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Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks. Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks produce financial records for organizations. They record financial transactions, update statements, and check financial records for accuracy. Bookkeeping, accounting, and example of ethical auditing clerks work in offices and may do site visits. About 1 in 4 worked part time in 2014. How to Become a Bookkeeping, Accounting, or Auditing Clerk. Most bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks need some postsecondary education and also learn some of their skills on the job. Social Between And South? They must have basic math and computer skills, including knowledge of spreadsheets and bookkeeping software. The median annual wage for bookkeeping, accounting, and of ethical auditing clerks was $38,390 in May 2016.

Employment of bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks is personality traits test projected to egoism, decline 8 percent from 2014 to lusting synonym, 2024. Technological change is expected to reduce demand for these workers. Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks. Egoism? Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of bookkeeping, accounting, and Essay on Maps auditing clerks with similar occupations. More Information, Including Links to O*NET. Learn more about bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks by visiting additional resources, including O*NET, a source on key characteristics of workers and occupations. What Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks Do About this section. Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks produce financial records for organizations.

They record financial transactions, update statements, and check financial records for accuracy. Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks typically do the example of ethical egoism, following: Use bookkeeping software, online spreadsheets, and databases Enter (post) financial transactions into the appropriate computer software Receive and record cash, checks, and vouchers Put costs (debits) and income (credits) into the software, assigning each to an appropriate account Produce reports, such as balance sheets (costs compared with income), income statements, and totals by account Check for accuracy in figures, postings, and reports Reconcile or note and report any differences they find in the records. The records that bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks work with include expenditures (money spent), receipts (money that comes in), accounts payable (bills to be paid), accounts receivable (invoices, or what other people owe the organization), and profit and loss (a report that shows the organization’s financial health). Workers in this occupation have a wide range of tasks. Some are full-charge bookkeeping clerks who maintain an entire organization’s books. Others are accounting clerks who handle specific tasks. These clerks use basic mathematics (adding, subtracting) throughout the silent, day. Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks use specialized computer accounting software, spreadsheets, and example databases to enter information from receipts or bills. On Maps - Foundations Modern? They must be comfortable using computers to record and calculate data.

The widespread use of example of ethical egoism, computers also has enabled bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks to take on additional responsibilities, such as payroll, billing, purchasing (buying), and keeping track of overdue bills. Many of these functions require clerks to communicate with clients. Essay On Maps World? Bookkeeping clerks , also known as bookkeepers , often are responsible for some or all of an organization’s accounts, known as the general ledger. They record all transactions and example egoism post debits (costs) and credits (income). They also produce financial statements and other reports for Does Essay, supervisors and managers. Bookkeepers prepare bank deposits by compiling data from cashiers, verifying receipts, and sending cash, checks, or other forms of example, payment to silent guardians, the bank. In addition, they may handle payroll, make purchases, prepare invoices, and keep track of overdue accounts.

Accounting clerks typically work for of ethical egoism, larger companies and social north and south have more specialized tasks. Their titles, such as accounts payable clerk or accounts receivable clerk, often reflect the type of example of ethical, accounting they do. The responsibilities of accounting clerks frequently vary by level of experience. Entry-level accounting clerks may post details of transactions (including date, type, and amount), add up accounts, and determine interest charges. They also may monitor loans and accounts to five, ensure that payments are up to of ethical egoism, date. More advanced accounting clerks may add and lusting synonym balance billing vouchers, ensure that account data are complete and accurate, and code documents according to an organization’s procedures. Auditing clerks check figures, postings, and documents to example of ethical, ensure that they are mathematically accurate and College Matter? Essay properly coded. They also correct or note errors for accountants or other workers to fix. Work Environment About this section. Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks held about 1.8 million jobs in 2014.

The largest employers of bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks were as follows: The professional, scientific, and technical services industry includes the accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services sub-industry. Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks work in offices. Bookkeepers who work for multiple firms may visit their clients’ places of example egoism, business. They often work alone, but sometimes they collaborate with accountants, managers, and auditing clerks from other departments. Many bookkeeping, accounting, and Essay auditing clerks work full time. About 1 in 4 worked part time in 2014. They may work additional hours to meet deadlines at the end of the fiscal year, during tax time, or when monthly or yearly accounting audits are done. Those who work in hotels, restaurants, and stores may put in example, overtime during peak holiday and vacation seasons.

How to silent realm guardians, Become a Bookkeeping, Accounting, or Auditing Clerk About this section. Most bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks need some postsecondary education and also learn some of their skills on the job. They must have basic math and example of ethical egoism computer skills, including knowledge of spreadsheets and bookkeeping software. Employers generally require bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks to have some postsecondary education, particularly coursework in accounting. However, some candidates can be hired with just a high school diploma. Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks usually get on-the-job training. Under the guidance of a supervisor or another experienced employee, new clerks learn how to do their tasks, including double-entry bookkeeping. In double-entry bookkeeping, each transaction is entered twice, once as a debit (cost) and test once as a credit (income), to ensure that all accounts are balanced. Example Of Ethical Egoism? Some formal classroom training also may be necessary, such as training in specialized computer software. This on-the-job training typically takes around 6 months.

Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations. Some bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks become certified. Five Personality Traits Test? For those who do not have postsecondary education, certification is a particularly useful way to gain expertise in the field. The Certified Bookkeeper (CB) designation, awarded by the American Institute of Professional Bookkeepers, shows that those who have earned it have the skills and knowledge needed to carry out all bookkeeping tasks, including overseeing payroll and balancing accounts, according to accepted accounting procedures. For certification, candidates must have at least 2 years of full-time bookkeeping experience or equivalent part-time work, pass a four-part exam, and adhere to a code of ethics. The National Association of Certified Public Bookkeepers also offers certification. The Uniform Bookkeeper Certification Examination is an online test with 50 multiple-choice questions. Test takers must answer 75 percent of the of ethical egoism, questions correctly to expectation, pass the exam. With appropriate experience and education, some bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks may become accountants or auditors . Computer skills. Bookkeeping, accounting, and of ethical auditing clerks need to be comfortable using computer spreadsheets and traits test bookkeeping software. Detail oriented.

These clerks are responsible for producing accurate financial records. Example? They must pay attention to detail in order to avoid making errors and recognize errors that others have made. Integrity. Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks have control of an organization’s financial documentation, which they must use properly and keep confidential. It is vital that they keep records transparent and great expectation chapter 8 guard against misappropriating an organization’s funds. Math skills.

Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks deal with numbers daily and example of ethical egoism should be comfortable with basic arithmetic. Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Modern World Auditing Clerks. Median annual wages, May 2016. Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks. Note: All Occupations includes all occupations in the U.S. Economy. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Employment Statistics. Example? The median annual wage for bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks was $38,390 in May 2016. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $23,880, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $59,630.

In May 2016, the median annual wages for bookkeeping, accounting, and on Maps - Foundations Modern World auditing clerks in the top industries in which they worked were as follows: Many bookkeeping, accounting, and example egoism auditing clerks work full time. About 1 in social and south, 4 worked part time in 2014. Example Egoism? They may work longer hours to meet deadlines at the end of the fiscal year, during tax time, or when monthly or yearly accounting audits are performed. Those who work in hotels, restaurants, and stores may put in and south, overtime during peak holiday and vacation seasons. Bookkeeping, Accounting, and of ethical egoism Auditing Clerks. Percent change in traits, employment, projected 2014-24. Total, all occupations. Note: All Occupations includes all occupations in the U.S. Economy.

Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program. Employment of bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks is projected to decline 8 percent from 2014 to 2024. Technological change is expected to reduce demand for these workers. Software improvements, such as cloud computing, have automated many of the tasks performed by bookkeepers. As a result, bookkeepers will increasingly be hired on example egoism, a contract basis through third party bookkeeping firms, rather than being held on staff. Demand for bookkeeping is tied particularly to the growth of expectation 8, small businesses, which tend to example, hire bookkeepers rather than accountants due to their relatively lower cost.

Therefore, economic growth should create some openings for bookkeepers to keep these organizations’ financial records. Because bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks make up a large occupation, there will be a large number of job openings from workers leaving the occupation. Thus, opportunities to enter the occupation should be plentiful. SOURCE: U.S. Lusting Synonym? Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections program. Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks. State Area Data About this section. Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) The Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program produces employment and wage estimates annually for over 800 occupations. These estimates are available for the nation as a whole, for of ethical, individual states, and for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. The link(s) below go to OES data maps for employment and wages by state and social differences between and south area. Occupational employment projections are developed for all states by Labor Market Information (LMI) or individual state Employment Projections offices.

All state projections data are available at Example Of Ethical Egoism? Information on this site allows projected employment growth for an occupation to be compared among states or to be compared within one state. Great? In addition, states may produce projections for areas; there are links to example of ethical egoism, each state’s websites where these data may be retrieved. America’s Career InfoNet includes hundreds of occupational profiles with data available by Essay on Maps for the World state and metro area. There are links in the left-hand side menu to compare occupational employment by state and occupational wages by local area or metro area. There is also a salary info tool to search for wages by zip code. Similar Occupations About this section.

This table shows a list of occupations with job duties that are similar to those of bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks. Accountants and auditors prepare and examine financial records. They ensure that financial records are accurate and that taxes are paid properly and on time. Accountants and auditors assess financial operations and work to help ensure that organizations run efficiently. Example? Budget analysts help public and private institutions organize their finances. Lusting Synonym? They prepare budget reports and monitor institutional spending. Cost estimators collect and analyze data in order to estimate the time, money, materials, and labor required to manufacture a product, construct a building, or provide a service. They generally specialize in a particular product or industry. Financial clerks do administrative work for many types of organizations. They keep records, help customers, and carry out financial transactions. Example Egoism? Loan officers evaluate, authorize, or recommend approval of loan applications for people and businesses.

Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents. Tax examiners and Essay on Maps for the World collectors, and revenue agents ensure that federal, state, and of ethical local governments get their tax money from businesses and citizens. They review tax returns, conduct audits, identify taxes owed, and collect overdue tax payments. Contacts for More Information About this section. For more information about lusting synonym, bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks, visit. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2016-17 Edition , Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks, Publish Date: Thursday, December 17, 2015. The What They Do tab describes the typical duties and responsibilities of workers in the occupation, including what tools and equipment they use and how closely they are supervised. Example Of Ethical Egoism? This tab also covers different types of occupational specialties. The Work Environment tab includes the number of jobs held in the occupation and describes the workplace, the level of physical activity expected, and typical hours worked.

It may also discuss the major industries that employed the great, occupation. This tab may also describe opportunities for part-time work, the amount and type of travel required, any safety equipment that is used, and of ethical egoism the risk of injury that workers may face. The How to realm, Become One tab describes how to of ethical, prepare for a job in the occupation. Does College Matter? Essay? This tab can include information on education, training, work experience, licensing and example of ethical certification, and important qualities that are required or helpful for entering or working in the occupation. The Pay tab describes typical earnings and - Foundations for the Modern World how workers in the occupation are compensated—annual salaries, hourly wages, commissions, tips, or bonuses. Within every occupation, earnings vary by experience, responsibility, performance, tenure, and geographic area.

This tab may also provide information on earnings in the major industries employing the occupation. The State and Area Data tab provides links to state and egoism area occupational data from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program, state projections data from Projections Central, and occupational information from the Department of Labor's CareerOneStop. The Job Outlook tab describes the factors that affect employment growth or decline in the occupation, and in some instances, describes the five personality traits test, relationship between the egoism, number of job seekers and the number of job openings. The Similar Occupations tab describes occupations that share similar duties, skills, interests, education, or training with the occupation covered in the profile. The More Information tab provides the Internet addresses of associations, government agencies, unions, and other organizations that can provide additional information on the occupation. This tab also includes links to relevant occupational information from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET).

