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History of At-Will Employment Law in the USA. An at-will employee in the USA can be terminated at any time, and for abington any reason #150; or no reason at all #150; and usa 1920s, the courts will generally not intervene to protect the ex-employee from allegedly un fair treatment by abington the employer. I have two purposes in single schools, posting this essay: to vs schempp inform citizens of the USA about the doctrine of at-will employment and urge that they contact their legislators and push for statutes that will end at-will employment, and provide legal research that may assist attorneys for plaintiffs who need to Emerald Ash Borer Essays argue against at-will employment. This essay is intended only to present general information about an interesting topic in law and is not legal advice for your specific problem. See my disclaimer . also We have no doubt that the great preponderance of the best-considered cases in vs schempp, this country recognize and affirm the Interpreting, rule laid down by vs schempp Wood in his work on Master and Care Interpreting Essays, Servant, and which he terms the 'American rule,' . Vs Schempp? Greer at usa 1920s, 612. Abington? Harrod v. Wineman, 125 N.W. 812, 813 (Iowa 1910) (. in this country it is held by an overwhelming weight of Care Interpreting Essays, authority that a contract of abington, indefinite employment may be abandoned at will by either party without incurring any liability to the other for damages. Pub;ic Bank? The cases are too numerous to justify citation, but see . [citing four secondary sources, including Wood's Master and Servant ]). It is clear that the vs schempp, doctrine of at-will employment was harmonious with the laissez-faire spirit of the icarus poems, times. In that way, Wood's mistaken statement was the vs schempp, catalyst for what may have been inevitable. On the other hand, without Wood's statement, judges might not have had the courage to make radical new law, in creating at-will employment.

Adair v. U.S., 208 U.S. 161, 174-176 (1908); Coppage v. Interpreting? Kansas, 236 U.S. 1, 13-14, 20-21 (1915). These two opinions of the U.S. Supreme Court were overruled by: NLRB v. Jones Laughlin Steel Corp., 301 U.S. 1 (1937); Phelps Dodge Corp. v. NLRB, 313 U.S.

177, 187 (1941); Lincoln Fed.Labor Union v. Northwestern Iron Metal Co., 335 U.S. Vs Schempp? 525, 536 (1949). The original statement by Wood, and also the icarus poems, early courts that followed Wood's rule, contain no reason for abington the rule. However, the following reasoning seems plausible.

The employee must be free to quit at any time, otherwise there is the possibility of involuntary servitude, which is prohibited in the Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The doctrine of gendered, mutuality of obligations then required a symmetrical right of the employer to terminate the employee at any time. See Smith v. Atlas Off-Shore Boat Service, Inc., 653 F.2d 1057, 1061 (5thCir. 1981) (citing Summers, Individual Protection Against Unjust Dismissal, 62 Virginia Law Review 481, 484-485 (1976)). The doctrine of mutuality of obligations has long since been repudiated #150; modern contract law allows any promise that is supported by consideration. However, the legal doctrine of at-will employment continues as an vs schempp, anachronism. With us, the rule is inflexible that a . Horace C. Usa 1920s? Wood, Master and Servant § 134 (1877). Many of the early court opinions in the USA that accept Wood's rule also seem to emphasize that American law differs from English law. In fact, the law in this area differed only because of Wood's error.

In its narrowest sense, the abington, doctrine of at-will employment only speaks to when an employment contract can be terminated: the contract can be terminated at-will of either party, i.e., at any time. A separate issue is why (i.e., for what reasons) the employment contract can be properly terminated. From the usa 1920s, beginning, the concept of at-will employment meant that the employment contract could be terminated for abington vs schempp any reason by either party. may terminate employment for morally reprehensible reasons. Written in pub;ic bank, 1981, Smith holds that The maritime employer may discharge the seaman for good cause, [footnote omitted] for no cause, or even, in most circumstances, for a morally reprehensible cause.

We conclude, however, that a discharge in retaliation for the seaman's exercise of his legal right to file a personal injury action against the employer constitutes a maritime tort. Smith, 653 F.2d at 1063. How could any judge, in either 1884 or 1981, write such words that would give legal protection to someone who harmed another person by abington vs schempp morally wrong or morally reprehensible reason? This statement is simply astounding. And it is almost beyond comprehension how thousands of judges in the USA could follow such an un just rule for more than 120 years. some modern judicial criticism of usa 1920s, at-will employment. 3 Commentators state that many courts were influenced by abington vs schempp H.G.

Wood's treatise on master-servant relationships published in 1877. In that treatise Wood wrote: With us the rule is inflexible, that a general or indefinite hiring is prima facie a hiring at will, and if the servant seeks to make it out a yearly hiring, the burden is upon him to pub;ic bank establish it by proof. Vs Schempp? [I]t is an indefinite hiring and is determinable at the will of either party, and in this respect there is no distinction between domestic and other servants. H. Icarus Poems? Wood, Master and Servant, § 134, (1877). The commentators also generally agree that Wood's analysis was not supported by the cited authorities. By the turn of the twentieth century, the at will doctrine was absolute and was even temporarily afforded constitutional protection. 5 However, since the New Deal, government regulation in abington vs schempp, the workplace has increased dramatically as Congress and state legislatures recognized the Ash Borer, need to curb harsh applications and abuse of the rule in an effort to stabilize labor relations. 5 In Adair v. United States, 208 U.S.

161, 28 S.Ct. 277, 52 L.Ed. 436 (1908) and Coppage v. Kansas, 236 U.S. 1, 35 S.Ct. 240, 59 L.Ed. 441 (1915), the United States Supreme Court held statutes that were aimed at abington vs schempp, prohibiting employers from discriminating against icarus poems, union members unconstitutional. The court retreated from this position in NLRB v. Abington Vs Schempp? Jones Laughlin Steel Corp., 301 U.S. 1, 57 S.Ct.

615, 81 L.Ed. 893 (1937). Brockmeyer v. Dun Bradstreet, 335 N.W.2d 834, 837 (Wisc. 1983). In 1989, the Utah Supreme Court declared: The genesis of the at-will rule in its present form in America, however, can be traced to Horace G. Wood's 1877 treatise on the master-servant relationship. Health Interpreting Essays? H. Wood, Master and Servant § 134 (1877), cited in Note, Implied Contract Rights to Job Security, 26 Stan.L.Rev. 335, 341 (1974).

Wood proffered his rule without analysis and cited apparently inapposite authority on its behalf. Id. at 341-43. Notwithstanding its dubious antecedents, the rule was adopted by many jurisdictions without careful or thorough examination. In the abington, leading case of Martin v. New York Life Insurance Co., 148 N.Y. 117, 42 N.E. 416 (1895), the court repudiated the common law presumption that a general hiring was for Care Interpreting Essays a term of one year and uncritically embraced the at-will rule as framed by abington vs schempp Wood. The Martin opinion did not analyze any prior authority, but did assert that several other states had adopted the at-will rule. The Martin decision was not atypical.

Most courts offered no rationale or analysis for substituting the at-will doctrine for the common law presumption. By the pub;ic bank, arrival of the twentieth century, the at-will doctrine was well-established throughout the United States and served to reinforce turn-of-the-century ideas concerning laissez-faire economics and freedom to contract. Abington? Note, Implied Contract Rights to Job Security, 26 Stan.L.Rev. at 340; Note, Protecting At-Will Employees Against Wrongful Discharge: The Duty to Terminate Only in Good Faith, 93 Harv.L.Rev. 1816, 1824-26 (1980). A court in Missouri in 1985 reviewed wrongful discharge cases that were reported between 1977 and 1984 and concluded: As many of the decided cases illustrate, the burden of the what was john responsible for doing, at-will employment doctrine seems to be falling most heavily and harshly upon professional and abington, upper and middle level employees. [footnote that cites 15 cases] They have the least protection. Most are at-will employees and few have job security through union or individually negotiated contracts. They have the most to lose, frequently being the long-term employees who have the greatest responsibility and single gendered schools, substantial investment in and the highest expectations from their careers. Often they are at an age when replacement of abington, their life and medical insurance programs and their retirement plans are difficult or impossible.

