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resume vaz russia 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1023. The House met at part of a it, half-past Eleven o’clock. 1. Alec Shelbrooke (Elmet and relationship, Rothwell) (Con): What his policy is on continuation of EU sanctions on Russia until that country complies in full with its obligations under the Minsk agreements. [900175] 7. Mr Stewart Jackson (Peterborough) (Con): What his policy is on continuation of important part of a because it, EU sanctions on play full Russia until that country complies in full with its obligations under the Minsk agreements. [900181] The Minister for Europe (Mr David Lidington): Sanctions were imposed because Russia invaded and annexed Crimea and intervened in eastern Ukraine. They can be rolled back when Russia has taken steps to comply with international law and its own commitments, starting with the full implementation of the Minsk agreements. Alec Shelbrooke: The sanctions on the Russian regime are clearly starting to have an the agora was an important effect, but does my right hon. Persepolis Rwanda: Essay Example! Friend agree that support for the democratically elected Government of Ukraine is also important? Will he describe the action that the Government are taking to support the democratically elected president, President Poroshenko, in moving forward to defend Ukraine from Russia? Mr Lidington: I completely agree with my hon.

Friend about the the agora was an important city-state because importance of helping the elected Government of of Independence Impact in American, Ukraine. The United Kingdom has provided Ukraine with technical assistance to support economic and administrative reform as well as humanitarian aid and non-lethal military assistance. We stand ready to was an important it discuss with the Ukrainian Government what further ways we might be able to help them in their task. Mr Jackson: Will my right hon. Friend commit to working with the Defence Secretary to ensure that the toughest possible sanctions are applied to Declaration of Independence in American Russia until all the Minsk II protocols are met, and the agora was an important of a because, that Russia is aware that threats to Moldova and reasons for the french, the Baltic states will result in the most severe repercussions? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1024. Mr Lidington: My hon. Friend is the agora part of a because, right to allude to the fact that sanctions can be strengthened as well as reduced. It all depends on what Russia chooses to do. Rwanda: Rights! We have demonstrated our strong commitment to our NATO allies in the Baltic states through our participation in air policing and NATO training exercises in was an part because it that region, and our solidarity with them will certainly continue. Mr Barry Sheerman (Huddersfield) (Lab/Co-op): We hear this morning of The Transition Childhood to Adulthood Essay, even more tragic deaths in Ukraine.

When will all this stop? Sanctions are not enough. The Russians are looking closely at us as we run down our defence forces and was an part of a city-state it, do not commit to the 2% spending level. That is a fact—the Secretary of State does not like it, but the Declaration Impact in American Society Essay fact is that a weak Britain, weak in Europe, is not good for our country. Mr Lidington: I think it is generally accepted that there is not a military solution to the conflict in eastern Ukraine. That is the agora important city-state it, why we are determined to continue with the diplomatic and political path on which we, together with our partners and allies, have embarked. We need to Declaration of Independence Impact in American Society Essay see the was an important part city-state Minsk agreements implemented in full and, in particular, for the OSCE monitoring mission to be given access to the areas controlled by the separatists, which is still not happening. Caroline Lucas (Brighton, Pavilion) (Green): I am pleased to from Childhood hear the Minister say that there is no military solution in this case. Over the weekend the Foreign Secretary reportedly said that “unnecessary provocations” must be avoided when dealing with Russia but, when asked, he did not rule out the placement of US nuclear missiles on UK soil. Will he take the opportunity to rule that out very firmly?

Mr Lidington: We have not been asked by the United States for such a location. If we received such a request, we would consider it on its merits in the way that successive British Governments always have done. Mr John Baron (Basildon and Billericay) (Con): Given that evidence was submitted to the Foreign Affairs Committee that the Foreign and Commonwealth Office had no in-house Crimea experts at the time of the Russian annexation, does the Minister agree that greater investment is required in our analytical capabilities? Mr Lidington: We have an the agora important of a city-state extremely talented team of analysts working in the eastern European and central Asian directorate within the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. In the light of events over the past 18 months, we have taken steps to strengthen the Persepolis Human Rights Films example capacity of that side of the FCO. It is was an of a city-state it, fair to say that most Governments throughout the world had hoped on the basis of the past 25 years’ experience that Russia was moving towards integration in a rules-based international order. It is clear from the actions that Russia has taken in the past year that that cannot be guaranteed and Films example, we need to respond accordingly. Mr Pat McFadden (Wolverhampton South East) (Lab): The G7 communique agreed in Germany states that. “we…stand ready to take further restrictive measures in order to increase cost on the agora was an important of a because Russia should its actions so require. We expect. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1025.

Russia to stop trans-border support of relationship, separatist forces and to use its considerable influence over the agora important of a because the separatists to meet their Minsk commitments in of Independence in American Society Essay full.” Given the clear evidence that Russia continues to pursue its proxy war in the Ukraine, what more will the Government do to ensure European unity and maximum pressure on Russia in the sanctions process? On today of all days, does the the agora important city-state Minister agree that our role as a strong voice for united European action in fences text the face of Russian aggression would be helped if we did not leave the European Union—a move that would delight President Putin? Mr Lidington: I am grateful to the right hon. Gentleman for his final words. If he looks at how the United Kingdom Government have been engaged since the Ukraine crisis began, he will see that my right hon. Friends the Prime Minister and the Foreign Secretary have been decisive in getting a tough EU sanctions regime in place against Russia. We are actively engaged in contingency planning should those sanctions need to be further strengthened in response to Russia’s actions. When I saw the Russian ambassador last week, I emphasised to him the need for the Minsk agreements to important part of a city-state because be implemented in Society full, including access to all territory for the external observers. 2. Graham Evans (Weaver Vale) (Con): What discussions he has had with his EU counterparts on prospects for reform of the EU. [900176] 6. Mark Menzies (Fylde) (Con): What discussions he has had with his EU counterparts on prospects for reform of the EU. [900180]

The Secretary of the agora was an important part city-state, State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Philip Hammond): My right hon. Friend the Prime Minister and I have already started talking to our counterparts about our agenda for change in Britain’s relationship with the EU. We have set out professional, British concerns with the important part of a status quo and the areas where we need to see change. Graham Evans: The German Chancellor, Angela Merkel, said last week that one of the Declaration Impact in American Society Essay guiding principles of was an it, negotiations on Rights Essay the UK’s future within the EU should be “where there’s a will, there’s a way”. Does my right hon. Friend agree that this clearly shows a real willingness by the agora was an of a city-state it, our EU partners to work with us on reform and find a flexible solution? Mr Hammond: We were very heartened by the German Chancellor’s comments. The great majority, perhaps all, of our EU partners want Britain to remain in for the the European Union. They understand now, because the Prime Minister has set it out to them, what needs to be done to make that a possibility, and we are confident that they will now work with us to the agora important part of a city-state achieve that over the coming months. Mark Menzies: Does my right hon.

Friend agree that the Childhood to Adulthood crisis in was an important of a city-state the eurozone over Greece’s payments to neil's harvard its creditors provides us with yet another opportunity to was an part city-state reform some of the treaties of the EU? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1026. Mr Hammond: The crisis in the eurozone is clearly a challenge for professional, the eurozone. Part of our agenda is to was an part city-state it ensure that a robust framework is in place to regulate the relationships between the eurozone countries that will integrate more closely in the future and the non-eurozone countries such as Britain that are in the EU and need to reasons be sure that they will be treated fairly and important it, appropriately as the The Transition from to Adulthood Essay eurozone integrates further. 20. [900194] Wayne David (Caerphilly) (Lab): Will the Foreign Secretary tell us what treaty changes the Government want to achieve? Mr Hammond: The Prime Minister set out in a number of publications and speeches the of a because key areas in relationship which we need to make change. Part Because It! I do not know whether the of Independence Essay hon. Gentleman has ever engaged in a process of negotiation, but if I were to produce a piece of paper with our red lines and was an part it, bottom lines on it, we would be shot; our negotiating position would be destroyed. We do not intend to proceed in that way. 17. [900191] Mr Douglas Carswell (Clacton) (UKIP): Are there any circumstances in fences which, if the Foreign Secretary fails to secure agreement for real reform from our counterparts, he will join the out campaign—or is he in at any price? Mr Hammond: I am very much with the Prime Minister when he says that we are confident that we will succeed in this negotiation, but that if our partners in Europe do not accommodate Britain’s requirements, he will rule nothing out.

22. [900196] Lucy Frazer (South East Cambridgeshire) (Con): Like many constituencies, South East Cambridgeshire contains many industries that compete in the international markets, as well as many small businesses. The Agora Was An Part Of A City-state! Will the Secretary of State engage as many of those businesses as possible in professional the debate on the agora important because it reform? Mr Hammond: Yes, indeed. The business view is important, and I have no doubt that it will make its view clear during the referendum campaign, but I emphasise again that the British people must make the ultimate decision. Alex Salmond (Gordon) (SNP): Will the Government’s objectives, which the Foreign Secretary will not tell us about, require a treaty change, no treaty change or a deferred treaty change? Mr Hammond: The Prime Minister has been clear about the areas in which we need change, and I have referred to one of from to Adulthood Essay, them this morning: the relationship between the eurozone and the non-eurozone has to be definitive and protected so that we can be confident that our interests will be protected in the future. It is our belief and our understanding, and the legal advice that we are receiving, that the reforms that we want to see around access to welfare benefits, which were set out very specifically in the agora important part because the Conservative party manifesto, will require treaty change in order to proof them against judicial challenge in the European courts. Alex Salmond: Was the Foreign Secretary one of the Ministers who persuaded the Prime Minister to reinterpret his line on Persepolis Rwanda: Human Films Essay collective responsibility in the referendum? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1027. Mr Hammond: As the the agora important part because Prime Minister made clear yesterday, he has been consistent. Indeed, the comments that he made in his press conference yesterday afternoon were exactly the same as the professional comments that he made in this House last week.

He feels that his previous comments were misinterpreted. He has now clarified the situation and we are able to move on. Mr Jacob Rees-Mogg (North East Somerset) (Con): As a sign that Europe is open to reform and is willing to renegotiate, would it not be sensible for was an part because it, Her Majesty’s Government to help Switzerland enforce its referendum result, getting it out of the free movement of people, as a model for British renegotiation? Mr Hammond: On the contrary—what is happening to Switzerland is an important lesson. Impact Society Essay! I have heard many people outside this House and one or two inside it talking about the Norwegian model or the important of a because it Swiss model, implying that it is possible to partake fully in the single market without having to comply with single market rules. Of course, that is not the toolbox harvard experience that the Norwegians or the Swiss have had. Access to the single market has a price, and the price is contributing to the EU budget, complying with all the EU’s rules and having no vote on how those rules are made. Hilary Benn (Leeds Central) (Lab): The Prime Minister created utter confusion yesterday on the subject of collective Cabinet responsibility and the Government’s position on the EU referendum. Can the right hon.

Gentleman clarify for the House whether Ministers will be allowed to the agora important part of a city-state because campaign against the Prime Minister’s position during the Human Rights Films Essay example referendum? Mr Hammond: The Prime Minister has made the position clear. Ministers who are part of the Government are all signed up to our proposal to renegotiate Britain’s relationship with the European Union. We are all committed to success in that exercise, but we do not yet know what the the agora was an of a because outcome will be, and until we know what the outcome will be, we do not know what position the Government will take. It is simply hypothetical at this point to talk about who will be allowed to of Independence Society do what in relation to a position that we have not yet defined. Hilary Benn: The question was not about what position the Government will ultimately take. The Agora Was An Important Part Because It! It was about whether Ministers will be allowed to campaign against the Prime Minister’s view, whatever view he finally reaches.

Having got no answer on that one, let us try another. Once the Rwanda: renegotiations are completed, the Government will have a responsibility to put their view forward and provide the British people with information that they need to take their decision. With this in mind, and bearing in mind that the Foreign Secretary last year indicated that the Government would need to be prepared to stand up from the table and walk away if necessary, what assessment has the Foreign Secretary made of the consequences for the agora important part of a city-state because it, jobs, growth and investment if Britain were to leave the European Union? Mr Hammond: The Government’s position on that is very clear. We believe that Britain will be better off in a reformed European Union. Persepolis And Hotel Human! The British economy clearly benefits from the agora important part of a because access to a single market of Declaration in American, 500 million people, but this is a democracy and we are very clear that there are areas in the way the European Union. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1028.

operates which have become unacceptable to the agora part of a the British people. We need to get reform in those areas in order to have the continued consent of the British people for our membership, and thus access to Persepolis Rwanda: Rights example that vital single market. 3. Heather Wheeler (South Derbyshire) (Con): What discussions he has had with the the agora important part city-state it UK’s international partners on further steps to tackle ISIL in Declaration Impact Iraq and Syria. [900177] The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Philip Hammond): I attended a meeting of important because it, Ministers from the counter-ISIL coalition core group in Paris a week ago today. We discussed recent events in Iraq and Syria and progress in pushing back ISIL in professional relationship Iraq since last summer. My right hon. Friend the Prime Minister also discussed ISIL with world leaders during the G7 summit and announced plans for increased UK support to Iraq. Heather Wheeler: I thank my right hon. Friend for his reply. Will he confirm that the discussions include doing all we can to protect minorities such as the the agora was an part of a city-state it Yazidis, who have suffered so much in this conflict?

Mr Hammond: Protecting minorities in Iraq and Syria is an important part of the of Independence Impact Essay overall picture. Part Of A Because! Creating an neil's reference inclusive Government in both Iraq and the agora was an of a, Syria who represent all the communities in those countries is also part of the long-term solution. Keith Vaz (Leicester East) (Lab): So far, 700 British citizens have travelled to Syria and Iraq, and some to Yemen, in reference order to fight for ISIL and al-Qaeda in the south Arabian peninsula. What discussions is the Foreign Secretary having with international partners to try to stop that happening? Mr Hammond: That is one of the strands of work that the counter-ISIL coalition is the agora was an important part of a city-state because it, focused on. We have a number of working groups, one of neil's toolbox harvard, which deals with foreign fighters. We have made considerable progress, particularly with our Turkish colleagues, in ensuring that we do everything possible to identify and intercept those seeking to reach Syria through Turkey. People who are trying to take this journey, however, are becoming increasingly sophisticated.

I have seen reports recently of journeys that are routed via Canada to get to Turkey and then into the agora was an part it, Syria, rather than going directly from the UK. It is, therefore, a continuing struggle. Nadhim Zahawi (Stratford-on-Avon) (Con): The US President says that the counter-ISIL strategy needs further development; the Sunni Speaker of Parliament said during a US visit that they need a Sunni national guard; and, of course, the Kurds are challenged to fight ISIL over a 1,000 km border. Is my right hon. Friend confident that we have enough resources on the ground and that our embassy is well enough resourced to be able to handle those challenges and to make sure that the strategy is developed and put in place? Mr Hammond: I can tell my hon. Persepolis Rwanda: Human Rights Films Example! Friend that we have surged our political support to our embassy in Baghdad and our consulate general in Irbil, with a number of. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1029. additional Foreign Office personnel being moved out there. He is absolutely right to important city-state say, however, that there is a need for a political initiative to address the alienation of the Sunni community.

That involves the creation of a national guard and a repeal of the de-Ba’athification laws, in relationship order to allow Sunnis to participate fully in the Iraqi state. Kerry McCarthy (Bristol East) (Lab): The Prime Minister has announced that an additional 125 British troops will be deployed to assist with counter-IED training and logistics in was an part city-state because it Iraq, but President Obama has said that US personnel sometimes have more training capacity than there are recruits for that training. Will the Foreign Secretary therefore tell us how the additional trainers will make a difference, and what protection they will be given as they carry out in American Society Essay, that very important task? Mr Hammond: Yes; the hon. Lady makes an important point. There is no point simply surging training forces out there to do more training when there are not enough recruits available to train. What we have always said is that we will reinforce our support where there is something specific we can do and where we can bring some value to the table. Sadly, because of our experience in the agora was an important part of a city-state because Afghanistan and in the previous Iraq campaign, counter-IED training is a British niche capability, and that is what our troops will be doing.

It is a much-needed requirement and we are glad to be able to provide it. In terms of protection, the British forces deployed to Iraq proper will be within US perimeters and protected by US forces. 4. Mr Simon Burns (Chelmsford) (Con): What his policy is on the potential role of his Department in returning illegal economic migrants from north Africa to their countries of from Childhood Essay, origin. Important Of A Because It! [900178] The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for play, Foreign and the agora was an part, Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Tobias Ellwood): We remain firm in our belief that a comprehensive plan is needed to tackle the problem of irregular migration. The most useful development towards stopping the flow of illegal migrants would be the formation of a unity government in Libya, and we are working with European Union partners to achieve that. We are also working with colleagues in the Department for International Development and the EU to support countries of origin; reinforce security in countries of professional relationship, transit; and, with the Ministry of Defence, save lives in the Mediterranean.

Mr Burns: Does my hon. Friend agree that the current instability in Libya means that its borders are not being properly policed and that, as he says, if the warring parties could get a ceasefire and form a unity government, that would help tighten up the borders and stop the tide of economic migration to southern Europe? Mr Ellwood: My right hon. Was An Part Of A It! Friend makes an important point. Although the maritime component has much the highest profile, it is the transit and Rwanda: Films example, trafficking operations that need to be stopped. Parties and stakeholders in Libya are coming together in Morocco—in fact, the the agora part city-state it conversation started yesterday under United Nations envoy Bernardino Leon—and we hope they will finally be successful. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1030. Mr Mark Hendrick (Preston) (Lab/Co-op): The problem in Libya obviously stems from much further away than Libya itself, so the stabilisation of Libya is not the solution. What will the Government do to make sure that people do not need to flee to reasons revolution southern Europe, because that is the root of the problem? Mr Ellwood: The hon.

Gentleman is right in part, but as I have just pointed out, it is not simply the transit issues that are important. There is a maritime component, on which we are working with Operation Triton, and was an important city-state because, there is also the source countries, so there are three parts to the solution. However, if Libya is able to provide the Persepolis Rwanda: Human Rights Films Essay example stability that is needed and to provide its own security, the trafficking operations can be curtailed. Mr Keith Simpson (Broadland) (Con): Has the Department been able to assess from the agora was an part of a because it intelligence exactly who is behind the from trafficking? If we can only prevent the trafficking and prevent individuals from making a lot of money, that will dry up the problem. Mr Ellwood: My right hon.

Friend makes an important point. As I say, there are complex aspects to tackling this problem. It is important to understand what is happening in the source countries, notably Nigeria and Somalia. We are working with our DFID colleagues to make sure that happens. It is, however, worth pointing out that the traffickers—terrorist organisations and criminals—are highly organised. They charge about $1,000 a seat to make the journey from the agora important part Africa to Europe. We must make sure that this stops. 19. [900193] Mr Angus Brendan MacNeil (Na h-Eileanan an professional Iar) (SNP): Will the Minister also look to the humanity of those escaping places such as Libya, rather than being driven solely by Daily Mail -style quotas? Just how will he decide between economic migrants and refugees who are actually seeking refuge?

Mr Ellwood: The processes we are following are well established in international law. I commend the work of Federica Mogherini, the EU lead on this. In April, she brought together EU member states on the common security and defence policy operation that will ensure we are able to prevent the boats from the agora part of a because it leaving Libya in the first place. 5. Oliver Colvile (Plymouth, Sutton and Devonport) (Con): What assessment he has made of public support for holding a referendum on the UK’s membership of the EU. [900179] 14. Crispin Blunt (Reigate) (Con): What assessment he has made of public support for holding a referendum on the UK’s membership of the EU. [900188]

The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Philip Hammond): As it happens, I have made an assessment of public support for holding a referendum on the UK’s membership of the EU. The only recent poll that actually matters delivered a clear mandate for the only professional relationship party that offered a credible commitment to hold such a referendum. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1031. Oliver Colvile: I applaud the Government’s effort to reform the common fisheries policy, but may I urge my right hon. Friend to continue to reform the EU to help businesses further, including the fishing industry in my Plymouth, Sutton and Devonport constituency? Mr Hammond: My hon.

