasound. Proc. 3rd. Int. Conf. Med.

Electron. London. P. 458. Donald, I. And Brown, T.G. (1961) Demonstration of tissue interfaces within the body by ultrasonic echo sounding. Br. J. Radiol. 34:539-546. Donald, I. Culture Essay! (1962) Clinical applications of ultrasonic techniques in obstetrical and gynaecological diagnosis. Br.

J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 69:1036. Donald, I. (1962) SONAR: A new diagnostic scho-sounding technique in obstetrics and gynaecology. Proc. And Abenomic! Roy. Soc. Med. In Kite! 55:637-638. Donald, I. (1974) SONAR. The Story of an experiment.Ultrasound Med Biol 1:109-117.

Images of George Ludwig and his early ultrasound equipment courtesy of the Ludwig Family. Reproduced with permission. Image of the Denver somascope reproduced with permission from Mr. GJ Posakony. Images of the Denver pan-scanner and Dr. Toshio Wagai were reproduced with permission from marvell of love, Dr. Culture In Kite Runner Essay! Barry Goldberg, Chairman of the Archives Committee of the AIUM.

Pictures of this, as well as other early scanners can be found in the Eastman Kodak Health Sciences publication, Medical Diagnostic Ultrasound: A retrospective on its 40th anniversary by Drs. Goldberg and Kimmelman published in 1988. Image of Dr. Black! John Wild courtesy of Dr. Wild. ^ Dr. William O'Brien Jr., Professor, Bioaccoustic Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois. Images of the NE 4102 reproduced with permission from Dr. RG Law, from his book 'Ultrasound in Essay, Clinical Obstetrics', John Wright and Sons Ltd, Bristol, 1980. # Press release, Third meeting of the Federation of Ultrasound in Medicine and Essay Biology, Brighton, England, July 1982. ## from Sonar -- the Story of an in Kite Essay, Experiment by Professor Ian Donald which appeared in Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, vol 1 pp109-117, 1974.

Pictures of my place by sally Professors Bertil Sunden and Salvator Levi courtesy of Professor Levi. ^^ Courtesy of the Department of Ultrasonics, Polish Academy of Science. ref raw data from Ultrasound in Biomedicine - Cumulative Bibliography of the World Literature to 1978 by Culture and Clashes Runner Essay Drs. Denis White, Geraldine Clark, Joan Carson and Elizabeth White. The Definition! Pergamon Press 1982. #165 The story of the early development of sonar in Glasgow was vividly narrated in the article Sonar -- the Story of an Experiment by Professor Ian Donald which appeared in Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, vol 1 pp109-117, 1974.

Personal communications from Professor Xin-Fang Wang and Dr. Jing Deng, University College, London. Other important references for this Internet article included: The constitution of diagnostic ultrasound in Insight and industry, On the dynamics of and Clashes Essay technological change in medicine, by S Blume. Cambridge, Massachusetts The MIT Press, 1992: 74-118.

In the image of science. Negotiating the development of projects diagnostic ultrasound in in Kite Runner Essay, the cultures of surgery and radiology in Technology and culture by Koch E. Black Wright! Society for the History of Technology, 1993; 34:858-893. Seeing with sound: A study of the development of medical images by Edward Yoxen, in The social construction of Culture and Clashes in Kite Essay technological systems: New directions in the sociology and history of technology, Bijker W., Hughes T., Pinch T., (ed). The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1987: 281-303. Ultrasound in by sally, Medicine - A review. Kenneth Erikson, Francis Fry and Joie Jones, IEEE Transactions on Sonics and Ultrasonics, vol. SU-21 no.

3, July 1974. Historical Review - The history of Echocardiography by Inge Edler and Kjell Lindstrom, Ultrasound in Med. Culture! Biol., Vol. 30, No. 12, pp. 1565 - 1644, 2004. Diagnostic Ultrasound: Historical Perspective by Dr. Joseph Holmes.

Diagnostic Ultrasound, D.L. King (ed). Mosby 1974. The History of projects Ultrasound in Gynecology 1950 - 1980 by Professor Salvator Levi : Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, vol 23 pp481-552, 1997. Early history of Diagnostic ultrasound:The role of the American Radiologists by Drs.Goldberg, Gramiak and Culture and Clashes in Kite Runner Freimanis : American Journal of Roentgenology, vol 160, pp 189-194, 1993. Diagnostic Ultrasound during the early years of A.I.U.M. by Dr. Joseph Homles : Journal of Clinical Ultrasound, vol 8, pp 299-308, 1980. A History of AIUM by Dr. Fukushima! Joseph Holmes, 1980. An historical review of Ultrasonic Investigations at Culture and Clashes in Kite Runner Essay the National Acoustic Laboratories by Dr. George Kossoff : Journal of Clinical Ultrasound, vol 3, pp 39-44, 1975.

Ultrasound in Biomedicine - Cumulative Bibliography of the World Literature to 1978 by Drs. Denis White, Geraldine Clark, Joan Carson and Elizabeth White. Pergamon Press 1982. Radiology - An illustrated History by Professor Ronald L. Eisenberg. Mosby Year Book 1992.

Ultrasonic diagnosis in Gynecology and Obstetrics by S Mizuno. Vol 19, no.2, Nippon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi pp.171-175, 1967. (in Japanese). The Dawn of Diagnostic Ultrasound by Toshio Wagai, 1987. (In Japanese) Forty Years of boy richard wright sparknotes Obstetric Ultrasound by Margaret B McNay and John EE Fleming. Culture In Kite! Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology 25:3-56, 1999. Looking at the Unborn: Historical Aspects of Obstetric Ultrasound - Witness seminar transcript. Wellcome Witness to Twentieth Centurty Medicine. E M Tansey, D A Christie, eds.

January 2000. Diagnostic Ultrasound -- Proceedings of the first International Conference, University of Pittsburg, 1965. Edited by CC Grossman, JH Holmes, C Joyner and EW Purnell. Plenum Press, New York. 1066. - Every effort has been made to ensure accuracy in dates, persons and events.

- It is not possible to include all the names who have contributed significantly to the advancement of Obstetrical and Gynecological sonography, some who may have been less well-known than the others and some who may not have published so extensively in the English language. Apologies are extended to those whose contribution has not been fully credited in this article. All original contents Copyright 1998-2002 Joseph SK Woo MBBS, FRCOG. All Rights Reserved.

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Everything You Need to Know about Careers in Banking Consulting! In collaboration with student societies at Oxford, The Careers Service is Culture and Clashes Runner, hosting two key events ahead of the onslaught of employer presentations, workshops and fairs to help you navigate careers in the city. On Tuesday 10 October well be hosting Careers in Consulting: Everything You Need to Know from 14.00 to 16.30 at Exams Schools. Hear from 3 very different firms (Strategy, Oliver Wyman and CIL Consulting) to learn what a week in the life of a consultant is like and gain key advice to marvell the definition be on top of Culture and Clashes in Kite Runner, your game for competitive applications. Then on Wednesday 11 October from 14.00 to 16.30 at Exams Schools join us for Careers in Banking: Everything You Need to Know where youll hear from a range of firms including HSBC, BNY Mellon, Jefferies and Schroders. They will be giving vital tips on how to find your dream job in finance and illustrating what their day-to-day roles involve. These events are being closely supported by a number of projects, Oxford societies including the Culture and Clashes Runner Finance Society, the Oxford Student Foundation and The Oxford Strategy Group. No need to book, spaces are allocated on classification, a first-come, first served basis. Career Workshops for Culture and Clashes Essay Researchers in Michaelmas. Positive steps in career development come from meeting others and learning. Researchers at Oxford can come to any of our events, but we also have bespoke opportunities for research Masters students, Research Assistants, DPhils and Post-Docs.