They are the most vulnerable to the improper demands of employers who find it profitable to take chances with anti-trust and consumer fraud violations, environmental pollution, health-related misconduct, defense procurement fraud, and Health Care, the like. The at-will employment doctrine does not include, contemplate or require a privilege in the employer to subject its employees to the risks of civil and abington vs schempp, criminal liability that participation in such activities entails. Boyle v. Vista Eyewear, Inc., 700 S.W.2d 859, 877-878 (Mo.App. 1985). Why haven't legislatures ended at-will employment? And, in 1979, a law student wrote: However, legislative action to protect the and Insectivorous Essays, private, non-union employee-at-will from arbitrary or retaliatory discharge is abington unlikely to be forthcoming.

Statutes are typically the result of the what was john booth, lobbying efforts of organized interest groups. Vs Schempp? The only organized employee groups with sufficient political influence to effect such a change in established practice are the unions, but their allegiance is somewhere other than with private, non-union employees. Moreover, professional societies, the most obvious candidates for such action on behalf of their members, have been notoriously reticent and ineffective in this area. Employers, in usa 1920s, contrast, are well organized and at all times stand poised to lobby against any infringement upon their absolute right of discharge. For the foreseeable future, unorganized employees, like consumers in abington vs schempp, the products liability area, must look primarily to the courts for protection against arbitrary or malicious discharges in those areas where Congress or the state legislatures have not acted. At present, a discharged employee's chance of finding a court receptive to his or her claim depends more on the jurisdiction and the bench before which the case arises than on the strength of his or her case. Alfred G. Feliu, Discharge of Professional Employees: Dismissal for Acts Within a Professional Code of Ethics, 11 Columbia Human Rights Law Review 149, 162-163 (1979). A group of law students at Harvard wrote in 1980: Regardless of its form, the prospect for single statutory chance is abington vs schempp doubtful without a strong lobbying effort that unorganized employees are probably unable to mount. Strong union support is not likely either because this kind of statutory reform would take away one of the unions' principal arguments #151; that protection from usa 1920s unjust dismissal is available only under a collective bargaining agreement administered by a union-controlled grievance mechanism. I agree with what these authors said, but #150; in practice #150; judges have been reluctant to use their power to modify the common law of at-will employment. I discuss this judicial reluctance later in this essay.

Further, in some states, the doctrine of at-will employment is enshrined in statute, so the only way to end at-will employment in those states is for vs schempp the legislature to what wilkes repeal or revise the statute. Moreover, waiting for abington vs schempp legislatures to Interpreting act has not been completely hopeless: in 1987, Montana enacted a statute that abolished at-will employment for employees in that state who are past their employer's probationary period. Vs Schempp? Montana Laws 39-2-904. 4. Beginning of the end of at-will employment? Taken literally, the rule in Egerton can be used to Essays void any contract that a judge considers to be either injurious to the public, or against the public good. That is a very broad power, as shown by the following quotation from a case in New Jersey: Whatever tends to injustice or oppression, restraint of liberty, restraint of legal right; whatever tends to the obstruction of justice, a violation of abington vs schempp, a statute, or the obstruction or perversion of the administration of the law; whatever tends to interfere with or control the administration of the law, as to executive, legislative, or other official action, whenever embodied in, and made the usa 1920s, subject of, a contract, the contract is against public policy, and vs schempp, therefore void, and pub;ic bank, not susceptible of abington vs schempp, enforcement. Brooks v. Cooper, 26 A. 978, 981 (N.J. 1893). quoted with approval in Interpreting Essays, Bron v. Weintraub, 199 A.2d 625, 628-29 (N.J. 1964). In practice, judges in most states only consider public policy that has been explicitly recognized in a narrow range of sources, as explained in the following section.

But judges do have the power to consider a broader range of sources of public policy. In many states, the public-policy exceptions have been created by the legislature in statute(s) that specifically gives the vs schempp, ex-employee the right to sue for wrongful discharge. The sources of public policy mentioned in Palmateer, a famous wrongful discharge case in Ash Borer Insects Essays, Illinois, can be traced back a long way: The public policy of the abington, state or of the nation is to be found in its Constitution and its statutes, and, when cases arise concerning matters upon what wilkes responsible for doing, which they are silent, then in its judicial decisions and vs schempp, the constant practice of the government officials. Bell v. Farwell, 176 Ill. 489, 52 N. What Was John Wilkes Booth? E. 346, 42 L. R. A. 804, 68 Am.

St. Rep. 194; Harding v. American Glucose Co., 192 Ill. Vs Schempp? 551, 55 N. E. 577, 64 L. R. A. 738, 74 Am. St. Rep. Emerald Ash Borer Insects Essays? 189; Brush v. City of Carbondale, [82 N.E. 252]; Hartford Fire Ins.

Co. Abington? v. Chicago, Milwaukee St. Icarus Poems? Paul Railroad Co., 70 Fed. 201, 17 C. C. A. 62, 30 L. R. A. 193; Vidal v. Girard's Ex'rs, 2 How. Abington Vs Schempp? 127, 11 L. Ed. 205; United States v. Trans-Missouri Freight Ass'n, 166 U. S. 290, 17 Sup.

Ct. 540, 41 L. Ed. 1007. Zeigler v. Illinois Trust Savings Bank, 91 N.E. 1041, 1045 (Ill. 1910). The problem with restricting public policy to the narrow range that has been explicitly mentioned in a constitution, statute, or regulation is that these narrow sources are underinclusive.

No list of specific bad reasons for terminating employment, in a statute or elsewhere, can contain all of the possible abusive, arbitrary, ir rational, or wrongful reasons. A broad interpretation of public policy might be one way for judges to protect employees from the harshness of at-will employment, other ways are mentioned later in this essay. In 1983, a group of law students at Health Care Essays, Harvard Law School wrote: The public policy exception appears to provide employees with a broad source of abington vs schempp, protection from unjust dismissal. In practice, however, the public policy exception has limited only slightly the harshness of the at-will rule. Note, Protecting Employees at Will Against Wrongful Discharge: The Public Policy Exception, 96 Harvard Law Review 1931, 1932 (1983). What Wilkes Booth? In practice, however, the protection [the public policy exception] extends to employees is minimal. Vs Schempp? The inadequacy of this protection arises in was john wilkes, part from the abington, courts' limited view of the sources of public policy . Id. at 1937. This view seems to still be true in Emerald Insects, July 2000. I certainly do not agree that 'public policy' as a concept is notoriously resistant to abington vs schempp precise definition. A simple test for public policy is to ask whether society would be better served if employment could not be terminated because the employee (for example): reported to booth a law enforcement agency his/her reasonable suspicion of a crime, refused to endanger the health or safety of other people, upheld a principle of professional ethics, in abington vs schempp, spite of his/her manager's order to engage in un ethical conduct, reports misfeasance or incompetence by a government agency, or allowed a manager to interfere with the professional opinion of a licensed professional, when the manager was not qualified for such a license.

As for the argument in Gantt that confining public-policy exceptions to the constitution and pub;ic bank, statutes will give employers notice of proscribed conduct #151; the concept of advance notice (i.e., no ex post facto law) is vs schempp derived from criminal law, not tort law. In tort cases (e.g., products liability, negligence, wrongful discharge), the court determines both the duty and whether the defendant breached that duty (i.e., engaged in wrongful conduct). See my essay on the differences between civil and usa 1920s, criminal law . Further, as noted in abington, the dissenting opinion to Gantt : This creates the impression that only statutes or constitutional provisions provide employers with adequate notice of what is forbidden by public policy, and that it is Care Interpreting Essays somehow unfair for employers to be bound by other legitimate sources of public policy. This is wrong. Abington? Other legitimate sources of public policy, such as judicial decisions or codes of professional ethics, for instance, are readily available to employers or their counsel and single gendered, thus provide no less notice than do statutes or constitutional provisions. Gantt, 824 P.2d at abington vs schempp, 693 (Kennard, J., dissenting, with whom Justice Mosk concurs). In a case in which the Massachusetts Supreme Court refused to what was john wilkes responsible for doing make a public-policy exception to at-will employment, Chief Justice Liacos gently chided his colleagues in a dissenting opinion: I disagree with the court's conclusion that a hospital employer violates no public policy when it fires an vs schempp, employee for alerting supervisors to matters detracting from good patient care. The court has construed far too narrowly the public policy exception to icarus poems the doctrine of employment at will. Moreover, in demanding a statutory basis for public policy, the court has relinquished to the Legislature its role in shaping the common law. I dissent. Wright v. Shriners Hospital, 589 N.E.2d 1241, 1246 (Mass.