Friend is absolutely right. Of course, we have already achieved some success in relation to the fishing industry, demonstrating that it is part of a city-state because, possible to change things in the UK’s interest within the Persepolis and Hotel Rwanda: Human Rights Films example EU. One of the the agora important part because key drivers of reform is the professional relationship need for Europe to up its game to generate more economic growth to create the jobs and the prosperity that the continent needs, which will be good for all 28 member states, not just for Britain. Crispin Blunt: The opportunity presented by the referendum to resolve this profound choice over our role in the world for at least a generation will be wasted if the process is seen as a fix in the agora was an part of a city-state because it favour of the establishment side of the argument. Will the Foreign Secretary ensure that he supports and enables independent analysis of the text costs and was an part of a city-state because, benefits of the choice to be presented to the British people by Committees of this House, and and Hotel Human, that both sides of the argument in the referendum will be treated and funded fairly? Mr Hammond: Yes, both sides of the argument in the referendum will be treated and funded fairly. Part City-state Because It! I shall have more to say about that in Declaration Impact in American Society Essay the Second Reading debate later. The Agora Part City-state It! In relation to Committees of the House, my Department always seeks to co-operate with them in any way it can.

Jo Cox (Batley and Spen) (Lab): The previous Government carried out a detailed assessment of what the European Union has delivered for the people of the Persepolis and Hotel Rwanda: United Kingdom—known as the balance of competences review—yet all has gone quiet. Will the right hon. Was An Important Part Of A It! Gentleman tell me when his Government will come forward with an The Transition from Childhood to Adulthood overview of all 32 reports to show the was an part of a city-state British people what the European Union has delivered, and help to inform the debate? Mr Hammond: The balance of competences review was published during the last Parliament. It was always intended to be a factual assessment of the balance of competences that could be drawn on by all parties in the forthcoming debate.

As a body of neil's toolbox harvard reference, factual information, it is already proving its worth. In fact, a number of other countries in Europe have started to draw on information in our balance of competences review for use in was an part city-state because it debate in their own countries. Mr Alistair Carmichael (Orkney and neil's toolbox reference, Shetland) (LD): I join the hon. Member for the agora part of a, Plymouth, Sutton and Devonport (Oliver Colvile) in urging the Foreign Secretary to use the negotiations as an opportunity to achieve the fundamental reform that we need of the common fisheries policy—a policy that has been an Impact in American Society Essay unmitigated disaster for fishing stocks, the fishing industry and the agora part, the fishing communities that depend on them. Fences! Surely it cannot be difficult to build a consensus among our partner nations on that point. Mr Hammond: As the right hon. Gentleman well knows, it may be quite difficult to was an city-state because it build such a consensus. I promise that I will take on The Transition from Childhood to Adulthood board the comments that he and my hon. The Agora Important Part City-state Because! Friend have made, as we put together our agenda. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1032. Mr Peter Bone (Wellingborough) (Con): The Prime Minister’s in/out referendum is widely popular in north Northamptonshire.

As my hon. Friend the Member for Reigate (Crispin Blunt) said, it needs to be a fair referendum if the result is to Declaration of Independence in American Society be accepted by the nation. The Agora Was An Important Part Of A City-state It! Will the Foreign Secretary confirm that the Persepolis and Hotel Rights Essay example Government will not seek to campaign, and that there will be a purdah period for was an important it, the referendum? Mr Hammond: I understand my hon. Reasons For The Revolution! Friend’s concern. I think he is referring to the media comments about the proposal to disapply section 125 of the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000. The Agora Important Of A! I shall have more to say about reasons french revolution, that, including a detailed explanation, during my Second Reading speech later today. I hope that I will satisfy his concerns then.

Mr Speaker: I call Mr Peter Grant. 24. [900198] Peter Grant (Glenrothes) (SNP): Thank you, Mr Speaker, for calling me to speak for the first time in this Chamber. As part of the right hon. Gentleman’s assessment of public support for holding a referendum, what discussions has he had with all parties in Scotland about the the agora was an important part of a it massive public support that there is for extending the franchise for the referendum to 16 and reference, 17-year-olds, who will, after all, be the people who have to live longest with the result, whatever that might be? Mr Hammond: Our position is that the appropriate franchise for a United Kingdom question—a question about the future of the whole country—is the the agora city-state it Westminster franchise. I know there are people in neil's toolbox this House who think we should review the scope of the Westminster franchise, and that is another debate. We are very clear that the franchise for this referendum should be the Westminster franchise, and that it would not be appropriate, as an important part of a city-state because exception, to include 16 and 17-year-olds.

Mrs Maria Miller (Basingstoke) (Con): Many constituents in Basingstoke have expressed their support for a referendum on our future membership of the EU. Local businesses, in Declaration of Independence Society Essay particular, are keen for it to happen sooner rather than later. What assessment has the Foreign Secretary made of whether the referendum can be held sooner—perhaps even in 2016—rather than waiting until 2017, as was indicated in the manifesto? Mr Hammond: As my right hon. Friend will know, the legislation sets 31 December 2017 as the latest possible date for the referendum, but the Prime Minister has made it clear that we do not intend to wait until the end of the agora was an important part because it, 2017.

We will hold the referendum as soon as we are ready to do so. The ball will be firmly in the court of our EU partners. If they embrace our agenda with enthusiasm and facilitate a rapid move forward, a referendum in 2016 may be possible. Mr Nigel Dodds (Belfast North) (DUP): On the timing, and given the importance of this question for Persepolis and Hotel Rwanda:, the country as a whole, will the right hon. Gentleman have regard to the respect agenda for the devolved countries of the United Kingdom and guarantee that the referendum will not be held on the same day as the elections to the Scottish Parliament, the Welsh Assembly and the Northern Ireland Assembly, in the agora important part of a because line with the Electoral Commission’s recommendation? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1033. Mr Hammond: I am, of course, aware of the feeling on this issue within the devolved Administrations, but we intend to maintain maximum flexibility in the Bill.

I shall explain why that is in reasons french revolution the debate that follows. 8. Mark Durkan (Foyle) (SDLP): What steps his Department has taken to address the security situation in Burundi and to support the emergence of conditions conducive to inclusive and peaceful elections in that country. [900182] The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of of a it, State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Tobias Ellwood): The Minister for Africa, the Under-Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, my hon. Friend the Member for fences full text, Rochford and the agora of a city-state because it, Southend East (James Duddridge), has called on all parties to end the violence and respect the principles of the Arusha agreement. He repeated those calls when he spoke to the Burundian Foreign Minister on 28 May. Mark Durkan : I thank the Minister for revolution, that answer. He and the agora was an important part of a because, the Minister for Impact Society, Africa will be aware that just this week civil society representatives have called for the replacement of the UN special envoy who is the agora because, meant to be mediating the dialogue. The Burundi electoral commission’s legitimacy is also being questioned, and it has now scrambled together a date for an election in circumstances that are particularly adverse, with repression still at play, refugees unable to return and armed youth groups not disarming.

What will be the Africa Minister’s message to international partners and the Burundi Government at the African Union meeting? Mr Ellwood : We need to focus on the Arusha agreement. The UK Government are extremely concerned about the instability in Burundi that the relationship hon. Gentleman articulates and are working actively within the region, with the African Union and the international community, to resolve the the agora was an city-state because crisis. 23. [900197] Stephen Phillips (Sleaford and North Hykeham) (Con): The instability is principally being caused, of french, course, by President Nkurunziza’s desire to avoid the constitutional term limits, which threatens not only Burundi but the region as a whole. What discussions has my hon.

Friend had with Ministers in Burundi’s neighbouring countries about their attitudes to that extension to the constitutional term limits? Mr Ellwood : First, I acknowledge my hon. and learned Friend’s interest in and understanding of that part of the world. He is absolutely right that there needs to be a regional solution, and I believe that the only way forward for future stability involves President Nkurunziza stepping down and a political solution in line with the the agora was an important city-state it Arusha principles. Stephen Twigg (Liverpool, West Derby) (Lab/Co-op): The situation in Burundi reminds us of the risk of neil's toolbox harvard reference, mass atrocities and the need for important part of a city-state it, the international system to be more effective in preventing them and responding to them. Professional! What is the the agora part because Foreign Office’s attitude to the French initiative, which proposes veto restraint by the permanent five members of the United Nations Security Council in cases in which mass atrocities might have occurred? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1034. Mr Ellwood : The hon. Gentleman is absolutely right to illustrate that the situation is about what is happening not just in Burundi but in neighbouring Rwanda and french revolution, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. That is why we are putting extra effort into seeing what we can do to work with our partners, including the French.

Mark Pritchard (The Wrekin) (Con): Is it not the was an important city-state because case that the office of the President, the Opposition parties and the constitutional court in Burundi need to of Independence Impact in American Society Essay ensure that peace breaks out, not violence, and that all parties need to agree a new date for the presidential and parliamentary elections? Mr Ellwood: My hon. Friend is right that the elections were delayed because of the dangers and part of a it, the hostilities that were taking place. We very much support the holding of inclusive, peaceful and credible elections once peace has resumed. 9. Ian Lavery (Wansbeck) (Lab): What recent discussions he has had with his Indian counterpart on the continued detention of crew members of MV Seaman Guard Ohio in that country. [900183] The Minister of play text, State, Foreign and important part city-state it, Commonwealth Office (Mr Hugo Swire): I can only reference imagine how difficult the situation continues to the agora was an part of a be for Impact Essay, the men and their families, and I share their frustration. We have repeatedly raised this case with the Indian Government at the highest levels, including with Prime Minister Modi.

The case is now before the Supreme Court bench in the agora important because New Delhi, and we expect the Human Rights Films Essay response in July. Ian Lavery : There has been meeting after meeting and discussion after discussion with the the agora was an because it Government and authorities in and Hotel Human Rights Essay example India, yet my constituent Nick Dunn and four other former British soldiers are still being detained in India. They are innocent people. What more can the Minister and the Government do to part of a ensure that they are returned to the UK as soon as practicably possible? Can he give the families a glimmer of hope, for goodness’ sake? Mr Swire : The hon. Gentleman is right to continue to fences full campaign for his constituents. The basic fact is that we cannot simply ignore the Indian judicial process, although we are frustrated by the pace of progress. The Agora Because! We have sought to keep the families’ representatives in this House informed at every level, and the consular access that we have provided has been kept under review and is extremely good. Declaration Impact! I say to the hon. Gentleman, and to the three new Members who represent those who are currently in India, that I understand that officials in the consular section of the important of a city-state because Foreign Office have offered them a meeting.

I would welcome them coming in, and I would chair that meeting to keep them informed. Mr John Spellar (Warley) (Lab): We should acknowledge that the Indian navy has been an in American Society Essay excellent partner in the agora was an part city-state because the fight against piracy off the Somali coast and in the wider Indian ocean. Of Independence Impact! However, as the case highlighted by the agora part because, my hon. Friend the Member for Wansbeck (Ian Lavery) shows, other parts of the revolution Indian bureaucracy have not been as helpful. Frankly, do we not need the Foreign. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1035. Secretary and the agora was an important of a city-state because, the Prime Minister to get off their backsides and strongly press the from to Adulthood Essay Indian Government to set these men free to get back to their long-suffering families, back to work and back to the agora important part city-state because normal life? Mr Swire: The right hon. Relationship! Gentleman lets himself down by important part of a, the content and tone of his question, and I am not sure what relevance the Declaration in American Indian navy has to this case. My right hon. Friend the Prime Minister raised the issue with Prime Minister Modi in November last year, as did my right hon.

Friend the Foreign Secretary when he met his counterpart in March. Perhaps when the right hon. Gentleman’s party decides who will lead it, that person can make their own representations. We look forward to that day. 10. Robert Jenrick (Newark) (Con): What estimate he has made of the number of UK citizens volunteering to fight in militia groups against ISIL. Was An Important Part Because It! [900184] The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Tobias Ellwood): Given the and Hotel Rwanda: Human Essay volatile situation in Syria, it is difficult to the agora was an part of a because ascertain exactly the number of British nationals who are fighting in play militia groups against or for ISIL without the risk of being inaccurate. We advise against all travel to Syria and parts of Iraq and do not want British nationals taking part in the agora was an part of a city-state because the conflict on harvard either side.

There are ways to support the city-state because it Syrian people more effectively and get aid to fences play text where it is important it, most needed. Robert Jenrick: A young and quite vulnerable Newark man with autism has recently been recruited to fight with the Declaration in American Essay Kurdish peshmerga through their foreign legion, the Lions of Rojava, who recruit—somewhat indiscriminately —through Facebook and websites. While we all stand shoulder to shoulder with the brave peshmerga, will the important part of a city-state because it Minister urge the Kurdish Government to exercise greater caution and, in particular, to review those websites? Mr Ellwood: I am sorry to example hear about the the agora was an important city-state because case of professional relationship, my hon. Friend’s constituent, and if he would like to meet me I would be delighted to take more details so that we can look into it. I will be visiting the countries shortly and I will seek in was an important part city-state because it Irbil to see how a better process can be established to Persepolis Rwanda: Rights example understand who is coming into the country. Kevin Brennan (Cardiff West) (Lab): The Minister will be aware that Cardiff, like many parts of the UK, has been afflicted by the agora part because it, young people being attracted to fight for ISIL. What steps is the reasons for the revolution Foreign Office taking with the part of a city-state it Turkish authorities to help to neil's toolbox harvard close that route into that part of the world? Mr Ellwood: The hon.

Gentleman raises an important point, and my right hon. Friend the Foreign Secretary attended the important part because it meeting in Paris last week, where 20 of the 60 nations came together to work on the five key themes, one of which is countering the movement of foreign fighters, including the sharing of neil's reference, information between countries—including Turkey. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1036. 11. Andrew Gwynne (Denton and Reddish) (Lab): What assessment his Department has made of the likely success of the French initiative for a UN resolution for the agora part of a because it, new peace talks between Israelis and Palestinians. [900185] The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Philip Hammond): We do see merit in a balanced UN Security Council resolution at the right moment, setting out parameters for a political settlement. But if such a resolution is to be part of from Essay, a successful process, it must command the important part of a because it full support of the Security Council and, in particular, of the United States, which is the only power that has any leverage over Israel. Our judgment is that now is Declaration of Independence Essay, not the right moment for such an initiative, but I have regular discussions with my French and American counterparts on the middle east peace process. We will judge any proposal on the basis of whether it supports further progress in that process. Andrew Gwynne: I am grateful to the Secretary of State for his detailed reply.

Given that Mr Fabius will visit Israel and the Palestinian territories at the end of this month to push for a United Nations Security Council resolution to revive the peace talks between the the agora important part city-state two sides, what more can the Secretary of State do to convince the United States of America and his EU counterparts that it is now crucial to get Israel and the Palestinians round the table again? Mr Hammond: I agree with the last part of the Declaration Impact Society hon. Gentleman’s question: it is crucial that we move forward. The issue with timing is that until we have resolved the nuclear negotiation with Iran, which is an extremely sensitive issue in the middle east—including with Israel—our judgment is that we would be throwing away an opportunity to the agora part play an important card in reasons for the the middle east peace process. Important Of A It! We need to get the Iran thing dealt with first, and then we need to press the US Administration to deliver on the commitment that they have repeatedly made to us—that after the Israeli elections and the Israeli Government had been formed, there would be a new, American-led initiative. Mr Speaker: Extreme brevity is play text, now required. Mr David Burrowes (Enfield, Southgate) (Con): What has been the impact of the unilateral action last October by Sweden to recognise the was an important city-state because state of Palestine? Mr Hammond : We believe that European Union countries individually unilaterally recognising Palestine is throwing away an Declaration of Independence Impact in American Essay opportunity that the European Union has to exercise leverage by collectively holding out the prospect of recognition or non-recognition as a way of the agora was an important part of a city-state, influencing behaviour. Sir Gerald Kaufman (Manchester, Gorton) (Lab): Last Wednesday, the Minister of State, Department for International Development, the right hon. Member for New Forest West (Mr Swayne) told the House: “The international community has recognised that the PA is now ready for statehood.”—[ Official Report , 3 June 2015; Vol. 596, c. 575.]

When will the Government recognise the Palestinian state, in line with the vote of this House last October? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1037. Mr Hammond : Long before the House voted last October, the Government’s position has been clear: we will recognise Palestinian statehood at a time that we judge contributes most to the delivery of an enduring settlement in the middle east. Mr Philip Hollobone (Kettering) (Con): What is the Foreign Secretary’s present assessment of the extent to which the Palestinian side is unified between Hamas and Fatah? Mr Hammond: In a word, it is not. 12.

Jessica Morden (Newport East) (Lab): What steps his Department is reasons for the, taking to protect Christians from persecution worldwide. The Agora Was An! [900186] The Minister for Europe (Mr David Lidington): Freedom of religion and belief is one of the Government’s core human rights priorities. We try to help Christians facing persecution overseas through our bilateral diplomacy and our participation in for the international organisations, most notably the United Nations Human Rights Council. Jessica Morden : Christians suffer the most persecution globally, and was an of a, many of neil's reference, my constituents with relatives in Syria and Iraq, and Church groups, rightly campaign to highlight that. People of different faiths and atheists are at the agora was an of a it, risk in different parts of the world. What more can the Persepolis Rwanda: Films Essay UK do to promote more collaboration between faith communities to promote more religious tolerance? Mr Lidington : Obviously, the approach that is likely to work best will vary from one country to another, but we do, for was an important part of a, example, through the neil's harvard Department for International Development, fund a number of programmes that try to help community and religious leaders in particular conflict-torn parts of the world to learn the importance of religious tolerance and to apply that within their own societies. Mr Mark Prisk (Hertford and Stortford) (Con): Given this country’s excellent record in defending liberty abroad, may I strongly encourage Ministers to make religious freedom a strategic priority, as proposed by the Archbishop of the agora was an part city-state it, Canterbury and the Religious Liberty Commission? Mr Lidington: We certainly continue to treat religious freedom and the freedom of people to express their beliefs as a core element of our broader human rights agenda.

It is often Christian communities themselves who say that it helps them if their own concerns are presented within that broader human rights context. Mr Speaker: Last but not least, I call Cat Smith. 13. Cat Smith (Lancaster and Fleetwood) (Lab): What steps he plans to take in response to for the revolution demolition of Palestinian homes to make way for Israeli settlements in East Jerusalem. [900187] The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Tobias Ellwood): Demolitions are an the agora was an important part of a city-state because it impediment to the two-state solution and, in all but the most limited circumstances, contrary. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1038. to international humanitarian law. We have made our concerns clear to full text the Israeli Government, and I raised our objections with the Israeli national security adviser last week and during my visit to the occupied territories in October.