These are listed below for Michaelmas Term. Classification. Also look out for Careers Days, invited speakers and skills sessions run by your department, division or post-doc network. For appointments with Rachel Bray or another Careers Adviser of your choice at Culture and Clashes Essay, the Careers Service on Banbury Road, please book through CareerConnect. Rachel Bray also offers regular appointments for short scientists at the JR and Culture Runner Old Road Campus, bookable by and Abenomic Essay phoning reception on 01865 274646. Bookings for and Clashes Runner workshops/events should be through CareerConnect and if you have any queries please email [email protected] For: Research Assistants and Masters Students When: Thursday 5 October, 9.00 12.30 Where: The Careers Service Booking: This event must be booked. To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. In this workshop we will look closely at the value of doing a doctorate in todays employment market and for ourselves as people. We will consider our personal motivations for this route, the challenges we may need to overcome to and Abenomic Essay secure a place and Culture and Clashes in Kite Runner how to thrive as a PhD student. There will also be opportunity to reflect on alternative pathways towards professional satisfaction.

Pointers towards further advice and support available here at Oxford and more broadly will be given. This event must be booked. To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Alternatively, book a place at our lunchtime seminar on this topic on Monday 23 October. Career Management for what is a reaper Research Staff and DPhils. Looking to manage your career more effectively?

This workshop has been designed specifically for Culture Runner Essay University Research Staff at all levels and at any stage in their career, who want to step back and marvell the definition spend a few productive hours focusing on identifying their ideal job and future possible career paths within, or beyond, academia. An interactive mix of Culture Essay, short individual exercises and small informal group discussions will help you to build a clearer picture of the key factors relating to classification projects your career and personal circumstances and to explore career pathways. The session will cover: reflections on and Clashes in Kite Runner, where your career is right now; creating your ideal job; job satisfaction and career motivations; identifying your values and transferable skills; how to identify possible career pathways and move forward effectively. You will be encouraged to draw your insights together to begin a realistic personal career plan and to consider your next steps. [email protected] Oxford Careers Fair. Research students and staff planning to attend this fair are invited to book this pre-fair event. Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the my place most out of the fair. Further information on Culture Runner, the fair can be found on the Oxford Careers Fair page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the morgan event. [email protected] Finance Careers Fair.

When: Tuesday 17 October, 13.30 14.30 Where: Lecture Room 2, Christ Church College (then to Fair in Town Hall) Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Research students and staff planning to attend this fair are invited to book this pre-fair event. Culture Runner Essay. Depending on and Abenomic Essay, the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the Culture in Kite Runner Essay most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for Essay this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. [email protected] Management Consulting Careers Fair. When: Wednesday 18 October, 13.30 14.30 Where: Lecture Room 2, Christ Church College (then to Fair in Culture, Town Hall) Booking: To reserve a place please go to what CareerConnect. Further information on the fair can be found on Culture in Kite Essay, our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Kickstart for Research Staff and their Partners/Newcomers. When: Friday 20 October, 13.00 16.00 Where: Careers Service Booking: To reserve a place Researchers should book through CareerConnect.

Partners of newcomers should call Careers Service reception on wright, 01865 274646. A special careers workshop for those looking to return to work after a long career gap or for a new direction, whether through re-location, other circumstances or choice. We will cover job search strategies, document optimisation, networking and interview technique but we will also be exploring ideas and case studies on how to get into the market and freshen up your skills and CV. Even if you are a few years from getting back to work, come along! There are things you can be doing now to make that transition much easier when it comes. Open to anyone considering applying for a PhD. And Clashes In Kite. In this session well cover the steps you might take to discover whether a PhD is the right course of action for you, and discuss how to choose the wright best institution and programme for you. Well also briefly talk about the application process and funding. [email protected] Careers in and Clashes Essay, Computing Fair. When: Tuesday 24th October, 14.00 15.00 Where: Department of walker, Computer Science, Robert Hooke Building Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Research students and staff planning to attend the above fairs are invited to book at the relevant pre-fair event.

Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the Runner Essay fair. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. [email protected] Arts, Media and Marketing Careers Fair. Research students and alice staff planning to attend the above fairs are invited to book at the relevant pre-fair event. Depending on Culture Essay, the number of classification, bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the fair.

Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. And Clashes Runner Essay. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. [email protected] Science, Engineering and Technology Careers Fair. Research students and staff planning to attend the above fairs are invited to book at the relevant pre-fair event. Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to andrew of love get the Culture in Kite Essay most out of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. [email protected] Teaching and Education Fair.

Research students and alice walker short staff planning to attend the above fairs are invited to book at the relevant pre-fair event. Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out and Clashes Essay, of the fair. Further information on black wright, the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. [email protected] Internship Fair. Research students and staff planning to attend the above fairs are invited to book at the relevant pre-fair event. And Clashes In Kite Runner Essay. Depending on the number of by sally morgan, bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the Culture in Kite Essay fair. Further information on the fair can be found on walker stories, our Fairs page. In Kite Essay. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. CV and Cover Letter Skills for Research Staff. This intensive workshop on producing effective CVs and Cover Letters is specifically for andrew the definition of love doctoral students and research staff, whether you are considering an academic or non-academic career, or are undecided.

Using a mix of in Kite Runner Essay, individual and informal small group exercises, we will. understand and recognise the Fukushima and Abenomic Essay characteristics of effective CVs and cover letters critique the Culture and Clashes in Kite Runner strengths and weaknesses of their own and colleagues current CVs evaluate example CVs and cover letters to marvell the definition build their knowledge of different types and styles. Insight into Academia Seminar: Myths and Realities Panel. When: Tuesday 7 November, 13.00 14.00 Where: Careers Service Booking: You do not need to book a place at this event but popular events may fill early so arrive in good time. Are you considering an academic career? We will hear from a small panel of early- to in Kite Runner Essay mid-career academics about their day-to-day roles, how they manage a work-life balance, and opportunities for progression. This is a chance to ask questions and generate discussion on many aspects of being an academic. Academic Application and Interview Skills for classification Research Staff and DPhils. Are you a DPhil Student or Research Staff member planning to apply for academic jobs? Do you want advice on how to prepare academic applications and to Culture in Kite Runner Essay improve your interview skills? This workshop, designed specifically for short University of Oxford researchers pursuing academic applications, is for you.

This interactive course will equip you with the skills to maximise your chances of getting academic employment. Culture Essay. Emphasis will be given to understanding the processes which universities use to select staff and walker the importance of tailoring CVs, applications, research and teaching statements accordingly. We will discuss and practice the skills required for effective performance at interview; preparation, self-presentation and how to deal with typical academic interview questions. Follow up one-to-one career discussions can additionally be used to review intended applications and to prepare for particular interviews. Career Options for Culture and Clashes Runner Essay Mathematicians ( leading into Jobs for Mathematicians Careers Fair ) When: Tuesday 21 November, 15.15 16.00 Where: Mathematical Institute Booking: To reserve a place please go to by sally CareerConnect. Erica Tyson from the Institute of Mathematics and Runner its Applications will outline the breadth of career options that opens up for black boy richard sparknotes people with outstanding skills in mathematics. Its not only the financial and academic or teaching world that is hungry for this important skillset. Increasingly, commercial, government and not-for-profit sector players of all kinds are keen to employ highly numerate, analytical and creative thinkers to understand and predict trends, plan and develop strategy and deliver smarter and more efficient solutions. You do not need to book a place at this event but please bear in mind that spaces will be allocated on a first-come, first served basis and and Clashes Essay popular events may fill early so arrive in the definition, good time.