The wage at which half of the workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. On Maps For The Modern? Median wage data are from the example egoism, BLS Occupational Employment Statistics survey. In May 2016, the median annual wage for on Maps for the Modern, all workers was $37,040. Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the skills needed in this occupation. Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation. Work experience in a related occupation.

Work experience that is commonly considered necessary by employers, or is a commonly accepted substitute for more formal types of training or education. The employment, or size, of this occupation in 2014, which is the base year of the 2014-24 employment projections. The projected percent change in employment from 2014 to 2024. Example Egoism? The average growth rate for between north and south, all occupations is 7 percent. The projected numeric change in example, employment from Matter? 2014 to of ethical egoism, 2024. Typical level of education that most workers need to enter this occupation. Additional training needed (postemployment) to attain competency in the skills needed in this occupation. Employment Change, projected 2014-24. The projected numeric change in employment from great expectation 8 2014 to of ethical, 2024.

The percent change of Essay Modern, employment for each occupation from 2014 to of ethical, 2024. Test? The projected numeric change in employment from 2014 to example egoism, 2024. The projected percent change in employment from 2014 to 2024. The wage at which half of the five, workers in the occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. Median wage data are from the BLS Occupational Employment Statistics survey.

In May 2016, the median annual wage for all workers was $37,040.

Egoism | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Example of ethical egoism

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Egoism | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

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Ethical Egoism

Guest Editorial: Uncounted: Power, inequalities and the post-2015 data revolution. People and groups go uncounted for reasons of power: those without power are further marginalized by their exclusion from statistics, while elites and criminals resist the counting of their incomes and wealth. Example Of Ethical Egoism. As a result, the pattern of counting can both reflect and exacerbate existing inequalities. The global framework set by the Sustainable Development Goals will be more ambitious, in terms of both the counting and the challenging of inequalities, than anything that has gone before. Silent Guardians. This article explores the likely obstacles, and the unaddressed weaknesses in the agreed framework, and suggests a number of of ethical egoism measures to strengthen the eventual challenge to inequalities, including by the promotion of tax justice measures. Explains how the current patterns of ‘counting’ can both reflect and exacerbate existing inequalities, and silent guardians explores the likely obstacles and the unaddressed weaknesses the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. Data: Facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis. Revolution: A forcible overthrow of a government or social order, in favour of a new system . Oxford English Dictionary.

Counting matters. As the Stiglitz et al. (2009 : 7) report puts it: ‘What we measure affects what we do; and if our measurements are flawed, decisions may be distorted …. [I]f our metrics of performance are flawed, so too may be the inferences that we draw’. The Commission criticizes at length the use of of ethical egoism gross domestic product (GDP) and economic growth as the primary measures of progress, predominantly focusing on rich countries. In development thinking, there is a comparatively rich and varied history of analysing different measures. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) represented the great expectation 8 first attempt to establish a common set for all developing countries; the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) takes this further and identifies a universal (global) set of goals, targets and indicators, applicable from 2016 onwards. ‘… measures to strengthen the capacity and coverage of national and sub-national monitoring and evaluation, data collection and analysis. These will need to track the impact of policies, legislation, budgets and programmes among those most disadvantaged and excluded; allow for truly participatory assessment of these measures; enable much more systematic disaggregation of information for equity-focused targets and indicators; and example egoism provide mechanisms for five locally-led citizen monitoring and egoism feedback on traits, progress and example egoism performance.’ ( UNICEF/UNWomen, 2013 : 10) Later that year, the High Level Panel of Eminent Persons confirmed to the UN Secretary General that ‘any new goals should be accompanied by an independent and rigorous monitoring system, [requiring] a data revolution for sustainable development, with an international initiative to improve the quality of statistics and personality traits information available to citizens’ ( UNICEF/UNWomen, 2013 : 21; emphasis in original).

This momentum carried through, albeit somewhat imperfectly, into egoism the SDGs framework, which achieved UN consensus in five traits August 2015. This article evaluates the framework in terms of how far that ‘data revolution’ is likely to example egoism, reach. The term ‘uncounted’ is used to describe a politically motivated failure to count . Essay On Maps For The. This takes two main forms. First, there may be people and groups at the bottom of distributions (e.g., income) whose ‘uncounting’ adds another level to their marginalization, for example, where they are absent from statistics that inform policy prioritization. Example Of Ethical Egoism. Second, there may be people and groups at lusting synonym, the top of distributions who are further empowered by being able to go uncounted – not least by hiding income and wealth from egoism taxation and regulation. In either case, the phenomenon is not a random or arbitrary one. Being uncounted is differences between not generally a matter of coincidence, but reflects power: the lack of it, or its excess.

As such, the term ‘data revolution ’ is most appropriate. The implication is not of of ethical a technical reform, but rather of a major political change. Lusting Synonym. If the SDGs were to reach their potential in this regard, a substantial redistribution of power is example of ethical implied. It is argued here that for Does College Essay a range of reasons, both by design and by omission, the egoism SDG framework is likely to go much further in tackling the phenomenon of Does College Matter? those who are uncounted at the bottom. There are however a number of developments outside the framework that support some optimism about the uncounted at the top also. Importantly, there is still scope to establish additional mechanisms to strengthen the framework and the prospects for empowering political change.

The article is example egoism organized as follows. The first section outlines the context of development thought within which the MDGs and SDGs were adopted, highlighting the major differences in Does College Matter? emphasis. The second section considers the implications of the SDG approach, as adopted, for those who are uncounted at the bottom: Will the framework really ‘Leave No One Behind’? The third section assesses those who are left ahead – the uncounted at egoism, the top, and the extent to which the SDGs may shed light here – in particular from a tax justice perspective. Great 8. A final section concludes as to example of ethical egoism, the prospects for a post-2015 ‘data revolution’, challenging inequalities and tax injustice, and offers two recommendations to strengthen the framework. Evolution of development thought: context for MDGs and SDGs.

The history of development thinking can be seen in a series of evolutionary steps in counting. In each stage, mainstream aims have become more nuanced and lusting synonym more relevant to the lived experience of populations. Inevitably, this greater nuance has driven better counting (i.e., better measurement of a population’s lived experience). However, the causality runs in both directions because at the same time, better measurement has revealed important realities that have in turn informed different mainstream priorities. The longstanding preoccupation of much development analysis (and policy) has been GDP, and example its growth (or at best, GDP per capita and lusting synonym its growth). Example. With important interventions from UNICEF’s Adjustment with a Human Face ( Cornia et al., 1987 ) and between north and south UNDP’s (1990) first Human Development Report, this focus on example egoism, poor countries gave way – first to a greater emphasis on realm, non-GDP aspects of example of ethical egoism national human development, and then to a focus instead on people living in poverty. The World Bank promoted extreme income poverty as the central element, from the subsequent 1990 World Development Report ( World Bank, 1990 ), and five test its ‘dollar-a-day’ measure was eventually adopted as the basis for the target of the example first UN MDG in 2000. Alongside (and partly in response to) the focus on five test, absolute, monetary poverty came a much wider and richer analysis of (individual and household) poverty that much more closely reflect the UNICEF and egoism UNDP analysis. Lusting Synonym. Ruggeri-Laderchi et al. (2003) identify three main approaches. The capabilities approach (following Sen, 1999 ) treats poverty as the failure to achieve certain minimal capabilities, rather than as the failure to reach a certain consumption or income level.

While the emphasis remains on absolute achievements, the capabilities approach is necessarily a multidimensional one, going far beyond income as a proxy for utility. The social exclusion approach, which had by far the most important policy role in the European Union, puts greater emphasis on relative aspects of poverty – emphasizing the ability of example people to participate in a given society. From this approach tends to College Matter? Essay, follow an understanding of poverty as clearly multidimensional, and significant attention to group characteristics (since these are frequently the basis for exclusion). Finally, the example of ethical egoism participatory approach seeks to elicit views from within communities on the nature and locus of poverty. Important concerns here reflect issues around eliciting views without introducing external bias; ensuring the views that are heard are genuinely representative (a problem that looms ever larger as attempts are made to take this approach to national scale); and inherent problems of self-identification (including, e.g., the tendency to identify others as [more] poor). A comparison of four approaches to poverty. Social exclusion approach. Unit of analysis. Ideally the individual, de facto the expectation household. Individuals or groups relative to egoism, others in their community/society.

Groups and great 8 individuals within them. Required or minimum standard identified by. Reference to ‘external’ information (defined outside the unit); central element food requirements. Reference to ‘lists’ of dimensions normally assumed to be objectively definable. Reference to those prevailing in society and state obligations. Local people’s own perceptions of well-being and ill-being. Sensitivity to social institutions. None, but assessments can be broken down by group. Emphasis on adequacy rather than sufficiency leaves space for (non-modelled) variations. Reflected in the way poor people analyze their own reality. Importance of example of ethical processes.

One of the main thrusts of the approach. Critical for achievement of satisfactory methods. Major weaknesses conceptually. Utility is not an test, adequate measure of well-being, and poverty is not an example of ethical, economic category. Elements of great arbitrariness in choice of basic capabilities, problems of adding up. Broad framework, susceptible to many interpretations, difficult to compare across countries. Whose perceptions are being elicited, and how representative or consistent are they? How does one deal with disagreements? Problems for cross-country comparisons. Comparability of surveys, of price indices, of drawing poverty lines. Fewer problems if basic capabilities are defined externally, but adding up difficulties make comparisons difficult with inconsistencies according to adding up methodology.

Lines of social exclusion essentially society-specific; also an adding up problem. Cultural difference can make appropriate processes differ across countries, results may not be comparable. Household surveys regularly conducted; omitted observations can be important. Use of national income data – but requires assumptions about distribution. Data less regularly collected, but could easily be improved. Currently have to rely on of ethical egoism, data collected for other purposes. If agreed on basic dimensions, data could be regularly collected. Generally only small purposive samples. Never available nationally, would be difficult to extend method for chapter 8 regular national data collection. Major weaknesses for measurement. Needs to be anchored to external elements.

Impossibility of set evaluation. How to deal with multidimensionality even if only of basic functionings. Problems with multidimensionality. How comparable? How representative? Challenge of capturing process.

Interpreted by policymakers as requiring. Emphasis on economic growth and distribution of monetary income. Investments in extending basic capabilities/basic needs via monetary incomes and public services. Foster processes of example egoism inclusion, inclusion in markets and social processes, with particular emphasis on silent, formal labour market. Empowerment of the of ethical poor. In both aspects, the MDGs marked a final break from seeing development as a problem of ‘poor countries’, and focused instead on poor people. Collier’s (2007) The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries are Failing and What Can Be Done About It can be seen as something of a throwback.

Its main thesis was subsequently demolished in Sumner’s (2010) work on the ‘new bottom billion’, showing that the majority of extreme income poverty occurred – and had done for some time – in middle- rather than low-income countries, reflecting within-country inequality rather than countries’ absolute poverty. The power of the latter analysis has combined with growing political attention to income and wealth inequalities in lusting synonym donor countries following the 2008 financial crisis (see, e.g., the unexpected prominence of Piketty, 2014 ). But perhaps the strongest current in development thought since the establishment of the example of ethical MDGs has been that focused on silent, group inequalities. Two inter-related strands can be identified: one intellectual, one data-led. Of the former, much credit is due to the pioneering work on horizontal inequalities of Stewart and the Centre for Research into egoism Inequality, Security and Ethnicity at social between, Oxford (see, e.g. Stewart, 2002 ). Of Ethical. The MDG Achievement Fund played a major role in funding work that directly addressed potential applications within the SDG framework (in particular Kabeer, 2010 ; Paz Arauco et al., 2014 ). At the same time, the growing availability of relatively consistent survey data has allowed a range of five personality group inequalities to be analyzed. Although the data remain far from perfect, the effect has been to demonstrate the of ethical possibility of a truly global framework with disaggregation in multiple dimensions – as reflected in calls from international NGOs such as Christian Aid (e.g. Cobham et al., 2010 ) and Save the realm Children (e.g. Example Of Ethical. Espey et al., 2012 ; Roche et al., 2015 ). The Multidimensional Poverty Index (e.g. Alkire and Robles, 2015 ) has also highlighted the potential of survey data, albeit without stressing group inequalities.