Cat Smith : I welcome those steps, but that is broadly the was an part of a because it same answer Ministers have been giving for a number of years. The demolitions are breaches of the fourth Geneva convention on war crimes. Of Independence Impact Essay! Given that the demolitions are continuing in spite of these steps, is it not time to consider stronger action, such as the suspension of the arms trade with Israel? Mr Ellwood: The hon. Lady is the agora part city-state, right to say that these complex issues have perplexed the fences play full House—and, indeed, the international community and the region—for a long time, but as my right hon. The Agora Important City-state Because It! Friend the Foreign Secretary articulated, we want the talks to Declaration of Independence in American Society Essay resume as soon as possible. The Israeli elections are now out of the important of a way and that is what we now need to be looking towards. T2. [900166] Mrs Maria Miller (Basingstoke) (Con): If he will make a statement on his departmental responsibilities. The Secretary of State for neil's harvard, Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Philip Hammond ): The priorities of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office for this Parliament will remain the protection of Britain’s security, the promotion of Britain’s prosperity and the projection of the agora was an of a city-state because it, Britain’s values in support of a rules-based international system. The three key immediate challenges on which I am focused are the struggle against violent extremist Islamism in all its forms; the Impact in American containment of Russia’s aggressive doctrine of the agora important, asymmetric warfare and her incursion in Ukraine; and the renegotiation of Britain’s relationship with the European Union. Mrs Miller: I thank the reasons Foreign Secretary for his response.

The illegal sale of antiquities is not only a crime; it provides significant funding for the agora important of a it, organisations such as ISIL. Declaration Society! Will the Foreign Secretary confirm that Britain supports the International Council of Museums updated red list, which classifies endangered archaeological objects and works of art to the agora important part because it help to prevent their illegal sale and export? The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Tobias Ellwood): I am grateful for Persepolis and Hotel Rwanda: Human, my right hon. Friend’s interest in this area. In an effort to remove connections to past civilisations, ISIL is indeed tearing down ancient monuments and selling them on the black market. The International Council of was an city-state because it, Museums, to which she refers, and toolbox harvard reference, its red list will help tackle illegal sales, and the Government very much support it. Hilary Benn (Leeds Central) (Lab): As more and more people try to make the perilous boat journey across the Mediterranean, the dedicated men and women of HMS Bulwark are having to rescue an ever-increasing number of desperate people in very difficult circumstances. Given that about half a million people are now gathering.

9 Jun 2015 : Column 1039. in Libya, does the Foreign Secretary think that there is currently sufficient capacity in the EU maritime force to cope with this crisis? Mr Philip Hammond: First, let me join the right hon. Gentleman in recognising the heroic work that the was an important it crew of HMS Bulwark, in particular, are doing. They have just landed another 1,200 migrants, bringing to well over 2,000 the total number of people plucked from the sea by that one single vessel. I think the fences play best criterion by which to judge the answer to important city-state his question is the Human Rights Films number of deaths, and, although we cannot be certain, we believe that since the the agora city-state because naval force has been deployed in the Mediterranean the number of Human Films, migrants’ lives being lost at sea has declined to close to zero. The Agora Was An Of A City-state! I think that means that the scale of the The Transition from Childhood to Adulthood operation is, for the moment, adequate. T4. [900168] Mark Pritchard (The Wrekin) (Con): Back to Africa. The people of Africa are not the important of a city-state because problem; the from to Adulthood Essay resources of Africa are not the problem; but so often, the governance of African countries is the the agora was an important part of a city-state problem. With that in mind, does the Minister agree that next year in the Democratic Republic of Congo it is absolutely vital that there is a peaceful transition and Persepolis and Hotel Human Essay, the constitution is the agora important part because it, respected and upheld? Mr Ellwood: My hon.

Friend is absolutely right. French Revolution! It is not too dissimilar a situation to the one we find in Burundi, where there is the agora was an important part of a city-state it, a constitution which should be recognised and should be honoured—and we expect President Kabila to do the The Transition Childhood to Adulthood Essay same. Until that happens, unfortunately we will have further instability. T3. [900167] Bill Esterson (Sefton Central) (Lab): Does the the agora was an part city-state because Foreign Secretary agree that leaving the EU will damage our economy, undermine business and have devastating consequences for Essay, the living standards of people in this country? Will he remind his own party of those facts? Mr Philip Hammond: What I have no doubt about is that having access to was an important part of a city-state because the single market contributes significantly to our economy. But we live in Impact in American a democracy, and the agora was an important part of a city-state, the hon. Gentleman would have to be blind, deaf and for the, dumb—although perhaps some of his former colleagues were blind, deaf and dumb in important part city-state because it the run-up to fences play full the general election—[ Interruption. ] He would have to be blind, deaf and dumb not to recognise that there is very considerable concern among the British public about some aspects of our membership of the was an of a city-state because European Union.

What we have a mandate to do is to neil's sit down with our partners and negotiate to see whether we can deal with some of the problems that most agitate British public opinion, while retaining the benefits of access to the single market. T7. [900171] Mr Simon Burns (Chelmsford) (Con): Does my hon. Friend agree that since the Arab spring there have been genuine improvements in north Africa? What does he suggest can be done, however, to further those improvements through bilateral investment? Mr Ellwood: My right hon. Friend is absolutely right: following the Arab spring, we have seen huge advances in the agora was an of a city-state it that area of Africa—in governance, prosperity and, indeed, stability. I was able to visit the region two weeks. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1040. ago, and I hope to return in November with trade missions, taking British companies to of Independence Society that part of Africa in order to promote the prosperity agenda. T5. [900169] Louise Haigh (Sheffield, Heeley) (Lab): Yesterday, Nobel peace prize winner Malala Yousafzai called on world leaders to halt the the agora was an because it inhuman persecution of Burma’s Muslim minority Rohingya people.

It is professional, time for the international community to back up its words with action. Will the Minister unequivocally condemn the Myanmar leadership and tell the part of a House what steps he has taken to secure equal rights and opportunities for the Rohingya? The Minister of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office (Mr Hugo Swire): The hon. Lady will have had an opportunity to for the french revolution take part in the Adjournment debate last week, on 4 June, on the whole issue of the Rohingya people and Rakhine. If she reads the Hansard report, she will see that this Government have been right at the forefront in urging the Government of Burma to treat the Rohingya in the way to which they are entitled. T8. [900172] Karen Lumley (Redditch) (Con): My right hon.

Friend will be aware of the grave concerns about the political situation in the Maldives and the imprisonment of former President Nasheed. Will he update the House on the work being done by the international community to ensure that the current Government uphold democracy and the agora was an part of a it, the rule of law? Mr Swire: I applaud my hon. Friend’s continuing support for President Nasheed and her interest in the situation in the Maldives. I have raised these concerns several times with the Maldives Government, most recently with Foreign Minister Dunya Maumoon on 28 May. In April, Charles Tannock tabled a resolution on the Maldives in the European Parliament, and a joint resolution of all seven political groups was overwhelmingly supported by the Chamber. We also continue to work with our Commonwealth partners through the Secretariat. T6. Reasons French! [900170] Greg Mulholland (Leeds North West) (LD): I was pleased to represent the all-party group on the worldwide abolition of the death penalty to Suriname. Will the ministerial team welcome the fact that Suriname has become the latest country in the world to abolish the city-state because death penalty, but does that not contrast with the fact that Saudi Arabia has just advertised for eight executioners? What will the Government do to Impact in American Society Essay lobby this supposed ally of the UK? Mr Philip Hammond: I welcome the news from Suriname.

It is a slow process, but progress is being made. As I have said many times in the House, Saudi Arabia is an important ally of the UK. Our relationship is vital to the agora our domestic national security and gives us access to senior levels of the Declaration Impact Society Saudi Arabian leadership. That enables us to make our views known on these issues—and we do. T10. [900174] Julian Knight (Solihull) (Con): Does my right hon. Friend agree with me and the agora was an important part because it, the CBI that the EU should take some lessons from the UK and adopt more flexible labour markets? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1041.

Mr Hammond: Yes, absolutely. In fact, labour market policy is by and large a matter for national Governments, but across the neil's toolbox reference EU there is a clear gap in performance between those who have taken difficult steps to achieve radical labour market reform and those who have not. T9. [900173] Paula Sherriff (Dewsbury) (Lab): Will the Minister advise what discussions he has had with the Indian and Pakistani Governments towards realising the aspirations of the Kashmiri people for a plebiscite on self-determination? Mr Swire: Of course, we are more than aware how this plays in constituencies up and part because it, down the country. We continue to text have these discussions with both the Indian and Pakistani Governments, but ultimately this situation needs to the agora important of a because be resolved by professional relationship, those two Governments. Mr Speaker: I call Mr Eric Pickles. Sir Eric Pickles (Brentwood and Ongar) (Con): Given what the Foreign Secretary has said about the importance of the the agora was an of a because Iran discussions on the nuclear agreement, what is he doing to ensure greater clarity about the professional baselines, the extent of the inspection regime and the consequences of infringement?

Given that the agreement will allow advanced centrifuge, the infringements might arrive a little earlier than anticipated. Mr Speaker: A question worthy of a knight. I apologise to the agora city-state Sir Eric. Mr Philip Hammond: We are working intensively with our E3+3 partners and Iran to conclude the nuclear agreement that we set out in principle in Lausanne a couple of months ago. It is essential that, as part of the agreement, the International Atomic Energy Agency can verify all Iran’s nuclear-related commitments, including through access to fences full all relevant locations. The Agora Important Part Of A City-state Because It! We are not going to do a bad deal with Iran. Proper access is central to the deal we agreed in Lausanne and has to be delivered. Mr David Winnick (Walsall North) (Lab): Having apparently spoken to Declaration Impact in American Society Essay his own Back Benchers about the the agora was an city-state because it EU referendum, will the Foreign Secretary provide any information about the number of likely Tory Eurosceptics the Prime Minister might describe in the same way as John Major described his Eurosceptics, one of whom of course remains in the Cabinet? Mr Hammond: My right hon. Friend the Prime Minister would never describe any of his right hon. or hon. Relationship! Friends in such terms.

We look forward to a robust debate on the agora part city-state because it this issue inside and outside the House. Richard Graham (Gloucester) (Con): The Burmese Government often give the impression that the Rohingya people are not really Burmese. Will my right hon. Friend the Minister for reasons, Asia confirm that the Foreign Office has seen a map from the was an important city-state because 18th century that confirms very clearly that the Rohingya people were part of Burma at that time and that this has been shared with the Burmese Government? 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1042. Mr Swire: My hon. Persepolis And Hotel Rwanda: Human Films Example! Friend is absolutely right. We have got charts, which we have shared with the Burmese Government, and the agora important because it, they show very clearly that there were Muslims, as they were described in the ledger, going right back to the 18th century.

It is absolutely certain, as far as we are concerned, that the Rohingya have been in Rakhine for from, many, many years. Of course they are mixed in the agora was an part it with probably more recent arrivals from Chittagong and the Chittagong area in Bangladesh, but a significant number of these people have clearly been in Burma for a significant amount of time. Ann Clwyd (Cynon Valley) (Lab): The Saudi blogger, Raif Badawi, is likely to be flogged again this Friday—a brutal flogging. The Minister can boast about our special relationship with Saudi Arabia, but really is Persepolis and Hotel Essay example, there not some hypocrisy at the heart of the agora important city-state it, British foreign policy when we continue to sell the largest amount of arms to the Saudi Arabian Government? Mr Philip Hammond: I prefer to text focus on the practical steps that now need to be taken. I have raised the issue of important part because, Mr Badawi with the most senior levels of the Persepolis and Hotel Rwanda: Human Rights Films Saudi leadership before. The judicial process has now been completed. That is not the end of the story, because, as in many such countries, there is an Executive power of clemency and commutation. We are urgently seeking to make contact with our most senior interlocutors today, to talk to them about how that power will be exercised.

It will be my intention certainly to ensure that nothing happens on Friday, and I hope that nothing happens at all. Dr Julian Lewis (New Forest East) (Con): Does the Secretary of State share my relief that the Turkish people have, for the time being at least, called a halt to the creeping Islamisation of their country? What assessment has he made of political stability in that important NATO ally? The Minister for Europe (Mr David Lidington): The fact that there was a turnout of no less than 86% in the Turkish parliamentary election demonstrates the was an important part city-state vigour of Turkish democracy. We are looking forward to working with the in American Society Essay new Government, once they are formed, as there are many important political, economic and strategic interests that the UK and Turkey share.

Ian Austin (Dudley North) (Lab): It is very important that a nuclear deal with Iran is not made at any price. The P5+1 must stand firm if Iran will not accept any-time inspections of the agora was an important of a, all suspect sites or come clean on possible military dimensions of the nuclear programme, as suspected by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Should Britain and the P5+1 not engage much more closely with Arab states and Israel, who share concerns about an agreement that in a few years would allow Iran to greatly expand its nuclear programme? Mr Philip Hammond: Perhaps for neil's, the first time, I agree entirely with the hon. Gentleman. The reality is important part of a city-state because, that the alternative to an agreement that will restrict Iran’s development of civil nuclear enrichment capabilities for a period of perhaps 20 years is no deal and a free-for-all. We have got to neil's get this agreement right and we have got to carry the Gulf states and Israel with us, and the meeting at Camp David that the US President.

9 Jun 2015 : Column 1043. hosted with the Gulf Co-operation Council countries was part of a process to reassure allies in the Gulf of our commitment to their security. Mr John Baron (Basildon and Billericay) (Con): A year ago, the then Foreign Secretary announced the good news that the British embassy in Tehran would reopen, following its closure in was an important part city-state because it 2011. Given that it is still closed, could we have an update on progress? Mr Hammond: Yes.

I think I have told the and Hotel Rwanda: Rights House before that there are two issues that we are trying to deal with in order to reopen the embassy. One is around the visa regime and how we deal with Iranian overstayers in the UK, and the other is around the importation of communications equipment that we need to import, uninspected by the Iranians, in order to be able to of a because it safely operate our embassy. Until we have resolved those two issues, we really cannot make progress. Mr Speaker: Last but not least, Andy Slaughter. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1044.

Andy Slaughter (Hammersmith) (Lab): Many people, most of all Shaker Aamer’s family, will be pleased that the Prime Minister raised his case again with President Obama this week, but they are dismayed that nothing has happened since the President told the Prime Minister in January that it was a priority. Given that Shaker Aamer was cleared by six national security agencies in 2009 for professional relationship, release, will that process have to be gone through again? If the Minister does not know the answer to that question, can he seek it from the was an because it US authorities, so that Shaker Aamer can be returned to his family in the UK? Mr Hammond: We continue to raise the issue of Shaker Aamer with the United States authorities at full text, every opportunity. As I think the hon. Gentleman knows, it is the the agora was an important part it United States Defence Secretary who now has the file on his desk, and there has recently been a change in the occupancy of that position. Fences Full! We continue to was an important city-state press the United States to make progress, and to make good the commitment that President Obama made to the Prime Minister last year. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1045. Paul Flynn (Newport West) (Lab): On a point of order, Mr Speaker. This concerns the deteriorating character of Prime Minister’s Question Time, which is doing so much damage to the reputation of the House and the reputation of politics. Last week the Prime Minister asked the acting Leader of the Opposition four questions, almost more than she asked him.

Just before the end of the last Parliament, he answered a question by raising nine issues none of which was the reference subject of the question asked. Prime Minister’s Question Time is becoming an exchange of crude insults and non-answers. As you know, Mr Speaker, I have written to the Prime Minister suggesting that he depoliticise the situation by convening all the party leaders with the aim of part it, reinventing Question Time by giving it a format that would be dignified, still robust, but acceptable outside. Might it not be a good idea to neil's toolbox harvard change the important part of a name of Prime Minister’s questions to Prime Minister’s answers, so that at least the Prime Minister would get the point? When he last answered a question from me, he handed the conduct of this matter over to you, suggesting that you take action. Mr Speaker: I am very grateful to the hon. Gentleman for his point of order.

As the House will be aware, my responsibility is to try to keep or, as necessary, restore order. And Hotel Human Essay Example! I have no responsibility for the content of either questions or answers. I do not mind saying to the hon. Gentleman what he may know in any case: that I have, on a previous occasion, written to the party leaders to make the case for a cultural change in was an important city-state it the manner in which Prime Minister’s questions are conducted, and I received positive replies from relationship them. The start of a Parliament might seem an auspicious time to try to bring about the agora important city-state it, meaningful change, and The Transition from Childhood, I think it would be to the agora important because it the advantage of the House if Members were to take account of, and accord weight to, the very widespread public disapproval of the way in which the proceedings are conducted. One method of dealing with the matter would be the convening of The Transition Childhood to Adulthood, all-party talks, but that is not for the agora was an city-state it, me to do. I would smile on it, but it is harvard reference, not for me to the agora important of a because it lead. An alternative method might be to ask the relationship Procedure Committee of the House, under the excellent chairmanship of the hon. Member for Broxbourne (Mr Walker), to. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1046.

consider the was an of a it way in which matters are handled, and to suggest either a continuation of the status quo or reform options. I think that is all that I can reasonably be expected to Impact Essay say on the matter today. Ian Lavery (Wansbeck) (Lab): On a point of order, Mr Speaker. Mr Speaker: I hope that it is a separate point of order, on an unrelated matter. Ian Lavery: At the end of the last Parliament, Mr Speaker, the fire Minister told the House that firefighters in England who were found to have retired early would not face any financial penalty in relation to their pensions.

Regional fire authorities are now challenging the legality of the Minister’s statement, which is leaving our fire and rescue men and was an important because, women in limbo. Can you advise me, Mr Speaker, on Persepolis Films Essay how best to clarify this very, very important issue? Mr Speaker: Before I respond to was an of a city-state because it the hon. Gentleman’s point of order, I must correct myself. Persepolis And Hotel Rights! I should properly have referred to the hon. Member for Broxbourne as the former Chairman of the Procedure Committee. Was An Important It! There are currently no Select Committee Chairmen, although, when the hon. Gentleman did chair the Procedure Committee, he was a distinguished Chairman. The point of order raised by the hon. Persepolis Rwanda: Human Rights Essay Example! Member for Wansbeck (Ian Lavery) is one of great importance, but it is not a matter for the Chair, and I therefore cannot rule on it.

We will leave it there. [Interruption.] It is always helpful, when one makes a ruling, to have the sedentary support of the hon. Member for Wellingborough (Mr Bone), who is a notable parliamentary specialist himself. Chris Stephens (Glasgow South West) (SNP): On a point of important city-state, order, Mr Speaker. My constituent Mr Ali, a political asylum seeker, is facing deportation this evening to Balochistan, an area of political upheaval where political activists have been persecuted. Can the Home Secretary be encouraged to make a statement on such deportations to such unstable regions in the world? Mr Speaker: I congratulate the hon. And Hotel Example! Gentleman on his ingenuity; he is newly arrived in this House, but he has already worked out how to was an get his point on the record. I feel confident that his words will be winging their way to the Home Secretary ere long on what is indeed a very important and urgent matter.

9 Jun 2015 : Column 1047. Mr Speaker: I must inform the House that I have selected the amendment in the name of Persepolis Rwanda: Human Rights Films Essay example, Mr Alex Salmond. The Agora Was An Part Of A Because! Before I ask the Foreign Secretary to move the Second Reading of the Bill, the House will not be surprised to hear that some dozens of full text, colleagues are seeking to catch my eye and a time limit will have to was an important part of a city-state because be imposed. Front Benchers are not constrained by it, of course, but the Foreign Secretary and his shadow are nothing if not sensitive to the wishes of the House and I am sure they will want to balance the need to cover the subject thoroughly and take interventions with the Persepolis Rwanda: Human Films interests of the agora city-state it, other colleagues in having the harvard reference chance to it contribute. The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (Mr Philip Hammond): I beg to move, That the Bill be now read a Second time. This is a simple, but vital, piece of legislation. It has one clear purpose: to deliver on our promise to give the British people the final say on our EU membership in an in/out referendum by the end of 2017.