1992) (Liacos, J., dissenting). A statute should say that an employer can terminate employment only for a good cause, as determined by impartial arbitrators, a judge, or a jury. ( Such a statute should require good cause for abington termination of employment, because specifically listing protected activities that are not grounds for termination of and Insectivorous, employment risks being underinclusive. ) or, make an explicit finding of public policy. The legislature could enact a statute that says It is the public policy of this state that employment not be terminated for either abusive, arbitrary, irrational, or wrongful reason(s). Vs Schempp? Judges hearing wrongful discharge cases shall consider this public policy. Several commentators have noted that there has been abundant experience in icarus poems, the USA with using arbitration to decide wrongful discharge claims presented by members of labor unions. Clyde W. Summers, Individual Protection Against Unjust Dismissal, 62 Virginia Law Review 481, 521-532 (1976). Theodore J. St.

Antoine, A Seed Germinates: Unjust Discharge Reform Heads Toward Full Flower, 67 Nebraska Law Review 56 (1988). It is critical to note that learned professionals who are employed have some issues (e.g., professional ethics, professional autonomy, exercise of discretionary authority, academic freedom, creativity, etc.) that have not been encountered in vs schempp, situations involving laborers in labor unions. If arbitration is to pub;ic bank be used for abington vs schempp wrongful discharge cases involving learned professionals, the nonattorney member(s) of the arbitration panel should include learned professionals, not laborers, and not managers of manual laborers. Restatement Second of what for doing, Contracts §§ 178-179 (1981). A statement of public policy that has been widely adopted in the USA comes from an English case in the year 1853, which said: Public policy . is that principle of the law which holds that no subject can lawfully do that which has a tendency to be injurious to the public, or against vs schempp, the public good, which may be termed, as it sometimes has been, the policy of the law, or public policy in relation to the administration of the law. Egerton v. Brownlow, 4 H.L.Cas. 1, 196 (1853)(Lord Truro, J.).

(A long list of Health Care, citations to cases in the USA that accept this statement is found above .) Restatement Second of Contracts § 205 (1981). Restatement Second of vs schempp, Contracts § 208 (1981). Restatement Second of Contracts §§ 203(a), 204, 211(3), and comment e to § 211(1981). Restatement Second of Contracts § 206 (1981). And, as discussed above, when judges did consider public policy, judges interpreted public policy very narrowly #151; basing public policy only on constitution, statutes, and #150; sometimes #150; government regulations. Emerald Ash Borer Insects? Those limited sources of public policy are too narrow to protect employees from most cases of wrongful discharge. Bekken v. Equitable Life Assur. Soc., 293 N.W.

200, 212 (N.Dak. 1940); Farkas v. New York Fire Ins. Co., 76 A.2d 895 (N.J. 1950); Steven v. Fidelity and Casualty Co., 377 P.2d 284 (Calif. 1962). In nearly all employment contract cases, and in nearly all wrongful discharge cases that I have read, the phrase adhesion contract does not appear in the reported opinion, as if employment contracts are somehow exempt from conventional contract law. Judges do not mention adhesion contract, even when they find a public-policy exception to abington at-will employment. In no reported case has a plaintiff-employee argued that at-will employment (instead of just cause employment) was forced on the employee in an adhesion contract. I would expect courts to reject this argument, because the doctrine of at-will employment #151; for reasons not explained by courts #151; overrides conventional contract law. Single Gendered Schools? ( It is particularly ludicrous when judges often write several pages of excruciating detail to explain a well-known rule of law in abington vs schempp, the context of commercial contracts, with citations to many cases.

But these same judges zip through an usa 1920s, at-will employment contract case in vs schempp, just a few sentences, skipping analytical steps, omitting legal reasoning, ignoring the bogus origin of gendered, at-will employment, failing to abington vs schempp apply rules of conventional contract law, . Health Interpreting Essays? ) However, a courageous state supreme court that is willing to change the common law might accept the argument that, given that employment contracts are adhesion contracts, freedom of an vs schempp, employer to dismiss an employee for either a bad reason or no reason is either un conscionable, bad faith, or contrary to the reasonable expectations of the employee, and usa 1920s, therefore a breach of the employment contract. I personally prefer to keep wrongful discharge as a tort action, but, one way or another, we must end the vs schempp, doctrine of at-will employment. The real point here is that the courts' rigid application of the doctrine of at-will employment is in consistent with conventional contract law.

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(139) Li, Y.; Lei, X.; Jockusch, S.;Chen, J. Y.-C.; Frunzi, M.; Johnson, J. A.; Lawler, R. G.; Murata, Y.; Murata,M.; Komatsu, K.; Turro, N. J.: Amagnetic switch for spin-catalyzed interconversion of nuclear spinisomers. J.Am. Chem. Soc. 2010,132,4042-4043. (138) Turro, N. J.; Chen, J. Y.-C.; Sartori, E.; Ruzzi, M.; Marti, A.; Lawler, R.; Jockusch,S.; Lopez-Gejo, J.; Komatsu, K.; Murata, Y: The spin chemistry and magnetic resonance of [email protected] From the Pauli principle to trapping a longlived nuclear excited spin state inside a buckyball. Acc.Chem. Res., 2010, 43, 335-345. (137) Jyotsna, T.; Kumar, C. V.; Jockusch, S.; Turro, N.J.: Steady-state and abington vs schempp time-resolvedstudies of the pub;ic bank, photocleavage of lysozyme by abington Co(III) complexes Langmuir, 2010, 26, 1966-1972. (136) Jung, N.;Kim, N.; Jockusch, S.; Turro, N. J.; Kim, P.; Brus, L.:Charge transfer chemical doping of Care Essays, few layergraphenes:Charge distribution and bandgap formation.Nanoletters, 2009, 9,4133-4137.(135) Maliakal,A.

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2008, 120, 9087-9091; Angew.Chem. Int. Abington! Ed. 2008, 47, 8954-8957. (119)Turro, N. J.;Marti, A. Health Essays! A.; Chen, J. Y.-C.; Jockusch, S.; Lawler, R. G.; Ruzzi, M.; Sartori,E.; Chuang, S.-C.; Komatsu, K.; Murata, Y.:Demonstration of a Chemical Transformation Inside a Fullerene.The Reversible Conversion of the Allotropesof [email protected]

Am. Chem. Soc. 2008,130, 10506-10507. (118)Chen, J.Y.-C.; Jayaraja, N.; Jockusch, S.; Ottaviani, M. F.; Ramamurthy, V.; Turro, N.J.:EPR and NMR study of supramoleculareffects on paramagnetic interaction between a nitroxide incarcerated within ananocapsule with a nitroxide in bulk aqueous media.J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 7206-7207. (117)Keskin, S.;Jockusch, S.; Turro, N. J.; Arsu, N.: 2-Mercaptothioxanthone as sensitizer andco-initiator for acylphosphine oxide photoinitiators for free radical polymerization.Macromolecules 2008, 41, 4631-4634.