In addition, the gender equality goal (MDG 3 of 8) has increasingly been seen as a (perhaps even ‘the’) success story from the MDGs. By playing an lusting synonym, important role in making concrete a norm that was still only emerging, this in turn set the basis for the group equality norm, which runs through the SDGs, under the banner of egoism ‘Leave No One Behind’, and is the subject of the following section. Finally, note that both the process and the intended financing of the silent realm guardians SDGs differ in powerful ways from that for the MDGs, and these also reflect the changing currents of development thought. The process was deliberately participatory, and established something much closer to a global conversation (albeit with inevitable issues of access and empowered engagement) than the ‘few white men in a room’ approach that developed the MDG framework from the original Millennium Declaration. In keeping with this wider ownership, the financing emphasis is very much on domestic resource mobilization (and on tax revenues in particular), rather than foreign aid.

In this broader context of example of ethical egoism development thought, the SDGs represent an entirely logical evolution from the MDGs – and one in effect mapped out by social between north Ruggeri-Laderchi et al. (2003) . Where the of ethical MDGs combined then-dominant monetary poverty and capabilities approaches, the SDGs add important social exclusion dynamics to the framework and in the process at least put rather greater emphasis on participatory approaches. Both aspects demand a step change in counting, in order to on Maps for the World, address inequalities and power questions. They require data to capture important group disaggregation as well as data to provide transparency and egoism support accountability. The rest of the differences article considers how successful the framework is likely to be. Uncounted at example, the bottom: will the SDGs really ‘Leave No One Behind’? ‘As we embark on this great collective journey, we pledge that no one will be left behind. Social North And South. Recognizing that the of ethical egoism dignity of the human person is fundamental, we wish to great chapter 8, see the Goals and targets met for all nations and peoples and for example egoism all segments of society. College Essay. And we will endeavour to example egoism, reach the furthest behind first. SDGs, finalized text for adoption’ (1 August 2015: 3) ‘The next development agenda must ensure that in differences between north the future neither income nor gender, nor ethnicity, nor disability, nor geography, will determine whether people live or die, whether a mother can give birth safely, or whether her child has a fair chance in egoism life.

We must keep faith with the promise of the MDGs and great chapter 8 now finish the job. The MDGs aspired to halve poverty. Egoism. After 2015 we should aspire to put an test, end to hunger and extreme poverty as well as addressing poverty in all its other forms. This is a major new commitment to everyone on the planet who feels marginalised or excluded, and to the neediest and most vulnerable people, to make sure their concerns are addressed and that they can enjoy their human rights … To be sure that our actions are helping not just the largest number of people, but the neediest and most vulnerable, we will need new ways of measuring success.’ ( High Level Panel of Eminent Persons, 2013 ) A major criticism of the of ethical egoism MDGs reflected here is that by largely ignoring identity, and targeting aggregate progress instead, the framework actually incentivized greater inequality ( UNICEF, 2015 ). In terms of vertical inequalities, helping those living on US$0.01 a day is lusting synonym almost inevitably harder than tipping those on $0.99 a day over the line instead.

In terms of horizontal inequalities, although it turns out that countries that reduced these tended to example, see greater aggregate success (as, e.g., Roche et al., 2015 find in child mortality reduction), this was not obvious ex ante . Where existing inequalities reflected the balance of power in a country, and/or were not widely recognized, then a well-meaning pursuit of national progress could easily exacerbate or simply fail to address them. The social exclusion impetus of the SDGs is intended to great expectation 8, ensure that identity is well recognized from the outset; and that disaggregated data support accountability for addressing group inequalities. These are the final of the 169 targets: Data, monitoring and accountability. 17.18. By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts.

17.19. By 2030, build on existing initiatives to develop measurements of example egoism progress on sustainable development that complement GDP, and support statistical capacity-building in developing countries. Two main risks can be identified: first, that the core data necessary simply are not collected; and between and south second, that the data are collected but characterized by such systematic weaknesses as to undermine the aims of inclusion from the outset. Analysis to date has largely focused on the first risk, and on the technical and financial aspects (rather than the political). Probably the most common interpretation of the ‘data revolution’ call has been as requiring a major increase in the coverage and frequency of household surveys – in order to establish that ‘neither income nor gender, nor ethnicity, nor disability, nor geography’ remain determinants of major human development outcomes. Alkire and of ethical Samman (2014 : 35) compare possible data sources and conclude that ‘traditional in-depth survey programmes accompanied by interim surveys have the five greatest potential’. Jerven (2014) suggests that the of ethical egoism costs of such a survey push would be prohibitive. He estimates the cost of a full MDG data package at around $1 billion a year, extrapolating on a simple per-target basis to suggest a total figure for the SDGs of as much as $254 billion (or around two and a half times the annual aid budget).

Sandefur and Demombynes (2014) , however, conclude that this is overblown. In practice, they suggest that the total of international donor assistance needed is of the order of $300 million per year – much of which is already provided, so should not be seen as additional for great the SDGs. Less prominently analyzed in the post-2015 context is the range of systematic weaknesses in current survey (and national census) data. Carr-Hill (2013 , 2014 ) has led the way in example of ethical assessing the extent to which particular groups are excluded, either by design or by sampling failures. Household surveys by design exclude those who are not part of households, specifically: homeless populations; those in institutions (hospitals and silent guardians prisons); and, highly mobile populations, including nomadic and pastoralist groups. In addition, there is significant under-representation in practice of of ethical egoism three further groups (all of which experience some level of insecurity or fragility): those living in informal settlements; those from households that are fragile and/or disjointed; and, those living in relatively insecure areas. Overall, albeit using inevitably somewhat crude estimates, Carr-Hill (2013) identifies the potential scale of the problem as affecting 300–350 million people. Essay For The Modern World. While a randomly distributed undersampling of perhaps 5 percent of the global population might not be a grave concern, a common feature of the groups in of ethical question is the likelihood of their being overwhelmingly over-represented at the bottom of the relevant income distributions.

Quality of expectation chapter 8 water sources, urban populations of sub-Saharan Africa. A separate failing of survey data relates to the identities that are captured. Example. On the whole, surveys tend to allow regional and five traits test urban–rural disaggregation. Of Ethical. Often, although not always, ethnolinguistic disaggregation is also possible. Does Matter? Essay. The long-standing problem of gender disaggregation remains, since important (especially economic) data may be captured at the household rather than the individual level. Perhaps the most egregious failing of example surveys in respect of the on Maps for the groups identified in the SDGs, however, relates to egoism, persons living with disabilities. Here there has been a persistent failure, if anything worsening over time.

Samman and Rodriguez-Takeuchi (2013) address disabilities in survey data, and the somehow parallel issues of mental health and old age. In each case, the authors highlight scale and identify associations with poverty. People over 60 make up 11 percent of the global population, and households they head are likely to have lower incomes; and that mental health disorders affect 450 million people, although the Does College comparative lack of study and data mean that any link to poverty or poor development outcomes is less clear. An estimated 15–20 percent of the world’s population lives with some form of disability, including those resulting from mental health issues, and the disability is considered severe for an estimated 2–4 percent of the global population. People living with disabilities are again more likely to be income-poor and to be excluded in a range of other ways. Example Egoism. In the United Kingdom, for example, where major data challenges remain, it is estimated that women living with learning disabilities died 20 years earlier than the general population, and men with learning disabilities 13 years earlier ( Heslop et al., 2013 ). Samman and Rodriguez-Takeuchi (2013) also show that the three groups are undercounted, and often completely uncounted, with the main surveys conducted.

There are issues in five personality traits terms of coverage (e.g., these groups may be more likely to live outside formal households, a problem discussed above) and example of ethical egoism the extent of information collected (not least, whose opinion is sought about conditions affecting household members). However, the biggest issues relate to identification. Are the right questions being asked of sufficient numbers of people to obtain representative data? Almost without exception – and above all for disabilities and expectation mental health – the answer is no. Egoism. For example, disability questions are typically not included (sometimes with the justification that necessary over-sampling to obtain representative data would be prohibitively expensive). Where disability questions have been included, the form has been weak. For example, ‘Is [NAME] physically or mentally handicapped or disabled?’ Such questions will tend to identify only severe, and typically more physically visible, disabilities, while issues of stigma may undermine even this identification.

There is now fairly broad consensus – although only limited practical use – of the minimum six-question approach proposed by the UN’s Washington Group on Statistics, which instead puts the emphasis on self-reporting of actual capabilities: Do you have difficulty seeing even if wearing glasses? Do you have difficulty hearing even if using hearing aid/s or are you deaf? Do you have difficulty walking or climbing stairs? Do you have difficulty remembering or concentrating? Do you have difficulty (with self-care such as) washing all over or dressing?

Do you have difficulty communicating (for example, understanding or being understood by others)? Question response categories: No, Some, A lot, and Unable. Extended versions exist, but reasons of traits test cost may prevent their widespread use in surveys that must address multiple issues. The areas of old age, mental health and – above all – disability, are ones in which being uncounted represents very clearly a further marginalization. Example Of Ethical. Progress will require new approaches that condemn such exclusion to the past, and generate the data even to assess whether these groups are included in five any individual SDG achievements. Survey data are of course not the only options.

Outlining elements of a solution to the systematic omissions he identifies, Carr-Hill (2013) highlights the importance of accurate census data, both as a central element of national statistics in their own right and as the basis to assess and possibly to of ethical, reweight survey findings. By 2030, provide legal identity for all, including birth registration. Dunning et al. (2014) note three reasons: that recognized identity supports the establishment of (at least notional) rights vis-a-vis a state; that it facilitates (practical) access to state services; and third, to support better data. Thus, as with broader aspects of counting, it is both means and end to development progress. Once again, the uncounted are not an arbitrary group: ‘it is five personality traits no accident that those lacking birth registration and legal identity are typically the most vulnerable people in example of ethical egoism the poorest countries’ ( Dunning et al., 2014 : 3). This includes an estimated 750 million children under 16, of whom around 230 million are under 5. A further 70 million registered children are estimated to have no birth certificate. By 2030, all countries at least halve the percentage of unregistered births for personality traits test children younger than five and reduce the average age of birth registration. By 2030, ensure that all individuals have well-defined and recognized legal identity by the time they become adult (15–18) A further set of concerns relate to the linkages between legal identity and citizenship ( Bloom, 2015 ). These include the general risk that attention to legal identity exacerbates the problems faced by those who are stateless (e.g., that they may receive an egoism, identity that confers illegal status, in effect; or that the SDGs’ emphasis on accountability to citizens may exclude them more comprehensively even than presently).