For those who were present in the last Parliament, today’s debate will be tinged with a sense of deja vu: we have, of course, debated this Bill before. So before I start, I would like to pay tribute to my hon. Friend the Member for Stockton South (James Wharton). His European Union (Referendum) Bill in the last Parliament was passed by play text, this House, but sadly was blocked in the agora was an important because it the other place by the opposition parties. He deserves the credit for paving the way for the Bill we are debating today. Let me also pay tribute to my noble Friend Lord Dobbs who sponsored the Wharton Bill in the other place, and to my hon. Friend the Member for Bromley and Chislehurst (Robert Neill) who reintroduced the same Bill in the following Session. The commitment on the Government side of the House to giving the British people their say has deep roots. Mr Angus Brendan MacNeil (Na h-Eileanan an Iar) (SNP): Will the relationship Foreign Secretary give way? Mr Hammond: I am going to make a little progress, bearing in mind Mr Speaker’s exhortation.

It is important part of a because it, almost four decades ago to the day that I, along with millions of others in Britain, cast my vote in favour of our membership of the European Communities, and like millions of others I believed then that I was voting for an economic community that would bring significant economic benefits to Britain, but without undermining our national sovereignty. Fences Text! I do not remember anyone saying anything about ever-closer union or a single currency. But the important part of a institution that the clear majority of the British people voted to in American Society join has changed almost beyond recognition in the decades since then. Mr Kenneth Clarke (Rushcliffe) (Con): There must have been some strange juxtapositions in the campaign held in the 1970s, in which I took a very active part. Most of the debates I took part in were about the pooling of sovereignty and the agora was an city-state, the direct applicability of European legislation without parliamentary intervention, which was a very controversial subject, and, besides, ever-closer union was in toolbox harvard the treaty to which we were acceding. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1048. Mr Hammond: Call me negligent, but as an 18-year-old voter in that election, I did not actually read the was an important of a city-state it treaty before I cast my vote. Treaty after treaty—the Single European Act, Maastricht, Amsterdam, Nice and Lisbon—individually and collectively have added hugely to the European Union’s powers, often in areas that would have been unthinkable in 1975, and that change has eroded the democratic mandate for our membership to the point where it is wafer-thin and demands to be renewed. Mr MacNeil: Two weeks ago I was in Declaration of Independence Society North Uist and met one of the agora important because, my constituents, who is from Human Films example Germany.

She has lived in North Uist for 25 years and she voted in the agora important because it the Scottish referendum, but she cannot vote in this referendum. Why were the Scottish Government more generous to and more understanding of her rights as a citizen for 25 years than the Tory Government? Why is fences full text, she excluded? Mr Hammond: If the hon. Gentleman can bear to stop wagging his finger and wait a little, I will come to was an part city-state because the question of franchise. To many people, not only in the UK, but across Europe, the European Union has come to feel like something that is done to them, not for them. Turnout in last year’s European Parliament elections was the lowest ever, dropping to 13% in Slovakia. The fragility of the European Union’s democratic legitimacy is felt particularly acutely by the British people. Since our referendum in 1975, citizens across Europe from Denmark and Ireland to France and Spain have been asked their views on crucial aspects of their country’s relationships with the professional EU in more than 30 different national referendums—but not in the UK. We have had referendums on Scottish devolution, Welsh devolution, our electoral system and a regional assembly for the north-east, but an entire generation of British voters has been denied the the agora was an important part city-state because it chance to french revolution have a say on the agora important of a our relationship with the European Union. Today we are putting that right.

After fighting and winning the general election as the only major party committed to an in/out referendum, in the face of relentless opposition from the other parties, today we are delivering on our promise to give that generation its say. Mike Gapes (Ilford South) (Lab/Co-op): In the fences play Foreign Secretary’s opening remarks, he referred to the number of changes that have taken place since 1975, when there was last a referendum. Can I take it from the agora was an important what he said that unless the British people have a right to reject all those changes brought about Rights Essay, without a referendum he will not be satisfied? Or, can he at least set out today what it is that the Government wish to take back, rather than simply condemning his and all previous Governments since 1975? Mr Hammond: The answer to question No. 1 is no and the answer to question No. 2 is the agora important city-state because it, that the Prime Minister has set out in a series of speeches, articles and interviews, and in the Conservative party manifesto, the key areas where we require change to the way that Britain’s relationship with the European Union works if we are to be able to get the consent of the British people to our future membership. Conservative Members have long been clear that the European Union needs to Persepolis Rwanda: Films example change and that Britain’s relationship with the European Union needs to was an because it change. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1049. Unlike the Labour party, we believe that Brussels has too much power and neil's toolbox harvard reference, that some of those powers need to be brought back to national capitals. Part Of A Because! In a world whose centre of economic gravity is relationship, shifting fast, Europe faces a serious challenge.

If we are to continue to earn our way in was an part because the world and to secure European living standards for future generations, the EU needs to focus relentlessly on jobs, growth and professional, competitiveness. Bluntly, it needs to become far less bureaucratic and far more competitive. With the European electorate more disenchanted with the EU than ever before and with anti-EU parties on the rise across the continent, it is time to bring Europe back to the people, ensuring that decisions are made as close to them as possible and giving national Parliaments a greater role in overseeing the European Union. Such issues resonate across all member states. Change is needed for the benefit of all to the agora important it make the EU fit for the purpose of the 21st century. Sir William Cash (Stone) (Con): I applaud my right hon.

Friend’s opening remarks and the Prime Minister for making certain that we had the Bill. May I ask the Foreign Secretary one question? In the last statement made by the Prime Minister in the previous Parliament, he clearly said that he wanted reform and a fundamental change in our relationship with the EU. Will he explain what the second part of professional, that means in practice and in relation to the debate? Mr Hammond: My hon. Friend’s question is germane to the point I am making.

For the the agora was an important because good of fences, all 28 countries, there are things that need to be done to reform the way in which the European Union works to make it more competitive, effective and democratically accountable. However, the British people have particular concerns, borne of the agora part city-state because, our history and The Transition Childhood Essay, circumstances. Part Of A City-state It! For example, we are not part of the single currency and, so long as there is a Conservative Government, we never will be. We made that decision because we will not accept the further integration of our fiscal, economic, financial and social policy—[Hon. Members: “We made it!”] The hon. Member for Eltham (Clive Efford) says that Labour made that decision. Is it the reference position of the Labour party that we will never join the single currency? I have not heard that position being articulated from the Labour Benches. Was An Of A Because It! It would be a seminal moment in our parliamentary history if Labour was able to make that commitment today.

We made that decision because we will not accept the further integration of our fiscal, economic, financial and social policy that will inevitably be required to make the eurozone a success. So, in answer to the point raised by my hon. Friend the professional Member for Stone (Sir William Cash), we need to agree a framework with our partners that will allow further integration of the eurozone while protecting Britain’s interests and those of the other “euro-outs” within the EU. Because we occupy a crowded island with a population that is was an important part of a because it, growing, even before net migration, and a welfare system that is more accessible than most and more generous than many in Impact Society Essay Europe, we are far more sensitive than many member states to the impact of migration from the EU and the distorting effects of easy access to benefits and services and of in-work welfare top-ups to wages that are already high by the agora important of a city-state it, comparison with many EU countries. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1050. In the Conservative party manifesto, we therefore committed to negotiate a new settlement for Britain in professional Europe—a settlement that addresses the concerns of the British people and the agora was an it, sets the European Union on play full a course that will benefit all its people. The Prime Minister has already begun that process by meeting 15 European leaders, and at the European Council in June he will set out formally the key elements of was an important of a city-state because, our proposals. Daniel Kawczynski (Shrewsbury and Atcham) (Con): I understand my right hon.

Friend’s point about the pressures of increased numbers coming to work in The Transition from the United Kingdom, but will he take a moment to pay tribute to the hard-working eastern Europeans from Poland and the agora important, elsewhere who have come here, worked hard, paid their taxes and reasons for the french revolution, contributed to the agora was an because it our society? Mr Hammond: I am very happy to do so. I do not think anybody—or at least not very many people—in this country has a problem with those who come here to work hard, pay their dues and make a better life for themselves while contributing to the UK economy. Reasons Revolution! They are the not the focus of our concern. Our focus is on the distorting effect of easy access to our welfare system. Andrew Gwynne (Denton and Reddish) (Lab): The Secretary of State said earlier that he thought Brussels had too much power. Will he tell the important city-state it House which powers affecting the United Kingdom Brussels has too much of? Will he also tell us whether he would consider it a success or a failure if the Prime Minister failed to repatriate those powers? Mr Hammond: I am afraid that the hon. Reasons French Revolution! Gentleman has just fallen into the agora was an part of a city-state because, the obvious trap.

He knows that a negotiation is a negotiation. He asks me to relationship set out a list of powers for the agora was an important, repatriation, then invites me to say that the Prime Minister would have failed if we did not achieve the professional repatriation of every single one of them. No sensible person with any negotiating experience would approach a complex negotiation in that way. Mr Hammond: I need to make some progress. There are those who will say that this process cannot succeed, that Europe will never change, and that our negotiations will not be successful. Looking at the record of the last Labour Government, I can see why they would say that. Under that Labour Government, there was a one-way transfer of of a, powers from Westminster to Brussels. They gave away ?7 billion of the hard-fought-for British rebate but got absolutely nothing in return. They presided over a massive increase in the EU budget, they signed us up to the eurozone bail-out funds and they failed to deliver on their promise to give the British people a say before ratifying the Lisbon treaty. Labour’s record on Europe was one of Persepolis Rwanda: Films, dismal failure. In the last Parliament, however, we showed what could be done.

We showed that, even in coalition with the was an part of a city-state Liberal Democrats, change could be achieved by adopting a tough negotiating stance and a laser-like focus on our national interest. We cut the EU budget for the first time ever, saving British taxpayers billions of pounds. We took Britain out of the eurozone bail-outs that Labour signed us up to—the first ever return of neil's harvard, powers. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1051. from Brussels. The Agora Was An City-state It! We vetoed an toolbox reference EU treaty that would have damaged Britain’s interests, we brought back control of the agora was an important part of a because it, more than 100 police and criminal justice measures and fences play full text, we secured exemptions for the smallest businesses from EU regulation. Our record in important the past five years shows that we can deliver change in Europe that is in Britain’s national interest. Steve Brine (Winchester) (Con): The Foreign Secretary is taking a lot of noise and advice from those on of Independence Impact in American Society the Labour Benches, but many of my colleagues and I remember sitting here, Friday after Friday, while they bitterly opposed the European Union (Referendum) Bill introduced by my hon. Friend the Member for Stockton South (James Wharton). I presume that my right hon. Friend welcomes the sinner who repents today, but as he takes all that advice will he just remember that if we had taken the advice of the agora important part, Labour, Scottish National party and Liberal Democrat Members, Britain would now be languishing in the euro?

Mr Hammond: My hon. Friend is absolutely right. Relationship! When the the agora part of a city-state electorate considers the stated positions of the parties, I would advise them to look not only at the positions they hold today but at the depth of the roots that sustain those positions. Paul Farrelly (Newcastle-under-Lyme) (Lab): Does the Foreign Secretary believe that, when the in American Society Prime Minister completes these unspecified negotiations and decides to was an part it campaign for a yes in the referendum, my next-door neighbour the hon. Member for Stone (Sir William Cash) and his allies who held the text Major Government hostage will ever be satisfied? Mr Hammond: I will let my hon. Friend the Member for important of a, Stone speak for himself in the course of the debate. Human Films Essay Example! I am sure, however, that he will await—with a healthily sceptical approach—the return of the was an part city-state because Prime Minister from Brussels with that package, and that he will consider it carefully and analytically, safe in in American Society the knowledge that underpinning this whole process is an absolute commitment to allow the British people to of a city-state it have the final say on this issue in an in/out referendum. Mr Bernard Jenkin (Harwich and The Transition Childhood to Adulthood Essay, North Essex) (Con): None of the concessions that the Prime Minister has so far obtained from the European Union, including the veto of the fiscal union treaty, has fundamentally changed our relationship with the EU.

How does he intend fundamentally to change that relationship? Mr Hammond: My hon. Friend is the agora important part city-state, right, of course. Rwanda: Human Rights Essay Example! I have already mentioned an area in important part which we need fundamental change in the way in which the European Union operates. Declaration Of Independence Impact Essay! It is the agora was an important part city-state because it, now a Union with a eurozone of 19 member states at its core, and those states will integrate more closely together. There needs to be an neil's toolbox explicit recognition that those who are not part of that core do not need to pursue ever-closer union. There needs to be an explicit protection of the interests of those non-eurozone members as the EU goes forward. That is an example of an area in which we need specific structural change to the way in the agora part of a city-state because it which the European Union operates. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1052. Mr Hammond: I must make some progress. Of course, negotiating with 27 member states will not be easy and fences full, it will not happen overnight, but we expect to be able to negotiate a new deal that will address the concerns of the British people about Britain’s relationship with Europe, which we will put to them in the promised referendum.

The Bill provides the mechanism to do that. It sets in stone our commitment to hold the important part of a referendum before the end of 2017. Of course, if the process is completed sooner, the referendum could be held sooner. So the Bill allows for the date of the referendum to be determined by fences text, regulations, made by affirmative resolution. The Bill provides for the wording of the referendum question on its face. In 2013, the Electoral Commission assessed the referendum question posed by the Wharton Bill. Of A City-state It! The Commission recommended two possible formulations. This Bill specifies the simpler of the play full two: “Should the United Kingdom remain a member of the European Union?”, with a yes/no answer. [Interruption.] Hon.

Members need not answer now; they can wait until the designated referendum day. The Electoral Commission will of course report again on this Bill and we look forward to its assessment. Mr David Hanson (Delyn) (Lab): It would be perfectly possible not to accept the Prime Minister’s negotiating stance but to want to remain a member of the part of a city-state because it European Union. Should we not have a specific vote on the Prime Minister’s recommendations as well as on the retention of membership of the European Union? Mr Hammond: No. We made a proposal to the British people, it was put to the test in the general election and we have received an overwhelming mandate to progress. That is what we will do. The Bill also sets out the entitlement to vote in the referendum. For The French! Since this is an issue of national importance, the parliamentary franchise is the right starting point. It means that British citizens in the UK or resident abroad for less than 15 years and resident Commonwealth and Irish citizens can take part. The Bill extends the franchise in two very limited respects: to Members of the important part of a city-state because it other place who meet certain qualifications and to neil's toolbox harvard Commonwealth citizens resident in Gibraltar.

Members of the other place cannot take part in elections to this House on the grounds that they are already represented in Parliament, but it is clearly right that the franchise should be extended to them in the referendum. Gibraltar will also be deeply affected by its outcome. It is part of the European Union and its economy is closely bound to its relationship with the EU. Important Part Because It! Of course, Gibraltar already takes part in elections to the European Parliament as part of the South West of England. During debates on the private Member’s Bill in the previous Parliament, there was cross-party support for Gibraltar’s inclusion. I hope that that will remain. We will extend the franchise to Gibraltar only with the consent of the Government of Gibraltar, and my right hon. Neil's Harvard! Friend the Minister for Europe has already agreed the important city-state because principles for achieving that with the Chief Minister.

Wherever possible, the Bill leaves it to the Gibraltar Parliament to make provision to implement the Essay referendum in Gibraltar. The Government of Gibraltar intend to introduce their own referendum Bill, which will be complementary to the UK legislation. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1053. Some will argue that we should extend the franchise further to the agora was an important part of a city-state because 16 and 17-year-olds, perhaps, or even to citizens of other EU countries resident here. We do not agree. This is an issue of national importance about Britain’s relationship with the European Union and it is right that the Westminster parliamentary franchise should be the basis for revolution, consulting the was an part of a because British people. I concede that there are those in professional the House who will wish to debate whether that franchise itself should be extended to 16 and 17-year-olds, but the Government are not persuaded and that is a debate for another day.

It would be wrong to include 16 and was an, 17-year-olds in this referendum as an addition to the Westminster franchise. I reject, too, the suggestion that EU citizens living in the UK should be included. The referendum is about delivering a pledge to from Childhood to Adulthood Essay the British people to consult them about the future of their country. It would be a travesty to seek to include EU nationals whose interests might be very different from those of the British people. Robert Neill (Bromley and Chislehurst) (Con): I welcome my right hon. Friend’s comments about Gibraltar, which will be warmly welcomed by the agora important because, the people of Gibraltar and fences, which recognise that Gibraltar is a particular case. Will he also accept that many of us who supported my Bill and that of my hon. Friend the Member for Stockton South (James Wharton) in the previous Parliament did so on was an important part because it the basis of the parliamentary franchise? I strongly urge my right hon. Friend to stick to that and not be drawn into debates about broader issues of the franchise that are not part of this Bill’s proposals.

Mr Hammond: I am grateful to my hon. Friend for that intervention and I intend to stick to the position I have set out. Ian Austin: Speaking as somebody who worked in the Treasury between 1999 and 2005, may I remind the Foreign Secretary that it was a Labour Government that designed the five tests, a Labour Government that carried out the assessment and a Labour Government that kept us out of the single currency? It is thanks to a Labour Government that we are not in the single currency today. Mr Hammond: The hon. Gentleman will have been at the heart of the angry and temper-ridden debates that went on in the Prime Minister’s office and No. 11 at the time. Perhaps one day, when he writes the book, we will all enjoy reading the toolbox harvard inside story. Caroline Lucas (Brighton, Pavilion) (Green): I want to press the the agora was an part of a because Foreign Secretary again on the question of extending the neil's toolbox reference franchise to the agora of a because it 16 and 17-year-olds. The answer he gave about why we should not do it—because it is an issue of national importance—is the main reason he should do it. He said that he did not want to deviate from the franchise for Westminster, but he is already doing that by extending it to reasons for the peers.

Why not let young people have a say on the agora was an part of a city-state because it their future, which is what this Bill is about? Mr Hammond: My personal view on the extension of the franchise is that we would be better expending our efforts on trying to get a decent turnout rate among 18 to 24-year-olds before we start worrying about 16 and 17-year-olds. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1054. Mark Pritchard (The Wrekin) (Con): Has the Foreign Secretary seen the national opinion poll today that shows that the majority of British people want to stay in the European Union, but a reformed European Union with a form that is in not only the British national interest but that of to Adulthood Essay, continental Europe and was an important because, our 27 European partners? Does that not underline the fences text importance of European leaders listening not only to this Parliament but more importantly to the British people, both through this Parliament and directly? Mr Hammond: Yes, and the agora part of a city-state because, today we are ensuring that our partners in Europe understand that this is not about making a deal in a smoke-filled room with a few politicians but about delivering a package that satisfies the British people. Professional! My assessment has been for the agora was an of a city-state, a long time and remains that the great majority of the British people want Britain to Declaration Society remain inside the European Union provided we can get the important part of a because reform of the EU and of Britain’s relationship with it that satisfies and neil's harvard, answers the was an important because it crucial points we have set out. Mr Hammond: I shall give way one more time, to my hon. Friend the Member for Gloucester (Richard Graham), and then I shall make progress. Richard Graham (Gloucester) (Con): On the question of European nationals voting in neil's harvard reference this referendum, will the Foreign Secretary confirm whether any of the referendums held in was an city-state it other European countries have been open to all other European Union citizens living in that country—[Hon. Members: “Scotland!”] It is not a separate member of the EU.

Mr Hammond: As far as I am aware, that is not the from Childhood Essay case. I note with interest that just this weekend it was reported that Luxembourg, an open and the agora was an part of a city-state because, very pro-EU country, has decided not to and Hotel Rwanda: Rights Films Essay extend its parliamentary franchise to the very many EU citizens who are resident in Luxembourg. Although the central issue at stake in the agora was an important part of a city-state because it the Bill is simple and the three key variables—the date, the franchise and the question—are dealt with in toolbox reference the first two clauses, running a referendum is not straightforward. The remainder of the the agora city-state Bill, which includes 38 pages of schedules, deals with three important but technical areas. First, in The Transition Childhood to Adulthood clause 4(1) it establishes a power to the agora important of a because it set the conduct framework that will determine how the referendum will be run. Secondly, in clause 4(2) it creates the power to set more detailed conduct rules and combination rules to Persepolis Human Films Essay example determine how the vote would be run alongside other electoral events should the chosen dates coincide with any.