DPhils and research staff are very welcome to this talk and to and Clashes in Kite stay for the Maths Careers Fair. Dr Rachel Bray, Careers Adviser, will be available for half an hour after the talk to walker short stories discuss any questions that arise. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. Interview Presentation Skills for Culture and Clashes Runner Essay Research Staff and DPhils. New job or direction in mind? Do you want to brush up on the practicalities of preparing for interviews and presentations? This workshop, designed for University Research Staff and final year DPhils, is for you. A highly interactive session, it will equip you with the by sally morgan skills to play the Culture and Clashes Runner Essay recruitment game to is a best effect. We will discuss and Runner practice the skills required for effective performance at andrew marvell the definition of love, interview; preparation, self-presentation and how to deal with typical interview questions. The workshop will cover the skills required for both academic and non-academic interviews, with particular focus on the latter.

Follow up one-to-one career discussions can then be used to review intended applications and to prepare for particular interviews. Insight into Academia Conversation: Gender, Age and Progression in Academia. This conversation around gender, age and progression in academia will be an informal group discussion (facilitated by a careers adviser), with two guest contributors (two early- to mid career academics) who will share their experiences with you. We welcome individuals from across the university with a mutual interest in the topic. And Clashes In Kite Essay. The careers adviser present is an experienced group facilitator, wholl support the discussion with advice, strategies and my place resources, as well as offering suggestions for Culture in Kite Runner topics of discussion. Meeting people is a really useful way to andrew the definition of love learn more about Culture Runner Essay, your mutual goals: its the Fukushima and Abenomic equivalent of attending a tutorial or class discussion, and often attendees choose to keep in touch with fellow participants for Culture in Kite Runner Essay further mutual support. Too Late to my place morgan Change Direction? Career Transitions for Researchers. In this workshop we will explore our understanding of the pros and cons of staying in academic research, whether and how we can move to another sector (or combine aspects of academia with another role) and what we feel we might be risking in making this move. In small groups, we will then.

become familiar with an and Clashes in Kite, evidence-informed framework for assessing a potential career move, think about how to use this in our current roles, develop some practical strategies to marvell the definition assist decision-making. This one day workshop, for DPhil students and Culture Runner research staff who identify themselves as female, is an opportunity for you to explore your values, create tangible goals, practice presenting your achievements positively and build assertiveness and black boy richard wright sparknotes networking strategies. There will also be a guest speaker who will share their work / life story and answer any questions you have. Coffee and tea will be available from 9am and the workshop will start promptly at Runner, 9.30am. Lunch will be included. This programme is just for women, but note that we plan to projects run a mixed programme in Essay, Trinity Term for a mixed group of men and projects women. Tier 1 Graduate Entrepreneur Visa Endorsement apply now! If you have an idea for a business, have a venture currently in Culture Runner Essay, development, or are piloting a new concept, you may be eligible to apply for our endorsement under the Tier 1 (Graduate Entrepreneur) visa scheme, which allows non-EEA nationals who are graduates or post-doctoral researchers to reside in walker, the UK in order to develop their business. Previously endorsed businesses have included: Social enterprises and not-for-profits Technology start-ups Funding generation and in Kite investment organisations Digital education tools Energy research. The University of Oxford can endorse up to thirty applicants per year.

Calls for applications are held four times a year: once in each term, and once during the Long Vacation. The next deadline for applications is my place, Thursday 30 November 2017 at 12 noon . Applications are now open, and you can apply by email to [email protected], or via Symplicity (for Said Business School students), or via CareerConnect (for all other students/alum) using the Culture and Clashes in Kite Runner following vacancy IDs: for Students: CareerConnect opportunity ID dnk94 for Alumni: CareerConnect opportunity ID 3v86d. You can find more information and details of how to apply on our visa page or on CareerConnect. Alternatively you can email [email protected] All applications must be submitted through CareerConnect or emailed to [email protected] by Thursday 30 November 2017 at 12 noon. Win a $1000 scholarship for coming up with a morale-boosting idea. VelvetJobs, a US outsourcing and placement service, are offering a $1000 scholarship for students studying in the USA or overseas.

The Employee Morale Scholarship aims to get students thinking about classification, their own potential future management position and how their decisions can affect employee morale. The piece should include a headline of the morale boosting idea and at least 500 words on how to effectively deploy the strategy. Students of any nationality can enter, as long as they are enrolled in full time education and over the age of 18. Closing date is 16 December 2017, and scholarship funds will be released for Hilary term 2018.

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alu password resume RACF (part of in Kite Essay OS/390 Security Server) is Fukushima a trademark of IBM. And Clashes. This newsletter is not affiliated with IBM in any way. Computer Security Policy Sharing Library Continues. Terry Shoback of Alliance Capital has volunteered again to manage the library of marvell the definition of love real life policies. She will make copies available to anyone who asks her. You are of in Kite course invited to share your company's policy with the marvell of love, library by sending her a copy. See how to contact her on page 8. New Phone for Tampa RUG.

Jim Cuddy still runs the Tampa RACF Users Group. His new number is: (800) 237-0738x34233. Win a Henderson Group Golf Shirt. In Kite Runner. This issue's contest is to see who has the most of the JES-related RACF classes active and in actual use. Short. The winner will be the Culture Runner, person who sends us the and Abenomic Essay, first SETR LIST printout with the Culture, most classes active from the following list. We will trust that no one will submit an entry describing active classes which aren't actually being used. The list of marvell the definition of love eligible classes is: JESSPOOL, JESINPUT, JESJOBS, NODES, WRITER, and SURROGAT.

NEW YORK RUG Meeting Dates. On Wednesdays, from 1 to 5 PM: on January 13, 1999, and Culture Runner Essay, then April 14, 1999. Mark your calendars now. See inside for details. BALTIMORE/WASHINGTON RUG Meeting Dates. On Thurdays, from 9AM to Noon: No meeting in January, and then April 15, 1999. Mark your calendars now. See inside for details. A Change in RACFVARS with RACF 2.6. George Fogg of Seattle passes on this tip through the RACF List Server: The RACFVARS class should NOT have generics turned on.

In RACF 2.6, if you try to create a new RACFVARS rule when generics is active for RACFVARS, you will get message ICH51003I NAME NOT FOUND IN RACF DATASET and message ICH10301I . AND REMAINING ENTITIES NOT DEFINED TO RACF. The new rule will not be created. What should you do? Issue: SETR NOGENERIC(RACFVARS) NOGENCMD(RACFVARS) LIST. Then update your written standard of how you want each of your SETR options set to reflect the change.

You can do this now, before you get to is a mechanical RACF 2.6. Thanks, George. New Way to Culture in Kite Essay Let Your Helpdesk Reset Passwords Without Group Special. RACF release 2.6 gives us a new way to delegate the authority to reset passwords, without giving away the SPECIAL or Group-Special privileges. It makes use of a new FACILITY class rule named: IRR.PASSWORD.RESET. Users who are permitted to this rule with READ permission can reset passwords for all userids EXCEPT userids which have SPECIAL, OPERATIONS, or AUDITOR. This is a great way to classification let your Helpdesk reset passwords, without letting them fool around with passwords of RACF administrators and auditors. Here are the commands: RDEF FACILITY IRR.PASSWORD.RESET UACC(NONE) OWNER(OWNERGRP). PE IRR.PASSWORD.RESET CLASS(FACILITY) ACC(READ) ID(HELPDESK) + RESET. (Note that the reset is to be used only on the first PERMIT command to this rule, since it clears the entire permit list of the rule before adding the new entry. This is to Culture and Clashes clear out the entry that permits the userid which created the short stories, rule to have ALTER access to it. You don't need this if you have specified SETR NOADDCREATOR.) New Operand for ALTUSER to Specify That A Userid's Password Doesn't Need to Be Changed at the Next Logon.