(116)Chin, K. K.;Trevithick-Sutton, C. C.; McCallum, J.; Jockusch, S.; Turro, N. J.; Scaiano, J.C.; Foote, C. S.; Garcia-Garibay, M. A.:Quantitative detection of singlet oxygen generated by excited statearomatic amino acids, proteins, and immunoglobulins.J. Am. Chem. Vs Schempp! Soc. Emerald Ash Borer And Insectivorous Insects Essays! 2008, 130, 6912-6913. (115)Solomon, M.R.; Sivaguru, J.; Jockusch, S.; Adam, W.; Turro, N. J.:Vibrational deactivation of singlet oxygen:does it play a role in abington, stereoselectivity during photooxygenation? Photochem.Photobiol. Sci., 2008, 7, 531-533. (114)Lei, X.-G.;Jockusch, S.; Turro, N. J.; Tomalia, D. A.; Ottaviani, M. F.: EPRcharacterization of gadolinium(III)-containing-PAMAM-dendrimers in the absenceand the presence of paramagnetic probes. J. Coll. Gendered Schools! Interf.

Sci., 2008, 322,457-464. (113)Kim, S. Vs Schempp! R.;Jockusch, S.; Itagaki, Y.; Turro, N. J.; Sparrow, J. R.:Mechanisms involved in A2E oxidation.Exp. Eye Res., 2008, 86, 975-982. (112)He, G. Was John Wilkes Booth Responsible For Doing! S.;Qin, H.-Y.; Zheng, Q.; Prasad, P. N.; Jockusch, S.; Turro, N. J.; Halim, M.;Sames, D.; Ågren, H.; He, S.: Dynamic properties and optical phase conjugationof two-photon pumped ultrashort blue stimulated emission in abington, a chromophoresolutionPhys. Rev. A, 2008, 77,013824. (111)Tasdelen, M.A.; Kumbaraci, V.; Jockusch, S.; Turro, N. J.; Talinli, N.; Yagci, Y.:Photoacid generation by pub;ic bank stepwise two-photonabsorption:Photoinitiated cationicpolymerization of cyclohexene oxide by vs schempp using benzodioxinone in the presence ofiodonium salt.Macromolecules, 2008,41, 295-297.

(110)Wakata, A.;Cahill, S. M.; Blumenstein, M.; Gunby, R. H.; Jockusch, S.; Marti, A. Emerald And Insectivorous Essays! A.;Cimbro, B.; Gambacorti-Passerini, C.; Donella-Deana, A.; Pinna, L. Abington! A.; Turro,N. J.; Lawrence, D. S.: A Mechanistic Design Principle for Protein TyrosineKinase Sensors: Application to Emerald Insects Essays a Validated Cancer Target Org. Lett., 2008, 10,301-304. (109)Sivaguru, J.;Solomon, M. R.; Poon, T,; Jockusch, S.; Bosio, S. G.; Adam, W.; Turro, N. J.:The reaction of singlet oxygen with enecarbamates: a mechanistic playgroundfor investigating chemoselectivity, stereoselectivity and abington vibratioselectivityof photooxidationsAcc. Chem. Res.,2008, 41, 387-400. (108)Jockusch, S.;Turro, N. J.; Thompson, E. K.; Gouterman, M.; Callis, J. B.; Khalil, G.E.:Singlet Molecular Oxygen by DirectExcitation. Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2008, 7, 235-239.

(107) Conlon, P.; Yang, C. J.; Wu, Y.; Chen, Y.;Martinez, K., Kim, Y.; Stevens, N.; Marti, A. A.; Jockusch, S.; Turro, N. Health Interpreting Essays! J.;Tan, W.: Pyrene excimer signaling molecular beacons for probing nucleicacids.J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 130,336-342. (106)Kim, S. R.;Jang, Y. P.; Jockusch, S.; Itagaki, Y.; Turro, N. Abington Vs Schempp! J. Nakanishi, K.; Sparrow, J.R.:The all-trans-retinal dimer-seriesof lipofuscin pigments in retinal pigment epithelial cells in a recessiveStargardt disease model. Proc. Nat. Emerald Ash Borer Insects Essays! Acad. Abington! Sci.

USA, 2007, 104, 19273-19278. (105)López-Gejo,J.; Marti, A. A.; Ruzzi, M.; Jockusch, S.; Komatsu, K.; Tanabe, F.; Murata, Y.;Turro, N. J.: Can H2 Inside C60 Communicate with the Ash Borer Insects, Outside World?J. Am. Chem. Abington Vs Schempp! Soc., 2007, 104, 14554-14555. (104)Abeywickrama,C.; Matsuda, H.; Jockusch, S.; Zhou, J.; Jang, Young P.; Chen, B.-X.; Itagaki,Y.; Erlanger, B.; Nakanishi, K.; Turro, N. J.; Sparrow, J. R.: Immunochemicalrecognition of A2E, a pigment in the lipofuscin of retinal pigment epithelialcells. Proc. Health Care Interpreting! Nat.

Acad. Sci. USA, 2007, 104, 14610-14615. (103) Marti, A. A.; Puckett, C. Abington Vs Schempp! A.; Dyer, J.;Stevens, N.; Jockusch, S.; Ju, J.; Barton, J. K.; Turro, N. J. Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Luminescent Binary Probe for DNA Detection Based onSpin-Forbidden Resonance Energy Transfer. J. Am.

Chem. What Was John Wilkes Booth Responsible! Soc., 2007, 129,8680-8681. (102) Halim, M.; Tremblay, M. S.; Jockusch, S.; Turro,N. J.; Sames, D.: Transposing Molecular Fluorescent Switches into theNear-IR: Development of abington vs schempp, Luminogenic Reporter Substrates for Emerald and Insectivorous RedoxMetabolism. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2007, 129, 7704-7705.

(101) Washington, I.; Zhou, J.; Jockusch, S.; Turro,N. Vs Schempp! J.; Nakanishi, K.; Sparrow, J. R.: Chlorophyll derivatives as visualpigments for pub;ic bank super vision in the red. Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2007,6, 775-779.

(100)Jockusch, S.; Zheng, Q.; He, G. S.; Pudavar, H.E.; Yee, D. J.; Balsanek, V.; Halim, M.; Sames, D.; Prasad, P. N.; Turro, N.J.: Two-photon excitation of fluorogenic probes for abington redoxmetabolism: Dramatic enhancement of optical contrast ratio by two-photonexcitation. Emerald And Insectivorous Insects! J. Phys. Chem. C, 2007, 111, 8872-8877. (99) Martí, A. Abington Vs Schempp! A.; Jockusch, S.; Stevens, N.; Ju, J.;Turro, N. J.: Fluorescent hybridization probes for sensitive andselective DNA and RNA detection. Acc.

Chem. Res., 2007, 63, 3591-3600. (98) Yagci, Y.; Jockusch, S.; Turro, N. J.: Mechanism of Ash Borer Insects, Photoinduced Step Polymerization of Thiophene by Onium Salts:Reactions of Phenyliodinium and Diphenylsulfinium Radical Cations withThiophene. Macromolecules, 2007, 40, 4481-4485. (97) Balta, D. K.; Arsu, N.; Yagci, Y.; Jockusch, S.;Turro, N. J.: Thioxanthone-Anthracene: A New Photoinitiator for Free RadicalPolymerization in the Presence of Oxygen. Macromolecules,2007, 40, 4138-4141. (96) Deo, P.; Deo, N.; Somasundaran, P.; Moscatelli,A.; Jockusch, S.; Turro, N. J.; Ananthapadmanabhan, K. P.; Ottaviani, M.F.: Interactions of a Hydrophobically Modified Polymer with OppositelyCharged Surfactants. Langmuir, 2007, 23, 5906-5913.

(95) Natarajan, A.; Kaanumalle, L. S.; Jockusch, S.;Gibb, C. L. D.; Gibb, B. C.; Turro, N. J.; Ramamurthy, V.: Controllingphotoreactions with restricted spaces and weak intermolecular forces: Exquisite selectivity during oxidation of vs schempp, olefins by pub;ic bank singlet oxygen. J. Am.Chem. Soc., 2007, 129, 4132-4133. (94) Martí, A. A.; Li, X.; Jockusch, S.; Stevens, N.;Li, Z.; Raveendra, B.; Kalachikov, S.; Morozova, I.; Russo, J.; Akins, D. L.;Ju, J.; Turro, N. Vs Schempp! J.: Design and characterization of was john wilkes for doing, two-dye and three-dyebinary fluorescent probes for mRNA detection. Tetrahedron, 2007, 63, 3591-3600. (93) Saito, H.; Sivaguru, J.; Jockusch, S.; Dyer, J.;Inoue, Y., Adam, W., Turro, N. J.: Controlled diastereoselectivity atthe alkene-geometry thyough selective encapsulation: E/Z photoisomerization ofoxazolidinone-functionalized enecarbamates within hydrophobicnano-cavities. Abington! Chem. Usa 1920s! Commun., 2007, 819-821.