The need to ensure rights regardless of legal identity or citizenship is not made generally explicit (although migrants are explicitly included in some targets). Overall, as far as the Matter? uncounted at of ethical, the bottom are concerned, there is reason to be cautiously optimistic about the SDGs. The driving force of the personality traits social exclusion approach has resulted in of ethical egoism a clear focused on group inequalities, and so the social north and south proposed data revolution may go a long way to improving identity-based development statistics. The underpinning political drivers cannot be ignored, however, and nor should they be expected simply to example, dissolve in the face of great expectation UN consensus. There is no coincidence in the fact that so many of the groups about whom data is now sought, but currently unavailable, have been unable to exert the example egoism effective political demand to be counted. This may reflect a widespread lack of understanding or concern, for example, as is likely to lusting synonym, be the example of ethical case worldwide for realm persons living with disabilities. It may reflect embedded political dynamics, for example, such as that facing indigenous populations in countries from Australia to Canada that result in what the UN Special Rapporteur refers to as ‘nearly universal disadvantageous social and economic conditions’ ( OHCHR, 2014 ); or something more targeted such as the apparently deliberate marginalization of multiple regions and ethnolinguistic groups in Sudan ( Cobham, 2005 ). 1.

In the last section, I consider some possibilities to support greater progress, reflecting the political nature of the obstacles. Before doing that, it is example essential to explore the five traits role of the egoism SDGs in respect of uncounted phenomenon related to the top of the distribution. Uncounted at the top: hidden inequalities and tax justice. At the other end of the distribution are phenomena that go uncounted because of an excess of realm guardians power: tax abuses of individuals and companies; the financial secrecy provided by jurisdictions including some of the richest that undermine tax and egoism the rule of law in and south others including the poorest; and the hidden criminality of example of ethical egoism private and five traits test public sector corruption. In addition, more prosaic forms of going uncounted also contribute to obscure actual inequality. The SDG approach to illicit financial flows (IFFs) is example considered below, but the immediate concern relates to the treatment of vertical inequalities. The most relevant goals and personality traits test targets are as follows. Goal 10: Reduce inequality within and among countries. 10.1. By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the example of ethical population at a rate higher than the lusting synonym national average.

10.2. By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status. 10.4. Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality. Fully capturing the distribution at the top is necessary to assess the extent to which growth is inclusive, and to ensure that fiscal policies progressively achieve greater equality. Cobham et al. Egoism. (2015a) lay out three main ways in which income inequality in lusting synonym particular is hidden. First, higher-income households are undersampled in surveys (commonly because of refusal to participate). Increasingly, a remedy can be found through administrative tax data – as now brought together for a growing number of countries in the World Top Incomes Database by Alvaredo et al. (2015) . Example Of Ethical. Using such tax data appears to add in social between north the order of 3–6 percentage points to the resulting Gini coefficient, for national (e.g., for of ethical egoism the United States, Korinek et al., 2005 ) or global data ( Anand and Essay World Segal, 2014 ).

Second, tax data is itself likely to be systematically biased downwards, because of the under-reporting of incomes associated with tax evasion. Zucman (2013) estimates that undeclared assets held offshore may amount to as much as 10 percent of global GDP. Forthcoming analysis ( Cobham et al., 2015b ) using IFF (rather than stock) estimates suggests that the example of ethical resulting adjustment to national Gini coefficients for undeclared incomes may be of the same order as that found by allowing for Matter? Essay declared incomes via administrative tax data. The third way in which the true extent of example of ethical income inequality can be hidden relates to the choice of measure. The relative insensitivity of the Gini coefficient to the tails of the distribution has long been recognized ( Atkinson, 1973 ). College Matter? Essay. Cobham and Sumner (2013a , 2013b ) demonstrate that the Gini is also relatively insensitive at of ethical egoism, higher levels of inequality.

In addition, these papers provide evidence that such is the relative stability (across countries and over time) of the income share of deciles 5–9 that despite its oversensitivity here that a regression of the Gini on the bottom 40 percent and silent guardians top 10 percent income shares alone produces near-perfect fit. That same stability supports Palma’s (2006 , 2011 ) findings, and the proposal of Cobham and egoism Sumner (2013a , 2013b ) for an alternative inequality measure, the Palma ratio: the test ratio of national income shares of the of ethical egoism top 10 percent to five personality test, the bottom 40 percent, since this is where most income inequality actually occurs. Per Atkinson (1973) , no single measure of inequality is without subjective implications; the example best we can do is to great expectation, be aware of that which we use. Of Ethical Egoism. Although the lusting synonym same two income shares drive the Gini coefficient in practice also, it occurs in a somewhat obscure and opaque way. In the Palma ratio, by contrast, it is direct and transparent. The subtitle of Palma’s (2011) paper is ‘The share of the rich is of ethical what it’s all about’. What is disappointing about the differences north income inequality measure in the SDGs is that it obscures the share of the rich almost completely.

As discussed above, the centrality of social exclusion as the development approach behind the SDG framework results in great emphasis on example egoism, group inequalities, and in particular on realm guardians, marginalized groups. Those relatively favoured groups do not necessarily come into such stark contrast, in particular if the example of ethical egoism progress of marginalized groups is Does Essay compared with national averages rather than that of the most advantaged groups. This logic reaches a nadir in the ‘income inequality’ target. The relationship between the bottom 40 percent, deciles 5–9 and the top 10 percent shares of national income is such that, in general, the egoism target of silent realm higher income growth for the bottom 40 percent than for the mean is likely to egoism, be associated with reductions in the Palma or Gini – but it is realm unclear why such a circular and complex route is preferred to, for example, the Doyle and Stiglitz (2014) proposal of of ethical targeting a Palma ratio of 1, in each country, by 2030. The uncounted nature of some part of top-end incomes introduces no less important a bias in realm guardians the SDG target than it would in a Palma target, only that it is somewhat hidden. ‘There has been some criticism that the focus on the growth rate of the per capita income of the example of ethical poorest 40 percent ignores inequality. This criticism is misplaced. Since each nation already tracks the growth rate of the per capita income of test its entire population and of ethical egoism these data are widely available, as soon as we see the growth rate of the Does Essay bottom 40 percent next to this figure, it will be immediately obvious as to whether the example of ethical egoism poorest 40 percent is lusting synonym falling off from the rest or catching up. The fact that this is not combined into a single ratio means little, since the ratio is all too obvious. Moreover, there is some literature showing that what the poorest 40 percent loses goes largely to the top 10 percent of the population.’ ( Palma, 2011 ; Green, 2012 ) It was perhaps inevitable that the World Bank’s measure would not be taken directly into example of ethical the SDGs, when its defenders begin by recognizing that only five traits, as a ratio can it speak to inequality. It seems at best unfortunate, however, to set a target that would loosely equate to a reduction in inequality, with no attention paid to the starting point.

Given the universal nature of the SDGs, does it make sense for a country where the bottom 40 percent earn more than the top 10 percent (i.e., Palma1) face the same target as a country where the top 10 percent earn perhaps five or six times as much? Ultimately, the example egoism compromise between ‘shared prosperity’ and a Palma target is an unsatisfactory one. The SDG position reflects clear progress from the absolute income focus of the MDGs, of course, but there is a sense of having ducked an important possibility. Returning to IFFs, a somewhat similar conclusion may be reached. In theory, MDG 8 (Develop a global partnership for development), and target 8A in particular, may be relevant: ‘Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system’. In practice, MDG 8 has been excoriated as badly designed, little measured and largely unaccountable; and 8A stands out even here. Not only is the target not SMART (arguably, it meets none of the 8 criteria at all: certainly it is neither specific nor measurable); there is example egoism also no single indicator in differences between the framework that relates. Overall, the MDGs focused strongly on aid and had no space for domestic taxation; and included no references beyond the vague wording of example 8A to College Essay, the transparent or fair operation of international finance and trade. 17.1.

Strengthen domestic resource mobilization, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection. Note the example of ethical egoism somewhat ambiguous recognition of the realm guardians international nature of the problem. Some (non-aid donor) countries had apparently pushed for clarity over of ethical international responsibility, for example, in respect of - Foundations World full inclusion of example developing countries in the exchange of silent guardians tax information; some (donor) countries rejected this, allowing instead the language on support that could be interpreted as technical assistance in-country alone. This year has seen studies from example of ethical both UNCTAD (2015 , for the World Investment Report) and the Fiscal Affairs Department of the International Monetary Fund ( Crivelli et al., 2015 ) highlighting the scale of five personality traits test revenue losses associated with profit-shifting by multinational groups. The former suggests that investment structures (including intra-group lending) through conduit jurisdictions results in a loss for developing countries of around $100 billion annually. The latter suggests that overall profit-shifting might have twice that impact, as well as causing around $500 billion of annual revenue losses for OECD countries. The fact that such estimates (based variously on statistics on tax revenues, FDI income and example of ethical corporate tax rates) are currently the best guide for policy reflects a further aspect of uncounted. Current corporate reporting rules do not provide for country-by-country information on the economic activities and tax paid by five traits multinational groups; and without this, neither the multinationals nor national tax authorities can be effectively held accountable for example of ethical their approaches. The first analysis and advocacy priority of the then nascent Tax Justice Network in 2003 was for public country-by-country reporting ( Murphy, 2003 ). Ten years later, with increasing pressure from media revelations about corporate tax abuse such as ‘LuxLeaks’, the five personality test G8 and G20 groups of countries called for the OECD to develop just such a standard, which it has now done ( OECD, 2014 ). At present, however, the example of ethical egoism information generated (potentially by realm guardians every multinational group) will only be supplied to individual tax authorities – so while some abuses may become visible and be addressed, there will be no greater public accountability of either multinationals or tax authorities. A related area for international support of domestic tax capacity, again data-dependent, is the exchange of tax information between jurisdictions.

This was the second of the Tax Justice Network’s original priorities, and egoism again was adopted by social differences the G8 and G20 some ten years later, and the OECD mandated to example egoism, deliver. The automatic provision of information is seen as a powerful mechanism to minimize the hiding of Essay - Foundations for the taxable wealth and incomes in other jurisdictions including tax havens. Despite assurances to the contrary, however, it seems likely that the main beneficiaries will be OECD member states, while many developing countries may remain excluded from full participation. In addition, there are currently no plans in place to ensure consistent partially aggregated is published on the scale of egoism bilateral holdings – so once again, the scope for accountability of tax authorities, or indeed of jurisdictions for their contribution to international financial transparency, or opacity. The lack of indicators in lusting synonym the SDGs, or indeed in example egoism the Financing for Development document, suggests again a missed opportunity to Does College Matter?, support domestic tax capacity – this time by improving the counting of elites’ offshore incomes. As noted, the underlying assets are likely to represent a material share of world GDP, and to have significant implications for recorded inequality. 16.4. By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets, and combat all forms of organized crime. ‘We will redouble efforts to substantially reduce illicit financial flows by egoism 2030, with a view to eventually eliminating them, including by combating tax evasion and lusting synonym corruption through strengthened national regulation and increased international cooperation.’ ( UN, 2015 : 8) The dictionary definition of example egoism illicit is ‘forbidden by law, rules or custom’; that is, it goes beyond narrow illegality. Differences Between North. The consistent feature of IFFs – those that are certainly illegal, such as cross-border money-laundering and tax evasion, and that those may be legal but are socially unacceptable such as the most egregious tax avoidance (or unproven evasion) of example of ethical egoism some multinational companies – is the use of financial secrecy to prevent public visibility.

A typology of IFFs and lusting synonym immediate impacts. Impact on state funds. Impact on state effectiveness. Exploit subsidy regime. (Re)patriate undeclared capital. Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift criminal proceeds out. Evade capital controls (including on profit repatriation) (Re)patriate undeclared capital.

Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift criminal proceeds out. Evade capital controls (including on profit repatriation) Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift criminal proceeds out.

Evade capital controls (including on profit repatriation) (Re)patriate undeclared capital. Hide market dominance. Hide political involvement. Evade capital controls (including on profit repatriation) Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Shift criminal proceeds out. Hide political involvement.

(If no expectation of repayment, or if under-priced) Public asset theft (illegitimate allocation of state funds) (If state illegitimate, or if over-priced) Public asset theft (illegitimate creation of state liabilities) Related party lending. Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Related party borrowing. Shift undeclared (licit) income/profit. Public asset sales. Public asset theft. Hide market dominance. Hide political involvement.

Public asset theft. Hide market dominance. Hide political involvement. Offshore ownership transfer. Note : ‘IFF type’ defined as: 1 – market/regulatory abuse, 2 – tax abuse, 3 – abuse of power, including theft of state funds, 4 – proceeds of example of ethical crime. As the for the Modern table illustrates, each form can occur via multiple channels (from, e.g., mispricing of trade to the use of anonymous shell companies); and each channel can be used for egoism more than one form of illicit flow. As a result, precise estimates are difficult. The leading estimates of total IFFs come from Global Financial Integrity ( Kar and lusting synonym Spanjers, 2014 ), and combine a ‘hot money’ component reflecting capital account anomalies with a ‘misinvoicing’ component reflecting trade anomalies. While there are criticisms of each, and example egoism alternatives in specific areas where more detailed trade data, for example, has been available ( Pak and Zdanowicz, 2000 ), Global Financial Integrity has long set the challenge to international institutions to do better. As yet, none have attempted it. One major benefit of the SDG target then – vague and currently unmeasured as it is traits test – is that it may finally prompt action, perhaps from the World Bank or the International Monetary Fund (IMF) or ideally a broader collaboration including NGO expertise, to establish a methodology around which consensus can be formed.

Ideally, such an approach would come closer to the breadth of example egoism IFF in Table 3 , and the work cited by realm UNCTAD and IMF researchers on multinational tax losses could well form a part. In any event, if there is to be accountability for of ethical progress, a necessary first step is to count IFF more effectively. Conclusions and on Maps - Foundations Modern World policy recommendations. This article has considered the new SDGs framework in the context of the evolution in development thought since 2000. The greater emphasis on egoism, social exclusion and Does College Matter? participatory approaches to poverty has been seen to underpin the framework’s attention to power and to inequalities, which represent important shifts from the focus on absolute income poverty and basic capabilities that characterized the MDGs. If this shift is to gain traction in policy terms, and to drive meaningful rebalancing of example of ethical egoism political power as is implied, then the much-heralded data revolution will truly be required. While there are many technical and on Maps Modern World financial challenges to achieve this, such a revolution is fundamentally political – and so too are the example of ethical egoism obstacles. The thesis of ‘uncounted’ put forward here asserts that marginalized groups are often further excluded by their absence from statistics used for policy or in public debate, while elites may be further empowered by lusting synonym their lack of visibility. Of Ethical Egoism. In both cases, technical fixes alone will not address the political reasons for the inequalities – but genuine progress on counting can be a powerful step towards addressing the wider inequalities.

Two proposals are put forward, with the College Essay common aim of strengthening the political accountability of the counting that the framework requires. The first relates primarily to the uncounted at the bottom, the second to the uncounted at the top. Who will count those who themselves are counting? A major risk is that states and/or elites will either actively suppress the collation or publication of data on uncomfortable inequalities (note 1), or more through inertia simply fail to prioritize sufficiently the counting of those who are in fact most marginalized (consider, e.g., the failures globally in relation to persons with learning disabilities, and indigenous populations; or the effective absence of elites from example much income distribution data). At a minimum, reporting structures should be put in place so that the presence or absence of reporting, in relation to each inequality type relevant to each target, is itself reported . This would facilitate the comparison and ranking of the extent of uncounted phenomena, by issue; by inequality type and/or group; and by country and region. Is health better counted than income poverty?

Is counting with respect to disabilities catching up or falling further behind? Which countries are leading, and which trailing, and between and south why? Are there financial issues holding back overall progress, or more political aspects leaving individual groups or thematic areas uncounted? Sometimes, such analysis is likely to reveal legitimate prioritizations; in other cases, making the effective choices visible will ensure greater accountability, and a more participatory approach to example, future decisions. Equivalent accountability should be put in place for national statistical offices (NSOs) also, to track the extent to which they deliver their share of the necessary data.

Here the importance is as much to support the independence of NSOs from realm guardians domestic political pressure, as to hold them accountable themselves. To this end, the global framework might usefully be augmented by the addition of annual indicators for example of ethical egoism each country of the de facto and de jure independence of NSOs, as are often constructed for central bank independence, for example. Even with the convoluted income inequality target 10.1, it remains the case that if those at the top are uncounted then it is impossible to know if those at the bottom are being left behind or otherwise. While there may be more political discomfort to College Essay, a focus on top incomes, or other development outcomes – and of ethical perhaps exactly because of that discomfort – it is important that these groups do not remain uncounted, if the lusting synonym SDGs are to deliver their promise. A specific aspect of uncounted at the top relates to the inclusion or otherwise of data on offshore assets and incomes to lower-income countries, and the publication or otherwise of of ethical egoism partial aggregates for accountability of both taxpayers and tax authorities, along with the College country-by-country reporting of multinationals for exactly the same reasons. Much like the example non-aid commitments of donor countries in MDG 8, the G8 has yet to deliver on its promises of 2013 to ensure full inclusion of developing countries in tax information exchange.

The SDGs and lusting synonym Financing for Development outcome document have, in the end, delivered somewhat less of example a shift in power than might have been hoped. Does. Neither, for example of ethical egoism example, has required the publication of country-by-country reporting data; and the latter narrowly failed to deliver an intergovernmental tax body with the power to strengthen cooperation. For each country and jurisdiction, on what proportion of foreign-owned assets and to the states of what proportion of the world’s population, are they providing tax information bilaterally to others? For each country and jurisdiction, from which countries and jurisdictions are they receiving tax information bilaterally? For each country and jurisdiction receiving information, what proportion and volume of revealed assets were already declared by five traits test the taxpayer, and what resolution has reached each year in example of ethical respect of the Essay remainder? For each country and jurisdiction, for multinationals making up what proportion of the declared multinational tax base is example of ethical egoism country-by-country reporting publicly available? For each country and jurisdiction, are they contributing to the World Top Incomes Database or elsewhere publishing equivalent data and/or adjusted income distribution data? There are of course a range of other areas in which SDG-related efforts to tackle the Essay on Maps - Foundations World problems of the uncounted would be valuable. For potential adoption from the outset, however, these two proposals could be quickly implemented and offer immediate support to of ethical, existing stated intentions. The SDGs offer the promise of the greatest, global challenge to systematic power inequalities.

A true data revolution would overcome the deep-rooted political underpinnings to the intertwined problem of the uncounted. The paper shows the pattern by combining regionally disaggregated data on silent realm guardians, health and education outcomes, with equivalently disaggregated fiscal data published by the IMF in example egoism the early 2000s. When the IMF published a report nearly ten years later using updated data ( Abdoun et al., 2012 ), and I requested it, they delayed repeatedly – apparently because the Sudanese government was doing the lusting synonym same in response to the IMF’s request for permission. Example. Ultimately, the data was not made available to me – or, presumably, to any Sudanese or other citizen with an interesting in exploring these questions. The author is grateful for realm comments from participants and discussants at seminars and conferences at Birmingham, Columbia, Heriot-Watt, NYU Law School and at the Pan-African Conference on Inequalities in example egoism the Context of Does College Matter? Essay Structural Transformation in Accra. There are no affiliations available.

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While specific questions may vary among universities, the essays will primarily require you to of ethical discuss: a) your career goals and potential for Does College Essay, managerial success. b) your unique personal attributes. c) your qualifications and experience. d) your ability to manage difficult professional situations. The essay must also accomplish a fourth objective, which is to demonstrate that you possess both the hard (technical) and soft (interpersonal and ethical) skills required to be a top manager. Example Of Ethical? Not an easy task!

Competition for business school admission is fierce, particularly at the prestigious Ivy League programs. From our experience, your personal statements carry more weight in the admissions process than you may realize. Perfect grade point averages and GMAT scores are expected at this level, as are maturity and excellent communication skills. Your best chance to stand out in the crowd is to lusting synonym convey the exceptional personal attributes of an of ethical egoism effective, focused leader. Five Personality Traits? Ironically, applicants often minimize the importance of the egoism essay, refernece letters and personal interview, yet they are your best opportunities to demonstrate your strengths outside the classroom. Admissions officers seek the following traits in business school applicants: Your essays are your opportunity to show the committee that you are a unique, dynamic, effective person who is committed to succeed in business. You cannot gain acceptance into a top business school without compelling personal essays.

We strongly recommend that you avoid four common pitfalls : a) Hard luck stories, unless they explain your potential for business success. b) Manipulative or argumentative essays on controversial issues. c) Technical essays that don't reveal your personal side. d) Long, idealistic essays on societal problems. In our admissions work, we frequently see well-intentioned essays fall flat because they don't capture the reader's interest and convey the writer's true personality. Far too often, the essays simply reiterate material that is social differences and south presented elsewhere in the application, which wastes a golden opportunity to example egoism present a new side of yourself. Don't underestimate the committee's interest in your maturity and interpersonal strengths (or lack of them).

Due to the decisiveness and critical thinking expected in on Maps business, your character and motivation will be highly scrutinized during the MBA admission process. Of Ethical? Use the essay set to sell your whole self, not just the individual pieces that you think they want to see. In a typical day, an traits MBA admissions officer will read between 25 and 50 application essays from candidates around the world. Of Ethical Egoism? What stands out and makes a positive impression? Contrary to popular opinion, it's not simply academic prowess. Great Expectation Chapter? Indeed, many candidates with exceptional grades are rejected each year.

For most competitive applicants, the key to admissions success is selling your unique (non-academic) strengths. Before you write, consider your audience and their objective. Committee members are vibrant people with unique personalities and talents. Their goal is to select a class of diverse, passionate students who will best contribute to campus life. The ultimate class roster will include talented athletes, musicians, scientists and poets. No two successful candidates are alike, nor are their essays. A great essay can be about football, a dance recital, a family vacation or an embarrassing moment. What's the common denominator? Your writing must reveal your true personality, whatever that may be.

Show us who you are and what you will bring to our campus. Show us the contribution that only you can make. Are there specific guidelines to follow? Absolutely! We surveyed thirty admission officers on what they expect to example see in College Matter? Essay college application essays. Here's what works: 1. Answer the egoism question that was asked . Many candidates try to dodge tough questions, particularly those about ethical issues, personal weaknesses and failure. Yet the committee asks these questions for a reason . We want to understand how you respond to adversity and the specific insights you developed from those experiences.

Answer the tough questions honestly and directly. Don't try to lusting synonym sell us the of ethical artificial canned response you think we want to hear. 2. Write naturally, but concisely . Use simple sentence structure and your normal everyday vocabulary. Don't waste time on fancy introductions; get to Essay on Maps World the point quickly and reinforce it with specific examples. 3. Example Of Ethical? Use excellent grammar and punctuation . Use logical paragraph breaks to separate your thoughts and to make the essay easier to read. Proofread your work carefully before sending it in. Don't let simple carelessness ruin your chances.

4. Essay On Maps - Foundations For The World? Show your real personality (let us get to of ethical egoism know you) . Too many essays are long, boring theoretical pieces about politics, the economy or complex business issues. No matter how well-written or researched, they don't tell us a darn thing about the candidate. Great 8? Anyone can write a rational, detached paper, but that's not what we are looking for. We want to get to know you and the unique contribution you will make to example of ethical egoism our school. 5. On Maps - Foundations Modern? Personalize your essay as much as possible . Write about your own unique, funny, interesting experiences. Example? Provide details to add color. Adopt a relaxed, conversational style. 7. Convey a positive message (avoid cynicism) . Many applicants choose to discuss a misfortune they have experienced and how it shaped their personality. Be very careful of your tone if you decide to traits test write about a hard-luck story. Example? Avoid the victimization perspective and focus on how you overcame the situation.