RACF release 2.6 lets you specify: ALU userid NOEXPIRED PASSWORD(password) so that the next time the user logs on, he or she doesn't have to Culture Runner Essay change the password. (The opposite of NOEXPIRED is of course EXPIRED.) This is alice useful for userids which don't represent current users, for example userids predefined for CICS terminals, RJE and NJE userids, and userids which have just been converted from ACF2 or TopSecret. Note that NOEXPIRED is and Clashes different from NOINTERVAL. Morgan. NOINTERVAL says that the userid doesn't have to have its password changed every so many days. NOEXPIRED says that the user can logon without changing the password, even though someone else has reset the password. You can use the FACILITY class rule described next to permit someone to use the NOEXPIRED operand without giving him or her SPECIAL or Group SPECIAL. In Kite Runner Essay. New Way to Let Your Helpdesk LISTUSER and ALU NOEXPIRED. Boy Richard. Again as of RACF release 2.6, you can delegate these abilities by permitting someone to Culture and Clashes in Kite Runner a FACILITY class rule named: IRR.LISTUSER. A user or group with READ or higher permission to this rule can issue the LISTUSER command for alice walker short all userids EXCEPT those userids with SPECIAL, OPERATIONS, or AUDITOR. A user with UPDATE or higher permission to this rule can issue ALTUSER .. NOEXPIRED for any userid EXCEPT those with SPECIAL, OPERATIONS, or AUDITOR.

Here are the Culture and Clashes, RACF commands to let the is a mechanical, Helpdesk issue LU and ALU. In Kite Essay. NOEXPIRED for any userid without SPECIAL, OPERATIONS, or AUDITOR, and to let a userid GEORGE list any such userid: RDEF FACILITY IRR.LISTUSER UACC(NONE) OWNER(OWNERGRP). PE IRR.LISTUSER CLASS(FACILITY) ACC(UPDATE) ID(HELPDESK) + PE IRR.LISTUSER CLASS(FACILITY) ACC(READ) ID(GEORGE) (Note that the by sally, RESET is to be used only on the first PERMIT command to this rule, since it clears the entire permit list of the rule before adding the new entry. This is to clear out the entry that permits the userid which created the rule to Culture in Kite Essay have ALTER access to it. You don't need this if you have specified SETR NOADDCREATOR.) A Tip on How to Handle Lower Case Characters for the OMVS Segment. What Mechanical. Roy McCollough passes this one on through the RACF list server: If you need to enter lower case characters in RACF commands (for example, to specify info for the OMVS segment), you can put single quotes around the data. Culture. The single quotes tell TSO not to translate the characters to upper case.

For example: 'keep this in lower case'. (To include a single quote in what mechanical reaper, the information, enter three single quotes. For example: 'don'''t make this upper case'. Check your TSO guides for more info. Thanks, Roy. ITSS Adds Features to RACF Password Cracker Program. For a few years now, Kurt Meiser and the other crack consultants at ITSS have given us a wonderful, free tool: their RACF password cracker program. This program let us see how many of the passwords in our installations were easily guessable. Using this program let us evaluate the quality of passwords in our shop.

It also helped us to build a case to our management on the need for a training program to teach users how to make passwords easy to Culture and Clashes in Kite Runner remember, but difficult to guess. Auditors have found this a wonderful tool for generating easy audit findings. (Talk about a tool you should run yourself before the auditors do it to you!) This program was well designed to prevent abuse by unauthorized users. Andrew Marvell The Definition. ITSS is and Clashes in Kite Runner Essay about to upgrade this tool, adding these features: Removal of the restriction of a maximum of 1,000 dictionary elements Selectivity of execution, for mechanical reaper example, privileged userids, specific groups Additional report fields and a summary report An exhaustive guessing mechanism (brute force approach) Unhashing of hashed passwords if found Retrieval of clear text passwords from the Culture and Clashes Essay, TSB if found. The new version of the cracker program should be available 1Q1999. (We understand that it will be Y2K compliant.) It will no longer be free, but ITSS deserves to and Abenomic Essay make a profit after giving us this free gift for so long. See Permanently Interesting Products later in this issue to and Clashes contact ITSS. More Re-Structuring of RACF Software Industry. In addition to the industry changes described last issue, we have learned that ASPG has a new release of ERG, Easy RACF Query (which used to be called Essential Software Products). ASPG is and Abenomic Essay also developing a multi-platform security administration and reporting tool. Runner. ASPG also has an agreement in place to continue supporting all current RA/2 customers for the next couple of years. See Permanently Interesting Products for contact info.

See also other products under Interesting Product below. Fifteen Minute Project to Improve Your RACF Ask your JES system programmer for a list of all the NJE and RJE connections into your computer, and the physical location of my place by sally each. Each of these represents a path into Culture your system through which four things can enter: batch jobs to be executed, operator commands, printouts to be printed, and punched decks to be punched. Conduct your own risk assessment (for example, would we have a problem if someone at another site submitted a batch job or an operator command to alice stories execute on our system? What do we have to protect against it (for example BATCHALLRACF)? How much can we trust the other site? Is it connected by a leased or dial-up line?) Where needed, use resource classes such as those described in the Golf Shirt contest described on Culture in Kite Essay page 1, and consider using FACILITY class rules to black boy richard wright sparknotes force the Runner Essay, sites to log on through RACF. Questions and Answers. Projects. Q I want to Culture Runner find out all the dataset rules to which USER02 has any permissions at all. How can I do this in and Abenomic Essay, RACF?

A This is Culture and Clashes in Kite easy. Use the SEARCH command: SR USER(USER02) NOMASK CLASS(DATASET) (Yes, we know that the default for CLASS is DATASET, but we show it here, so that readers will be ready for the next question, which we have invented, just to make a point.) Please note that this command could affect system performance, since it results in a call to RACF for every dataset rule in the RACF database. Q I want to find out all the classification, FACILITY class rules to and Clashes Runner which USER02 has any permissions at all. How can I do this in RACF? A This is easy. Use the SEARCH command: SR USER(USER02) NOMASK CLASS(FACILITY) Q I want to find out the dataset rules to which USER02 has any permissions at all. However I only want to do this for dataset rules whose names start PROD.PAY and which contain the characters JANFEB anywhere else in the name. Alice Short Stories. Don't I need to put quote marks around the the PROD.PAYROLL, since in contains a period? By the way, I only want to and Clashes in Kite Essay list the names of such dataset rules if they have WARNING turned on. Alice Short. A This is easy; and you must NOT put quote marks there. Use the SEARCH command: P SR USER(USER02) MASK(PROD.PAY JANFEB) WARNING.

NYRUG (New York RACF Users Group) and BWRUG (Baltimore/ Washington RUG) NEWS. NYRUG: At Our Next Meeting. Culture In Kite Essay. Mark Nelson of IBM will speak on black wright sparknotes a topic which will be something like Secrets of the Culture and Clashes Runner, RACF Wizards: or How to Take Advantage of by sally morgan Under-Used and Under-Appreciated RACF Facilities to Make Your Life as an Administrator Easier. If you want to learn tricks with the Culture and Clashes Essay, SEARCH command, and other ways to be cleverly lazy, then don't miss this goldmine of little known secret techniques. If time permits, Stu Henderson may describe how to prepare to use the what mechanical reaper, Mainframe Firewall tool, a follow-on to his recent What Mainframers Need to Know and Do About TCP/IP. As always, we will have a question and answer session with some of the Culture Runner Essay, keenest RACF minds in the State to answer questions. Time: Wednesday, January 13, 1999 from 1PM until it's too late to go back to morgan the office. And Clashes In Kite Runner. Place: Bank of alice short New York, 101 Barclay St (one block North of the World Trade Center), 10th Floor East Auditorium (Please check in Runner Essay, with guards at lobby desk to get a pass.) BWRUG (Baltimore/Washington RUG): The BWRUG will not meet this quarter. Black. Please mark your calenders for in Kite Runner April 15, 1999. We expect to have a presentation then on the new features of the latest release of what is a reaper RACF. Interesting Products Column.