(92) Khalil, G. E.; Thompson, E. K.; Gouterman, M.;Callis, J. B.; Dalton, L. R.; Turro, N. J.; Jockusch, S.: NIRluminescence of gadolinium porphyrin complexes. Chem. Abington! Phys. Lett., 2007,435, 45-49. (91) Moscatelli, A.; Ottaviani, F. M.; Adam, W.;Buchachenko, A.; Jockusch, S.; Turro, N. J.: Interaction between molecularoxygen and nitroxide radicals: A search for a reversible complex. Helv. Chim.Acta, 2006, 89, 2441-2449.

(90) Sivaguru, J.; Poon, T.; Hooper, C.; Saito, H.;Solomon, M. R.; Jockusch, S.; Adam, W.; Inoue, Y.; Turro, N. J.: A comparativemechanistic analysis of the stereoselectivity trends observed in the oxidationof chiral oxazolidinone-functionalized enecarbamates by singlet oxygen, ozone,and triazolinediones. Usa 1920s! Tetrahedron, 2006, 62, 10647-10659. (89) Li, X.; Li, Z.; Martí, A. Vs Schempp! A.; Jockusch, S.;Stevens, N.; Akins, D. L.; Turro, N. J.; Ju, J.: Combinatorialfluorescence energy transfer molecular beacons for Care Interpreting Essays probing nucleic acidsequences. Vs Schempp! Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2006, 5, 896-902. (88) Arsu, N.; Aydin, M.; Yagci, Y.; Jockusch, S.Turro, N. Pub;ic Bank! J.: One component thioxanthone based Type II photoinitiators in Photochemistry and abington vs schempp UV Curing: New Trends, ed. J. P. Fouassier, ResearchSignpost, Kerala, India, 2006, Chapter 3, pp 17-29. (87) Tremblay, M. S.; Zhu, Q.; Martí, A. A.; Dyer, J.;Halim, M.; Jockusch, S.; Turro, N. J.; Sames, D.: Phosphorylationstate-responsive lanthanide peptide conjugates: A luminescence switch based onreversible complex reorganization. Org. Lett., 2006, 8, 2723-2726.

(86) Martí, A. A.; Li, X.; Jockusch, S.; Li, Z.;Raveendra, B.; Kalachikov, S.; Russo, J.; Morozova, I.; Puthanveettil, S. V.;Ju, J.; Turro, N. J.: Pyrene binary probes for unambiguous detection of mRNAusing time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Nucleic Acid Res., 2006, 34,3161-3168. (85) Marti, A. Care! A.; Jockusch, S.; Li, Z.; Turro,N. J.; Ju, J.: Molecular beacons with intrinsically fluorescent nucleotides.Nucleic Acid Res., 2006, 34, e50. (84) Jockusch, S.; Marti, A. A.; Turro, N. Abington Vs Schempp! J.;Li, Z.; Li, X.; Ju, J.; Stevens, N.; Akins, D. Usa 1920s! L.: Spectroscopic investigationof a FRET Molecular Beacon containing two fluorophores for probing of DNA/RNAsequences.

Photochem. Abington! Photobiol. What Wilkes For Doing! Sci., 2006, 5, 493-498. (83) Balaz, M.; Li, B. C.; Jockusch, S.;Ellestad, G. A.; Berova, N.: Tetraarylporphyrin as a selective molecular capfor the non Watson-Crick C:A base pair sequences. Angew. Chem. 2006, 118,3610-3613; Angew. Chem. Abington Vs Schempp! Int. Ed. 2006, 45, 3530-3533.

(82) Moscatelli, A.; Chen, T. K.; Jockusch, S.;Ottaviani, F. What Was John Booth For Doing! M.; Forbes, M.; Turro, N. Vs Schempp! J.; Oximetry of oxygen supersaturatedsolutions using nitroxides as EPR probe J. Usa 1920s! Phys. Chem. A, 2006, 110,7574-7578. (81) Sivaguru, J.; Solomon, M. R.; Saito, H.;Poon, T.; Jockusch, S.; Adam, W.; Ramamurthy, V.; Inoue, Y.; Turro, N.J.: Conformationally controlled (entropy effects), stereoselectivevibrational quenching of singlet oxygen in the oxidative cleavage of oxazolidinone-functiionalizedenecarbamates through solvent and temperature variations. Tetrahedron,2006, 62, 6707-6717. (80) Sivaguru, J.; Saito, H.; Solomon, M. R.;Kaanumalle, L. S.; Poon, T.; Jockusch, S.; Adam, W.; Ramamurthy, V.; Inoue, Y.;Turro, N. Vs Schempp! J.: Control of chirality by cations in confined spaces:Photooxydation of enecarbamates inside zeolite supercages. Essays! Photochem.Photobiol., 2006, 82, 123-131. (79) Yang, C. J.; Jockusch, S.; Vicens, M.; Turro, N.J.; Tan, W.; Light-switching excimer probes for rapid protein monitoring incomplex biological fluids. Proc. Nat. Acad.

Sci. USA, 2005, 102, 17278-17283. (78) Martinez, C. G.; Jockusch, S.; Ruzzi, M.;Sartori, E.; Moscatelli, A. Turro, N. J.; Buchachenko, A. L.: ChemicallyInduced Dynamic Electron Polarization Generated through the Interaction betweenSinglet Molecular Oxygen and Nitroxide Radicals J. Phys. Abington Vs Schempp! Chem. Pub;ic Bank! A, 2005, 109,10216-10221. (77) Deo, P.; Deo, N.; Somasundaran, P.; Jockusch, S.;Turro, N. J.: Conformational changes of pyrene-labeled polyelectrolytes withpH: Effect of hydrophobic modifications. J. Phys. Chem.

B, 2005, 109,20714-20718. (76) Washington, I.; Jockusch, S.; Itagaki, Y.; Turro,N. J.; Nakanishi, K.: Superoxidation of Bisretinoids. Angew. Chem. 2005, 117,7259-7262; Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2005, 44, 7097-7100. (75) Lee, K.; Kunjappu, J.; Jockusch, S.; Turro, N.J.; Widerschpan, T.; Zhou, J.; Snith, B. W.; Zimmerman, P.; Conley, W.:Amplification of the Index of Refraction of Aqueous Immersion Fluids by IonicSurfactants Proc. of SPIE, 2005, 5753, 537-553.

(74) Saito, H.; Sivaguru, J.; Jockusch, S.; Inoue, Y.,Adam, W., Turro, N. J.: Stereoselective E/Z photoisomerization ofoxazolidinone functionalized enecarbamates: direct and vs schempp triplet sensitizedirradiation. Single! Chem. Commun., 2005, 3424-3426. (73) Lee, K.; Jockusch, S.; Turro, N. J.; French, R.H.; Wheland, R. C.; Lemon, M. Abington! F.; Braun, A. M.; Widerschpan, T.; Dixon, D. A.;Li, L.; Marius, I.; Zimmerman, P.: 157 nm pellicles (thin films) forphotolithography: Mechanistic investigation of the single schools, VUV and UV-C photolysis offluorocarbons. Abington! J. Essays! Am. Chem. Soc., 2005, 127, 8320-8327.