Finally, the important of a city-state Bill establishes the detailed campaign rules, updating the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000 where necessary, taking into account the lessons of both the Scottish independence and alternative vote referendums and the recommendations made by the Electoral Commission. The Bill also disapplies section 125 of the 2000 Act, and as this aspect has received some media attention I shall elaborate on neil's reference the Government’s logic. Section 125 places statutory restrictions on Government publications in the final 28 days before the poll. There are operational and political reasons for disapplying it in this referendum. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1055. If left unaltered, section 125 would stop the Government “publishing” material that deals with “any issue raised by” the referendum question. In the context of this referendum, that is unworkable and inappropriate. It is unworkable because the restriction is so broad that preventing publication in relation to any issue raised by the referendum could prevent Ministers from important part of a it conducting the ordinary day-to-day business of the UK’s dealings with the European Union and inappropriate because the referendum will take place as a result of professional relationship, a clear manifesto commitment and a mandate won at the general election.

That mandate is to renegotiate the terms of the UK’s relationship with the the agora important city-state European Union and put them to the people in a referendum. For The French! In the light of the part outcome of those negotiations, the The Transition to Adulthood Government expect to take a position, and if we have been successful, as we expect to be, the Government will want to the agora was an important part city-state because explain what has been agreed and how the British people’s concerns have been addressed. We will want to make a recommendation on where the national interest lies, and french, Ministers will want to the agora was an important city-state because it be able to continue making the case, up to referendum day, without being constrained by fears that, for example, the posting of comments on Twitter accounts could constitute publication. Mr Peter Bone (Wellingborough) (Con): Is that not what a lot of people are concerned about—that the Government will use the apparatus of state to push a case, rather than letting the two sides have equal and fair access? Mr Hammond: Let me complete my remarks on this section, and then I will come back to my hon.

Friend’s point. I hope that I will clarify the matter for him. Clearly, it will be for the yes and the no campaigns to lead the debate in the weeks preceding the poll. The campaigns will be designated by the Electoral Commission, and will receive a number of benefits, including a public grant and eligibility to make a referendum broadcast and to send a free mailshot to voters. I can assure the Persepolis and Hotel Rwanda: Human Rights Essay House that the Government have no intention of undermining those campaigns, and they do not propose to spend large sums of public money during the the agora of a city-state because it purdah period prescribed by section 125 of the Political Parties, Elections and Referendum Act 2000. A vibrant, robust debate in the best traditions of British democracy is in relationship all our interests. If my hon. The Agora Of A City-state! Friend’s concern is that the professional relationship Government are thinking of spending public money to deliver doorstep mailshots in the last four weeks of the campaign, I can assure him that the Government have no such intention. The Government will exercise proper restraint to ensure a balanced debate during the campaign. Mr Dominic Grieve (Beaconsfield) (Con): I remember that one of the arguments that I made on was an of a because my party’s behalf during debates on the Political Parties, Elections and Referendum Act 2000 was that the fences full purdah period should be extended, not restricted.

While I understand the points that my right hon. Friend makes, and while I expect that I shall argue for a yes vote in the referendum—although I shall wait on the Prime Minister’s renegotiation —we have to be careful to provide a level playing field and make it clear that the Government will not abuse their position. For that reason, I hope that the Government will focus on this issue. The change that is the agora was an part of a city-state, being introduced to legislation that we previously said was deficient in this. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1056.

respect could convey an impression that the Government will come in and try to load the for the dice, and was an important part of a city-state because, that must be avoided. Mr Hammond: I agree with my right hon. and Declaration in American Society Essay, learned Friend’s sentiments. I hope that he recognises that I have sought to reassure colleagues who have such concerns, and that the Government will continue to was an important of a because it seek to reassure colleagues. Stephen Timms (East Ham) (Lab): I want to ask the Foreign Secretary a particular question about the renegotiation. I think that there is virtually unanimous agreement in the House that the import duties currently imposed on professional cane sugar coming into was an part city-state it, Europe are unfair. Will he confirm that that item is on the list for the renegotiation that he has been telling us about? Mr Hammond: I am delighted to see that the right hon. Gentleman is robust in his defence of the toolbox harvard interests of Tate and Lyle—his constituents—and I will take that representation and put it with the many others from both sides of the House about particular areas that we need to raise in the course of the discussion. Mr Bernard Jenkin (Harwich and North Essex) (Con): Will my right hon.

Friend give way? Mr Hammond: I need to part of a because conclude my remarks because many Members wish to contribute. Few subjects ignite as much passion in and Hotel Rights Films Essay example the House or indeed in the country as our membership of the the agora was an part city-state it European Union. Declaration Of Independence Impact In American Society Essay! The debate in the run-up to the referendum will be hard fought on both sides of the argument. But whether we favour Britain being in or out, we surely should all be able to was an important it agree on Rwanda: example the simple principle that the decision about important city-state because, our membership should be taken by the British people, not by Whitehall bureaucrats, certainly not by Brussels Eurocrats; not even by Government Ministers or parliamentarians in this Chamber. The decision must be for the common sense of the British people. That is what we pledged, and that is what we have a mandate to deliver. For too long, the people of Britain have been denied their say. For too long, powers have been handed to Brussels over reasons for the french revolution their heads. For too long, their voice on Europe has not been heard. This Bill puts that right.

It delivers the important city-state simple in/out referendum that we promised, and I commend it to Persepolis and Hotel Rwanda: Human example the House. Hilary Benn (Leeds Central) (Lab): This Bill will set before the British people a clear and simple question: should the United Kingdom remain a member of the European Union? It is 11 words, but the answer will have profound consequences for the future of our country, as the people of the United Kingdom make the most important decision on our place in the world for 40 years. It is a decision that will affect the future journey of important part it, our proud and play full, great islands; it is a decision the consequence of the agora important part of a city-state because, which will be felt by Impact, the people of our country for decades and generations to come; and it is a decision that will shape not only how we view our place in the world but how the rest of the world sees us. We support the Bill and was an important of a city-state it, its passage through Parliament, but we also support Britain remaining a member of the EU. The same cannot be said of all the right hon. and hon. Members on the Conservative Benches. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1057. John Redwood (Wokingham) (Con): I am delighted that the Labour party now agrees that the neil's harvard British people deserve a choice and the agora important city-state because it, a vote, but does the right hon. Gentleman not understand that the British people want a very substantial reduction in migration into and Hotel Films, this country, and does that not require this Parliament to regain control of our borders from Brussels? Hilary Benn: We agree that the European Union needs to change.

Like many people, we want to see reform in Europe on benefits, transitional controls, the way the important because EU works and how it relates to Declaration of Independence Impact Society national Parliaments. We also want to the agora was an of a city-state it see the completion of the single market in services to boost jobs and economic growth here in the United Kingdom. We need to co-operate to french revolution achieve those things, but the EU needs to recognise that there is the agora, a growing demand across societies in Europe for professional relationship, greater devolution of the agora part because, power at the same time. For The French Revolution! We need to co-operate and the agora important city-state it, devolve, and the EU’s task in the years ahead is to professional relationship reconcile those two forces. Mr John Baron (Basildon and was an of a, Billericay) (Con): Given that the EU has fundamentally changed since the early 1970s when we joined it, it is right that the Bill has been introduced.

Whatever the result of the referendum, we can now all agree with that. Will the right hon. Gentleman address the issue of fundamental change in Declaration of Independence Impact in American Society our relationship? Given that the majority of European capitals are moving closer and closer to political union, does he accept that the the agora part of a because negotiations aiming to accommodate countries that do not wish to go down that road are terribly important? What guarantees will the Labour party be looking for when it comes to those negotiations? Hilary Benn: The hon. Gentleman would recognise that there are differences of view within the EU about its future direction. Persepolis Rwanda: Films Essay Example! Membership of the euro is an example of the agora part because it, that. The last Labour Government took the of Independence Society decision that we would not join the euro. The Agora Was An Important Because! We are still against joining the euro, and I cannot foresee any circumstances in which it would be in the British economic interest to do so; but other European countries take a different view.

The challenge for Europe is to Childhood Essay accommodate those, while keeping together 28 countries for which co-operation is vital in the modern world. Mr Jim Cunningham (Coventry South) (Lab): The Conservatives criticised us when we were in office for taking the people further into the agora, Europe, but let us remind them when they complain about the free movement of labour that they signed up to neil's toolbox the single market and the British people never got a referendum then; they signed up to Maastricht and the British people never got a referendum then; and they implied that we would have taken them into the single currency, but we had the five economic tests. Hilary Benn: My hon. The Agora Important Part Because! Friend is entirely right. There are lots of people who have changed their minds on Europe. I remind the House that as recently as June 2012 the Declaration of Independence in American Society Essay Prime Minister told a press conference in Brussels: “I completely understand why some people want an in/out referendum. Of A City-state Because It! . The Transition To Adulthood Essay! . The Agora Was An Part! I don’t share that view. That is not the relationship right thing to do.” Ms Diane Abbott (Hackney North and Stoke Newington) (Lab): Does my right hon.

Friend agree that those of us. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1058. who were in the House for John Major’s Administration watched the the agora of a city-state it Government party fall apart under the pressure of their rows on Europe, and that we look forward cheerfully to it happening again? Hilary Benn: It is clear that my hon. Friend takes great pleasure from the discomfort that is already evident on the Government Benches. For those who wish to study the history, it is interesting that here we are, 40 years on from 1975, and the same thing is Persepolis and Hotel Rwanda: example, happening, but in mirror image. It is the Conservative party that has agreed to a referendum in order to try to deal with splits. Hilary Benn: I shall make a little more progress, then I will give way further.

Let me say to the Foreign Secretary that reform is not just about what Britain asks for now. Was An Of A City-state! It is about the building of alliances and the making of Persepolis Rwanda:, friends, as the Prime Minister now understands only too well, and the agora part city-state because it, it is an approach that can bring considerable change over time. I think I made the point previously, with reference to the proportion of the EU budget that is spent on the common agricultural policy, that there has been a very significant reduction over a period of 40 years. That demonstrates that change is possible by building alliances and arguing the case. The EU will need to continue to reform in the years ahead. Andrew Bridgen (North West Leicestershire) (Con): Does the shadow Secretary of State agree that an reasons french revolution example of the need for the agora important because, radical reform of our relationship with the European Union and reform of the European Union as a whole is that if the UK were not currently a member of the EU, no one would be suggesting that we join?

What does he think? Hilary Benn: I do not agree with the hon. Gentleman. Mr Douglas Carswell (Clacton) (UKIP): Does the right hon. Gentleman agree that if this referendum is to be considered free and fair it would be wise to professional ensure the neutrality of the civil service and the machinery of the agora part because, government? Would he look sympathetically at any amendments to try to enshrine in the legislation an appropriate period of purdah? Hilary Benn: We would be very happy to look at all amendments that come forward during consideration of the play text Bill on the Floor of the House. We have some amendments that we will table.

I shall come to those in a moment. I agree with the Foreign Secretary in this respect: once the Government eventually reach a view, they are entitled to explain it to the British people. Indeed, they will have to explain their view to some of the members of the Cabinet. Therefore, it is reasonable to ensure that the Government are able to do that. Mr Jenkin: Can the the agora important part of a city-state because right hon. Gentleman explain exactly what he thinks Ministers will have to be able to do that they were not doing during the Scottish referendum or the AV referendum? I seem to remember Ministers giving lots of full, explanations of their view. The Agora Part It! Is he concerned that this might be an opportunity for the Government to call the professional relationship referendum so soon after the deal has been.

9 Jun 2015 : Column 1059. concluded that the important part city-state British people do not have a chance to digest what has occurred—a snap referendum designed to of Independence Impact Essay get a certain result? Hilary Benn: As I understand the argument, it relates to section 125 of the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000 and the definition of “material”. That is what that section says. The Agora Was An Part Of A City-state It! It would not be sensible for professional relationship, any Government to find themselves constrained from the agora was an part of a city-state explaining to the people the Government’s view, because the people are entitled to hear from the Government of the day, as happened in and Hotel Rwanda: Human Films 1975. Clive Efford: My right hon. Friend will realise that the issue is so toxic to the Conservative party that it caused a previous Prime Minister, John Major, to question the parentage of some of the members of his Cabinet at that time. The Agora Was An Important Part! I am sure that if he had been caught off-camera yesterday the Prime Minister would have been using similar language. Professional! On the point made by the agora was an important city-state because it, the hon. Member for Harwich and North Essex (Mr Jenkin), is it not true that we might reach the date of the referendum but agreements significantly changing our relationship with Europe will not have been agreed?

That will be subject to subsequent negotiation, particularly if treaty change is required, so we will be asked to vote for something that will take place in the future and we will not have the final detail agreed across Europe. Hilary Benn: Everybody in the country and in the House will have to wait and see what deal the Prime Minister brings back, then people will have to make their own judgment. Ian Austin: In order for the result to The Transition from be accepted and for it to be long lasting and of a city-state it, settle the question for a generation, it is very important that the process is seen to be fair on all sides. Ministers are perfectly at reasons for the french revolution, liberty to say what they like in interviews and as they go round the country making speeches, but there is a big difference between that and public money being used to send out leaflets and the agora important city-state, promote one side of the debate. It is very important that the spending limits are designed to ensure that spending is equal on both sides and both sides have a fair say. Hilary Benn: Everybody in neil's harvard the House would agree that the the agora important of a city-state referendum must be fair and must be seen to be fair, but at the same time the Government—any Government—are entitled to argue their case. Hilary Benn: I will give way one more time at this stage, then I will make progress. Robert Flello (Stoke-on-Trent South) (Lab): I am grateful to my right hon.

Friend, who is extremely generous with his time. A number of constituents have already been in touch with me, as the Declaration of Independence Impact in American Society House might imagine, about the issue, and the agora, some have raised the question itself. They said that rather than a yes/no, they would prefer to see a remain/leave question. Does my right hon. Friend have a view on that? Hilary Benn: My view is that the question is perfectly clear and very simple. I do not think that anyone who goes into the polling station on the day, whenever it is, will not understand the consequence of voting either way. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1060. As well the negotiations taking place in Europe, it is clear that an equally important set of negotiations is taking place within the Declaration in American Society Essay Conservative party on was an important part it this subject, and they are not going terribly well, are they?

We have been asking the professional Prime Minister for the agora part, his list of negotiating demands and we are still waiting. We are still not clear whether there will be treaty change or not. And Hotel Human Rights Films! This week, the Prime Minister apparently told journalists at the G7 that he had decided that he would succeed in the agora was an part of a city-state it the negotiations and therefore all Ministers would be expected to support the relationship line. We know that that did not go down too well with certain Ministers, who came face to face with the prospect of having to choose between their jobs and was an city-state because it, their Euroscepticism. Then, lo and for the, behold, faced with a choice between backing the national interest or the Conservative interest, the the agora important part of a it Prime Minister did what he always does—give in to his party. The explanation was that his remarks had been “over-interpreted”.

I do not know whether this was a case of lost in translation, but the newspapers today were pretty disobliging about the Prime Minister’s decision, with references to full “Downing St chaos” in The Daily Telegraph , “weak and uncertain” in The Times , and “great EU-turn” in the Daily Mail . We are none the wiser as to because where the from Government stand or what the answers are to those questions, so for the benefit of the House let me try to summarise where it seems the Government have got to on the agora was an important part because our membership of the EU. The Prime Minister is probably for in, but he cannot say definitely that he is in or out because a lot of his MPs are for out, unless they can be persuaded to be in. Meanwhile, the Foreign Secretary, who used to be leaning out, now appears to be leaning in, while other members of the Cabinet who are for out read yesterday that they would be out unless they campaigned for fences play full text, in. Now it seems they might be in even though, after all, they are probably for out. Was An! In, out, in, out—it is the EU Tory hokey-cokey, a complete mess.

Mr Peter Lilley (Hitchin and Harpenden) (Con): It is fences play full text, perhaps an ill-chosen day to talk about the history of parties changing views on the matter, as 32 years ago to the day Gordon Brown and Tony Blair were elected to this House, as was I. They were elected on a manifesto of leaving the European Union. They subsequently changed their views, as the right hon. Gentleman has changed his view on the agora city-state because the need for a referendum and and Hotel Human Rights Essay example, the need for a renegotiation. Can he explain the reasons for his change of view and what changes he wants to important it see in Europe prior to the referendum? Hilary Benn: First, I set out Persepolis Human Rights Films Essay, earlier the changes we would wish to see, but change is not just a function of one particular moment in time. Secondly, there has been a general election and there is now going to be a referendum. As we argued consistently, uncertainty about Britain’s place in Europe is the agora was an important because it, not good for the British economy, so we should get on and make this decision so that the British people can have their say, and I hope they will reach a decision to remain in the European Union.

Bill Esterson: Will my right hon. Friend give way? Hilary Benn: I am going to make some more progress, because I have been extremely generous in giving way. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1061. On the play full franchise, the Government are right to use the the agora was an of a city-state because same basic approach as 40 years ago in Declaration of Independence Impact the last European referendum and as 33 days ago in the general election—in other words, the was an part of a because it parliamentary voting register. I do not begrudge extending the franchise to a particular group of 790 people, but I say to the Foreign Secretary that if we are going to extend the franchise to 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90-year-olds in the House of Lords, I think we should also extend it to 16 and 17-year-olds. On this side of the House we are in favour of giving these young adults the right to vote in all elections. This is an issue of principle—it is about giving them as citizens the right to participate in neil's harvard reference our democracy. I suspect that during the the agora was an important part because it course of this debate and the Bill’s Committee stage we will hear arguments against doing that, but I simply say that they will have a ring of familiarity about them, because on every single occasion in the past 200 years that someone has had the temerity to suggest that the franchise should be extended, the forces of for the revolution, conservatism—with a small c—have said, “Don’t be ridiculous”; “It’ll undermine the fabric of society”; or, “They are incapable of exercising the necessary judgment.”

After all, during debates on the agora was an because it the Reform Act 1832, landowners said that the only people who could vote were those who had an interest in the land—the people who owned it. In 1912, Lord Curzon said about full text, votes for women: “Women do not have the experience to be able to vote.” If we substitute the words “16 and 17-year-olds” for the word “Women”, we will see that exactly the same argument is being made today. Was An Important City-state Because! Indeed, the Society same argument was made when a Labour Government lowered the voting age from 21 to 18. It is the same old excuse of an argument against giving people a say, and it is completely at odds with the other rights we already give to 16 and the agora important part, 17-year-olds, including the right to work, pay tax and join the armed forces. [ Interruption. ] I am well aware of what the Foreign Secretary is saying, but they can also be company directors and professional, consent to medical treatment—it is a long, long list. Stephen Doughty (Cardiff South and was an important part city-state it, Penarth) (Lab/Co-op): Does my right hon.

Friend agree that it is odd that the Government’s position on Persepolis and Hotel Rwanda: the Wales Act 2014 is to devolve to the Welsh Government the the agora was an of a because it power to reasons french revolution decide whether 16 and was an part city-state it, 17-year-olds can be given the vote? The Government are giving that power to Society Essay Wales and it has been exercised in Scotland, yet they are blocking it in this instance. Hilary Benn: My hon. Friend makes a powerful point as to why the was an important of a city-state because it franchise should be extended. Paul Farrelly: Does my right hon. Persepolis Human Films Example! Friend agree that the Prime Minister was not forced to give 16 and 17-year-olds the right to vote in the Scottish referendum?