We have not evaluated these, but think every RACF shop should know about them. MegaSolve Security Server Administrator provides these functions: super generic searches, CICS and TSO direct administration functions to support decentralization (for example to let a CICS user reset passwords), an access simulator, extensive resource monitor, customizable reports and command generation, and a fully automated scheduler. The vendor states that SSA has numerous features not found in competing products. The SSA product has modular pricing to and Clashes Runner Essay let you buy just what you need and black wright sparknotes, want. Culture And Clashes Runner. For info, call toll-free (888) 798-4388. RtoR (Rexx to boy richard sparknotes RACF) is a system programmers' toolkit loaded with frequently requested solutions.

RtoR lets you make quick work of specialized programming tasks which otherwise would need to be done in assembler language. RtoR can eliminate the Culture and Clashes, need to code your own ICHEINTY macros. It also provides many TSO/ISF command extensions and displays. RtoR provides built-in levels of authority (scoping), limiting capabilities for example to a given department. For info, call Rosalie Eckhaus at (407) 788- 6389. Permanently Interesting Products Column. We have not evaluated these, but think every RACF shop should know about them. ASPG's ERG (Easy RACF Query). Call Cathy Thompson at (800) 662-6090 or [email protected] for more info.

MegaSolve's Security Server Administrator. Classification. Phone Bill Tomlinson at (818) 887-4994 for more info. CONSUL/RACF Call Brent Phillips at Culture Runner, (800) 323-0880 for information. On the classification, Internet: http://www.consul.com RACF Password Cracker Program, no longer free, but with more features than the free version (see related article earlier in this issue). Email Kurt Meiser at [email protected] or mail request to Culture and Clashes Runner Essay ITSS, 11 Phillips Road, Poughkeepsie, NY 12603 USA. RA/2. Call Mario Labita at Software Engineering of America at (516) 328-7000. ICU MVS Penetration Analysis Tool from Janus Associates.

Phone Rick Peterson at (301) 605-0507 for more info. RtoR from Open Software Technologies. Call Rosalie Eckhaus at classification projects, (407) 788-6389 or http://www.open-softech.com/rtor.htm for info. TOOLKIT. Call Palace Guard Software (562) 491-4600 for more info.

Beta System's software for and Clashes RACF administration. Call (800) 777-9864 for more info. And Abenomic. Vanguard's Administrator and Sysdata' RIOVISION. Culture And Clashes Runner Essay. Call (714) 939-0377 for andrew marvell more info. SecurePass from Proginet to link RACF with Windows NT security.

Call (516) 248-3366 for more info. Culture And Clashes Essay. HG RACF and Security Training 1998 Schedule: The Henderson Group offers its RACF and computer security/audit seminars around the country and on-site too. See the details below or call (301) 229-7187 for a free seminar catalog. RACF User Services (Key Phone Numbers / Addresses) Technical support hotline, Meetings, Free Newsletter subscription, Seminar Catalogs: Stu Henderson - (301) 229-7187 5702 Newington Rd, Bethesda, MD 20816 NYRUG Computer Security Policy Sharing Libary. Ms. Terry Shoback of Alliance Capital, 1345 Avenue of the Fukushima and Abenomic, Americas, New York, NY 10105, phone (212) 969-6461. (Call to get copies of Culture and Clashes in Kite Essay other companies' policies for your review. Contribute your own company's policy for others to share.) RACF List Server on the Internet. To join, send E-mail to the administrator for the server. Boy Richard Wright. (Don't send it to the server itself or your request will be routed to Culture and Clashes every subscriber.) For example, if your name is projects John Smith and you want to subscribe, then send this E-mail: subscribe racf-l john smith. to the address: [email protected] or [email protected]

The reply will include directions on Runner how to get info such as a list of all subscribers, an index to previous comments, and a command summary.

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complete resume 24 W. And Clashes Runner Essay? Camelback Rd. A-635. Phoenix, AZ 85013. President and founder of literary agency. Has negotiated nearly 800 contracts for more than 1,200 books since 2004. President of this comprehensive resource to train Christian writers. Andrew The Definition? Originally founded in Culture and Clashes Runner Essay, 1945, Steve purchased the rights to this and other properties in order to put all the resources online. The organization provides audio, video, and my place morgan email courses. In addition they publish new books on writing for writers including The Christian Writers Market Guide . Publisher and acquisitions editor of the premier publisher of Science Fiction and Fantasy written from a Christian worldview.

Purchased Marcher Lord Press in January 2014 and re-branded it as Enclave Publishing in mid-year. Publishes twelve new titles per year. Sold Enclave to Gilead Publishing in 2016. Literary agent responsible for the discovery, evaluation, and and Clashes Runner development of potential new books for publication. Review proposals; develop new book concepts, provide career counsel, and negotiate contracts. Maintain regular contact with authors and nurture their writing career. Maintain regular contact with publishers to determine the classification right publishing partnership for authors. Negotiated over and Clashes in Kite Runner 50 contracts equaling nearly 100 new books during his tenure at the agency. Editorial Director / Adult Nonfiction. Acquired and developed 30 50 new book titles per marvell, year. Culture And Clashes In Kite Runner? Including the initial review, presentation to marvell the definition of love, the editorial committee, analyzed and defined the business case for the project and managed the books as they progressed through development, editing, and marketing.

Monitored author and Culture and Clashes Essay editorial schedules and served as a resource to authors on content and to publisher on author relations issues. Negotiated contracts and maintained telephone and marvell the definition of love written correspondence with both authors and agents. (Also served as acquisitions editor the Futuristic Fiction genre of and Clashes in Kite Runner Essay titles published by Bethany House.) Founder of alice short stories a small company formed to help with the the creation of high quality self-published books. ACW Press produced around thirty new books each year. (www.acwpress.com) The company was based in Alabama in and Clashes Essay, 2004-2006 under the management of Julie Wood. My Place? In 1999 launched a royalty division imprint called Write Now Publications, concentrating on Culture in Kite Runner Essay producing new books intended for alice walker short the aspiring Christian writer. Essay? Sold the company, both ACW Press and projects Write Now Publications, in 2006 to in Kite, Reg Forder at The American Christian Writers. Part-time Manager of Information Services responsible for orchestrating the development of electronic commerce between Christian publishers and retailers. Fukushima And Abenomic? Managed the Culture and Clashes in Kite Runner Essay Electronic Data Interchange network called XNet with General Electric Information Services and black boy richard wright maintain relationships between all trading partners. Responsible for the development and maintenance of the Christian Books in Print Plus CD-ROM project. Coordinate efforts of in Kite R.R.

Bowker and publishers to create the premier database in the industry (which was later moved to the management of Bookstore Manager Inc.) Coordinated committees to black boy richard wright sparknotes, discuss the development of Standards industry-wide. And Clashes? This was a part-time position. DOUG ROSS COMMUNICATIONS 1992-1996. Account Executive responsible for and Abenomic the sales of Culture in Kite Runner Essay advertising space in two card deck publications; Christianity Todays Church Product Alert Card Deck and the Todays Christian Woman Card Deck. Over 300 potential clients were approached through telephone and alice stories written correspondence. This was a part-time position. BEREAN CHRISTIAN STORES 1981-1992.

From 1985 to and Clashes Runner, 1992, General Manager (Phoenix) responsible for all hiring, firing and mechanical reaper training of personnel. Managed 16 employees. Annually set budget guidelines for both sales and Culture and Clashes Essay expense. Controlled an expense budget of what is a $700,000 during fiscal 1991. Increased sales from $1 million in 1984 to $1.9 million in 1991. Organized, managed and Culture and Clashes Runner Essay designed store remodel and move (1986), closure of second store (1988), and Fukushima complete store remodel (1991). NATIONAL PRODUCT MANAGER BEREAN CHRISTIAN STORES 1988-1990. Purchased all new book, Bible, and video titles for the 15 store chain.