(72) Jockusch, S.; Sivaguru, J.; Turro, N. Vs Schempp! J.;Ramamurthy, V.: Direct measurement of singlet oxygen lifetime in zeolites bynear-IR phosphorescence. Photochem. Usa 1920s! Photobiol. Abington! Sci., 2005, 4, 403-405. (71) Sivaguru, J.; Saito, H.; Poon, T.; Omonuwa, T.,Franz, R.; Jockusch, S.; Hooper, C., Inoue, Y., Adam, W., Turro, N. J.:Stereoselective photooxidation of Emerald Essays, enecarbamates: Reactivity of ozone vssinglet oxygen. Org. Lett., 2005, 7, 2089-2092. (70) Khalil, G. E.; Chang, A.; Gouterman, M.; Callis,J. B.; Dalton, L. R.; Turro, N. J.; Jockusch, S.: Oxygen pressure measurementusing singlet oxygen emission.

Rev. Sci. Vs Schempp! Instrum., 2005, 76, 054101. (69) Aydin, M.; Arsu, N.; Yagci, Y.; Jockusch,S.; Turro, N. J.: Mechanistic study of photoinitiated free radicalpolymerization using thioxanthone thioacetic acid as one-component type IIphotoinitiartor. Macromolecules, 2005, 38, 4133-4138. (68) Dyer, J.; Jockusch, S.; Balsanek, V.;Sames, D.; Turro, N. Icarus Poems! J.: Two-photon induced uncaging of a reactiveintermediate. Multi-photon in situ detection of abington vs schempp, a potentially valuablelabel for biological applications J. Org. Chem., 2005, 70, 2143-2147. (67) Jockusch, S.; Li, Z.; Ju, J.; Turro, N. J.:Two-photon excitation induced fluorescence of a tri-fluorophore labeled DNA.Photochem. Photobiol., 2005, 81, 238-241.

(66) Wines, T. H.; Somasundaran, P.; Turro, N. J.;Jockusch, S.; Ottaviani, M. F.: Investigation of the mobility of pub;ic bank, amphiphilicpolymer - AOT reverse microemulsion systems using electron spin resonance. J.Colloids Interface Sci., 2005, 285, 318-325. (65) Dukovic, G.; White, B. Vs Schempp! E.; Zhou, Z.; Wang, F.;Jockusch, S.; Steigerwald, M. L.; Heinz, T. F.; Friesner, R. A.; Turro, N. J.;Brus, L. E.: Reversible Surface Oxidation and Emerald and Insectivorous Insects Efficient Luminescence Quenchingin Semiconductor Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2004, 126,15269-15276.

(64) Ottaviani, M. F.; Jockusch, S.; Turro, N. Abington Vs Schempp! J.;Tomalia, D. A.; Barbon, A.: Interactions of Dendrimers with Selected AminoAcids and gendered Proteins Studied by Continuous Wave EPR and Fourier Transform EPRLangmuir, 2004, 20, 10238-10245. (63) Lee, K.; Jockusch, S.; Turro, N. J.; French, R.H.; Wheland, R. Abington! C.; Lemon, M. F.; Braun, A. M.; Widerschpan, T.; Zimmerman, P.:157 nm Pellicles for and Insectivorous Insects Essays Photolithography: Mechanistic Investigation of the vs schempp, DeepUV Photolysis of Fluorocarbons. Proc. of SPIE, 2004, 5377, 1598-1605. (62) Sivaguru, J.; Poon, T.; Franz, R.; Jockusch, S.; Adam,W.; Turro, N. J.: Stereocontrol within Confined Spaces: EnantioselectivitivePhotooxidation of what was john wilkes booth responsible, Enecarbamates inside Zeolite Supercages. J. Am. Chem. Soc.,2004, 126, 10816-10817. (61) Poon, T.; Sivaguru, J.; Franz, R.; Jockusch, S.;Martinez, C.; Washington, I.; Adam, W.; Inoue, Y; Turro, N. J.: Temperatureand Solvent Control of the Stereoselectivity in the Reactions of Singlet Oxygenwith Oxazolidinone-Substituted Enecarbamates. J. Am. Chem.

Soc., 2004, 126,104989-10499. (60) Jockusch, S.; Ren, R. X-F.; Jang, Y. Vs Schempp! P.; Itagaki,Y.; Vollmer-Snarr, H.; Sparrow, J. Usa 1920s! R.; Nakanishi, K.; Turro, N. Abington Vs Schempp! J.:Photochemistry of A1E, a Retinoid with a Conjugated Pyridinium Moiety:Competition between Pericyclic Photooxygenation and Pericyclization J. Schools! Am.Chem. Soc., 2004, 126, 4646-4652. (59) Pan, Z.; Somasundaran, P.; Turro, N. Vs Schempp! J.;Jockusch, S.: Interactions of cationic dendrimers with hematitemineral Colloids and Emerald Ash Borer and Insectivorous Insects Essays Surfaces, A, 2004, 238, 123-126. (58) Fede, J.-M., Jockusch, S; Lin, N.; Moss, R. A.;Turro, N. J.: Aryloxy Radicals from Diaryloxydiazirenes: ?-Cleavege ofDiaryloxycarbenes of Excited Diazirines? Org. Vs Schempp! Lett. Was John Wilkes Booth Responsible! 2003, 5, 5027-5030. (57) Poon, T.; Turro, N. J.; Chapman, J.;Lakshminarasimhan, P.; Lei, X.; Jockusch, S.; Franz, R.; Washington, I.; Adam,W. Abington! Bosio, S. G.: Stereochemical Features of the Physical and ChemicalInteractions of pub;ic bank, Singlet oxygen with Enecarbamates.

Org. Lett. 2003, 5,4951-4953. (56) Sivaguru, J.; Jockusch, S.; Turro, N. J.;Ramamurthy, V.: Photoisomerization of 2,3-Diphenylcyclopropane-1-carboxylicAcid Derivatives Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2003, 2, 1101-1106. (55) Lei, X.-G.; Jockusch, S.; Ottaviani. M. F.;Turro, N. J.: In situ ESR investigation of the addition of persistent benzylradicals to acrylates on ZSM-5 zeolites. Direct spectroscopic detection of theinitial steps in a supramolecular photopolymerization.

Photochem. Vs Schempp! Photobiol.Sci., 2003, 2, 1095-1100. (54) Deo, P.; Jockusch, S.; Ottaviani, M. Responsible For Doing! F.;Moscatelli, A.; Turro, N. J.; Somasundaran, P. Interaction ofHydrophobically Modified Polyelectrolytes with Surfactant of the samecharge Langmuir, 2003, 19, 10747-10752. (53) Deo, N.; Jockusch, S.; Turro, N. Vs Schempp! J.;Somasundaran, P.: Surfactant Interactions with Zein ProteinLangmuir, 2003, 19, 5083-5088. (52) Sparrow, J. R.; Vollmer-Snarr, H. R.; Zhou, J.;Jang,Y. P.; Jockusch, S.; Itagaki, Y.; Nakanishi, K.: A2E-epoxides DamageDNA in Retinal Pigment Epithelial cells. Was John Wilkes Responsible! VitaminsE and C and Other AntioxidantsInhibit A2E-epoxide formation J. Biol. Chem.

2003, 278, 18207-18213. (51) Bossmann, S. H.; Jockusch, S.; Schwarz, P.;Baumeister, B.; Goeb, S.; Schnabel, C.; Payawan, Jr., L.; Pokhrel, M. Abington! R.;Woerner, M.; Braun, A. M.; Turro, N. J.:Ruthenium(II)-tris-bipyridine/titanium dioxide codoped zeolite Yphotocatalysts: II. Photocatalyzed degradation of the model pollutant2,4-Xylidine, evidence for percolation behavior Photochem. Photobiol.Sci., 2003, 2, 477-486. (50) Shailaja, J.; Lakshminarasimhan, P. H.; Pradhan,A.; Sunoj, R. B.; Jockusch, S.; Karthikeyan, S.; Uppili, S.; Chandrasekhar, J.;Turro, N. J.; Ramamurthy, V.: Alkali Ion-Controlled Exited-State Orderingof Acetophenones Included in Zeolites: Emission, Solid-State NMR andComputational Studies J. Phys. Chem. A, 2003, 107, 3187-3198. (49) Khudyakov, I. V.; Arsu, N.; Jockusch, S.;Turro, N. J.: Magnetic and spin effects in the photoinitiation ofpolymerization Designed Monomers Polymers, 2003, 6, 91-101.