Show us how the experience helped you to demonstrate your stamina, perseverance and intelligence. If written well, these essays show us that you can succeed in the face of terrible obstacles. If written badly, you may sound plaintive, self-righteous and great expectation 8 bitter. 8. Write about topics you are passionate about. Nothing lifts an essay off the page more than genuine enthusiasm! Yet few candidates have the example confidence to write about a passion if they feel it is silly or frivolous. Questions about your favorite hobby or childhood memory are designed to flesh out five personality test, your non-academic side.

Yes, we really want to know! Nothing is more precious than your unique memories about key people and experiences in your life. We've read magical essays about eating ice cream and example of ethical egoism singing in on Maps - Foundations for the Modern the shower and absolutely dreadul ones about of ethical, triglyceride synthesis. When choosing your topics, pick what genuinely excites you. Your enthusiasm will show in the final product. 9. Modern World? Use the active voice . Nothing is more tedious than trying to read an essay written in the cold, detached passive voice. While popular with scientists who publish in technical journals, it is pretentious and of ethical egoism verbose in everyday writing. Keep your verbs simple and active. What's the difference?

Active Voice : The cow jumped over the moon. Passive Voice : The moon was jumped over by Essay on Maps - Foundations for the, the cow. Yes, it sounds that silly when you use it, too! 10. Explain events whenever appropriate . Example Of Ethical Egoism? Many of your accomplishments are of interest to the committee because of why you tackled them, what you thought about them and what you learned. Tell us the traits reasoning behind your decision and how your life changed as a result of the example of ethical experience. 11. Be specific and focused.

Rather than listing several items or events, give a full description of just one. The more details you include, the more personal your essay will be. 12. Proofread several times and great expectation chapter get feedback from valued sources . Explain to them what you hope to convey in your writing and ask whether you met your objectives. The true test of your writing isn't what you intended to say, but what the reader actually understands. 13. Revise and polish until it is perfect . Give yourself enough time to example of ethical egoism do the Essay essays well. Successful applicants usually invest several hours considering each question, deciding the correct approach, constructing an example outline and for the Modern writing a first draft. You may have to write and revise multiple drafts before you are satisfied with your essay. In addition, they advise all applicants to avoid the following common mistakes: 1. Don't let anyone else tell you what to write . Well-meaning parents and advisors often interfere in the writing process, sabotaging the candidate's chances.

Use your own best judgement in choosing a topic and writing your essay. Example? Don't let anyone else influence you. We read thousands of essays each year, and have developed a keen eye for authenticity. 2. Don't oversell yourself or try too hard . Many candidates manage to squeeze every accomplishment they've ever had into a single one-page essay. Others explain emphatically how much they really, really want to attend our school. Don't take such a desperate approach. Answer the questions to the best of social north your ability and be yourself.

3. Example Of Ethical Egoism? Don't rehash information that can be found elsewhere in the application . We already know your grade point average, standardized test scores, academic awards and honors. Use your limited essay space to discuss experiences that aren't revealed anywhere else. Consider your essay to silent be an informal interview, your exclusive one-on-one time with the committee. Show us why we should accept you into of ethical, our campus community. 4. - Foundations For The Modern? Don't write a scholarly or overly academic paper . Egoism? The essay is your opportunity to demonstrate your non-academic strengths, particularly your personality. Don't waste the expectation opportunity to let us get to example egoism know the real you. 5. Between North And South? Don't appear overly idealistic or preachy . Don't use trite, tired themes for example, the focus of the essay.

Be original. Each year, we receive hundreds of essays that discuss the horrors of nuclear weapons and the dangers of global warming. Sadly, they don't tell us anything we don't already know. If you choose to discuss a meaningful issue, do so in Matter? the context of your demonstrated commitment to example change it, either through your career or volunteer work. Five Traits Test? Don't confuse passive idealism (or future intentions) with productive action. A demonstrated commitment to a cause is worth writing about; passive idealism is not. 6. Don't try to explain blemishes on of ethical egoism your record . With rare exceptions, it is impossible to explain poor grades and test scores without sounding irresponsible or defensive. Neither will enhance your admissions chances. If you have a compelling excuse for an academic disappointment, place it in a separate addendum to your file, rather than in the body of an Matter? essay or personal statement.

7. Don't use large, pretentious words . Use the example of ethical simplest possible language to explain your meaning precisely. Using three-dollar words to impress the committee usually backfires, as it comes across as presumptuous and Essay on Maps - Foundations arrogant. 8. Don't be boring and safe; tell a real story! A fresh and well-written essay will enhance your credentials and aid your application effort. 9. Don't lie or exaggerate. Applicants seldom realize how easy it is to detect lies and half-truths in example of ethical egoism admissions essays. Realm Guardians? Don't pretend to of ethical egoism be someone you are not. After reading your file, committee members have an lusting synonym excellent feel for your character and can tell when a reported event or achievement isn't consistent with the rest of example egoism your history. Lusting Synonym? Lying is of ethical egoism a fatal mistake. A single misrepresentation on your application will lead us to doubt all of five personality test your other assertions.

10. Don't be gimmicky . Example Of Ethical? Avoid using definitions to begin your essay. This crutch was extremely popular in the late 90's, but is now synonymous with sloppy writing. Avoid using cute or meaningful quotations, unless they perfectly fit the character and tone of realm your essay. Quotations are terrific if they are seldom-quoted and egoism deeply relevant to your chosen topic. Personality Traits Test? All too often, though, their usage is cliche and the resulting essay is unimaginative. 11. Don't play games with the word limit . Egoism? Don't use a miniscule type size or invisible border to shrink an essay to the stipulated length.

Except in extreme circumstances, your finished essay should adhere to the maximum word limit. In many cases, less is more. Convery your points quickly and efficiently; don't feel obligated to fill extra space. The biggest mistake applicants make is trying too hard. Most essays are long, boring laundry lists of achievements that are already presented elsewhere in the application. Five Personality Test? Ironically, unsuccessful candidates rarely reveal enough about of ethical egoism, themselves for the reader to get to for the World know them. Rather than reveal their unique personality, many try to impress the committee with their youthful idealism and good intentions. They write a long, boring piece about the need to promote world peace or end hunger. Sadly, these preachy Miss America-type essays are rarely successful. The essays of successful applicants will probably surprise you. They are seldom academic in nature, and may seem risky (or frivolous) to those who are diligently trying to put their best foot forward.

That's why studying them is so valuable. Egoism? They reveal the heart and soul of each writer and demonstrate what the candidate would add to lusting synonym the university. They were accepted because they caught the eye (and captured the heart) of example of ethical egoism a receptive admissions officer. We offer a variety of products and services to help you produce a memorable personal statement that will impress even seasoned admission committee members: 1. We have compiled some of the best, most diverse packages of on Maps - Foundations World Ivy League business school essays available in the world. Use them to gain insight into example of ethical egoism, your own life experiences and write your own compelling essays.

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45 Biography Templates #038; Examples (Personal, Professional) A biography is simply an example of ethical egoism, account of someone’s life written by another person. A biography can be short in the case of few sentences biography, and it can also be long enough to fill an entire book. The short biographies explain a person’s basic life facts and lusting synonym, their importance, but the long biographies would go an extra mile and include more details to make an interesting read. You may find yourself in of ethical egoism, a situation which requires you to write a biography of lusting synonym, a famous person, a close friend or a relative. For this reason, it pays to know how to come up with a biography and the important details that you should include in it. The lives of many people have interesting bits of of ethical, information, but you ought to great chapter know what to capture in the biography and what to leave out. The length of of ethical egoism, a biography depends on the type of information that should be included.

The length will determine the nature of information and how extensively it will explain the life of a person. For instance, if you are to social differences between north write a short paragraph about a person it will mostly capture the important details that identify the example person compared to a pages-long biography that may even include the person’s childhood experiences and College Matter? Essay, achievements shaping their life. Example! For a short biography, maybe a paragraph or two long, the following details should be captured: A person’s date and place of birth, at times with the date and place of death as may be applicable The person’s major achievements in life Their educational background and notable awards Work facts of a person and their contribution to that field if any A brief account of the significance of an individual in the community. A lengthy biography will bring out more details of a person’s life making it a bit more complex. His/her history will be brought out more clearly especially the silent realm details that shaped them to be the persons they turned out to be.

The target audience will also dictate the nature of the information that is to be included. The relation of the audience to an individual will have an impact on how the information is example presented and the important details that they could be interested in. Does Matter? Essay! In a case where the audience is unknown, more details will have to be included. This mostly happens in the case of a several paged biography. You will have to scrutinize the person in of ethical, a more detailed way and establish more people relating to five traits test the person.

Focusing on the uniqueness of an example of ethical egoism, individual can do wonders in this case and this might turn out to be inspirational to many people. The field that the person has majored in or had majored in ought to lusting synonym influence the direction that the biography will take as this will help to bring out the contribution of the individual to their field of study. A biography is egoism meant to analyze a person’s life and interpret it as well. A good biographer will try to expectation 8 join the dots and explain certain actions and events that a certain figure was involved in. This will help in clearly bringing out the significance of a person’s life through their accomplishments or remarkable deeds. Biographies are usually written in of ethical, a chronological order. Some biographers could also draft them in a themed order that is early life, educational background, a person’s achievements or accomplishments. But some especially the short ones will focus on one area in silent guardians, a person’s life. There are several sources of information that could aid one in writing an astounding biography.

These sources of information can be grouped into example, either primary sources or secondary sources. - Foundations For The! The primary sources of information include materials like letters, newspaper accounts or diaries. A biographer can also make an arrangement to interview an individual they want to write about. This is also considered as a primary source of of ethical egoism, information. Silent Guardians! The secondary sources are reference books, other biographies or historical records that are related to the subject being written about.

Select the individual you want to write about Search for the basic facts that relate to a person’s life. Egoism! The encyclopedia or almanac could be handy at this. Think about the details to add in the biography which can bring out clearly about the person’s life. Choose the on Maps - Foundations Modern area in of ethical, a person’s life that you want the biography to revolve around. Essay - Foundations For The! Some guiding questions that could aid you in this include; What’s the most interesting bit about the person? What is the significance of the individual to the society and the world in example, general? What qualities or adjectives will be best suited for the description of the individual? What actions or life events bring out the qualities or adjectives chosen above? What life events or world events shaped the individual or brought out the best in them? Did they face obstacles or take some risks in great chapter 8, life?

How did they handle the of ethical egoism obstacles and did they happen to be lucky? What impact did they have in the world? Did they add value to the way people view certain aspects of life? Did they come up with a thing, idea or way of action that transformed the way things are handled or rather done in their societies or world in general? Carry out some additional research on the internet to answer some of the Essay on Maps - Foundations for the Modern World questions mentioned above. Ensure that you find information that will help you tell a story that many will love. After getting everything in order, you can proceed to write the biography. We have provided sample biographies in this site that you could check out in order to get the drift.

A biography template is meant to specifically aid a writer come up with an excellent biography. For this purpose to be achieved the writer needs to get his/her hands on a high-quality biography template, just like the ones provided on of ethical, this site. The best biography templates should provide clear instructions, and this should be in great detail to great 8 avoid the risk of the writer missing out some important facts. The templates available on this site will help you capture all of the details. The biography templates should also be precise and avoid beating around the bush. Going round one idea or item will make the biography boring to example of ethical egoism read and Essay on Maps - Foundations Modern, it is prudent for example egoism the writer to be straight to the point. Lusting Synonym! By doing this it will be easier for the readers to of ethical egoism skim through and find the details they might be interested in with lots of Matter? Essay, easy. Of Ethical Egoism! The writer will also save his/her time and concentrate on writing other things. The general sections of any biography as outlined by our sample biographies will have; The name of the person A picture of the five test person An account of their early life The person’s family life The major achievements of the person The three main interesting qualities or facts about the individual.

A professional Biography Template. A professional biography is a statement that could either be short or long that is written about a person, business or company. It should be engaging, informative and interesting for the readers to egoism identify with the person or business entity being talked about. It has a sales pitch that is a little bit different. A professional biography template is lusting synonym meant to ease the process of generating printed professional biographies especially for an individual who wants to reach a lot of people or institutions. Elements that should be captured in a professional biography are: A summary of one’s early life in a sentence or two, make it interesting Then information touching on your education, mention any academic awards or the clubs and societies that you were part of. Any work experience while in school. Of Ethical! Talk about how creative and innovative you are with coming with solutions to the problems that you have faced as an individual, mention any situation that you were self-reliant in coming up with solutions Mention qualities that make you stand out for instance, being independent, principled or discerning to increase your trustworthiness. The following tips will enable you to come up with the best professional biography; Be brief and precise to the point. This is to enable the reader to easily and quickly get to know about you.

Be spontaneous in your writing Be as expressive as possible and avoid too much of self-editing while drafting the professional biography in the initial stages to capture as much information as possible Be friendly but not too informal Be as interesting as you could in order to get the attention of many people out there Write it in third person. Talk about your life as if someone else were describing it. This site offers you a professional biography template that could aid in making the generation of professional biographies an easy and less time consuming task. Essay! You can also check out sample bios to figure out how to go about the whole process of egoism, coming up with a professional biography. A personal biography is a short account of who you are, your credentials and your notable accomplishments in social differences between north and south, life. Personal bios ought to be short, precise and relevant to your target audience. The use of personal statistics such as hobbies or family should be avoided. A personal biography template will help one to easily and conveniently come up with personal bios. The key elements in a personal biography are; Give an introduction of example, yourself. Remember to write it in traits test, third person and include the year that your professional career started to be relevant.

You could give a list of example egoism, any relevant specializations in your field. State your educational facts and credentials. Mention the degrees that you have pursued and the respective institutions. Add any relevant experiences you have that are required for your career and mention the name of the society that you are legally a member of. Proceed to outline any notable achievements or awards you have earned in your practice. Remember that the information ought to be relevant to the audience being addressed. If you happen to be an realm guardians, author you could mention the example magazines or any publishing house that has recognized your works.

Your conclusion should mention any upcoming projects or works in progress that people should lookout for in the near future. Lusting Synonym! Don’t forget to mention your current place of example, residence. As you age, it is good to keep on updating your biography to silent realm reflect who you are at of ethical present time. You can make use of the personal biography template offered by this site to five test easily and in a more convenient way generate your own biography without missing out on example of ethical, the important details. We also provide sample biographies to give you a feel of what your end draft should look like. If you have kids and you want to personality let them in on egoism, famous historical figures, this site offers biographies for kids.

These will help them know the five notable people who help shape the world to what it has become to be.

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Create a custom work item in example Rational Team Concert. A hands-on example of using advanced customizations in a project area. Published on August 02, 2011. This content is part # of # in the series: Advanced customizations in Rational Team Concert project areas, Part 1. This content is part of the series: Advanced customizations in Rational Team Concert project areas, Part 1. Stay tuned for additional content in lusting synonym this series. To follow this article, you need to have following software running and configured properly: IBM® Rational Team Concert™ version 3.0, which runs on the IBM® Rational® Jazz™ server Rational Team Concert 3.0, client for the Eclipse IDE.

This software can be installed and configured according to instructions provided in the Extending Rational Team Concert tutorial (see Related topics for a link). After completing that tutorial, you will have a local IBM® Rational® Jazz™ server up and of ethical egoism running, named . Personality Traits Test? It can be accessed using this public URI: The default administrator access on this server has been disabled, and a new admin user has been added as seemag , because these customizations are done by an administrator user. After you have the server running, open the Rational Team Concert client for of ethical, the Eclipse IDE, and establish a connection to this local repository by personality test, using the option to Create a new jazz repository connection . Provide the public URI, , and the admin user name and password for the repository. Consider the role of project lead of example egoism a team that is College Matter? Essay working in example egoism an agile development project and using Rational Team Concert for project planning, tracking, and silent guardians management activities. Assume that the project environment is very dynamic and there are too many risks, so there is example of ethical egoism a requirement to identify each risk carefully and Does Matter? track it until it ends. This can be achieved if the project team creates a custom work item type called Risk and tracks it. This article shows how to do this in example Rational Team Concert 3.0.

Before you can create any customizations on work items, you need to have a project area created and named TestProject . For this tutorial, it has been created already by using the lusting synonym, Scrum Process template. Any creation or customization of a work item requires the configuration of several different aspects of work items in Rational Team Concert: enumerations, work item type categories, types, attributes, workflows and workflow bindings, editor presentations and editor presentation bindings. Egoism? In any project area, all of these entities are created independently and then bound together to create a fully functional work item type. The following steps are required to lusting synonym create a new Risk work item type that can be categorized as High Risk, Low Risk, or Medium Risk: Define a new work item type with attributes. Define a custom attribute for work item (which will hold the enumeration value) Create a workflow. Add all states of example of ethical egoism a Risk work item. Add all actions applicable for a risk. Does Essay? Add all applicable resolutions for a risk. Associate appropriate actions with resolutions.

Identify transitions between various states of risk. Create an editor presentation. Bind the workflow and editor presentation with new work item type. Define an of ethical egoism enumeration called Risk Level. In Rational Team Concert any process configurations are done in between Process Configuration tab. Figure 1. Creating Enumerations in Rational Team Concert. Click Add to open the example egoism, dialog window shown in Figure 2. Figure 2. Providing ID and Name for an enumeration. Provide values as shown previously, and click OK . This will create a new enumeration called Risk Level.

Because a risk can take a value of social and south High Risk, Low Risk, or Medium Risk, the next step would be to associate these values with the previously created Risk Level enumeration. To add these literals in example of ethical the Risk Level enumeration, click the Add button (see the previous screen, Figure 5), which will open the dialog window shown in realm guardians Figure 4. Figure 4. Adding a high-risk enumeration literal in the Eclipse client. For each literal, select a name and (optionally) and icon. Using icons as visual cues is a best practice and of ethical egoism makes it much easier to pick out useful information than using a screen full of text. If you don't see the Essay, icon that you want, you can add more icons to the available icon list. Example Of Ethical? Clicking OK will add High Risk literal. Add the other two literals, Low Risk and Medium Risk, in Does Matter? the same way. Define a new work item type with attributes.

After the enumeration is created, you need to create a new type of work item. To add a work item, in the Project Area directory, select Process Configuration Project Configuration Project Configuration Data WorkItems Types and Attributes . Figure 5. Adding new types of work items. Initially, selecting the Types and Attributes tab will list all types of work items that are available with the current process template of the Project Area, which is the Scrum Project template in of ethical this case. To add a new type to this list, click Add to open the Add Type dialog window shown in Figure 6, so you can provide a name and between north and south an ID for the new type. Figure 6. Egoism? Providing Name, ID and Category for and south, a work item. Each type of work item is associated with a category . You can choose a new category for the Risk work item type or reuse any existing default category.

For this example, create a new category for Risk. Click OK . On the egoism, resulting screen (see Figure 7), select a visual icon for this new type Risk . Figure 7. Initial screen after a Risk type is created. Scrolling down the screen will show other sections of a work item type, such as WorkFlow, Attributes, and so on. You will add a new attribute to Risk type first. Scroll down to the Attributes panel. Five Personality Test? Make sure that you check the check box labeled Show only custom attributes to of ethical avoid viewing all default attributes required for functionality of the tool.

Initially, there will not be any custom attribute for new Risk work item type. Define a custom attribute that can hold the enumeration value. You will define a new custom attribute that can hold values from enumeration risk level and between north and south name it Risk Level . To add this custom attribute, click Add on the right side of example of ethical Attributes section to silent open the dialog window shown in Figure 8. Figure 8. Adding custom attributes for a work item. Besides Name and example egoism ID , for Type , select the realm, Risk Level enumeration, which you already created. Click OK , and then make sure that the attributes section of the Risk work item type reflects this new custom attribute.

Create a workflow for the newly created work item type. A workflow is a definition of the states, actions, resolutions, and transitions that represent the life cycle of any work item type. Hence, any work item must have a workflow. Based on stakeholder discussions, the of ethical egoism, following workflow illustrated in Figure 9 has been identified for 8, the Risk work item type. Figure 9. Workflow for of ethical, a Risk type. To start creating a workflow for on Maps World, a work item in Rational Team Concert, open the project area and select Process Configuration Project Configuration Configuration Data WorkItems Workflows (see Figure 5). On the right side of the Workflows pane, click Add to open a new dialog window, so you can provide an ID and Name for the workflow that you are defining: ID: RiskWorkFlow Name: Risk WorkFlow Click OK, and a new workflow with the name Risk WorkFlow will be created.

The workflow created in this state acts as a container that will be populated with five data elements for Risk, as mentioned in the descriptions of the steps that follow: Add all states of a Risk work item. Add all actions applicable for a risk. Add all applicable resolutions for a risk. Associate appropriate actions with resolutions.

Identify transitions between various states of example egoism risk. In the following subsections, you will populate the Risk WorkFlow with previous data. Add all states of a Risk work item. To add states in a workflow, go to Workflows tab and select the lusting synonym, Risk Workflow that you created. As the state diagram in Figure 9 shows, a Risk can be in one of four states: Identified, Analyzing, Blocking, and Closed . The workflow will have various sections such as States, Actions, and of ethical egoism Transitions. Scroll down to States section and click Add to open the expectation chapter, Add State dialog window shown in Figure 10 (this screen was captured with different values specified for the Identified state). Besides the Name, Icon, and example of ethical Description fields, there are two more parameters here: Group and traits test Show Resolution . Figure 10. Adding a new state to the Risk workflow.

Any state in Rational Team Concert can be categorized into one of three standard groups: Because a Risk in the Identified state is an open work item, the Open group has been chosen. The Show Resolution check box needs to be checked only if it tags the work item as Closed with a proper resolution. In Figure 10, this check box is of ethical unchecked, because the Identified state doesn't tag the Essay, work item as Closed. Click OK to create the identified state.

You can create Analyzing, Blocking and Closed states in a similar way. The only difference is that, while creating a Closed state, the Show Resolution check box needs to be checked. After all the states are created, the States section will look something like Figure 11. Figure 11. States of the Risk work item in the Risk workflow.

Add all actions applicable for a risk. In this step, all actions applicable on a Risk will be added. In the state diagram (Figure 9), arrows represent actions and of ethical egoism eclipses represent states. As an example, initial action for any Risk is test Open , which will create a Risk in Identified state. To add this action, scroll to Actions section of Risk Workflow editor and click on Add to of ethical open a dialog window to five add details about actions, as Figure 12 shows. Figure 12. Of Ethical Egoism? Adding Open Action in Risk Workflow. By this time, the information in the Name, Icon, and Description fields will start looking quite familiar. Besides these regular attributes, each action needs to provide an additional parameter for Target State . Because the silent, Open action leads to of ethical egoism the Identified state, the Target State in the previous diagram is selected as Identified.

Click OK to create the Open action. Add all other actions for a Risk work item in differences north and south a similar fashion. After all of the actions have been added, the Actions section of the Risk workflow will look like Figure 13. Figure 13. Actions section of workflow after adding all actions for Risk. The workflow for a work item also needs to provide the primary actions such as Start action , Resolve action , and Reopen action . These are the actions for the Risk work item: You can select these values in example of ethical the workflow. Figure 14. Associating the Risk workflow with Start, Resolve, and College Essay Reopen actions. Add all applicable resolutions for a risk. In this step, all possible resolutions for a Risk work item will be added in example egoism the Risk workflow.

Assume that, based on stakeholders' discussions, a risk can be handled in only three ways: mitigating, containing, or declaring it invalid. Lusting Synonym? So you will add three resolutions: Mitigated, Contained, and egoism Invalid. Scroll down to Essay World the Resolutions section and click Add to open the dialog window shown in Figure 15. Figure 15. Add Resolution dialog window in the Risk workflow. The screen capture provided here reflects values for Contained resolution. Click OK to create the egoism, Contained resolution.

Add two other resolutions, Mitigated and Invalid, in the same way. After you add all of the resolutions, the Resolutions section of the workflow, it will look like Figure 16. Figure 16. Personality Traits Test? Resolutions section of the example of ethical, Risk workflow. Associate appropriate actions with resolutions. After you have added all of the expectation 8, resolutions, it's time to revisit actions in the workflow and associate resolutions with actions that can lead to resolutions of example of ethical a Risk. In the Does, current scenario, only the Close action can resolve the Risk. To associate this action with Resolutions, select Close and select the check boxes for example egoism, all resolutions (Contained, Mitigated, and Invalid).

The actions pane of the Risk workflow will then display what Figure 17 shows. Figure 17. Actions in the Risk workflow after adding resolutions to actions. The end user is presented these resolutions in the same order as they appear in the workflow. You can move items up or down with the Does Essay, buttons toward the right side of Actions pane.

Identify transitions between various states of a Risk item. In this step, you need to identify the of ethical egoism, transitions between various states of a work item. If you do not identify this, the Essay for the, Transitions pane of the Risk workflow will appear as the matrix in Figure 18 shows. Figure 18. Initial Transitions Section in the Risk workflow. The matrix for various states has already been created. The transitions for of ethical egoism, various stages need to be identified and populated in the matrix. Looking at the state diagram closely, the Matter? Essay, following observations can be made: An Identified risk can get into only an example of ethical Analyzing state, and the action with which the state can change is Assign. It cannot directly go to any other state.

A risk in the Analyzing state can move into the Blocking state or Closed state, depending on whether an Escalate action or Close action has been taken. A risk in Blocking state can get into the Analyzing or Closed state, depending on whether a Revisit or Close action has been taken. A risk in Closed state can get into Does Matter? the Analyzing state if a Reopen action has been taken. Based on of ethical egoism, these observations, you can provide the transitions shown in Figure 19: Identified to Analyzing with an Assign action Analyzing to silent realm Blocking with an Escalate action and Analyzing to Closed with close action Blocking to Analyzing with a Revisit action and from Blocking to Closed with close action Closed to example egoism Analyzing with a Reopen action. Figure 19. Final Transitions section in the Risk workflow. With the creation of lusting synonym transitions, you have finished creating the workflow for the Risk work item.

Create an editor presentation for the new work item type. An editor presentation acts as the form to example of ethical egoism present a work item to differences north and south users. In current versions of Rational Team Concert, a work item can be displayed four different ways: Work Item Editor, the example egoism, presentation used in the Eclipse client and the web client when displaying a work item in the Editor view Inline Work Item Editor, used in web client to display work item details in a Plan view Lightweight Work Item Creation dialog, used in the web client when creating work items Plan Editor Preview, displayed as a pop-up window in the Eclipse client when the user moves the cursor over a work item in the Plan Editor view. A work item can be viewed in any type of presentation, so all four editor presentations need to be created for any work item type. All of the editor presentations are created in same way.

This article covers only creation of the Work Item editor presentation for a Risk, but you need to create the three other editor presentations before using the silent, new work item type in example a project area. Rational Team Concert provides a default editor presentation that includes most of the fields, tabs, and five personality traits test so forth that are required to present any work item. The default layout can be changed by adding a few custom attributes. To start adding or editing the Risk work item editor presentation, go back to Process Configuration Project Configuration Project Configuration Data WorkItems Editor Presentations , as shown in Figure 20. Look at combination box with title of Choose the editor presentation to edit . By default, the of ethical, value will be Retain the social between north and south, default value, and of ethical click Duplicate . College Matter? Essay? A dialog window will open for you to of ethical egoism provide the ID for the duplicated editor presentation.

Give it a suitable name, such as RiskWorkitemEditorPresentation , and click OK. Figure 20 shows the RiskWorkitemEditorPresentation. Figure 20. Duplicated Risk editor presentation based on the default one. A presentation or view is divided into various tabs, sections, and silent realm guardians presentations. The Header, Overview, Links, Approvals, and so on form the tabs, and each tab has more parts.

For example, the example egoism, Overview tab contains all details of a work item, and links refer to personality traits test links for a work item. Depending on where you want to change the view, the editor presentation needs to be modified. Egoism? For this example, you are adding only Does College Matter? one attribute in example of ethical Details for the work item, and it can hold the value of Risk Level. Details are part of the Overview tab, so you start these modifications there. Shared content should not be modified directly in an editor presentation, because this would be shared between multiple editor presentations.

The Overview tab in Risk Work Item editor presentation has a content shared tag against it, and this should be duplicated before making any modifications. Select Overview , and click Duplicate . Essay? In the dialog window that opens, provide an appropriate name ( Overview in egoism this case), and click OK . This will create an additional Overview tab that will not have a[content shared] notation. After the Overview tab is created, it's time to modify the Details sections to show the new Risk Level custom attribute in the Work Item editor presentation. Again, the Details section is shown with a [content shared] notation; therefore, it needs to be duplicated first. Select Details and click Duplicate once again. When you are prompted for an ID for duplicated section, provide an appropriate name and click OK . At this stage, there will be two Overview tabs and two Details sections, one with the [content shared] notation and one without it, as shown in Figure 21.

Figure 21. Risk Work Item editor presentation after duplicating Overview and Details. Because you have Overview tabs and Details sections created specifically for the Risk editor presentation, you don't need the shared Overview tab and Details section anymore. To remove those sections or particular elements of the editor presentation, select the appropriate element ( Overview [shared content] and Does Matter? Details [shared content] ), and example of ethical egoism click Remove . After you remove the shared Overview tab and Details, notice that you have only five one Overview and Details section, without any shared content in the RiskWorkitemEditorPresentation view. The next step is to modify the presentation for the custom attribute that you want to show in example of ethical the Risk Work Item Editor: Risk Level. Expand the Details section by clicking on the plus sign + of the social between north, Overview tab, and then click Add Presentation . This will open a dialog window to provide values for example of ethical, presentation field. The presentation can be attribute-based or non-attribute-based. Since you are adding the presentation field for social between north, a custom attribute of a Risk work item, select Attribute-based presentation . Figure 22. Provide values for example of ethical, an attribute-based presentation. The Risk Level has been chosen as the attribute, because the presentation is being added for the Risk Level attribute of the Risk work item type.

Choose Kind as an Enumeration, because Risk Level is an Does College enumeration type. A label is required for visual identification of the presentation field. Click OK . There will now be a new presentation created for Risk Level in the Details section. You can change the position of this presentation by clicking the egoism, Move Up or Move Down button. Figure 23. Risk Level presentation added to the presentation. With this, you have finished creating the lusting synonym, Work Item Editor for the Risk work item. Remember to add the other three types of editor presentations to be able to example of ethical egoism view the social north and south, work item properly in example of ethical egoism all views. Bind the workflow and editor presentation with the Risk work item.

Until now, the workflow and editor presentations that you created exist as independent identities, without any link to the Risk work item type created earlier. To link these entities, go back to Does College Process Configuration Project Configuration Configuration Data WorkItems Types and Attributes , and select the newly created type, Risk. Any work item in this place will have selection boxes to choose its various attributes, such as Work Item Editor, Inline Work Item Editor, Lightweight Work Item Creation Dialog, Plan Editor Preview, Workflow, and so forth. To select the editor presentations and workflow that you created as values of the example egoism, Work Item editor presentation and workflow for the Risk type, choose the values shown in following two screen captures. (Figure 24) In the Project Area screen, under the five traits test, Types and Attributes view, for Work Item Types, select Risk from the list. For the Work Item Editor field, select RiskWorkItemEditorPresentation from the drop-down menu. Example Of Ethical Egoism? (Figure 25) In the next view, under Workflow, select Risk Workflow from the drop-down menu. Figure 24. Binding the Work Item Editor Presentation with the Risk type of work item. Figure 25. Binding the workflow with the Risk type.

Remember to bind other three types of editor presentations (inline work item editor, Lightweight Workitem Creation dialog and lusting synonym Plan Edior Preview) to be able to view the work item properly in of ethical egoism all views. Choose appropriate values for other three types of editor presentations, using the names that you gave to those. You have now created a fully functional type of work item called Risk. In the Team Artifacts view, to test the new work item type that you have created, open the TestProject project, and select Create Work Item . Figure 26 shows the - Foundations World, resulting Create Work Item screen. Figure 26. Creating a new work item in Rational Team Concert. Notice that there is now a type of work item called Risk. Select it, and then click Finish . This will create a new Risk work item. Of Ethical Egoism? Notice the highlighted parts in the screen capture (Figure 27): Low Risk and Uninitiated [inactive].

A Risk Level attribute is displayed in the third row, with a default value of five personality Low Risk, and the initial state of Risk is Uninitialized. As you recall from the workflow, a risk should move into the Identified state as soon as it is example egoism opened. Rational Team Concert treats the guardians, Risk as Opened only when it is saved to of ethical the project. Save this Risk, and lusting synonym the state will change to Identified. Figure 28. Risk now shown in the Identified state. To test the example egoism, workflow of this Risk work item, take specific actions. As an example, select Assign for Essay Modern World, this new Risk. Figure 29.

Performing an Assign action on example of ethical egoism, a risk. As soon as Assign action is applied, the state of risk is changed to Analyzing. Figure 30. Five Personality Test? Risk in Analyzing state after performing the Assign action. At any point, you can choose to egoism perform actions, as long as they are feasible from current state of a risk. Personality Test? Based on the action taken, the state of the Risk work item will keep changing. For example, an Escalate action will lead to of ethical a Blocking state, as shown in Figure 31.

Figure 31. Does College Essay? Risk in Blocking state after an Escalate action. You can also test that Resolutions being shown when a Close action is being performed and choose different resolutions. Using the egoism, second highlighted drop-down menu, to Essay - Foundations World the right of the state (status) field, you can choose various resolutions. They are in the same order as you defined them in the workflow. When the example of ethical egoism, resolution is selected and saved to personality test the Project Area, the resolution can no longer be edited. Figure 32.

Performing a Close action on a Risk work item. Rational Team Concert provides extensive process configuration options to meet requirements of almost every project. This article covered one of those customizations for work items in example of ethical Rational Team Concert. As a part of this customization, a new type of work item was created for risks, along with its various aspects, including enumerations, custom attributes workflow, and so forth. There were details about various parts of the workflow, focusing on states, transitions, resolutions, and actions. After all of the independent identities were created and linked, the newly created work item type was tested.

Team members can now create custom work items for different risks, based on Essay Modern World, that umbrella type of Risk work item. Watch the Using Rational Team Concert in a globally distributed team webcast or a demonstration of the example egoism, Dashboards and reports. Silent Realm Guardians? Download Rational Team Concert from (requires registration). Of Ethical? Evaluate IBM software. Sign in Does College or register to add and subscribe to comments.