Coordinated all promotional buys and set margins to insure sell-through and profitability. Culture Runner? Chain wide sales volume in these product groups was over $10 million. Fiscal 1990 saw book sales increase 26%. Conducted all supplier negotiations and maintained vendor relationships. Sold space in alice walker short stories, chains consumer catalogue and Culture and Clashes Runner flyer programs. Organized ad placement and classification projects wrote catalogue copy. Maintained contact with 35 departmental and Culture general managers.

2016 Finalist Agent of the short Year, Blue Ridge Conference. 2015 Finalist Agent of the Culture Essay Year, ACFW. 2013 Inducted into marvell of love, the Grand Canyon University Hall-of-Fame by their College of Culture and Clashes in Kite Theology. 2009 Agent of the Year, ACFW. 2008 Finalist Agent of the Year, ACFW. 2002 Editor of the mechanical Year, Golden Scroll Award from the Advanced Writers and Speakers Association. 2001 Finalist Editor of the Year, Golden Scroll Award from the Advanced Writers and Speakers Association.

1999 Mt Hermon Christian Writers Conference Special Recognition Award for Outstanding Service in Writers Conferences. 1996 Donna Goodrich Achievement Award for Outstanding Service in Writers Conferences. 1989 Christian Booksellers Association National Store of the Culture and Clashes in Kite Year. The most prestigious retail award available in mechanical reaper, this industry. Culture? Over 4,000 eligible stores. 1985 1989 Christian Booksellers Association Region 7 Store of the Year. 1985-89 Silver Pacesetter Award, four consecutive years.

Given to a Berean Christian Store for and Abenomic Return On Investment performance. Christian Retailing Magazine Advisory Board (2011 present) Heres Life Publishers Board of Directors (1989-1992) Fuller Theological Seminary in and Clashes Runner Essay, Arizona Board (1988-1995) American Christian Writers Advisory Board (1996 present)

ECPA Christian Book Award judge (2009 present) Gold Medallion Book Awards judge and consultant (1983 2005) Evangelical Press Association Awards Judge (1996 2001) Married and has three adult children and one grandchild. Book Proposal Tips and boy richard sparknotes Tricks (Christian Writers Institute, 2016) Publishers Continue to Acquire Great Content Industry Forum column, Christian Retailing January 2013. Weekly industry blog at www.stevelaube.com/blog (2009-present) Book Contract or Rejection: Who Decides? The Advanced Christian Writer, September/October 2005. Discovery on the High Seas, contribution as Guest Writer for the Crossings Book Club Crossings Corner. Using the Internet for Research, chapter contribution to A Complete Guide to Writing for and Clashes in Kite Publication , Edited by black wright sparknotes, Susan Titus Osborn, ACW Press, 1998 Opening a Can of Worms The Advanced Christian Writer, June 1998. On the Floor story contribution to CBA Frontline, March 15, 1997 April 15, 1997 Why Read Books? The Church Librarian, Winter 1997 The Power of the Book, Part Two The Christian Communicator, August 1996 The Power of the Book, Part One The Christian Communicator, July 1996 The Promise Study Bible, 150 Devotional application articles Job thru Malachi, Contemporary English Version, Thomas Nelson Publishers (1996) #1 Best-selling Study Bible May 1996 Hidden Life of and Clashes Runner Essay Prayer edited and classification projects updated for Culture and Clashes in Kite Essay the modern reader, Bethany House Publishers (1993) 9,500 sold (OP) Gods Promises for Your Finance s published by Meridian/World (1992) (out of print) Revised edition titled Gods Promises for Your Financial Success , published in 1997 (out of my place by sally print) 15,000 sold. Know Your Stuff! The Necessity of Culture and Clashes Runner Product Knowledge, Bookstore Journal, July 1991 Less is More, chapter contribution to 100 Motivational Moments for Writers and Speakers Joy Publishing (1991) Gold Medallion Book Awards: Excellence in boy richard wright sparknotes, Publishing, Publishers Weekly, October 5, 1990 (Advertorial insert written for the Evangelical Christian Publishers Association) Selling Christian Childrens Books Successfully in the General Trade Bookstore, Publishers Weekly, May 11, 1990 (Part of an ad for Culture and Clashes Runner Standard Publishing) Short Shift: Motivating Part-Time Personnel, Bookstore Journal, May 1987. Adrenaline by John Olson, Bethany House Publishers (2003) Apples of Gold for marvell Teachers by Vicki Caruana, Bethany House Publishers (2003) Kingdom of the Cults (Revised Edition) by Culture and Clashes, Walter Martin, General Editor Ravi Zacharias, Bethany House (2003) Crossings Book Club Selection The Illustrated Guide to World Religions , Dean Halverson General Editor, Bethany House Publishers (2003) Kiss of Heaven by Darlene Zschech, Bethany House Publishers (2003) Crossings Book Club Selection The Light of Eidon by Karen Hancock, Bethany House Publishers (2003) Christy Award Winner! Extracting the Precious (Bible Study series), 2 Corinthians; Isaiah, by classification projects, Donna Partow, Bethany House Publishers (2003) The Heart of Culture in Kite Runner a Mother compiled by Wayne Holmes, Bethany House Publishers (2003) Helping Those Who Hurt by my place morgan, H. Norman Wright, Bethany House Publishers (2003) Crossings Book Club Selection The Unanswered Prayers of Jesus by Culture and Clashes, Mike Evans, Bethany House Publishers (2003) Crossings Book Club Selection I Think, Therefore, I Have a Headache by Martha Bolton, Bethany House Publishers (2003) Crossings Book Club Selection Wings of Mercy by morgan, Laurie Kehler, Bethany House Publishers (2003) Come to the Quiet by Denise George, Bethany House Publishers (2003) The Impossible is Possible by in Kite, John Mason, Bethany House Publishers (2003) Systematic Theology, Volume Two by Norm Geisler, Bethany House Publishers (2003) You Can Market Your Book by projects, Carmen Leal, Write Now Publications (2003) Writers Digest Book Club Selection This Isnt the Life I Signed Up For , by Culture in Kite, Donna Partow, Bethany House Publishers (2003) [Growth Guide and Audio also available] Crossings Book Club Selection The Relentless God , by Cecil Murphey, Bethany House Publishers (2003) William and Catherine: A New Biography , by Trevor Yaxley, Bethany House Publishers (2003) Quenching the Divine Thirst , by Elizabeth Hoekstra, Bethany House Publishers (2003) The New Bride Guide , by Ellie Kay, Bethany House Publishers (2003) Crossings Book Club Selection At the Name of my place by sally Jesus, by Culture and Clashes in Kite Essay, Tricia McCary Rhodes, Bethany House Publishers (2003) The Christian Wedding Planner , foreword by H. Norman Wright, Bethany House Publishers (2003) Frugal Families (Second Edition) , by boy richard wright, Jonni McCoy, Bethany House Publishers (2003) Thrive! by Culture and Clashes in Kite Runner Essay, Carrie Carter, Bethany House Publishers (2003) Heroes at the definition, Home , by Ellie Kay, Bethany House Publishers (2002) Crossings Book Club Selection Gold Medallion Book Award Finalist Jesus Freaks Volume II , by dc Talk, Bethany House Publishers (2002) #3 on CBA Bestseller list February 2003 Fifth Man , by Culture in Kite Essay, John Olson and Randy Ingermanson, Bethany House Publishers (2002) Christy Award Finalist Prayers of a God Chaser , by my place by sally, Tommy Tenney, Bethany House Publishers (2002) Crossings Book Club Selection Gold Medallion Book Award Finalist Crunch Time , by Jim Grassi, Bethany House Publishers (2002) Featured in Focus on the Familys Plugged In magazine January 2003 Extravagant Worship by Darlene Zschech, Bethany House Publishers (2002) Daughter of China by C. Hope Flinchbaugh, Bethany House Publishers (2002) Christy Award Finalist (best first novel) Billy Graham by Culture Runner Essay, W. Terry Whalin, Bethany House Publishers (2002) Dietrich Bonhoeffer by classification, Susan Martins Miller, Bethany House Publishers (2002) Thats a Keeper by H. Norman Wright, Bethany House Publishers (2002) Gold Medallion Book Award Finalist Frost by Calvin Miller, Bethany House Publishers (2002) Sharing Your Faith With a Hindu by Madasamy Thirumalai, Bethany House Publishers (2002) The God Who Pursues by Cecil Murphey, Bethany House Publishers (2002) Arena by Culture in Kite Runner, Karen Hancock, Bethany House Publishers (2002) Crossings Book Club Selection Christy Award Winner!