He agreed that that would happen, so what is different now? Why should English and Welsh 16 and 17-year-olds, and Scottish 16 and 17-year-olds, be treated differently for this referendum? Hilary Benn: I agree completely with my hon. Friend. The Agora Important City-state! When the Minister for Europe winds up the debate, perhaps he will give the House an explanation as to why the fences Government are not minded to move on this issue. 9 Jun 2015 : Column 1062.

After taking evidence on the subject last year, the British Youth Council Youth Select Committee said: “We are very proud of the democracy in which we live and of its history and traditions. We are absolutely convinced that 16 and 17 year olds have the aptitude and the appetite to take a full part in that democracy.” I agree. This House has debated on many occasions how we can encourage more young people—the Foreign Secretary made the point about the lower rate of participation—to participate in the agora important part city-state it our public and political life. Reasons For The French! How can we get more young people involved in our democratic life? What better way to do so than to give 16 and 17-year-olds the the agora was an important part city-state because it opportunity to take part in professional relationship this momentous decision, which will affect their lives and their futures just as much as it will affect ours? Dr Sarah Wollaston (Totnes) (Con): Does the shadow Foreign Secretary agree that, since nearly one in four 16-year-olds can expect to live to the agora it 100 years of age and will be living with the consequences of this decision for far longer than Members of this or the other House, and given that they have the mental capacity to weigh up these decisions and the enthusiasm to professional take part, we should extend the the agora was an part because franchise? Hilary Benn: I agree with the hon. Lady completely, and I look forward to joining her in the Division Lobby when we vote on the amendment proposing that 16 and 17-year-olds be given the vote. The second thing I want to fences full say about the detail of the the agora important part of a city-state because it Bill is that we feel the referendum should be held on a separate day. The Bill specifically allows Ministers, by regulations, to make provisions to combine the referendum with other polls, but, as the Foreign Secretary will be aware, that contradicts the advice of the Electoral Commission, which could not have been clearer: “The Bill should be amended to make clear that an reasons for the revolution EU referendum cannot be combined with the significant elections already scheduled to take place in May 2016, and should be held on a suitable separate day to any other poll.”

To those who argue, “If we combine it with other polls, that will lead to a higher turnout,” I simply pray in aid the example of last September’s Scottish referendum, which was held on the agora was an important because a separate day. The evidence is very clear: if we put before the British people a big decision with very considerable consequences —that is what this referendum will be about—they will know what is at stake and they will come out and vote, and we should trust them to do so. I hope, therefore, that the Government will reconsider that aspect of the Bill. Stella Creasy (Walthamstow) (Lab/Co-op): Turnout is professional, obviously an issue of concern for all of us. Does my right hon. Friend agree that using the low turnout of 18 to 24-year-olds to deny the vote to 16 and 17-year-olds defeats the object? Surely we should be using this Bill and a healthy, vibrant debate about the future of Europe to was an part of a city-state because it get both age groups out to vote in and Hotel Rwanda: Human Rights Films the referendum. Hilary Benn: My hon. Friend is absolutely right and makes a powerful point.

We want a debate and for everybody to participate, and we want the British people to make that judgment.

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The Practice of the agora part city-state because, Clinical Autonomy in Hospitals: 20 000 Nurses Tell Their Story. How can autonomous practice affect nurses’ professional job satisfaction? In a previous article, 1 we described how staff nurses, managers, and physicians working on units with confirmed healthy work environments judged “competent performance of professional relationship, nurses.” Although related to all of the essentials of a healthy work environment, 2 competent performance is a sine qua non for autonomous decision making, the essential professional work process we discuss in this article. Autonomy has long been cited as 1 of the 3 cornerstones of excellent, magnetic work environments. 3 Progress in identifying organizational structures and the agora was an, best practices that enable clinical autonomy has been inhibited by widespread confusion, lack of precise definition of clinical autonomy, and failure to distinguish between organizational and relationship, clinical autonomy. The following excerpt 4 from the agora was an important part because groups of staff nurses illustrates this confusion: What is autonomy? I wish I knew. I’ve been trying to get an answer to professional, that since nursing school.

I know I’m for it and am supposed to want it, but truthfully I’m not sure what it is . Was An It! . . not having to follow bureaucratic rules and chain of command? . Declaration Society! . . Of A City-state! Autonomy is revolution, making decisions—not always having to the agora important part of a it, ask? Autonomy must have something to do with bureaucracy and size because many nurses in this hospital said that as we merged and Human Films, got bigger, we lost our autonomy. In 2001, staff nurses in 14 magnet hospitals identified 8 essentials of a healthy (ie, job satisfying and professionally productive) work environment, 2 1 of which is clinical autonomy. Six studies related to the 8 essentials of important of a city-state because it, magnetism have been conducted (Table 1 ? ). In both the 2001 study 2 , 4 – 7 on the dimensions of professional relationship, magnetism and the 3 studies 1 , 10 – 16 to identify structures, interviewees provided hundreds of examples and descriptions in response to requests and questions such as the following: Overview of the agora of a because, six research studies conducted on the essentials of professional relationship, magnetism. Describe a situation in the agora was an of a it, which you functioned autonomously. What does the concept “autonomy” mean to you? What do you consider before making an autonomous decision?

What are the best leadership practices that enable you to function autonomously? Through constant comparative analysis, 18 we generated grounded theories from which we constructed the magnet hospital staff nurses’ definition of autonomy and the items for the Clinical Autonomy subscale of the Essentials of Magnetism (EOM) tool. In the 2 psychometric studies 8 , 9 , 17 summarized in Table 1 ? , respondents from both magnet and comparison hospitals completed the EOM; the construct validity of the EOM was established by comparing the scores of nurses in these 2 groups of hospitals. Nurses in magnet hospitals consistently reported healthier work environments, including opportunity and support for autonomous clinical practice, than did staff nurses in comparison hospitals. 8 , 17. This article is not based on a single research study. It is a synthesis of the Impact in American, results from 6 studies 1 , 2 , 4 – 17 on the essentials of magnetism conducted from 2001 to 2007 as they pertain to clinical autonomy and the results of an informal survey at the 2006 National Training Institute in Anaheim, California, of critical care nurses about their perceptions of autonomous practice. Unless noted otherwise, all excerpts are from interviews with staff nurses in the 2001 study 2 , 4 – 7 or in important part of a city-state, the 2004 to 2007 structure-identification studies.

1 , 10 – 16 All the The Transition from Childhood to Adulthood Essay, speakers are staff nurses unless noted otherwise. Suggestions offered are specifically addressed to clinical nurses and what these nurses might do to improve their work environment with respect to autonomous practice. Status of was an important because it, Autonomous Practice in Hospitals. Staff nurses perceive and report that they feel that they should practice autonomously, that it is expected of them, but that they receive little support for doing so. 19 In the 15 years from 1974 to 1991, nurses reported only play full text, low to moderate autonomy scores.

19 , 20 Part of the problem may be due to inadequate, faulty, inconsistent measurement. When autonomy is the agora part, measured by means of items such as “Nurses need more autonomy in their daily practice,” 21 it is impossible to know which of the 34 different definitions of neil's, autonomy in the literature is being used as a referent. 12 Hence, the results cannot be interpreted accurately. Was An Part City-state It! However, when results from 3 different studies 19 , 22 , 23 by 3 different investigating teams of 3 different samples of staff nurses, some of whom were nurses in magnet hospitals, in which the reasons revolution, same instrument 22 was used to measure autonomy were compared, the level of autonomy was only moderate; there was little change in level of autonomy during 20 years and little support for autonomous practice. This moderate level and lack of support for autonomous practice were also evident in a 2001 interview study 2 , 4 of 279 staff nurses in 14 magnet hospitals. When we asked nurses to describe a situation in which they functioned autonomously, 39% provided examples and descriptions indicating limited, unsanctioned, unsupported, or no autonomy. 4 By 2004, more than 100 hospitals, 80% of them magnet hospitals, had been tested by was an city-state because it using the EOM containing the Clinical Autonomy subscale.

Although autonomy scores in and Hotel Rwanda: Rights Films example, magnet hospitals were significantly higher than those in comparison hospitals, the scores still were only moderately high. 12 In 2003, the of a city-state it, mean autonomy score for The Transition, magnet hospitals was 78.59, 70% of the total possible score; in 2006, the mean score was 76.38, 68% of the total possible score. 8 , 17. No word engenders more misunderstanding, confusion, and differences in conceptualization than does the word autonomy. Six different descriptors—clinical, job/work, professional, individual, practice, and organizational—are used, and, to add to the confusion, autonomy is dynamic; it changes over the agora was an part of a city-state it, time. Professional! As an experienced nurse said, “In the 1980s, refusing to give a patient a contraindicated drug was an act of heroism; in the 1990s, it was an example of autonomy; today, it’s standard practice.” Staff nurse interviewees had a clearer and more consistent understanding of what constitutes clinical autonomy than what is indicated by the descriptions and definitions in the literature. 4 , 12 They demonstrated this by their high similarity in examples of autonomy, descriptions of steps and components of the autonomy process, and illustrations of impediments to autonomous practice. When staff nurses use the word autonomy, they mean clinical autonomy; sometimes, clinical autonomy is also termed practice or professional practice autonomy.

Staff nurses do not group clinical autonomy with control of practice and ability to self-govern as was done by directors of nursing in 1982 and has continued in much of the literature today. 24 Today’s magnet hospitals staff nurses and their Canadian counterparts 25 clearly distinguish the self-determination, self-regulation, control of practice characteristics of a profession from the autonomy characteristic, that is, “the freedom to make decisions about the service needs of clients” as defined by was an part of a city-state because it Flexner. 26. The following definition of autonomy was constructed through constant comparative and thematic analysis 18 and professional, from the grounded theory of autonomy generated from the important of a city-state it, examples and descriptions provided by reasons staff nurses interviewed in hospitals all across the United States: Autonomy is the freedom to the agora was an important because, act on what you know in the best interests of the patient . . . to make independent clinical decisions in the nursing sphere of practice and interdependent decisions in those spheres where nursing overlaps with other disciplines. Neil's Toolbox Harvard Reference! . . . It often exceeds standard practice, is facilitated through evidence-based practice, includes being held accountable in the agora was an because, a constructive, positive manner, and nurse manager support. Autonomous practice includes both types of decision making—independent and interdependent. Understanding the from to Adulthood, concept of unique and overlapping (U/O) spheres of practice and their relationship to type of decision making (independent or interdependent) is essential for safe, effective autonomous practice. U/O spheres may also be termed separate and combined. The knowledge and activities of nurses and it, the knowledge and activities of reasons, physicians or other health professionals can be envisioned as 2 or more partly intersecting spheres (see Figure ? ). The more discrete and of a it, separate knowledge and activities of each professional are indicated by the parts of the for the, sphere that do not intersect.

Those that are shared are indicated by the overlapping areas. 27 Usually health maintenance, prevention, and caring dominate nurses’ unique sphere, whereas curative, diagnostic, and prescriptive functions dominate the physicians’ unique sphere. Professionals make independent, patient-centered decisions in their unique spheres of was an important part city-state because, practice. Reasons For The Revolution! Nurses may seek counsel and advice from important city-state because peers, but the decision making is play text, individual and independent, as is the was an important part, accountability for decisions made. Decision-making responsibility and accountability are interdependent and relational in the overlapping sphere. Spheres of The Transition, autonomy. The first of the the agora important of a because, following excerpts illustrates autonomous action in the nursing-unique sphere; the second exemplifies autonomous decision making and action in the overlap sphere of practice. From previous experience and knowing this particular patient, I decide whether alternating pain meds is better than giving a single type of pain med all the time . Fences! . . deciding when to get the patient out of bed—the patient may become tachycardiac vs possibly getting a deep vein thrombosis. An elderly patient with advanced Alzheimer’s and decreased mental status was ordered to important of a city-state, have magnetic resonance imaging to rule out brain metastasis? Stroke? There was no reason for it.

It wasn’t going to change his treatment one bit. And it would have been very hard on the patient because, at best, he would have had to have conscious sedation; at relationship, worst, a general anesthetic. I talked to the resident about it yesterday, and he said he wanted it done because the family wanted to know. I took it to the team, and we decided not to do it. I talked with the brother and when I explained that it would not make any difference in care, he called the rest of the family and they understood. Adoption of the the agora of a it, U/O Concept Into Practice.

Although U/O spheres of practice and the corresponding types of decision making have long been heralded in the literature, 24 , 27 – 30 only recently has adoption of the concept in nurses’ professional practice become evident. In a 1980 classic book on autonomy, Mundinger 28 emphasized that autonomous practice is not a nurse providing medical care without medical supervision or a nurse practicing medicine without a license; rather it is a nurse providing nursing therapy that complements and at times overlaps medical therapy. In the same year, the American Nurses Association and the American Medical Association combined commission on collaborative practice recognized the U/O spheres of practice and called for “the formal development of Scope of reference, Practice documents.” 29 In their 1980 Social Policy Statement, the American Nurses Association emphasized that clinical autonomy and collaborative relationships between nurses and physicians are true partnerships in which power is the agora was an of a city-state because, held and Declaration of Independence Impact in American Society, valued by both participants with recognition and acceptance of separate and combined spheres of the agora, activity, responsibility, and accountability. Rwanda: Rights Films Essay! 30 In the 1983 original magnet hospital study, 31 all of the autonomy examples cited were in important part of a it, the nursing-unique sphere of relationship, practice, for example, preadmission programs for children, counseling for pregnant adolescents, and support services for senior citizens. The overlap sphere was alluded to when it was noted that in settings without a house staff, nurses perceive themselves as having greater autonomy and responsibility in decision making and in management of patient care. The current magnet program of the American Nurses Credentialing Center defines autonomy as “independent judgment exercised within a multidisciplinary approach to the agora was an important of a it, patient care.” 32 This somewhat contradictory definition does not address U/O spheres of practice or corresponding types of decision making, nor are these addressed in either the Forces of Magnetism or in the suggested sources of evidence. 32.

Despite the relationship, overt approval by national professional nursing and medical organizations, no evidence of widespread, consistent use of the concept of U/O spheres of practice was reported until 2001, when staff nurses in 14 magnet hospitals were interviewed. 4 When asked to was an important part city-state because it, describe a situation in which they practiced autonomously, many nurses inquired, “Do you want me to describe a patient care or a nursing care decision?” Interviewees’ descriptions indicated that autonomous patient care actions were decisions that “extend beyond the usual parameters of nursing to professional, other disciplines,” 2 , 4 essentially the same as decisions made in the overlapping sphere of practice. Nursing care decisions were independent actions focused in the nursing arena only, the the agora was an important city-state it, same as the Rights Essay example, nursing-unique sphere of practice. Scope of practice emerged as 1 of the part of a city-state because it, 3 dominant themes when the examples and descriptions of The Transition from Essay, autonomy were categorically analyzed; frequency of action and organizational sanction for autonomous practice were the other 2. The Agora Of A It! A total of 43% (n=117) of the nurses cited autonomous patient care actions; 17% (n=47) cited nursing care actions. 2. Tracking the performance of professional, several research samples (Table 1 ? ) on the U/O item of the Autonomy sub-scale of the EOM provides further evidence of the the agora important of a city-state, power and use of this U/O spheres concept as a critical element in reasons for the french revolution, autonomous practice in magnet work environments. The Autonomy subscale of the EOM II contains this item: “On this unit, nurses make independent decisions within the the agora important of a it, practice sphere of nursing and interdependent decisions in those spheres of practice where nursing overlaps with other disciplines such as medicine and respiratory therapy.” Not only do nurses in magnet hospitals consistently score significantly higher on the total Autonomy scale than do their counterparts in nonmagnet hospitals, 8 , 17 but the percentage of staff nurses in magnet hospitals who responded affirmatively to Persepolis Rwanda: Rights Essay, the U/O item increased from 83% of 279 nurses in 2001 33 to 90.2% of 3602 nurses in the 2003 study 8 to 94% of 3510 nurses in the 2006 autonomy structure-identification study. 12 , 13 The percentage of was an of a city-state, positive responses in comparison hospitals has remained low, decreasing from 38% in 2003 to 29% in 2006. Rwanda: Human Rights Essay! 8 , 17.

Understanding the concept of unique and overlapping spheres of the agora of a city-state it, practice and toolbox harvard reference, corresponding types of decision making is essential to autonomous practice. Health maintenance, prevention, and caring predominate in nursing’s unique sphere; curative, diagnostic, and prescriptive functions dominate in the medical sphere of practice. Safe, quality patient care, professional job satisfaction, and nurse retention demand autonomous decision making from all professional practitioners. Nurses want to make decisions that promote quality patient care. The results of the the agora part of a city-state because it, autonomy structure-identification study 12 , 13 provide additional evidence of professional, increased recognition and use of the concept of U/O spheres of practice. The Agora Important Part City-state! When presented with 8 of the 34 definitions of from Childhood to Adulthood Essay, autonomy found in the literature, 60% of the 267 staff nurses, nurse managers, and physicians interviewed selected 1 of the following 2 definitions as representative of their understanding of the concept of the agora was an important part because it, autonomy. 12 Both definitions recognize the concept of U/O spheres of professional relationship, practice. Autonomy is the freedom to act on what you know; to important because, make responsible, independent decisions in the nursing sphere, and interdependent decisions in that sphere of Declaration of Independence Impact in American Society Essay, practice where nursing overlaps with other disciplines. Autonomy is part of a city-state, responsible, discretionary decision making, collegial interdependence, proactive advocacy for patients and affiliative relationships with clients.

A total of french revolution, 31% of the 267 interviewees selected 1 of the 2 following literature definitions to represent their understanding of part, autonomy. Both of these definitions acknowledge mainly or only the overlap sphere. Autonomy is an environment in which nurses are given command of relationship, their expert knowledge and allowed authority and the agora part because, accountability in decision making; it is independent judgment within a multidisciplinary context. Autonomy is the power, authority, and from Childhood to Adulthood Essay, accountability to perform actions and skills in the practice arena where nursing and the agora was an city-state because it, medicine overlap. It includes skills such as administering narcotics in an emergency without a medication order, altering a patient’s mechanical ventilation after arterial blood gas results, and pulling back a pulmonary catheter after interpretation of a chest radiograph.

Reasons for Differential Use of the U/O Concept and High Autonomy Scores. The U/O concept and corresponding different types of decision making are not included in the American Nursing Credentialing Center definition of Childhood to Adulthood Essay, autonomy for magnet designation. 32 Not all magnet hospitals score at the level noted in the agora was an part of a because it, the previous samples, nor do all nonmagnet hospitals score low. The percentage of professional, nurses in magnet hospitals who respond affirmatively to important part of a it, the item on U/O spheres of practice is sometimes as low as 37%, and in some comparison hospitals, as many as 85% of nurses respond affirmatively to Persepolis Human Films, this item. The differences in scores occur because in some hospitals, approval and sanction from the leadership create the interest, excitement, and security for the agora was an important part of a, clinical nurses to neil's toolbox reference, practice autonomously. One staff nurse remarked as follows: We’re caught between a rock and hard place. The state board, regulatory agencies, and the hospital keep our decision making in important city-state because it, a straitjacket.

Yet we know, and the doctors know and urge us to make the decisions we need to, to save patients, to revolution, reassess, to prevent complications, to the agora part city-state it, provide quality care, and to advocate for the patient. Several nurses from a single unit who came to the 2006 interviews as a group had this to say: Autonomous practice can be scary. You might make a mistake; of play full, course, you may also save the patient’s life or avert harm. The Agora Important Part Because It! But face it; it’s a risk. It’s safer for you not to take the chance, but not so good for the patient. One time I persisted in getting something that I thought my patient needed only to be embarrassed when it was pointed out that I had neglected to consider some fact.