(48) Dursun, C.; Degirmenci, M.; Yagci, Y.; Jockusch,S.; Turro, N. Schools! J.: Free Radical Promoted Cationic Polymerization by UsingBisacylphosphine Oxide Photoinitiators: Substituent Effect on the Reactivity ofPhosphonyl Radicals Polymer, 2003, 44, 7389-7396. (47) Cokbaglan, L.; Arsu, N.; Yagci, Y.; Jockusch, S.;Turro, N. Vs Schempp! J.: 2-Mercaptothioxanthone as a Novel Photoinitiator for FreeRadical Polymerization. Macromolecules, 2003, 36, 2649-2653. (46) Bai, X.; Li, Z.; Jockusch, S.; Turro, N. J.; Ju,J.: Photocleavage of a 2-Nitrobenzyl Linker Bridging a Fluorophore to the 5'End of gendered, DNA Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 2003, 100, 409-413. (45) Ottaviani, M. F.; Turro, N. J.; Jockusch, S.;Tomalia, D. A.: EPR Investigation of the adsorption of dendrimers onporous surfaces J. Vs Schempp! Phys.

Chem. B, 2003, 107, 2046-2053. (44) Jockusch, S.; Turro, N. J.; Blackburn, F. Essays! R.:Photochromism of vs schempp, 2H-Naphtho[1,2-b]pyans: A SpectroscopicInvestigation. Usa 1920s! J. Abington! Phys. Icarus Poems! Chem. A, 2002, 106, 9236-9241. (43) Colley, C. Vs Schempp! S.; Grills, D. C.; Besley, N. A.;Jockusch, S.; Matousek, P.; Parker, W.; Towrie, M.; Turro, N. Emerald! J.; Gill, P. M.W.; George, M. W.: Probing the Reactivity of abington vs schempp, Photoinitiators for FreeRadical Polymerization: Time-Resolved IR Spectroscopic Study of BenzoylRadicals. J. Am. Chem.

Soc., 2002, 124, 14952-14958. (42) Jockusch, S; Turro, N. J.; Ottaviani, M. Pub;ic Bank! F.;Tomalia, D. Abington Vs Schempp! A.: An EPR and icarus poems Fluorescence Depolarization Study ofIntermolecular Interactions of Dendrimers at Medium and Highly ConcentratedAqueous Solutions. J. Colloids Interface Sci., 2002, 256, 223-227. (41) Kumar, C. Abington! V.; Buranaprapuk, A.; Sze, Ho Chou; Jockusch,S.; Turro, N. J.: Chiral Protein Scissors: High Enantiomeric Selectivityfor Binding and its Effect on Protein Photocleavage Efficiency andSpecifity. Pub;ic Bank! Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 2002, 99, 5810-5815. (40) Turro, N. Vs Schempp! J.; Jockusch, S.; Lei, X.-G.: SupramolecularEffects on the Dynamics of usa 1920s, Radicals in MFI Zeolites: A Direct EPRInvestigation. J. Org.

Chem. 2002, 67, 5779-5782. (39) Turro, N. J.; Lei, X.-G.; Jockusch, S.; Li, W.;Liu, Z.; Abrams, L.; Ottaviani, M. F.: An EPR Investigation of vs schempp, PersistentRadicals Produced from the Photolysis of Dibenzyl Ketones Adsorbrd on ZSM-5Zeolites. J. Org. Chem. 2002, 67, 2606-2618. (38) Panmai, S.; Prud'home, R. K.; Peiffer, D. G.;Jockusch, S.; Turro, N. J.: Interactions Between Hydrophobically ModifiedPolymers and Surfactants: A Fluorescence Study Langmuir, 2002, 18,3860-3864. (37) Turro, N. What Wilkes Booth Responsible! J.; P. H. Lakshminarasimhan; Jockusch,S; O'Brien, S. Abington Vs Schempp! P.; Redl, F. X.: A Spectroscopic Probe of the Care Interpreting Essays, Surface ofIron Oxide Nanocrystals. Nanoletters, 2002, 2, 325-328.

(36) Ben-Shabat, S.; Itagaki, Y.; Jockusch, S.;Sparrow, J. R.; Nakanishi, K.; Turro, N. J.: Formation of a Nona-oxiranefrom A2E, a Lipofuscin Fluorophore related to Macular Degradation, and abington Evidenceof Singlet Oxygen Involvement. Angew. Emerald Ash Borer And Insectivorous Insects! Chem., 2002, 114, 842-845; Angew.Chem. Int. Ed., 2002, 41, 814-817. (35) Ottaviani, M. F.; Favuzza, P.; Sacchi, B.; Turro,N.; Jockusch, S.; Tomalia, D. A.: Interactions between StarburstDendrimers and Mixed DMPC/DMPA-Na Vesicles Studied by the Spin Label and theSpin Probe Techniques, Supported by TEM. Langmuir, 2002, 18, 2347-2357. (34) Tong, A. Vs Schempp! K.; Jockusch, S.; Li, Z.; Zhu, H.-R.;Akins, D. L.; Turro, N. Health Care Interpreting Essays! J.; Ju, Jingyue: Triple Energy Transfer inCovalently Trichromophore-Labeled DNA. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2001, 123,12923-12924.

(33) Pillips, K. Abington! E. S.; Katz, T. J.; Jockusch, S.;Lovinger, A. J.; Turro, N. J.: Synthesis and icarus poems Properties of an AggregatingHeterocyclic Helicene. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2001, 123, 11899-11907. (32) Jockusch, S.; Liu, Z.; Ottaviani, M. F.; Turro,N. Vs Schempp! J.: Time Resolved CW-EPR Spectroscopy of Powdered Samples: ElectronSpin Polarization of a Nitroxyl Radical Adsorbed on pub;ic bank, NaY Zeolite, Generated byQuenching of abington, Excited Triplet Ketones.

J. Emerald Essays! Phys. Chem. B, 2001, 105,7477-7481. (31) Jockusch, S.; Landis, M. S.; Freiermuth, B.;Turro, N. J.: Photochemistry and Photophysics of ?-Hydroxy Ketones.Macromolecules, 2001, 34, 1619-1626. (30) Uppili, S.; Marti, V.; Nikolaus, A.; Jockusch,S.; Adam, W.; Engel, P. Vs Schempp! S.; Turro, N. J.; Ramamurthy, V.:Heavy-Cation-Induced Phosphorescence of Alkanones and Azoalkanes inZeolites as Hosts: Induced S1 (n?*) to gendered T1 (n?*) Intersystem Crossing and S0 toT1 (n?*) Absorption.

J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2000, 122, 11025-11026. (29) Turro, N. Abington! J.; Lei, X.; Niu, S. Liu, Z.; Jockusch,S.; Ottaviani. Icarus Poems! M. F.: An EPR Investigation of Pertsistent Radicals fromthe Photolysis of p,p'-Dialkyl-Substituted Phenyl Benzyl Ketones Adsorbed onMFI Zeolites.

Org. Lett., 2000, 2, 3991-3994. (28) Ottaviani, M. Abington! F.; Furida, F.; Casini, A.; Turro,N. J.; Jockusch, S.; Tomalia, D. A.; Messori, L.: Formation ofSupramolecular Structures between DNA and Starburst Dendrimers Studied by EPR,CD, UV and Health Care Interpreting Essays Melting Profiles. Macromolecules, 2000, 33, 7842-7851. (27) Ottaviani, M. F.; Favuzza, P.; Bigazzi, M.;Turro, N. J.; Jockusch, S.; Tomalia, D. A.: TEM and EPR Investigation ofthe Competitive Binding of Uranyl Ions to Starburst Dendrimers and Liposomes.Potential Use of vs schempp, Dendrimers as Uranyl Ion Sponges. Langmuir, 2000, 16,7368-7372.

(26) Buranaprapuk, A.; Kumar, C. V.; Jockusch, S.;Turro, N. J.: Photochemical Protein Scissors: Role of Aromatic Residueson the Binding Affinity and Photocleavage Efficiency by Pyrenyl Peptides.Tedrahedron, 2000, 56, 7019-7025. (25) Schwarz, O.; van Loyen, D.; Jockusch, S.; Turro,N. J.; Duerr, H.: Preparation and Application of schools, new Ruthenium(II)polypyridyl Complexes as Sensitizers for vs schempp Nanocrystalline TiO2. J.Photochem Photobiol. A: Chem., 2000, 132, 91-98. (24) Jockusch, S.; Hirano, T.; Turro, N. J.: ASpectroscopic Study of Diphenylmethyl Radicals and Diphenylmethyl CarbocationsStabilized by pub;ic bank Zeolites. J. Phys. Vs Schempp! Chem. Icarus Poems! B, 2000, 104, 1212-1216. (23) Nehira, T.; Parish, C. A.; Jockusch, S.; Turro,N. J.; Nakanishi, K.; Berova, N.: Fluorescence-detected Exciton-coupledCircular Dichroism: Scope and Limitation in Structural Studies.

J. Am.Chem. Soc., 1999, 38, 8681-8691. (22) Jockusch, S.; Dedola, G.; Lem, G.; Turro, N. J.:Electron Spin Polarization by Intramolecular Triplet Quenching of aNitroxy Radical Labeled Thioxanthonedioxide. J. Phys. Abington! Chem. B, 1999, 103,9126-9129.

(21) Jockusch, S.; Ramirez, J.; Sanghvi, K.; Nociti,R.;Turro, N. J.; Tomalia, D. Usa 1920s! A.: Comparison of Nitrogen Core andEthylenediamine Core Starburst Dendrimers through Photochemical andSpectroscopic Probes. Macromolecules, 1999, 32, 4419-4423. (20) Ottaviani, M. F.; Sacchi, B.; Turro, N. Abington Vs Schempp! J.; Chen,W.; Jockusch, S.; Tomalia, D. Usa 1920s! A.: An EPR Study of the Interaction betweenStarburst Dendrimers and Polynucleotides. Macromolecules, 1999, 32,2275-2282. (19) Jockusch, S.; Turro, N. J.: RadicalAddition Rate Constants to Acrylates and Oxygen: ?-Hydroxy and ?-Amino RadicalsProduced by Photolysis of Photoinitiators. J. Am. Chem.

Soc., 1999, 121,3921-3925. (18) Jockusch, S.; Turro, N. J.: PhosphinoylRadicals - Structure and abington Reactivity. A Laser Flash Photolysis and Time ResolvedESR Investigation. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1998, 3120, 11773-11777.

(17) Kumar, C. V.; Buranaprapuk, A.; Opiteck, G. J.;Moyer, M. B.; Jockusch, S.; Turro, N. J.: Novel Photochemical Protease:Site-Specific Photocleavage of Hen Egg Lysozyme and Bovine Serum Albumin.Proc. Single Gendered! Nat. Acad. Sci. US., 1998, 95, 10361-10365. (16) Fang, K.; Hashimoto, M.; Jockusch, S.; Turro, N.J.; Nakanishi, K.: A Bifunctional Photoaffinity Probe for Ligand/Receptor Interaction Studies. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1998, 120, 8543-8544. (15) Panmai, S.; Prud'home, R. K.; Peiffer, D. Abington! G.;Jockusch, S.; Turro, N. J.: Rheology of solutions of hydrophobicallymodified polymers with spherical and rod-like surfactant micelles.

Polym.Mater. Sci. Eng. , 1998, 79, 419-420. (14) Ottaviani, M. F.; Matteini, P.; Brustolon, M.;Turro, N. J.; Jockusch, S. and Tomalia, D. A.: Characterization ofStarburst Dendrimers and Care Essays Vesicle Solutions and their Interactions by cw- andPulsed-EPR, TEM, and Dynamic Light Scattering. Abington Vs Schempp! J. Was John Wilkes Responsible! Phys. Chem.

B, 1998,102, 6029-6039. (13) Jockusch, S.; Koptyug, I. V.; McGarry, P. F.;Sluggett, G. W.; Turro, N. J. and Watkins, D. M.: A Steady-State andPicosecond Pump-Probe Investigation of the Photophysics of an Acyl and aBis(acyl)posphine oxide, J. Am. Chem. Vs Schempp! Soc., 1997, 119, 1195-11501. (12) McGarry, P.; Jockusch, S.; Fujiwara, Y.;Kaprinidis, N. A. and Turro, N. J.: DMSO Solvent Induced Photochemistryin Highly Photostable Compounds. The Role of Intermolecular HydrogenBonding.

J. Phys. Usa 1920s! Chem. Vs Schempp! A, 1997, 101, 764-767. (11) Jockusch, S.; Timpe, H.-J.; Schnabel, W. andTurro, N. J.: Photoinduced Energy and Electron Transfer between KetoneTriplets and Organic Dyes. J. Phys. Chem. A, 1997, 101, 440-445. (10) Jockusch, S.; Timpe, H.-J.; Schnabel, W. andTurro, N. J.: Photoreduction of what was john wilkes booth responsible for doing, Organic Dyes in Ketone AmineSystems. J. Photochem.

Photobiol. A: Chem., 1996, 96, 129-136. (9) Jockusch, S.; Lee, D.; Turro, N. J. and Leonard,E. F.: Photoinactivation of vs schempp, Viruses: Adsorption of Methylene Blue,Thionine and Thiopyronine on Health Care, Viruses. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 1996,93, 7446-7451.

(8) Ottaviani, M. F.; Turro, N. Abington! J.; Jockusch, S. andTomalia, D. A.: Aggregational Process of the Positively Charged NitroxideSurfactants - CTAC and CAT16 - in the Presence of single gendered schools, Starburst Dendrimers: An EPRStudy. Colloids and Surfaces, A, 1996, 115, 9-21. (7) Ottaviani, M. F.; Turro, N. J.; Jockusch, S. andTomalia, D. A.: Characterization of Starburst Dendrimers by EPR. 3.Aggregational Process of a Positively Charged Nitroxide Surfactant. J.Phys.

Chem., 1996, 100, 13675-13686. (6) Jockusch, S.; Turro, N. J. and Tomalia, D. A.:Aggregation of Organic Dyes on Starburst Dendrimers. J. Inf.Recording, 1996, 22, 427-433. (5) Jockusch, S.; Turro, N. J. and Tomalia, D. A.:Aggregation of Methylene Blue adsorbed on Starburst Dendrimers.Macromolecules, 1995, 28, 7416-7418. (4) Timpe, H.-J.; Jockusch, S. and abington vs schempp Koerner, K.:Dye Sensitized Photopolymerization in: Radiation Curing in PolymerScience and Technology, ed. by Fouassier, J. P. and icarus poems Rabek, J. F.; Elsevier,Barking, U.K. , Vol.2, 1993, 575-601. (3) Jockusch, S.; Timpe, H.-J.; Fischer, Ch. -H. andSchnabel, W.: On the abington, Photoreduction of Crystal Violet, Phenosafranine andMethylene Blue by Benzophenone. J. Photochem. Photobiol. Icarus Poems! A: Chem., 1992,63, 217-226. (2) Mueller, U.; Jockusch, S.; Haeusler, K.-G. andTimpe, H.-J.: Photoinduced Crosslinking of abington, Silicones. 8. Characterizationof Silicone Acrylate Networks.

Angew. Makromol. Emerald And Insectivorous Essays! Chem., 1992, 200, 61-76. (1) Mueller, U.; Jockusch, S. and vs schempp Timpe, H.-J.:Photocrosslinking of Silicones. VI. What Was John Booth For Doing! Photocrosslinking Kinetics ofSilicone Acrylates and Methacrylates.

J. Polym. Sci.; Part A: Polym. Chem.,1992, 30, 2755-2764.