Miserly Meals by what reaper, Jonni McCoy, Bethany House Publishers (2002) The Heart of a Father compiled by Culture and Clashes in Kite Runner, Wayne Holmes, Bethany House Publishers (2002) Same Sex Controversy by Jeffrey Niell and James White, Bethany House Publishers (2002) Stark Raving Dad by Dave Meurer, Bethany House Publishers (2002) Crossings Book Club Selection Jesus Love Me, This I Know by Calvin Miller, AOL Time/Warner Books (2002) Crossings Book Club Selection Money Doesnt Grow on Trees by Ellie Kay, Bethany House Publishers (2002) Systematic Theology, Volume One by Norm Geisler, Bethany House Publishers (2002) Hallelujah by J. Is A Mechanical Reaper? Scott Featherstone, ACW Press (2002) Christy Award Finalist A Heart After God by in Kite Runner, Elizabeth Hoekstra, Bethany House Publishers (2002) Crossings Book Club Selection The Book of Jesus for Families by Calvin Miller, Bethany House Publishers (2002) Success by Design by Peter Hirsch, Bethany House Publishers (2002) Becoming Friends With God , by Leith Anderson, Bethany House Publishers (2001) Crossings Book Club Selection Standing Firm by Donna Partow, Bethany House Publishers (2001) Out on Fukushima and Abenomic Essay a Whim by Dave Meurer, Bethany House Publishers (2001) Crossings Book Club Selection Living with Mystery by Stacey Padrick, Bethany House Publishers (2001) Love Extravagantly by and Clashes in Kite, Marita Littauer, Bethany House Publishers (2001) Gardening Mercies by Laurie Kehler, Bethany House Publishers (2001) Shade by Calvin Miller, Bethany House Publishers (2001) Crossings Book Club Selection A Complete Guide to classification, Christian Writing and Speaking 2nd Edition , Susan Titus Osborn, General Editor, Write Now Publications (2001) How to Culture, Write and wright sparknotes Sell a Christian Novel , 2nd Edition, Gilbert Morris, Write Now Publications (2001) Between Two Gardens by Culture in Kite Runner Essay, Jane Rubietta, Bethany House Publishers (2001) Crossings Book Club Selection How to Save Money Every Day by Ellie Kay, Bethany House Publishers (2001) Crossings Book Club Selection Literary Guild Selection The Complete Guide to Christian Wedding Vows by H. Norman Wright, Bethany House Publishers (2001) Sermon on the Mound by Michael OConnor, Bethany House Publishers (2001) Silver Angel Award Winner Crossings Book Club Selection Oxygen by John Olson and Randy Ingermanson, Bethany House Publishers (2001) Christy Award Winner!; NY Public Library Best Books list; Silver Angel Award Winner; San Diego Book Awards Association Suspense Category Award Winner I Dont Want Your Sex for Now by Miles McPherson, Bethany House Publishers (2001) Gold Medallion Book Award Finalist Crown of Fire by Kathy Tyers, Bethany House Publishers (2000) Coaching Your Kids in the Game of walker short stories Life by Ricky Byrdsong with Dave and Neta Jackson, Bethany House Publishers (2000) Living in Absolute Freedom by and Clashes Runner Essay, Donna Partow, Bethany House Publishers (2000) Wind by Calvin Miller, Bethany House Publishers (2000) Crossings Book Club Selection Didnt My Skin Used to classification projects, Fit? by Martha Bolton, Bethany House Publishers (2000) The Perfect Catch by H. 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Norman Wright, Bethany House Publishers (2000) Ride the River by Larry Christenson, Bethany House Publishers (2000) Days of Our Wives by Dave Meurer, Bethany House Publishers (2000) Fusion Fire by morgan, Kathy Tyers, Bethany House Publishers (2000) Parenting the Culture and Clashes in Kite Runner Wild Child by Miles McPherson, Bethany House Publishers (2000) Crossings Book Club Selection Divine Symphony by mechanical, Calvin Miller, Bethany House Publishers (2000) Twelve Steps for the Recovering Pharisee by John Fischer, Bethany House Publishers (2000) Taking Up Your Cross by Tricia Rhodes, Bethany House Publishers (2000) Into the Culture and Clashes in Kite Runner Essay Depths of God by Calvin Miller, Bethany House Publishers (2000) Book of the Month selection for Insight for by sally Living Ministry Youve Got What it Takes by Runner, Marita Littauer, Bethany House Publishers (2000) Just Write , Susan Titus Osborn, Write Now Publications (2000) An Introduction to Christian Writing, 2nd Edition , Ethel Herr, Write Now Publications (1999) Broken But Not Forsaken Sherry Jones, ACW Press (1999) Still Waters by Jane Rubietta, Bethany House Publishers (1999) Please Pray for the definition Us , Johan Companjen, Bethany House Publishers (1999) Gold Medallion Book Award Finalist David Brainerd by Renalda Hunsicker, Bethany House Publishers (1999) Harriet Tubman by Rebecca Price Janney, Bethany House Publishers (1999) Sweet Persecution by Ron Brackin, Bethany House Publishers (1999) Bad to in Kite, the Bone by what is a reaper, Miles McPherson, Bethany House Publishers (1999) Silver Angel Award Winner Fallen Brother in Culture Runner Essay, Blue by projects, Arnold Rubey, ACW Press (1999) Herbs for All Seasons by Karen Patterson, ACW Press (1999) Write His Answer: A Bible Study for Culture and Clashes Christian Writers, 2nd Edition , by Marlene Bagnull, Write Now Publications (1999) A Complete Guide to morgan, Writing for Publication , Susan Titus Osborn, General Editor, ACW Press (1999) Proselytizer by Phil Zachariou, ACW Press (1999) Be Still by Elizabeth Hoekstra, Bethany House Publishers (1999) Sanctuary by and Clashes, Marsha Crockett, Bethany House Publishers (1999) China My Love , by Patricia Young, ACW Press (1999) Catherine Marshall by Kathy McReynolds, Bethany House Publishers (1999) Fanny Crosby by Bonnie Harvey, Bethany House Publishers (1999) Chosen But Free by Dr. Norm Geisler, Bethany House Publishers (1999) Walking in Total God-Confidence by what is a reaper, Donna Partow, Bethany House Publishers (1999) Through a Glass Darkly by Gilbert Morris, Bethany House Publishers (1999) Firebird by Kathy Tyers, Bethany House Publishers (1999) Crossings Book Club Selection (trilogy) Science Fiction Book Club Selection (trilogy) Boyhood Daze by Dave Meurer, Bethany House Publishers (1999) The Unchained Soul by Calvin Miller, Bethany House Publishers (1999) Madam Guyon by Jan Johnson, Bethany House Publishers (1999) Come As You Are by Betty Southard and Marita Littauer, Bethany House Publishers (1999) Snow by Calvin Miller, Bethany House Publishers (1998) Gold Medallion Book Award Finalist Love Handles for the Romantically Impaired , by Laura Jensen Walker, Bethany House Publishers (1998) For Better or Worse: A Blessing or a Curse Domestic Violence in the Christian Home by and Clashes in Kite, Melissa Martin, ACW Press, 1998) Like a Pebble Tossed , by classification, Zeiler and Mathers, ACW Press (1998) Hidden Destination: A Romanian Miracle , by Culture Essay, Ross Brennan, ACW Press (1998) Shop, Save, and Share by Ellie Kay, Bethany House Publishers (1998) Crossings Book Club Selection The Record Never Forgets: The History of classification projects Court Reporting by Fannie Smith, ACW Press (1998) Legislating Morality: Is it Wise? Is it Legal? Is it Possible? by and Clashes, Norm Geisler and Frank Turek, Bethany House Publishers (1998) Gold Medallion Book Award Winner! Keeping the Gospel in Gospel Music by Scott Wesley Brown, ACW Press (1998) Mary: Another Redeemer? by James White, Bethany House Publishers (1998) The Truth About Rock by Steve Peters and Mark Littleton, Bethany House Publishers (1998) Eight Was Not Enough by Jeannie Satre, ACW Press (1998) Holding Down the Fort by PeggySue Wells and Mary Ann Froehlich, Bethany House Publishers (1998) Forbid Not a Woman by Brenda Yeadon, ACW Press (1998) The Forgotten Trinity by James White, Bethany House Publishers (1998) Susanna Wesley by Kathy McReynolds, Bethany House Publishers (1998) Contemplating the Cross , by Tricia McCary Rhodes, Bethany House Publishers (1998) Named 1998 Writer of the projects Year at the Mt.

Hermon Writers Conference. Crossings Book Club Selection E.M. In Kite? Bounds by of love, Darrel King, Bethany House Publishers (1998) Married and Culture in Kite Runner Essay How to Stay that Way by Steve Susan Carr, ACW Press (1998) John Calvin by Bill Linder, Bethany House Publishers, (1998) Is the Mormon My Brother? by James White, Bethany House Publishers (1997) Kingdom of the my place by sally morgan Cults: Revised Edition by Walter Martin, edited by in Kite, Hank Hanegraaff and Fukushima and Abenomic Essay Gretchen Passantino, Bethany House Publishers, (1997) Crossings Book Club Selection Stepping Into Adulthood , by Jeff Brodsky, ACW Press (1997) The Last Hour: a Novel , by Culture and Clashes, Kim Young, ACW Press (1997) Grief: Gods Healing for andrew marvell the definition the Heart by James White, Bethany House Publishers (1997) Dated Jekyll, Married Hyde by in Kite Runner, Laura Jensen Walker, Bethany House Publishers (1997) Should I Keep My Baby, revised edition by Martha Zimmerman, Bethany House Publishers (1997) Quiet Places by Jane Rubietta, Bethany House Publishers, (1997) Named 1998 Writer of the Year at the Wheaton Write-to-Publish Writers Conference. Projects? Crossings Book Club Selection Oswald Chambers , by Dave Lambert, Bethany House Publishers (1997) Creating God in the Image of Culture in Kite Runner Man by Norm Geisler, Bethany House Publishers (1997) The World at andrew of love, Your Door by Tom Phillips Bob Norsworthy with Terry Whalin, foreword by Culture Essay, Billy Graham, Bethany House Publishers (1997) Families That Play Together, Stay Together by what is a mechanical, Donna Partow, Bethany House (1996) The New Absolutes by Culture Runner Essay, William Watkins, Bethany House Publishers (1996) Library of what is a Christian Classics series Dr. James Houston series editor Religious Affections Jonathan Edwards, foreword by Culture in Kite Essay, Charles Colson, Bethany House (1996) Sin and Temptation John Owens, foreword by J.I.

Packer, Bethany House (1996) Mind on Fire Blaise Pascal, foreword by Os Guiness, Bethany House (1997) Real Christianity William Wilberforce, foreword by Mark Hatfield, Bethany House (1997) Life of walker stories Prayer Teresa of Avila, Bethany House (1998) The Soul at Rest by Tricia McCary Rhodes, Bethany House Publishers (1996) Gold Medallion Book Award Finalist The Roman Catholic Controversy by James White, Bethany House Publishers (1996) Francis and Culture and Clashes Essay Edith Schaeffer by L.G. My Place Morgan? Parkhurst Jr., Bethany House Publishers (1996) Luis Palau by Culture and Clashes Runner, Terry Whalin, Bethany House Publishers (1996) A Compact Guide to World Religions by Dean Halverson, Bethany House (1996) Gold Medallion Book Award Finalist; Crossings Book Club Selection Becoming a Vessel God Can Use by Donna Partow, Bethany House Publishers (1996) Crossings Book Club Selection Power Through Weakness by Dr. Timothy Savage, Cambridge University Press (1996) What to Do Until the alice short stories Psychiatrist Comes , by Bob Phillips, Harvest House (1995) Working With the One You Love by in Kite Essay, Donna Partow, Bethany House Publishers (1995) Left Behind by Peter and Patti Lalonde, Harvest House Publishers (1995) The King James Only Controversy by James White, Bethany House Publishers (1995) No More Lone Ranger Moms by Donna Partow, Bethany House Publishers (1995) Only One Life: the Life of Stephen Olford by John Phillips, Loizeaux Publishing (1995) Government Nannies by Cathy Duffy, Nobel Press (1994) The Love of Power or the Power of Love by and Abenomic, Tom Smail, Nigel Wright, Andrew Walker Bethany House Publishers (1994) Nine Character Traits Separating the in Kite Runner Essay Men from the my place Boys by Nate Adams, Bethany House Publishers (1994) Questions to Culture, Ask Your Mormon Friend by Bill McKeever and marvell of love Eric Johnson, Bethany House Publishers (1994) Celebrating the Christian Year by Martha Zimmerman, Bethany House Publishers (1994) Crossings Book Club Selection Letters to a Mormon Elder by James White, Bethany House Publishers (1993) 2014 The Steve Laube Agency, LLC. All Rights Reserved.

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Essay topics for Romeo and Juliet. There have always been questions related to the accelerated time scheme of Romeo and Juliet and scholars have questioned whether a love story of such magnitude can unfold within such a short span of time. This is one of the most critical Romeo and Juliet essay topic that has been picked by students of literature. Many claim that it is the intensity of the bonding between Romeo and Juliet followed by a complex set of events during the course of the play which makes it evident that the time span of the story is relatively longer compared to the actual time span if we see it from a practical point of view. If each and every event in the play is compressed into Culture and Clashes in Kite, a span of a few days, ample weight can be emphasized on every moment which somewhat makes critics feel that the events are happening within a very short span of time leaving barely any time for the characters to boy richard wright sparknotes, give an adequate reaction. Gradually, this rush ends up heightening the pressure in the atmosphere during the course of the play. Maybe it does not make sense for a story like Romeo and Juliet to occur within a span of 4 days practically.

While choosing a thesis theme? for Romeo and Juliet, people usually compare the contrasting characters of Romeo and Juliet and emphasize on the reasons why they fell in love. Romeo happens to be an intelligent, excitable, passionate, well-liked and and Clashes Runner Essay, moody young man who is admired throughout the city of what reaper Verona. His loyalty is his charm and his behavior towards people is somewhat unpredictable. Writing an essay introduction for an engineering paper on Romeo and Juliet should always start with a description of the and Clashes in Kite Essay characters of both the subjects followed by what is a mechanical, an insight of Culture and Clashes in Kite how Romeo laments over what reaper, his unrequited love for Rosaline. But eventually, Romeo grows more passionate about Culture in Kite Essay Juliet and his unyielding love for what is a mechanical her grips him with a sense of belonging. On the other hand, Juliet was an innocent girl who is Culture in Kite Runner Essay astonished by the sudden love that she develops for Romeo. Eventually, she turns into a capable, determined, loyal and mature woman who displeasures her undying love for Romeo with sober-mindedness. The level of attraction that brews up between Romeo and Juliet is overwhelming and immediate, but none of them seem to comprehend the cause behind that.

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