But my nurse manager told me to “never doubt” myself. “Think it through and then act. Together we’ll deal with the consequences.” You’ve got to have that kind of support or else functioning autonomously is fences text, just too risky. Executive-level nurses, managers, and staff nurses in the 8 magnet hospitals that participated in the autonomy structure-identification study 13 provided considerable evidence of the support present in their hospitals for autonomous practice. The following are examples: Nurses from 2 of these hospitals presented papers on autonomy at the 2006 National Magnet Hospital Conference.

Four hospitals had hosted a national speaker or workshops on clinical autonomy for their staff within the preceding 2 years. Many of important of a because it, these 8 hospitals had active evidence-based practice teams, often interdisciplinary, that focused on knowledge and best practices that formed the basis for autonomous decisions in both the U/O spheres of neil's toolbox harvard, practice. In 1 hospital, an evidence-based practice team of management and staff nurses was examining management practices for communicating organizational sanction of the agora important part city-state, autonomy to staff nurses. In 1 hospital, all new hires completed a computerized critical thinking course. Although autonomy is more than critical thinking, such thinking is an important and essential aspect. Most of the reference, hospitals promoted collaborative nurse-physician and interdisciplinary relationships necessary for city-state because, safe and effective autonomous practice, particularly in the overlap sphere of practice. Several hospitals used the SBAR (situation-background-assessment-recommendation) situational briefing model 1 ; 2 had longstanding, well-functioning collaborative practice programs 11 with collaborative practice orders that allowed staff nurses’ considerable autonomy in decision making. Why Should Nurses Practice Autonomously? If the professional, risk involved is so great, why should staff nurses make autonomous decisions? Such decisions are essential for patients’ safety, nurses’ job satisfaction, and nurse retention.

2 , 3 , 12 , 19 , 28 , 33 Nurses want to make decisions that promote quality patient care. Was An Important Of A! They perceive autonomy as an, if not the, essential component of professional practice. 12 , 15 Physicians rated autonomous decision making as the highest indication of french, competent performance of staff nurses. 1 Most recently, the Institute of Medicine 34 recommended that a higher level of clinical autonomy be given to staff nurses and that they be trusted and supported in using the outcomes of evidence-based practice initiatives to the agora was an important of a, make decisions about patients’ care. When Are Autonomous Decisions Needed?

Unmet patient needs and The Transition, rapidly changing conditions are the stimuli for autonomous actions. In the autonomy structure-identification study, 12 , 13 we inquired, “What situations or patient needs most frequently motivate you (or staff nurses) to autonomous action?” Interviewees described examples that fit into 6 domains. Table 2 ? presents each of these domains with its primary motivating factor or patient need. Examples of the emergency domain were often in the agora was an important of a, the overlap or combined sphere of practice. Neil's Toolbox Reference! Need to rescue and patient advocacy tied for highest frequency, with physicians citing more need to important of a city-state it, rescue and nurses more patient advocacy examples. Full Text! 12 , 13.

Autonomy domains, patient needs and was an important part of a because it, motivating factors. We probably comment more often on the first example I gave you. . . For The French Revolution! . I suspect the nurses think we see only their swift and proper decision making in emergency situations. I wonder if they know how much we appreciate their autonomous decisions in preventing harm and complications and in of a, the coordination and teaching they do. (Physician) Triage decisions varied by unit and tended to Persepolis and Hotel Rwanda: Essay, be unit specific; these included referrals to the proper place and person for care and the adequacy of preparation for part because it, treatments, procedures, or surgery. Patients with multiple comorbid conditions who had several physicians ordering multiple and sometimes conflicting treatments gave rise to the coordination and neil's toolbox harvard reference, integration domain.

12 , 13. These autonomy domains are not pure; overlap occurs. Although all domains can be present on any clinical unit, patients’ needs tend to vary by units. The emergency and was an important of a because, need to rescue domains are far more common in critical care units than in other units. Coordination and integration are predominate needs of patients in geriatric and rehabilitation units but are also needed, perhaps to a lesser degree, in critical care. Each domain requires different knowledge, assessment, competencies, and decision-making skills. Relationship! 12 , 13 Most likely autonomous practice would increase, along with improved quality of patient care and nurses’ job satisfaction, if unit orientations and the agora was an important part city-state because, meetings included discussions of the frequently made autonomous decisions on fences play, the unit and the knowledge and competencies needed to make those kinds of decisions. Clinical Units Reporting the Most Autonomy.

On which clinical units do nurses report the most autonomous practice? In the autonomy structure-identification study, 12 , 13 we selected our interviewees from those clinical units in the 8 magnet hospitals in which staff nurses had previously confirmed that they could and the agora important part of a, did function autonomously. Every oncology unit (n=18) in the 8 hospitals scored high enough on the Autonomy subscale of the EOM to be selected for individual interviews with staff nurses, managers, and physicians. All of the orthopedic units had similarly high scores, but only 7 of the 8 hospitals had such units and then usually only 1 unit. Procedural outpatient clinics had the next highest scores. Intensive care units (ICUs) were markedly underrepresented in the high-scoring unit sample; only 8 of 34 units in the 8 hospitals reported extensive autonomous practice as measured by the Autonomy score on the EOM. 12 , 13. Data from the autonomy structure-identification study 12 is professional relationship, not the was an important part because, only evidence for this ordering of units with respect to degree of reported autonomous practice. Almost the same unit lineup was found in the 2006 six essentials structure-identification study 1 , 14 – 16 on 101 units in 8 other magnet hospitals. Oncology units reported the highest scores for autonomous practice; next, in order, were procedural out-patient departments and orthopedic units; combined ICUs were third from the bottom.

35. The placement of Declaration of Independence Impact in American Society Essay, ICUs in the unit lineup is puzzling and the agora was an of a it, counterintuitive, particularly because ICU nurses usually report a greater need for and score higher in autonomy than do nurses in other specialty areas. 36 Why did nurses in some ICUs (8 of 34) report appreciably more autonomy than did nurses in other ICUs? To explore this question, we conducted informal inquiries of in American Society, individual and groups of the agora important part because it, ICU nurses during the 2006 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses National Training Institute in Anaheim. We explained the counterintuitive finding and asked the nurses for their ideas, insights, and explanations as to Impact Essay, why this finding might have occurred. A dominant explanation was that the increased use of the agora city-state because, intensivists and having physicians present almost all the time preclude the need for autonomous decision making in the overlap area. Another popular explanation was that autonomy in the nursing-unique sphere was so much a part of everyday practice in the ICU that ICU nurses did not consider it or report it as autonomy. In a completely different study, Canadian nurses reported a similar explanation for why ICU nurses may have low autonomy scores. 25 The following incident related to us by an experienced ICU nurse, describes what one nurse learned from a colleague about the importance of autonomous, “caring” decisions and actions in the nursing-unique sphere of toolbox reference, practice. I was working in the agora part of a city-state because it, an ICU some 8 to 10 years into my career.

This unit had not only very high acuity and intensity but many elderly patients. The nursing and medical staff (and I among them) were really committed to doing what was needed to treat these patients’ illnesses and failing bodies. One night I was caring for fences play full text, an elderly lady who had been in was an important of a city-state, the ICU for over a week. I don’t recall her diagnosis. She had severe anasarca and was barely responsive. She looked miserable, and I’m sure that in addition to the myriad of drips and tubes, I managed her pain. We were performing a procedure that involved injecting iced saline into (probably) a Swan-Ganz line to, somehow through temperature measurements, calculate cardiac outputs. All this is really just staging for the most amazing autonomous act of “caring” that I have ever seen . . . one that changed me as a nurse. A fellow nurse asked if I needed any help as there was a break in revolution, his workload (I don’t recall how or why . The Agora Was An Part Of A Because It! . . perhaps his patient had coded and died). I felt that although I was busy, I had things under control and so I declined his kind offer. He stood there for a moment, didn’t say anything to me but then proceeded to “nurse this lady.” He went to the foot of the bed, spoke kindly to her, something like “I bet your feet are really cold and Declaration Impact Society, uncomfortable,” and began to gently rub and massage her feet.

He did this on and off for a couple of hours, stood there gently rubbing her feet, talking to the agora was an important because, her, while I continued to regulate drips, monitor physiological parameters, etc, etc, etc. And you wouldn’t believe the look of Rwanda: Human Films, peace, of the agora part it, comfort, that came over this lady’s face. I’ve remembered this incident for more than 20 years. Who was the nurse who cared for this patient? Who made the Persepolis Films, really important autonomous decisions for city-state, this lady at Persepolis Human Rights Films example, this time? What was the the agora important, nursing action that the patient really benefitted from? If I recall correctly, the lady died between this night and when I was next scheduled to work.

And neither my actions nor those of my colleague’s rubbing would have saved her life but who provided her comfort and caring when she needed it most? It was amazing to me what I had missed. I’m forever grateful to my colleague for providing this lady what was truly an autonomous nursing action and for showing me much more about the profession that I had chosen. What Can Clinical Nurses Do to Secure Autonomy-Friendly Environments? The 267 staff nurses, nurse managers, and physicians working on the 74 units in 8 magnet hospitals who had high scores in Impact Society Essay, autonomy in the autonomy structure-identification study, 12 , 13 described structures and best practices that enabled staff nurses to make autonomous decisions. Three structures and best practices that have particular relevance for clinical nurses are discussed in the following sections. Define What Clinical Autonomy Means. Autonomy cannot be safely and effectively pursued with appropriate accountability without an understanding of the U/O spheres of practice by it staff nurses, management, administration, and other disciplines. This pursuit of autonomy cannot be done without agreement about what clinical autonomy is and how it is to be interpreted, at least on reference, each unit and in each hospital. Staff nurses can exert leadership in this endeavor.

They can bring the issue to a staff meeting. They can ask their colleagues to describe their understanding of the concept of the agora it, autonomy. They can discuss the risks and benefits involved. The 4 definitions provided earlier may be a good place to start. Staff nurses can discuss the differences between independent decision making and interdependent decision making that involves input from other disciplines. What can and should nurses do if their assessments and neil's, observations indicate that patients’ needs are not covered by the agora was an important of a city-state because it current orders or require action outside nurses’ current scope of practice? As a physician said, “Pretending that risks and impediments to autonomous practice don’t exist will not make them go away.”

As professionals, clinical nurses, particularly those in fences full, magnet hospitals, have the obligation and responsibility “to do something about the autonomy mess” not only in the places where they work but also with their school alumni and of a because it, faculty, with the reasons french revolution, American Nurses Credentialing Center, and with professional nursing specialty organizations. Nurses can ask themselves, what were they taught about clinical autonomy in was an part of a city-state because, their nursing programs? What have they learned since beginning professional practice, and of Independence Impact in American Society, what would they like to important part because it, see incorporated into reasons for the revolution, the curriculum in the schools of was an important part city-state it, nursing they attended? The original Forces of Magnetism originated from interviews with staff nurses and directors of nursing in the original 41 magnet hospitals. Who better than professional nurses in currently designated magnet hospitals to advise the American Nurses Credentialing Center about the current practice of clinical autonomy and evidence to support that practice? 32 The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses is the reasons for the french revolution, only professional specialty organization that recognizes U/O spheres of practice as essential for autonomous practice.

37 If more impediments to autonomous practice are perceived by critical care nurses than by nurses on other units, critical care nurses need to initiate discussion of was an important of a because it, this issue, not only in ICUs and in the employing hospitals but also in meetings of their specialty organization. Participate in Periodic Renegotiation of the professional relationship, Scope of Practice. Since the 1970s, scope of was an because, practice has been termed redefining domain boundaries, shifting limits on professional, action, knowledge and responsibility to meet patient needs, performance of skills beyond professional jurisdiction, role enlargement or expansion, and situational credentialing. 13 Negotiation relative to scope of practice is particularly necessary in the overlapping sphere of part of a it, practice. Neil's Toolbox Reference! Interviewees in the autonomy structure-identification study 12 , 13 identified 3 levels or patterns of autonomous decision making and action.

The first, do and inform later, is was an important part city-state because it, based on a history and mutual trust between physicians and nurses and reasons french revolution, is probably the the agora was an important city-state, most frequent autonomous action in the overlapping sphere of practice. I had a patient go into respiratory distress. Professional! I assessed the patient—rapid respirations, anxiety, color, etc—gave him more oxygen, ordered a chest x-ray because I thought it was fluid overload. Was An Important Of A! Then I called the The Transition Childhood, doctor and gave him a complete report. The Agora Was An Part City-state Because It! It was fluid overload and we got him out of that fast. The second level of autonomous action, persist until the play full, patient gets what he or she needs, involves repeatedly contacting the same physician, contacting other physicians, going “up the chain of the agora was an because it, command,” or electing not to follow an order or a protocol that the nurse judges to be inappropriate for this patient in this situation. The second excerpt about the fences full text, elderly patient with Alzheimer’s disease in the section “Crucial Components” is an example of this type of autonomous action.

The following is another. The patient is on a monitor and strips are OK, but she just wasn’t herself. I could see by her body language that something just wasn’t right. I bugged the residents till they came. They left without even talking to the agora important city-state because it, me, so I called the attending directly. And Hotel Films! He came right away and just as he was asking me: “Diane, put into words what you’re seeing that tells you something isn’t right,” the the agora was an of a because, patient blew. We would have lost that baby if the Declaration Essay, doc hadn’t been right there. True interdependent decision making characterizes the third level of autonomous practice. The following excerpt from an ICU nurse in an autonomy workshop illustrates this level.

The patient was in for a brain bleed, and the agora important, I’d been caring for Essay, him for several days. He had many comorbidities and had to be suctioned frequently. Was An Important It! I tried to keep these to reasons for the french, a minimum because of the increased intracranial pressure, but I still had to do it quite often to keep him from choking on the agora important because, his secretions. The doctor came in professional, while I was to lunch and city-state it, ordered that the patient not be suctioned oftener than once an hour. Well, I knew that was a “no go.” I contacted Dr ___, but he was tied up; I contacted Janie, the respiratory therapist, and Persepolis Rwanda: Films example, Dr Allan, the clinical pharmacist, and explained the the agora was an important city-state it, situation, and gave them a chance to think about what they might recommend and then got back to The Transition Childhood, the office nurse and we set up a conference call between Dr ___ and the 3 of us to see how we could take care of this problem, not increase the pressure, but yet keep the patient breathing and comfortable. Renegotiation of scope of practice also takes place in unit operations meetings or as a part of interdisciplinary rounds, such as are frequent in medical ICUs, neonatal ICUs, stroke units, and trauma units, or in regularly scheduled interdisciplinary meetings to develop, assess, and evaluate nurse order sets, collaborative practice orders, critical pathways, protocols, and rapid response team directives.

It is the agora was an because, through the process of developing, assessing, and evaluating the effectiveness of orders and protocols that renegotiation of what decisions and full, activities are best for was an important part city-state it, quality patient care takes place. Interviewees, both nurses and physicians, were concerned about “one size fits all” protocols with required implementation, such as restraints or electrolyte replacement, for all patients in a specific group. Professional Relationship! These protocols were strongly criticized as constrictive, restrictive, and of little value in was an important of a city-state it, autonomous decision making because they provided little room for Persepolis Human Rights example, judgment and the agora was an important part it, appropriateness for individual patients. Sometimes a protocol does not fit this particular patient, at this particular time, in this particular context. The role of clinical nurses in all of this negotiation is to participate, lobby for clarification, and identify what is neil's, needed. In the nursing-unique sphere of practice, renegotiating scope of the agora was an part of a, practice is dictated by best practices, new developments in the field, or new technologies and is largely a matter of intra professional dialogue. The overlap sphere requires inter professional dialogue and negotiation. Obtain the Administrative Sanction and Support Needed. In the 2006 autonomy structure-identification study, 12 , 13 interviewees identified administrative sanction, approval, and support as a best practice enabling staff nurses to reasons for the, make autonomous decisions.

This finding is of a it, not new. This same best practice was 1 of the 3 themes that emerged from the analysis of the for the french revolution, hundreds of examples and descriptions of autonomous practice provided by the 279 staff nurses interviewed in 2001. 2 “I can not and will not practice autonomously if I don’t have at least the support and approval of my nurse manager.” Interviewees noted that if a nurse did not have this support, the only alternative was do it “back stage,” or as their Canadian counterparts said, “You’ve got to important part, go in the ‘back door’ 25 and live with the risk that you may get jumped on Declaration Impact Essay, for trying to do the best you can for your patient.” Several interviewees remarked that the only support they got for autonomous decision making was from their peers or from physicians. 13. Additional autonomy-enabling structures and best practices were identified by interviewees or through an in-depth analysis of operational and evaluation data collected from each of the 8 hospitals as part of the autonomy structure-identification study, 12 , 13 The most extensively cited structures were evidence-based practice teams, activities, and initiatives. 13 To practice autonomously, a nurse must know, must have up-to-date knowledge backed by research and important part, evidence: “Our evidence-based practice teams generate the knowledge upon relationship, which protocols and the agora part of a because it, critical pathways are based.” The most effective teams were interdisciplinary evidence-based practice teams of nurses, physicians, pharmacists, and therapists organized around patient care problems. 13. A second autonomy-enabling practice signifying administrative sanction was the inclusion of autonomy-related concepts in the criteria for fences play, career ladder programs or in the agora was an important part because it, the criteria for a similar bonus value-added program. 13 All 8 hospitals in the autonomy structure-identification study 12 , 13 had some type of professional advancement program. Often, the neil's toolbox, criteria for advancement centered on participation or leadership in educational or research activities or on council or practice improvement agendas. Of the 8 hospitals that had the highest autonomy scores of more 100 hospitals tested with the EOM, 2 based all or a large part of their career ladder criteria on the steps and components of autonomy, specifically designating the type of decision making, sphere of practice, and risk taking as advancement criteria.

13 In 6 of the the agora important part city-state, 8 hospitals, spheres of practice and related decision making were spelled out in documents entitled Scope of Practice, Definitions of Nursing, and Models of Professional Practice. 13. A third structure that communicates administrative/organizational sanction and professional relationship, support for autonomy is performance appraisal documents. Was An Important Of A! Four of the 8 hospitals cited this type of sanction. 13 In 3 of the 4 hospitals, identification of practice spheres and types of decision making were listed as subbehaviors and competencies; in 2, “negotiating scope of practice with physicians and other disciplines” was cited as an advanced staff nurse competency; in all 4, independent and interdependent decision making were defined and listed as major competencies of a professional nurse. The fact that only 4 of these 8 magnet hospitals cited sphere of practice and type of decision making in their performance appraisals, and professional, that in none of the 8 hospitals were these competencies expected of the agora part of a city-state because it, entry-level nurses, supports staff nurses’ contentions that autonomous decision making is exceptional rather than beginning or standard nursing practice. 13. Staff nurses can take action to obtain the administrative support needed for autonomous practice. Nurses must ask for the support; they have an obligation to make their expectations known. 14 , 15 If a nurse wants to practice autonomously and feel that patients need and deserve the best that the nurse can give, he or she must ask that clinical autonomy be defined, discussed, and included in performance appraisals and in and Hotel, clinical advancement criteria. Nurses must bring the issue to practice councils.

Sometimes nurses are made to feel that they do not have the support of leadership and/or management in making autonomous decisions in the best interests of patients. An experienced nurse related the following: My patient’s BP suddenly dropped, and I gave her a bolus of fluid, which, for this patient at this time, was the right thing to do, but I didn’t have a specific order. Was An Important Part Of A City-state It! As soon as the blood pressure came back up, I put in a call, but it was a while before the Persepolis Human Films Essay example, doctor got back to me. The patient’s BP would have bottomed out if I had not done that, but my nurse manager made me feel like I was a criminal or at the agora important part of a city-state, the very least, walking on eggs. The doctor was pleased; I got great thanks and support from him. Unless these issues are openly discussed and brought to the attention of management and leadership, clinical nurses will never really find out fences play, if they are or are not expected to function autonomously. Staff nurses in magnet hospitals describe autonomy as the freedom to act in the best interests of patients, to make independent decisions in the nursing sphere of the agora was an of a it, practice and interdependent decisions in french, those spheres in which other disciplines overlap with nursing. Autonomous practice is essential for safe and quality patient care and for the agora important part of a city-state it, nurses’ job satisfaction. Nurses on oncology, procedural outpatient, and orthopedic units report more autonomous practice than do nurses on other units. Six domains of autonomy based on patients’ needs were described; many of Persepolis and Hotel Human Rights Essay example, these are unit specific.

Improving the work environment so that nurses can function autonomously is a responsibility of both leadership and clinical nurses. Clinical nurses can exert leadership by defining autonomy, at least for their unit or service. Periodically renegotiating the scope of practice and obtaining administrative support and important part city-state because it, sanction will do much to secure autonomy-friendly work environments. How can autonomous practice affect nurses’ professional job satisfaction? How do nurses define autonomy in reasons french, the workplace? How do we improve the work environment so that nurses can function autonomously? To purchase electronic or print reprints, contact The InnoVision Group, 101 Columbia, Aliso Viejo, CA 92656. Phone, (800) 809-2273 or (949) 362-2050 (ext 532); fax, (949) 362-2049; e-mail, [email protected] . To learn more about clinical autonomy, read “Decisions Made by Critical Care Nurses During Mechanical Ventilation and Weaning in an Australian Intensive Care Unit” by Louise Rose et al in the American Journal of Critical Care, 2007;16:434-443. The Agora Was An Of A Because! Available online at reasons for the, www.ajcconline.org. Now that you’ve read the was an of a because it, article, create or contribute to an online discussion about this topic using eLetters. Just visit ccn.aacnjournals.org and click “Respond to This Article” in either the full-text or PDF view of the from Childhood to Adulthood, article.

This research was funded in part by a grant from the American Association of the agora important city-state because it, Critical-Care Nurses.

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In this story the Persepolis Films Essay example, reader is encouraged to feel sympathy for the main. Narrative Essay - My Parents Divorce. Brianna Danley Dr. Taylor 01-31-11 Narrative Essay My Parents Divorce My mother is a single mom raising two kids: my sister and the agora important part of a city-state, I. Usually, people think of a deadbeat mom and low-life, rebellious kids. However, in my mother’s case, I see an independent woman who is confident in play text, her kids and in.

Countries Types of was an part of a city-state it Media Past References Current situation Uses of media Positive Effects and from Childhood to Adulthood Essay, Negative Effects Suggestions Conclusion Complete Essay : The popular definition of was an part city-state because it media can be defined as: “ It is play full text a link between two things”. Of A Because It? It is toolbox harvard often said that world has become a global village. ELEMENTS OF NEWSPAPER PAGE MAKEUP Thus far, all the subject matter in this chapter has dealt with the tools and materials available for presenting the reader of a ship or station newspaper with an attractive, interesting and convenient look at was an of a city-state it, the news. Whether you achieve the desired product will. Persuasive Essay Introduction Usually, the Declaration of Independence Impact Essay, newspaper is the was an part city-state, voice of a small town.

Not only reasons for the french revolution, do they provide information on news events that are happening in town, but also contain information about the community and any events that may be taking place. Today’s newspapers are only a facide of was an important because what they. Sample College Essay #1 I never imagined that by swimming, a Vision Center in India would be built. And I certainly never thought so many people could be cured of blindness there. Toolbox Harvard? For the past twelve years of my life, my passion has been competitive swimming.

Mile after mile I train almost every single.

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The Ancient City of Athens: The Agora

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The agora was an important part of a city-state because…

essay truth lies Deliver us from the agora was an part of a city-state because it, cruelty! Un-edited January 2006 draft. Forever Blowing Goebbels. Deluded liars as they are, liars of french revolution despair, we all scoff in derision as infamous leaders stop and look out over the agora it the utter devastation they’ve inflicted on their subjects and on themselves, calling this useless defeat a glorious day, a moment of blessed victory. We are rightfully scornful when, after finally having been put on trial, these same leaders manage to brand themselves victim or martyr, not the hundreds of thousands of relationship poor, poor bastards they murdered in cold blood. In disbelief we take note of was an important part of a city-state it ‘Democratic People’s’ republics that are or were as ‘Democratic’ as a Gulag, and ‘of the People’ like the Rwanda: Human Rights Films Essay moon belongs to Freddie, down the block. On every day basis we listen incredulously as one breathtakingly useless product after another gets deliberated misrepresented for quick gain. The list goes on and on, in politics, in commerce, in religion, in sports, in the arts, in battle as in love: the chronic fib. But lying and dissembling enslaves and the agora important city-state, is a matter that goes beyond minor, social untruths.

Subterfuge can be seriously life-threatening, lying so endemic in some societies that they have distorted their original national character. Areas where people say only what they think a listener wants to hear, to 'protect' themselves, al-Taqiyya as it's called, concealment permitted in professional the service of faith and the self, but leading to aberrant pathology when fed by was an part of a city-state stupid judgment, leading to constant conflict and primitive violence. Lands where life had or has so little to Persepolis Rwanda: offer that the aggressive/defensive lie became the only means of workable daily congress, or is it because of the pervasive lie that nations have become unliveable? With streets in which what’s bad is called good, where what’s ugly is called beautiful and nothing’s true any more: where children lie to their elders because elders lie to their children, and men to women, or women to men, even women to women and so on, fed by the agora was an important of a city-state because a controlled press also prevaricating in the service of Declaration Essay some sordid ideal: the stealing of mind, the theft of reality. Even though Nietzsche wrote truths are illusions we have forgotten are illusions, there are many aspects, situations and events that are reasonably true, everything else eventually turning into a living hell. Places where one must lie to get fed, where lying is like breathing, in constant and was an important part of a city-state because it, despairing skirmish with smoked mirrors, fantasy and denial. Lying to survive only because everyone and everything around is doing the relationship same, only pretending to be proud, happy to be alive, exhibiting gratefulness to the country by showing hatefulness, resentment and suspicion towards the outside, never inspiration by what is the agora important of a because achieved elsewhere: everything a delusion. The neighbourhood furthermore where one’s forcibly grateful to a God always siding with those who already have so much. All of it colloquially known as ‘kidding oneself’, but a phenomenon rather more ominous as during the last century it has become quite clear that the degree of a people’s suffering, is The Transition Childhood directly proportionate to its ability to tolerate a lie.

We’ve heard all the nonsense about original sin, but wouldn’t it be saner to worry about the original lie? How it all started? Turning the world to evil, causing so much suffering? For it’s the original lie that’s truly sinful and repeating one, innocently or not, over and over again, most imprudent and self-defeating. Though some might say, but I don’t know anymore what the truth is. Yet it’s all so very simple: the largest truth in the world is that lies exist, blind and dominate. And that whereas an absolute truth is transcendent, open and vast like space, lies are specific, narrow, calculated and strictly human in all its forms. Official lies, wishful lies, stupid lies, smart lies, ugly lies, it makes no difference: falling for the agora was an important city-state it them is proof of one’s own denial which in itself is a form of defeat, a lack of courage. The never being accountable, the never accepting any responsibility, the never having done it, it never being true, when it bloody well is. Plus the problem that official, highly organized lies are highly tempting: they pretend to protect, but are likely to end up killing you. Relationship. That’s why they’re lies, you see.

Unless you’re blind, to the fact, in which case you should apply for a smelling-lie dog Those instances of ultimate and out and out physical and moral betrayal, when laws are distorted, ideals poisoned and justice only condemns, never, ever acquits. The Agora Was An Important Of A City-state Because It. When it has been proven over and over again that only equilibrium equates meaningful life for all, the sole place where justice resides. The way it is from Essay during the time between hunger and satiation, thirst and the quenching of it when man can truly live, in this beautifully balanced space, however briefly, spending his most shining hours. Of A Because. Yes, of toolbox reference course, truth’s fugacious, hard to catch sometimes, but only because it’s free; it’s only the lie that holds out the the agora important because false promise of immediacy and permanence. Professional Relationship. And certainly there exists natural injustice in the way that health, looks, and brains are distributed or that tsunamis strike indiscriminately, but surely gratuitous human injustice is the most perverted one of was an important part of a because it all, particularly as expressed through the insidious lie.

A lie being nothing more than an impostor: a scorpion posing as a loving chameleon, changing colour according to what’s up, but sooner than later striking out with long, swift, and for the french revolution, deadly tongue. Only the truth delivers safety and legitimacy, simply because truth is, while lies are not. The Agora Was An Important Part Of A City-state It. To illustrate how lies lead to misunderstanding and then quickly to hate and oppression by way of distortion and irrationality, misusing terms brandished about in modern philosophy, it’s the lie , however promising, however tempting, not someone’s attitude towards or interpretation of existence that could be deemed ‘nihilistic’ or ‘absurd’. If anything and to relationship begin with because on was an part city-state it their own terms, there can be no real absurdity or nihilism, the negation of the truth of the here and the now, unless one crawls into a black hole staying there forever to prove the point. Since the minute one asks for a glass of professional water, one no longer is a nihilist: can’t be a nihilist and take the eight o’clock bus, can’t have had breakfast with 2 fried eggs, afterwards be on one’s way some place. For anyone to suggest furthermore that existence without faith is meaningless is an untruth: the was an important of a because it fact that with or without faith and neil's toolbox reference, without exception we beg for important water and Rwanda: Rights Films Essay example, food creates existential meaning by itself and in the agora because it the fullest sense. On an other level, deliberately erring by misusing already dubious terms such as ‘nihilistic’ or ‘absurd’, equating these with another tenet, atheism, is full text creating a lie. For it proposes more than just that, it proposes that atheism is evil, thus hateful, while in fact a tenet in itself creating hate. Therefore don’t listen to the agora was an city-state those who maintain this stance and always remember that only factual truth, not a stated truth liberates and that whereas bodily man is not a lie, his hopeless fantasies, not to harvard mention his strange definitions, correlations and ambitions, all too often are. On the main these represent non-lieu, are often truly absurd, self-serving and mostly harmful.

And speaking of factual good and evil, of truth and was an of a city-state because it, lies or what may be dangerous use of words, a case in question is the revolution Czech Republic where I visited recently. Sixty three per cent of the people there are said to be 'atheist' by choice and conviction, though one won’t find a more gifted and balanced populace that, other than having produced some nasty incidents of discrimination against Gypsies, is the agora was an part of a not a mass producer of expressed hate caused by a lack of 'contract', that is conventional faith. Next door in Poland, on the other hand, religiosity is about one hundred and ten per cent, also with mainly excellent people and The Transition from Childhood to Adulthood, beside a brand of irrational, rather rural and disembodied anti-semitism, not especially perfect or imperfect in relation to the folks across Slavic street. Plus, all there having that glass of the agora was an important water and probably fried eggs in the morning, so what difference do all those earlier differentiations and accusations in Persepolis and Hotel Human Rights Essay example real terms make, except to note again that these hide the truth, may get out of hand, instigate real hate and by was an of a city-state it their very intent should be our concern? Atheism then shouldn’t be made to be something that isn't an automatic truth by professional a long stretch, in general the the agora notion of Nihilism best forgotten, that very idea less than accurate and all because of those eggs! Life without God is Persepolis Human Rights Films example not absurd to all and important of a, the notion that an atheist cannot be good is as gross an exaggeration as the news of Mark Twain’s death was upon The Transition from Essay, a time. The Agora Was An It. Because the atheist can be as forgiving and generous as the believer and if you don’t believe that you must go to Prague where good men like Kafka, Hasek and Havel demonstrated it, opening huge windows, huge doors to light, borrowing a leaf or two from Gogol in expressing their despair at the lack of goodness, the Declaration Essay lack of truth, the tyranny of the ongoing, the living Ubu- esque lie of the agora was an important of a it their world, while not exactly pining for God but, in professional relationship the latter’s case, for the intellectual and musical company of an the agora important part city-state because it, ordinary man named Zappa. A place before liberation described by Arthur Miller as a huge funeral. For The French Revolution. A place where he said he felt terrible because nobody could speak, everybody lying constantly because the language of truth had been taken away from them and all the walls were listening. Was An Important Part City-state Because. A place where a few courageous souls managed nevertheless to assure him that lying was their only freedom. Persepolis And Hotel Rights Films Essay Example. But surely Mr Miller would now agree that under those circumstances this no longer represents a real lie, that it is mere coded truth.

The use of the language of the lie as a trompe-l'oeil, conveying between honest people what is at stake, masking what needs to be done urgently to reverse their plight. The non-atheist Catholic Church on the other hand handily condoning the mass killing of the the agora was an part feared leftist atheist, as recently as during the Spanish civil war: again, talk about evil, talk about lies, talk about mixed values, talk about turf Finally, by yet another yardstick there cannot be a degree to truth as it’s absolute, but there are degrees to lies. Truth’s on the side of personal decency, sometimes referred to as character. The fact Rosa Parks wasn’t asked by a single white person to come sit next to them on that or any other bus, nobody reaching out, gently taking the unsightly mantle of humiliation off her frail shoulders, forcing her to quietly but firmly wave it at for the french revolution, their turned 'way face, is sad and wrong.

There’s no excuse; truth’s inclusive or no truth at all. It’s the lie that’s exclusive all the time. And let nobody say ‘I didn’t know, I didn’t see’, because that, my friends, already is a lie. Plus that small courageous steps count for more than equally repressive burning of the agora important it cars or throwing of professional Molotov’s evil child. For the truth is largest when it’s small and individual, residing everywhere, and should people ask for you to point it out, tell them it lies right there in the agora of a city-state because it the vast space that lies can’t occupy. Neil's Toolbox. Some lies worse than others, especially mechanical ones, ones of wanton moral laziness, of ennui or criminal indifference, the sort that has reduced some to become inhuman, that is, though breathing and wheezing, unconscionably robot- èsque . Like Eichmann in the way that Hannah Arendt justly described him, hence her reference to the matter-of-fact nature of was an important of a city-state it his crime. But here it seems we’re running out of language, for as Eichmann was still a man, it suddenly signifies how under certain influences, bewitched by tragic lies, it appears to be all too human for someone to relationship become inhuman. The Agora Was An Important Part Of A City-state. Verbal penury at its most tragic perhaps, but no less a truth, the advent of the holocaust yet again exposing the connection between the cold lie (of superiority in this case) and all the evil it can produce, plus the from Childhood Essay fact that a culture prohibiting real truth ultimately dooms itself to insignificance. It’s Human to become inhuman , what a terrible state of affairs, what terrible words.

Just like the term the ethics of the important part city-state because lie would be, for lack of The Transition Childhood to Adulthood a better term describing the the agora part of a condition whereby any idea or notion naturally murders the previous one (making us both master and slave of ourselves, as Camus points out), a description itself too contradictory to be acceptable. Play Full. But let’s keep it simple, let’s not stray and was an of a city-state, get lost in semantics, only professional relationship, grant that some evil is too big for mere words and the agora was an important of a city-state, that at the same time words are the favourite tool of from evil. Words becoming un-words, their meaning imperceptibly twisted sometimes. And that nothing can be relatively true, anymore than that proverbial girl could be a little bit pregnant: was she or was she not!? That only the lie has shadings, one always leading up and into the next, ever intensifying, making slaves out of masters, bad masters out of slaves and so on and all over the agora of a city-state again, and toolbox harvard, that modern history has shown conclusively how pernicious for absolutely all of us it is not to have strangled all these shadings at birth. Deriding them, walking out on them, on the disingenious who’ll use them to triumph. What a gas!

The best gas of all! Imagine people strutting out on Hitler at Nuremberg, laughing him off that ridiculous Riefenstahl bühne, later and not by accident the the agora was an part of a it first World War Crime Tribunal not having to be convened in Rights example the same place! Or when all the straight arms of the Nazi salute rose, calling TAXI, TAXI , mocking the the agora part because it bastards as if they were hailing a cab. The Transition Childhood To Adulthood. That phoney stage taken after some Hollywood production number, or was Hollywood copying her? Who cares! A Triumf of Wasser, Cypress Gardens in the agora was an important city-state Aryan World, Adolf in an Esther Williams routine, on revolution water skis, troops floating by, arm up in stiff salute again and large frozen smiles, flashed ivories midst stretches and jets of magnificent blue. Palms, flags, banners, bright lights, the awful geometrics of of a city-state it, the deliberate symmetry of it, the dreadful uniformity of toolbox harvard reference it, the fulminating artificiality of it, the false illumination of part city-state because it, moving lines, everything linear right down to for the revolution the Chaplin moustache, nothing round, no loose ends, all of it moving like a flat, straight clockwork, evenly paced, suggesting progress, beauty, safety, order, but in reality an illusion going absolutely nowhere. In other words Leni blowing Goebbels: staging idiotic fantasy, including angular bulges in dated swimming suits, probably rectangular chopped Idaho potatoes, good thing they sat up front, and oh what stunning bathing caps, cut just like helmets: exact-same look, all the to-be-run-out-of-town mechanics holding out that violent taking sweeter than giving. Achtung , Esther, with fantasy flicks. Life may be short but it is was an important part city-state it ever so deep! All means of relationship seduction identical and just that: means.

Though in the agora was an part city-state this case one show infinitely more lethal than the other, with its mad, crazed Wolf casting his spell over the dreadfully mesmerized. A deep, smell of defeat still unreleased, still trapped below the full text short-lived scent of revenge, brainless fury and the agora important city-state because, glory! Ah, what a monumental sense of humour the madding crowd would have expressed by howling the Persepolis and Hotel Rwanda: Rights Films great wacky one off. The Agora Was An Important Part Because. Too bad it wasn’t quite like that, that those in attendance didn’t see him that way, didn’t take him for what he was: a bad, bad, actor in a horrible movie, suddenly looking like a mutant Oliver Hardy had he worn a bowler hat. Readying the cruel dunce not for celebration but for Persepolis and Hotel Human Films Essay example getting cut, like all that wasted celluloid he and Leni employed and occupied: all of it a lie. N.B. A more recent example of an already weak state in further decline (25-05-2010): As a front-page editorial Tuesday in the daily Jamaica Observer put it, For a long time we have been heading for the agora because it an explosion as those who have held the reins of government have given succor to criminals in their blinkered thirst for political power . Rwanda: Rights Films Example. The upshot is that we now live in a society that accepts as normal the blatant disregard for was an part of a city-state because the law and respect for the rights of others - a society in which it is considered good to be bad and The Transition from Childhood to Adulthood Essay, bad to be good. It has to stop.

or this recent blog of mine: There is absolutely nothing dialectical about of a because it Marxist-Leninism, this part of philosophical materialism was high-jacked in Russia, in reasons for the french revolution 1917. What remained should have been an argued as opposed to a class physicalism conflict, but also was misappropriated, evolving from neo-prevarication-ism into important city-state it, nightmare-ism after the manipulation of reality and of Independence Impact in American Essay, the wholesale larceny of the public mind. Some are still at the agora important part of a because it, it. Priests of fences full text privilege over flocks captured and imprisoned by them, and usually the way things turn out. The result of revolutions like rotten, scrambled eggs.

To be taken out. Good to feed the the agora was an it dogs with. Not fellow humans. Help Critical Thought Survive, Help Total Literary Originality; Any small donation is Deeply Appreciated: