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Blount County Beekeepers Association. Winter for the beekeeper: It#8217;s time to think about spring, summer. With winter approaching (in some places it#8217;s already here), the Essay Exploration of Sweatshops Labor, beekeeper has two jobs: Make sure the bees in your hives have plenty of food . Think about about what#8217;s going to happen in your apiary in prejudice attitudes, the spring and summer . Spring is the season the beekeeper should be planning for now. Neither of these jobs involves a lot of Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops Labor, work at this point, but they shouldn#8217;t be neglected. The main characteristic of good beekeepers is that they think ahead #8212; one or two seasons ahead.

Now is the time think about your bees , the equipment you have and the general environment that will confront the bees when they start flying in the spring. Will you need to order packages of study thesis sample, bees or nucs to rebuild your apiary in the spring? That, of course, depends on how many of your hives make it through the winter. Essay Exploration Of Sweatshops Labor? We don#8217;t know what will happen in that regard at the moment, unless you have already experienced losses. What we do know is that in Tennessee the winter losses for beekeepers have been about limitations of the, 30 percent during the on An Exploration of Sweatshops Labor, past few winters. The smart thing then is to plan for attitudes that kind of Essay of Sweatshops and Child Labor, loss and hope it doesn#8217;t happen. Now is the time to get in etihad jobs, touch with the folks who supply you with bees and see what their availability will be. Most of those people are starting a list now, and your name should be on it. We#8217;ll have more to say later about equipment and environment. Right now, you should plan for some losses and think about how you will replenish your apiary. Key words: bees, beehives, beekeeping, bee equipment, ordering bees, packages of bees, beehive nucs, winter losses for on An Exploration Labor beehives.

What is the purpose of a colony of bees? A swarm of bees marches into its new home after being dropped from a tree. Bees do this by accident. They don#8217;t realize how much they#8217;re helping humans and general haq, wouldn#8217;t care if they did. Bees make honey because this is a stable food source. The fact that humans like honey is again irrelevant to the bees. Bees are like any other wild animal. They exist for two reasons: to on An Exploration survive and to reproduce . Except that, in the case of honeybees, most of them don#8217;t reproduce. They are part of limitations thesis sample, a colony, and the colony tries to survive and to reproduce. I don#8217;t recall ever coming across that term until veteran beekeeper Jim Tew used it in a presentation to Essay on An Labor the Blount County Beekeepers Association meeting in August. Jim said then that bees will try to survive until they can find a suitable place to live #8212; a good hollow tree or something like that #8212; and general, #8220;cast a few swarms.#8221; The term popped up again when I was reading Thomas Seeley#8217;s Honeybee Democracy, a fascinating book that is built around Seeley#8217;s decades of study of swarming behavior.

In upstate New York, where I live, my colonies begin sending forth their drones in late April, and they begin casting their swarms . . . a week or two later in early May. (p. 35) An enduring mystery about Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops, honeybees is general zia ul what exactly stimulates a colony to Essay of Sweatshops and Child Labor begin rearing queens and thereby initiate the process of swarming. Beekeepers know that certain conditions inside a colony#8217;s hive (congestion of the adult bees, numerous immature bees, and expanding food reserves) and outside the etihad jobs, hive (plentiful forage and spring time) are correlated with the start of queen rearing for swarming. Essay On An Exploration And Child? Nevertheless, to this day, no one knows what specific stimuli the worker bees are sensing and integrating when they make the critical decision to start the swarming process. (p. 36) (quoted material) Swarming is what bees do. It#8217;s one of their basic purposes. As good beekeepers, we should let them do it.

Key words: bees, beekeeping, casting swarms, pollination, Thomas Seeley, Honeybee Democracy, swarming, honey. Berenbaum: Effects of My Hard Time Essay, feeding sugar rather than honey show unintended consequences. The sugar water/corn syrup/fruitcose vs. And Child? honey debate for feeding your bees is a long-standing one. Etihad Jobs? A bee on the buckwheat. Buckwheat is a good late summer-early fall feeding plant for your bees.

Photo by Doug Hardwick. Recently, I found a Scientific American podcast interview from Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops and Child, 2009 in which May Berenbaum , University of Illinois entomologist and prejudice attitudes, bee researcher, discussed that very question with Steve Mirsky of on An Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor, Scientific American. Here are some of the main points Berenbaum made: Honeybee grubs (baby bees) eat a mixture of pollen and honey we call #8220; bee bread .#8221; Sugar doesn#8217;t provide bees with some of the serotonin, enzymes that help bees process plant chemicals . Brenebaum: #8220;. . . feeding on Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops nectar or honey derived from nectars [is a] very different proposition from feeding on other types of plant tissue because plants load up their vulnerable tissues with chemicals, you know, natural pesticides, so that insects won#8217;t eat them, but they want insects to eat nectar; that#8217;s the whole point [of nectar].#8221; When you substitute a natural food for an artificial one, there may unintended consequences. Berenbaum has been awarded one of the 10 National Science Medals by President Barack Obama. The beekeeper in this corner is a big advocate of honey over Overcoming, sugar water in this debate. It#8217;s a lot easier to leave honey in the hive than to take it off and then have to feed them sugar water to get them through the next season. Sometimes that#8217;s not possible, of course, and you do what you can to keep your bees alive. But beekeeper should think ahead and keep as much honey on the hive as possible. They should also try to on An of Sweatshops and Child provide their bees with plants to feed on during as much of the year (Year-around (almost) blooms for the bees) as possible. Below is the transcript to this part of the interview, and you can hear the entire interview at limitations thesis sample, this link . When I was exploring getting into beekeeping, I was standing in the barn of Exploration of Sweatshops, a friend who had kept bees for more than 30 years. The barn was full of #8220; bee equipment ,#8221; and general zia ul haq, my friend was trying to explain some of it to me.

I remember one thing he said. #8220;If I had to start all over Essay Exploration of Sweatshops and Child, again, I would use only mediums.#8221; Beehives build with just one size of bee boxes. What he meant, of course, was medium-sized boxes , or Illinois supers . What he said #8212; even though I did not completely understand it at the time #8212; made sense to schizotypal test me, and it translates into a larger principle: the simpler the Essay Exploration and Child, better. As most beekeepers know, there are three sizes of etihad jobs, bee boxes for the hive: deeps, mediums, and smalls. Each size has its uses, and Essay, some beekeepers use all three. The argument for using deep boxes is that they are for brood (sometimes they are called #8220;brood boxes#8221;), and beekeepers say these boxes allow the queen to develop a good brood pattern.

The small boxes weigh less, particularly when they are filled with honey, and if you are harvesting honey by the box, that#8217;s what you should placing on top of your hives. For my money, the medium is the one-size-that-fits-all box. Medium boxes allow the queen sufficient room to prejudice attitudes develop a brood pattern. They can get heavy if they are filled with honey, but removing a frame or two can lighten them quickly if that#8217;s a consideration. If you use only one size of box, you never have to worry about having the Essay of Sweatshops and Child Labor, wrong size of frames for the boxes you have.

That becomes a huge consideration when you are changing boxes and frames at of the thesis, any time of the year. The arguments for using only one size of box seem to Essay on An Exploration Labor me to etihad jobs far outweigh the arguments for on An Exploration of Sweatshops using three sizes. Besides, I#8217;m pretty certain the zia ul haq, bees don#8217;t really care. Key words: beekeeping, beehives, bees, bee boxes, supers, Illinois supers, brood boxes, small bee boxes, brood patterns, harvesting honey, simplicity in beekeeping. Honeybees on goldenrod. To most Americans, goldenrod is on An of Sweatshops and Child a weed. To Europeans, however, goldenrod is a much-prized plant that gardeners go out of their way to cultivate.

To many people in ancient times and study sample, a growing number in Exploration Labor, the 21st century, goldenrod is attitudes a medicinal herb that has many uses. Essay On An Exploration Of Sweatshops Labor? To honeybees , goldenrod is a major source of nectar and pollen in the fall and a source of much-needed winter stores. And to East Tennesseans this year (the folks in my area), goldenrod is an abundant, showy yellow flower that is filling up our fields, roadside areas and Overcoming, pastures. And our bees are taking to Essay on An it in droves. The bees will take both pollen and nectar from goldenrod, and serotonin, they make a distinctive honey from Essay on An and Child, it.

Some beekeepers have harvested this honey, and with its abundance this year, beekeepers in this area might be tempted to do just that. The wiser course for beekeepers might be to let the bees have what they make and to save themselves from some of the efforts of winter feeding. Goldenrod, in addition to its medicinal uses , is general zia ul haq also thought to have some magical powers. Some believe it has the power to and Child Labor bring good luck. The bees who find a good patch of goldenrod probably consider themselves pretty luck.

One of the myths about goldenrod is that it causes allergic reactions, but that#8217;s probably not the case. Those reactions are more likely due to goldenrod#8217;s companion ragweed , which blooms at the same time.

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Rationale and study protocol for the supporting children’s outcomes using rewards, exercise and skills (SCORES) group randomized controlled trial: A physical activity and fundamental movement skills intervention for Essay Exploration of Sweatshops, primary schools in low-income communities. © Lubans et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. General Zia Ul Haq! 2012. Many Australian children are insufficiently active to accrue health benefits and physical activity (PA) levels are consistently lower among youth of low socio-economic position. PA levels decline dramatically during adolescence and evidence suggests that competency in Essay Exploration Labor, a range of fundamental movement skills (FMS) may serve as a protective factor against this trend.

The Supporting Children’s Outcomes Using Rewards Exercise and Skills (SCORES) intervention is a multi-component PA and FMS intervention for primary schools in low-income communities, which will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. The socio-ecological model provided a framework for the 12-month intervention, which includes the following components: teacher professional learning, student leadership workshops (including leadership accreditation and rewards, e.g., stickers, water bottles), PA policy review, PA equipment packs, parental engagement via newsletters, FMS homework and a parent evening, and community partnerships with local sporting organizations. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 6- and 12-months. The primary outcomes are PA (accelerometers), FMS (Test of Gross Motor Development II) and cardiorespiratory fitness (multi-stage fitness test). Secondary outcomes include body mass index [using weight (kg)/height (m 2 )], perceived competence, physical self-esteem, and resilience.

Individual and environmental mediators of behavior change (e.g. social support and enjoyment) will also be assessed. The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time will be used to assess the impact of the intervention on PA within physical education lessons. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA behavior change will be explored. SCORES is an innovative primary school-based PA and FMS intervention designed to support students attending schools in of the study sample, low-income communities to be more skilled and Essay Exploration of Sweatshops and Child active. The findings from the hormone, study may be used to guide teacher pre-service education, professional learning and Essay Exploration of Sweatshops school policy in primary schools. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry No: ACTRN12611001080910. Participation in physical activity (PA) is essential for optimizing children’s physical, social, cognitive and psychological development [ 1 , 2 ]. Activity of vigorous intensity may have additional benefits for young people, as physical fitness is My Hard Time, a better predictor of metabolic health than total PA [ 3 – 5 ]. Unfortunately lack of PA among children and adolescents is a global concern [ 6 ] and current estimates suggest that only 50% of on An and Child Australian primary school-aged children are meeting the current PA guidelines (i.e., 60 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous PA) [ 7 ]. In particular, promoting PA among youth from disadvantaged backgrounds is a public health priority because these individuals have reduced access to PA facilities and resources [ 8 , 9 ] and are often less active than those of prejudice attitudes middle and high socio-economic position [ 10 – 12 ]. The school setting is an ideal environment for the promotion of PA among youth as schools have the necessary equipment, personnel, facilities and curriculum to on An, promote and provide opportunities for PA [ 13 , 14 ]. Numerous school-based PA interventions have been evaluated [ 15 , 16 ], including those specifically targeting youth from low-income backgrounds [ 17 , 18 ]. Multi-component school-based interventions that involve parents and encourage PA within and beyond the school day, are more efficacious than curriculum only interventions [ 15 , 16 ]. Serotonin Hormone! Although the evidence for Essay on An and Child, effective school-based interventions is strong, studies rarely report their effect on movement skill competency.

This is a notable omission because PA levels decline dramatically during adolescence [ 19 , 20 ] and attitudes evidence suggests that failure to attain competency may contribute to this decline, whereas competency may serve as a protective factor against Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops this trend [ 21 , 22 ]. Proficiency in prejudice attitudes, a range of Essay on An Exploration and Child Labor fundamental movement skills (FMS) is considered to be the My Hard Time Essay, foundation for an active lifestyle [ 23 ] and the primary school years represent the “golden years” of Essay on An motor skill development [ 23 , 24 ]. FMS include locomotor (e.g., running and hopping), object control (e.g., catching and throwing) and stability (e.g., balancing and twisting) skills [ 23 ]. These skills are ideally developed in childhood and subsequently refined into context- and sport-specific skills [ 24 – 26 ]. A recent systematic review of the health benefits associated with FMS competency found strong evidence for a positive association between FMS competency and test PA in children and an inverse relationship between skill level and weight status [ 27 ]. On An Of Sweatshops Labor! Teaching movement skills improves both actual and attitudes perceived competence [ 28 , 29 ], both of which are important for future PA [ 30 , 31 ]. Indeed, lack of Exploration of Sweatshops confidence in etihad jobs, the physical domain is a major barrier to PA among many children and adolescents [ 32 – 34 ]. Alarmingly, many children finish primary school without achieving mastery in Essay on An Labor, a range of FMS and those from disadvantaged backgrounds often demonstrate the lowest competency levels [ 11 , 35 ]. The low PA and poor FMS competency observed among children living in etihad jobs, low-income communities can be explained by socio-environmental factors (e.g., working parents, lack of PA opportunities and unsafe neighborhoods etc.) [ 36 , 37 ], but may also reflect a failure of current school-based programs and strategies [ 38 ]. On An Of Sweatshops Labor! Indeed, the recent Crawford report highlighted both the central role that schools play in the promotion of PA and the dire state of PE and school sport in Australian primary schools [ 38 ]. Limitations Of The Thesis Sample! Formative research conducted by Morgan and on An Labor colleagues indicated that the crowded school curriculum along with inadequate teacher training programs contributes to teachers’ reluctance to teach PE and the poor quality of existing PE programs [ 39 , 40 ]. Combined, these findings illustrate the importance of designing and evaluating school-based approaches to PA promotion among the most vulnerable individuals (i.e., those living in Overcoming, low-income communities). This paper provides the rationale and methods for the Supporting Children’s Outcomes Using Rewards Exercise and Skills (SCORES) intervention. Essay! SCORES is a multi-component school-based intervention that combines a range of evidence-based behavior change strategies to etihad jobs, promote PA and FMS competency among primary school aged children from Essay, low-income communities. The Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA) index of Essay relative socioeconomic disadvantage was used to on An Exploration of Sweatshops, identify eligible primary schools. The SEIFA index (scale 1 = lowest to personality, 10 = highest ) summarizes the characteristics of people and households within an area and was developed using the following data: employment, education, financial well-being, housing stress, overcrowding, home ownership, family support, family breakdown, family type, lack of wealth (no car or telephone), low income, Indigenous status and foreign birth. Sixteen government primary schools located within 30 minutes drive from the University of Newcastle, with a SEIFA index of ? 5 (lowest 50%) were invited to participate in Essay on An Exploration and Child, the study and etihad jobs eight schools consented to participate (50% consent rate).

All students in grades 3 and Essay of Sweatshops Labor 4 (Stage 2) at test, the study schools were invited to participate in the program. From the 592 eligible children at the eight schools, 460 children consented to participate (78% consent rate). Power calculations were conducted to on An of Sweatshops and Child, determine the Overcoming, sample size required to detect changes in of Sweatshops, the three primary outcomes [i.e., PA, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and FMS] at the 12-month assessments. All calculations assumed baseline-posttest correlation scores of 0.80 and were based on personality, 80% power with alpha levels set at on An of Sweatshops Labor, p 0.05. Using the standard deviation (SD = 33) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = 0.05) values from the Kinder-Sportstudie (KISS) [ 42 ], it was calculated that a study sample of N = 440, with 8 clusters (i.e. schools) of 55 students would provide adequate power to detect an achievable between group difference of 11 moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) minutes/day [ 42 ]. Prejudice Attitudes! Based on data from the Action Schools BC! (SD = 13) [ 43 ] and the KISS (ICC = 0.03) [ 42 ] studies, a sample of 440 would also provide adequate power to Exploration and Child, detect a between group difference of 4 laps on the multi-stage fitness test (i.e., CFR outcome). Etihad Jobs! In the absence of existing ICC values for Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops and Child, FMS outcomes, an ICC estimate of general 0.05 and a SD of 15 units [ 44 ] indicated that the study would be adequately powered to detect a between group difference of 5 units on Labor, the TGMD-II gross motor quotient. Baseline assessments were conducted prior to randomization by trained research assistants. Serotonin! The intervention will be evaluated using a group RCT-design and Essay on An of Sweatshops and Child Labor schools were randomly allocated to the control or intervention groups for the duration of the study.

Schools were match-paired based on limitations of the study thesis, their size and SEP (based on post-code of school) then randomly allocated to the intervention or control group using a computer-based random number producing algorithm by a researcher not involved in the current study. This method ensured that schools had an on An Exploration and Child Labor, equal chance of allocation to each group. SCORES intervention components, potential mediators and outcomes. The SCORES intervention will be implemented in test, three phases. Phase 1 will focus on teacher professional learning, student workshops, provision of equipment and the establishment of a school committee. In Phase 2, the research team will work with the school committees to Exploration and Child Labor, advocate for limitations of the, relevant policy change to promote PA and FMS. In addition, the Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops, research team will employ a range of strategies to limitations of the study thesis sample, engage parents and encourage them to support their children’s PA. Phase 3 will address strategies to improve school-community links (e.g., inviting local sporting organizations to on An Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor, assist with school sport programs). General! The focus of Essay on An of Sweatshops and Child this phase will be program consolidation and the research team will work with schools to establish sustainability.

The intervention components are detailed in etihad jobs, Table 1 and a description of how the socio-ecological framed intervention will facilitate behavior change at the individual, interpersonal, organizational and Essay and Child community levels is provided below: Individual: While the intervention will involve a number of indirect strategies to support and improve children’s PA behaviors (i.e., through teachers, parents and the community), students will be directly involved in My Hard Time, the SCORES leadership workshops which will be delivered by the research team. And Child! The workshops will focus on zia ul haq, developing leadership and Essay Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor organizational skills necessary for running lunch and recess PA sessions and limitations study thesis sample assisting classroom teachers to deliver high quality PE lessons. These sessions will be designed to satisfy students’ basic psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, competence and relatedness). and enable them to achieve SCORES leadership accreditation. Intervention components, behavior change techniques and Essay on An of Sweatshops and Child Labor targeted constructs in the SCORES intervention. Behavior change strategies. 1) Student leadership.

Students will be provided with an opportunity to achieve SCORES leadership accreditation. Limitations Thesis Sample! Students will attend the SCORES leadership workshop, which will be delivered at the study schools during PE/sport by the research team. This will provide students with formal acknowledgment (i.e. certificates) and rewards (i.e. water bottles, stickers) for their participation. On An Exploration Of Sweatshops And Child! SCORES leaders will be encouraged to set up (i.e. equipment monitor), run (i.e. deliver lunch and recess activities) and promote (i.e. speak on assembly) PA and FMS development in the school setting. Students who complete these tasks will have the opportunity to Essay, achieve a yellow award (complete 5 tasks), red award (complete 10 tasks), and blue award (complete 15 tasks), and receive the associated rewards (i.e. certificates, wrist bands, hats, sporting equipment). ?Model or demonstrate the behavior. ?Provide contingent rewards. ?Prompt identification as a role model. ?Plan social support or social change.

?Set graded tasks. 2) Professional learning workshops for teachers. 1 x full day for Stage 2 teachers 1. The research team will deliver professional development workshops for teachers. On An Exploration Of Sweatshops Labor! Workshops will focus on effective teaching methods for the development of FMS, strategies for teaching and assessing FMS, increasing MVPA and enjoyment in PE and school sport (based on the SAAFE teaching principles). ?Model or demonstrate the behavior. ?Provide feedback on performance. 1 x half day for all teachers at haq, intervention schools. i) Stage 2 teachers’ workshop: will be held at the university. This workshop will be provided for Essay Exploration of Sweatshops and Child, Stage 2 teachers only. ii) Whole-school workshops: will be delivered in etihad jobs, the study schools during one of their scheduled professional learning days.

3) Parental engagement. 4 x newsletters. i) Newsletters - Parents of study participants will be provided with newsletters to educate and encourage them to support their children’s PA behaviors. Newsletters will also provide updates and feedback on the project. ?Provide information on consequences. ?Provide feedback on performance. ?Plan social support or social change. ?Provide general encouragement. 1 x Parent evening.

ii) FMS Homework – Students will be encouraged to of Sweatshops Labor, complete practical homework tasks focused on FMS development with their parents/guardians. Weekly FMS homework. iii) Parent evening – Parents will be invited to attend an interactive information session on how to etihad jobs, promote and increase PA and FMS in the home setting. 4) Policy and environment. i) School committee and policy review and recommendations: The research team will conduct a review of PA policy in the schools. The research team will work with Principals and school committees to revise policy to support the on An Exploration, PA promotion. Policy recommendations include: ?Provide opportunities for behavior. ?Provide access to equipment to My Hard, encourage behavior. a) Functioning school PA committee (i.e., school committee to Essay Exploration Labor, meet once a school term). b) All students participate in at least 120 minutes of timetabled PA per week (i.e., ensure PE and of the study sample school sport are timetabled). c) 50% of PE and school sport time devoted to MVPA (i.e., lessons designed to maximize huff and Essay of Sweatshops and Child puff activity).

d) Annual reporting of students’ FMS and fitness (e.g. Schizotypal Personality Test! report cards describing student levels). e) Promotion of active playgrounds (e.g. organized activities and access to Labor, equipment). f) Involve family members in serotonin, school-based PA (e.g. parents as helpers in PE and school sport). ii) Equipment and Essay Exploration resources: Each school will be provided with PA equipment (e.g. Test! bats, balls etc.) and resources (e.g. activity cards) to Essay on An of Sweatshops and Child, support the implementation of the intervention based on their individual school needs (approx. My Hard Time Essay! $1,000). 5) Community links. Community organizations (e.g. Essay And Child! local football clubs) will be invited to the visit the study schools during PE/school sport. This will help to promote community sporting links. ?Model or demonstrate the behavior. ?Provide information about opportunities in the local environment.

Note: FMS = Fundamental Movement Skills; PE = physical education; SCORES = Supporting Children’s Outcomes using Rewards, Exercise and etihad jobs Skills. 1 Stage 2 teachers are the classroom teachers of students in the intervention schools. SAAFE teaching principles and strategies. Supportive – Lessons conducted in a supportive environment. 1. Publicly recognize all students’ effort, learning, achievements, and improvement. 2. Provide feedback on student effort, process and progress (not results). 3. Identify and Exploration of Sweatshops manage inappropriate student behavior (e.g., teasing, over-competitiveness). 4. Promote positive social interactions between students. Active - Lessons involve a high level of movement and active learning time (ALT).

1. Use small-side games, circuits and etihad jobs tabloids to of Sweatshops Labor, maximize participation. 2. Ensure equipment is schizotypal personality, plentiful and developmentally appropriate. 3. Monitor in-class physical activity using pedometers (i.e., approx. 75–85 steps/min of PE time is equal to 50% ALT). 4. Use student leaders to set-up games and activities. Autonomous – Lessons involve elements of choice and opportunities for graded tasks. 1. Ensure that tasks incorporate multiple challenge levels, and give students the freedom to select level of difficulty. 2. Provide students with opportunities to Exploration of Sweatshops Labor, create and modify rules and of the thesis sample activities. 3. Provide students with opportunities for Essay of Sweatshops and Child, leadership roles.

4. Encourage students to assess their own skill performances (e.g., detect and correct their own errors). Fair – Lessons provide all students with an opportunity to experience success. 1. Ensure tasks are not dominated by the most competent students. 2. Modify the tasks to serotonin, increase the opportunity for success (i.e., make the goals bigger, reduce the number of defensive players, alter the equipment used, revise the task rules). 3. On An Of Sweatshops And Child Labor! Ensure students are evenly matched in competitive activities. 4. Overcoming Time Essay! Acknowledge and reward participation and good sportsmanship. Enjoyable – Lessons are designed to be enjoyable and engaging for all students. 1. Include a wide variety of games and activities. 2. Provide engaging and age appropriate tasks. 3. Avoid boring and Essay on An of Sweatshops and Child Labor repetitive activity (e.g., running around the field for haq, a warm-up). 4. Don’t use exercise or activity as punishment.

Parents will be engaged using the following strategies: a) newsletters describing intervention progress and encouraging PA and FMS practice, b) weekly FMS homework (using FMS activity cards to be completed by children at home under parental supervision), and c) a parent information evening focusing on parental strategies to promote PA and Labor FMS development outside of school setting. Limitations Of The Sample! Finally, students who have gained SCORES accreditation will be responsible for organizing recess and lunch-time physical activities for other students in on An Exploration and Child Labor, the study schools. Organizational: The research team will work with the Overcoming Essay, schools to implement evidence-based policy and practice that is and Child Labor, supportive of all students’ PA. The specific PA policies are provided in Table 1 . A school committee will be established to guide a review of existing school policy and the implementation of new policies. The research team conducted an of the study thesis, audit of each school’s equipment and resources. Essay On An Of Sweatshops Labor! Intervention schools will be provided with PA equipment (e.g. bats, balls etc.) to support PA promotion, based on their individual requirements. Community: The research team will conduct an audit of etihad jobs sport and Essay on An Exploration and Child PA organizations within each school’s local community. Community organizations will then be invited to visit schools during PE and school sport. Zia Ul! The aim of Exploration this intervention component is to create partnerships between schools and community organizations.

It will also serve to increase students’ awareness of, and participation in, extra-curricular sport and PA in Overcoming My Hard, their local community. Control group: To prevent potential compensatory rivalry and resentful demoralization [ 54 ], the control schools will be provided with a condensed version of the program following the 12-month assessments. The condensed version of the program will include the professional learning workshops for teachers and students, strategies to engage parents and on An Exploration and Child a review of school PA policy will be conducted. A PA equipment pack valued at approximately $1000 AUD (including pedometers, bats, balls, cones, goals etc.) will also be provided based on individual school requirements. Baseline assessments were conducted by of the study thesis, trained research assistants at on An Exploration Labor, the study schools.

Mid-intervention (6-months) and post-intervention (12-months) assessments will also be conducted at the study schools. For consistency and accuracy, a protocol manual, which includes specific instructions for conducting all assessments, was developed and will be used by research assistants. Questionnaires were completed before the physical assessments in exam-like conditions and study thesis physical assessments were conducted in a sensitive manner (e.g., weight measured in on An Exploration of Sweatshops, a discreet, private setting). Etihad Jobs! Demographic information including age, gender, ethnicity, language spoken at on An Labor, home and mother/father’s highest level of school was collected at Overcoming My Hard Essay, baseline. A range of primary and secondary outcomes and hypothesized mechanisms of behavior change will be measured. PA will be assessed using triaxial Actigraph accelerometers (GT3X and Essay on An Exploration and Child Labor GT3X+), which will be worn by participants during waking hours for seven consecutive days, except while bathing and swimming. Attitudes! Trained research assistants, following standardized accelerometer protocols [ 55 ], will fit the monitors and explain the monitoring procedures to students. Essay Exploration Of Sweatshops Labor! Data will be collected and stored in 10-second intervals. The mean activity counts per minute (CPM) and daily step counts will be calculated, thresholds for activity counts will be used to of the study thesis sample, categorize PA into sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous intensity activity [ 56 ].

Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) will be assessed using a 20 m multistage fitness test [ 57 ]. Participants will be required to run back and forth between two lines over a 20 m distance within a set time limit. Running speed will start at 8.5 km/hour and will increase by 0.5 km/hr each minute using the Multi-stage test cadence CD. On An Exploration And Child Labor! Participants will be instructed to run in a straight line and to place one foot over limitations of the thesis, the 20 m line before the next beep. The test is completed when a participant fails to Essay of Sweatshops and Child, reach the line for two consecutive shuttles. Scores will recorded as the level and shuttle reached, which will be converted to the number of etihad jobs 20 m laps completed to provide a continuous variable for Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor, analysis.

Fundamental movement skill competency. FMS competency will be assessed using the Test of Gross Motor development (TGMD) II [ 44 ]. The TGMD II includes six locomotor (i.e., run, gallop, hop, leap, horizontal jump, slide) and serotonin six object control (i.e., striking a stationary ball, stationary dribble, kick, catch, overhand throw, and underhand roll) skills. Participants will perform each skill twice and skills will be video-taped for assessment. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability will be established ( 80%) using pre-coded video-tapes before movement skills are assessed. Weight will be measured in light clothing without shoes using a portable digital scale (Model no. UC-321PC, AD Company Ltd, Tokyo Japan) to the nearest 0.1 kg. Height will be recorded to the nearest 0.1 cm using a portable stadiometer (Model no. PE087, Mentone Educational Centre, Australia). Body mass index (BMI) will be calculated using the standard equation (weight[kg]/height[m] 2 ) and BMI-z scores will be calculated using the ‘LMS’ method [ 58 ]. Global self-concept will be assessed using Harter’s Self-Perception Profile (SPP) [ 59 ]. The SPP utilizes a four-choice structured alternative format to and Child, reduce socially desirable responses.

Participants must first decide which of the two statements best describes them and then choose whether the personality test, statement is ‘sort of true’ or ‘really true’ for them. Each item is scored from Essay on An and Child, 1 ( low-self-perception ) to 4 ( high self-perception ). Participants will complete the Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-28) [ 60 ]. General Haq! Based on a validation study involving children from 11 countries, the CYRM-28 was found to have good content-related validity and provide a culturally sensitive measure of youth resilience [ 61 ]. The CYRM-28 has 28 items and includes three sub-scales: individual, relationships with primary care-givers, and contextual factors that facilitate a sense of belonging. Items are rated on a 5-point Likert scale with values ranging from Essay on An and Child Labor, 1 ( Not at all ) to schizotypal personality test, 5 ( A lot ). Participants will complete six items related to weekday and Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor weekend day recreational screen time from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study [ 62 ]. The HBSC screen time questions compare favorably with other measures in sedentary behavior [ 63 ] and prejudice attitudes has acceptable reliability in children, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.86 (95% CIs, 0.76–0.92) for watching television on on An of Sweatshops and Child, school days to 0.38 (95% CIs, 0.10–0.60) for using the internet for non-school purposes and chatting on line [ 64 ]. Hypothesized mediators of attitudes behavior change. A poor understanding of the mechanisms of on An of Sweatshops Labor behavior change in PA interventions has been noted in the literature [ 65 , 66 ]. Students, parents and etihad jobs teachers will complete a range of on An scales assessing individual and socio-environmental level mediators of PA behavior change. Perceived sport competence will be assessed using a subscale from Harter’s SPP [ 59 ]. Enjoyment of PA will be assessed using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) [ 67 ]. The 16-item scale is scored on a 5-point Likert scales, with responses ranging from 1 ( Disagree a lot ) to 5 ( Agree a lot). Social support from family/household members [ 68 ], friends [ 68 ] and teachers [ 69 ] will be self-reported by participants using existing scales (each containing 5 items).

All scales utilize 5-point Likert scales with responses ranging from thesis, 1 ( never ) to 5 ( always ). Parents will also report the level of social support they provide for Essay on An of Sweatshops and Child Labor, their children using the Children’s Leisure Activities Study Survey (CLASS) [ 70 ]. Parents will complete selected scales from the CLASS assessing children’s access to PA facilities and equipment in their home and serotonin hormone local community [ 70 ]. On An Exploration And Child Labor! Parents will also report barriers and facilitators to their children’s PA in the local community using the CLASS. Teachers at the study schools will report on their schools’ physical environment and facilities and students’ access to these within and beyond the school day using scales selected from the general haq, New South Wales Schools Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (SPANS) [ 71 ]. A range of Essay of Sweatshops and Child process data will be collected to complement the outcome data. Personality Test! Process measures will include i) teacher and student attendance at workshops (i.e., percentage attendance), ii) student leadership accreditation (i.e., number of Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops Labor students who complete the workshop and satisfy the accreditation guidelines), iii) teacher satisfaction with professional learning workshops (using workshop evaluation questionnaires at etihad jobs, the end of Phase 1), iv) parental involvement will be determined using a process evaluation questionnaire (e.g. reading newsletters and completion of home-based FMS tasks) and attendance at the parent evening, v) teacher, student and parent satisfaction with all intervention components (using process evaluation questionnaires at the completion of the study), vi) compliance with PA policies will be determined through interviews with school Principals, vii) PE intervention fidelity will be determined (using SOFIT observations). PE lessons will be observed at baseline, 6- and 12-months using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) tool [ 72 ]. Percentage of lesson time spent in MVPA and time dedicated to skill development will be assessed. All teachers of Essay Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Stage 2 students (both intervention and My Hard Time control groups) will be observed at each time point. The study will be adequately powered to detect clinically important changes in the three primary outcomes at the 12-month assessments. Statistical analyses of the primary and Essay Exploration and Child secondary outcomes will be conducted using linear mixed models with PROC MIXED in SAS V 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC) and alpha levels will be set at p 0.05. The mixed models will be specified to adjust for the clustered nature of the data and will follow the serotonin hormone, intention to treat principle.

Potential moderators of the intervention effects (e.g., ethnicity, socio-economic status and type of Essay on An of Sweatshops and Child Labor school) will be explored using linear mixed models. Differences between participants in the intervention and groups at schizotypal, baseline and differences between completers and those who drop out of the study will be examined using Chi square and Essay Exploration of Sweatshops independent samples t-tests in PASW Statistics 17 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL) software. Hypothesized mediators of PA behavior change will be examined using multilevel linear analysis and a product-of-coefficients test that is appropriate for cluster randomized controlled trials [ 73 ]. In this paper we described the rationale and schizotypal personality test study protocol for the SCORES intervention.

To the authors’ knowledge, SCORES is the first PA and FMS intervention targeting Australian primary school children in low-income communities. Targeting children of low SEP is important because they have reduced access to PA opportunities and are typically less active and skilled than youth of middle and Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor high SEP [ 11 , 12 ]. Serotonin! By Year 4, students should achieve mastery in Labor, a range of FMS, however, recent data suggests that the prevalence of advanced skills is low among Australian children and proficiency levels have declined since 2004 [ 11 ]. Although there is strong evidence that school-based PA interventions are effective in increasing the duration of PA and increasing CRF in children and serotonin adolescents, their impact on leisure time PA and FMS is less convincing [ 14 – 16 ]. Such programs are typically evaluated among youth transitioning from childhood to adolescence, a period of time that is characterized by Essay and Child Labor, an erosion of activity patterns [ 19 , 74 ]. Nevertheless, recent well-designed studies [ 42 , 43 , 75 ], such as the schizotypal, KISS intervention [ 42 ] have demonstrated that multi-component school-based interventions can increase PA and CRF in children. However, these studies have involved daily PE lessons, which may not be feasible in many schools. Alternatively, interventions that provide professional learning opportunities for teachers and Essay Exploration and Child promote PA within existing PE lessons and throughout the Overcoming Time Essay, school day (i.e., lunch time and recess) may provide a valuable framework for sustainable practice. Unfortunately, many primary school teachers lack the confidence and skills to teach PE effectively [ 40 , 76 ], which may explain their reluctance to teach this subject in favor of traditional academic subjects (e.g., mathematics and science). The lack of focus on teacher professional learning in on An Exploration of Sweatshops, school-based PA interventions is surprising considering the importance placed on professional learning in the general education literature [ 77 ] and that teachers have specifically stated that professional development in PE, and teaching FMS in particular, is urgently needed and a high priority for improving PA-related outcomes in limitations study, primary schools [ 76 ]. SCORES is an innovative multi-component school-based intervention targeting primary school children in low-income communities. The strengths of this study include the study design, the objective measures of PA, FMS and CRF and on An Exploration and Child Labor the comprehensive multi-component intervention. The findings from the study may be used to sample, guide teacher pre-service education, professional learning and and Child school policy in primary schools. Children’s leisure activities study survey.

Competence motivation theory. Child and schizotypal Youth Resilience Measure. Health behavior in Essay on An of Sweatshops and Child, school-aged children. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Physical activity enjoyment scale. Physical activity; Self-determination theory.

Schools physical activity and nutrition survey, System for general haq, observing fitness instruction time. Test of gross motor development II. This project is funded by a Hunter Medical Research Institute (HMRI) grant, the Essay of Sweatshops and Child, Gastronomic Lunch and limitations thesis the Newcastle Jets. Authors' original submitted files for images. The authors have no competing interests to Essay on An Exploration, declare. DRL, PJM, RC, and RCP obtained funding for the research. All authors contributed to developing the protocols and Overcoming My Hard Essay reviewing, editing, and approving the Exploration of Sweatshops, final version of the paper.

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Planning and Exploration Labor managing disruptive business models for RFID-startups-The disruptor's arrow of time. This paper presents a one-page visual tool for adaptively planning and managing potentially disruptive business models such as in serotonin hormone, RFID-Startups. The visual tool is called “The Disruptor’s Arrow of Time.” The modular and iterative approach of the Disruptor’s Arrow of on An of Sweatshops and Child Time overcomes a serious limitation of Waterfall Business Planning, which rigidly focuses on a single chain of schizotypal personality activities from Essay on An of Sweatshops and Child planning to execution. Unlike in Waterfall Business Planning, the Disruptor’s Arrow of Time uses a business model as unit of analysis, planning, design, and innovation. The Disruptor’s Arrow of Time uses a four-stage process for business model planning and management. To illustrate benefits of using the Disruptor’s Arrow of serotonin Time, the tool is used to present a case study on the systematic development and Essay on An of Sweatshops validation of a disruptive business model such as for Zipcar, which is an My Hard Time Essay, RFID-startup. Zipcar’s example highlights the flexibility and effectiveness of the Disruptor’s Arrow of Time in adaptively planning and managing disruptive business models particularly in the emerging epoch of the Internet of Things.

Electronic supplementary material. The online version of this article (doi: 10.1186/2192-1121-1-5 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Traditional planning and management of startups. In 1942, the Austrian Economist Joseph Schumpeter proposed a theory of innovation which indicates that structural economic development arises out of the creative destruction or disruption of on An prior economic systems. Etihad Jobs? In contrast to on An Exploration of Sweatshops Labor, previous economists, Schumpeter advanced the idea that innovative entrepreneurs and startups constitute the disruptive force that drives and sustains economic growth. Nowadays, disruptive startups are regarded as the serotonin hormone, critical engine of economic growth and job creation in advanced free market economies. However, startups experience a high rate of failure.

According to the Small Business Association of America, 50% of startups die within five years. Seventy percent of businesses die within ten years from birth. The core cause of the high rate of failure of startups is attributed to Waterfall Business Planning which is traditionally used to plan and deliver the products of startups [ 1 , 2 ]. Waterfall Planning typically follows a linear process such as in a single chain of activities: idea/concept generation, product development, product testing, and launch. The author in [ 1 ] regards the Waterfall Model as suitable for Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops, established companies that already have a validated and predictable business model: the product is known and used in a financially viable market with established channels and customers. In the case of a budding startup, the business model is uncalibrated since the final version of the test, product is largely unknown and Essay on An and Child Labor the startup does not have an established channel and customer base. In the latter situation, the etihad jobs, startup has to adopt an experimental and Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor adaptive approach in order to discover, calibrate, and validate its customer segment as well as financial viability of its business model.

To date, however, many startups with unvalidated products have focused on developing and executing business and financial plans in the manner of established businesses with validated and profitable business models. In short, many startups are using Waterfall Business Planning. Consequently, many startups run out of money, time, and other resources before discovering and validating a profitable business model especially in a volatile environment. Traditional tools for etihad jobs, Waterfall Business Planning such as a voluminous business plan and detailed financial analysis are increasingly considered unnecessary for a startup that has not yet discovered and validated its customer segment as well as profitability of its business model. Essay On An Of Sweatshops Labor? In the world of startups, especially in the area of disruptive technology, there is a shift towards planning approaches that are agile and adaptive, have a strong focus on Overcoming My Hard Time, customer growth, and use a business model as the of Sweatshops Labor, unit of serotonin hormone analysis. Business model as representation of on An Exploration of Sweatshops Labor a living organization. There are many definitions of the term “business model.” The author in [ 3 ] provides a comprehensive review of the concept, approach, and definition of “business model.” However, no definition recognizes a business as a living system that is described in personality test, [ 4 ]. On An Exploration Of Sweatshops Labor? Consequently, current definitions of a business model ignore fundamental properties and attributes that govern competition, survival, and prosperity of living systems. In the test, absence of on An of Sweatshops and Child Labor a direct link to living systems, the large existing body of knowledge on living systems cannot easily be transferred to the domain of planning, designing, evaluating, and managing business models. This paper therefore takes a living systems approach to defining a business model.

Here, a business model is defined as a story plot, visual representation, or dynamic simulation of a living organization that viably pursues and achieves a hierarchy of hormone goals. A business model essentially presents a cause-and-effect logic of how a living organization creates, captures, delivers, and shares value in an ecosystem. In human-centered living organizations, the goal hierarchy of a business model can be derived from or directly related to the mission, vision, and/or core values of the organization. Every business model consists of on An Exploration of Sweatshops Labor three building blocks, which are summarized using the acronym of “DNA:” Design; Needs; Aspirations. A business model can be visually documented, analyzed, designed, evaluated, and attitudes managed using a DNA Map as in [ 5 ]. Additional file 1 : Figure S1 shows a business model as a DNA Map at the highest level of abstraction while Additional file 1 : Figure S2 shows details of a business model at a strategic level. These diagrams indicate the multi-level and fractal nature of a business when represented as a living organization. Adaptively planning and managing the business model strategy of startups. According to [ 6 ], a business typically gains competitive advantage by using one of three trade-off strategies: Overall Cost Leadership (Low Cost) Strategy, Differentiation Strategy, or Focus (Niche) Strategy. The author in [ 6 ] considers the zero trade-off strategy of Low Cost and High Differentiation as possible but highly improbable to realize.

In [ 7 ], the authors identify Blue Ocean Strategy as a process that involves the simultaneous pursuit of Low Cost and Differentiation. The authors present case studies on a number of companies such as Cirque du Soleil, Southwest Airlines, Curves, and Yellow Tail that have pursued Blue Ocean Strategy and achieved extraordinary business success. These aforementioned companies have used “Value Innovation,” which is the strategic logic behind Blue Ocean Strategy that is described in [ 7 ]. Value Innovation focuses on on An and Child Labor, breaking the Value (Differentiation) vs. Time Essay? Cost trade-off while creating an Essay on An Labor, uncontested market space. Additional file 1 : Figure S3 shows types of business model strategies in Time, an industry.

From the perspective of Strategy, this paper focuses on three archetypal business models for the success of startups: Low-cost Business Model; High Differentiation Business Model; Blue Ocean Business Model. Each business model is associated with a specific type of Exploration of Sweatshops customer segment and strategy, namely, low-end customers (overserved/unserved; good enough technology; low profit margin); high-end customers (underserved; high-end technology; high profit margin); Blue Ocean business model (overserved/unserved; good enough or advanced technology; highly profitable Return On Investment). In this paper, the author suggests that the process for using the Disruptor’s Arrow of schizotypal personality test Time should be based on the Four-Stage Framework of Essay on An and Child Labor Value Disruption Design [ 5 ]. Personality Test? Stage 1 involves attractiveness and risk (“SWOT”) analysis of the situation in an existing industry and environment (“Red Ocean”). In the second stage, the startup decides whether to use a low cost, high differentiation, or Blue Ocean strategy/business model. In the Essay Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor, third stage, the startup should explore, calibrate, and zia ul validate its initially selected strategy and business model for the disruption journey. After business model validation, the on An of Sweatshops and Child, startup can focus on the fourth stage of profitability, scaling, and defensibility of etihad jobs its business model. In each of the four stages, milestones should be achieved before going to the next stage. This “milestone” approach reflects a core principle of Discovery-Driven Planning that is described in on An Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor, [ 8 ].

What system to disrupt to? How best to disrupt system? Ideals/Mission/Vision/Core Purpose: Why disrupt existing business model (DNA)? Present: What existing business model (DNA) to disrupt? Future: What future business model (DNA) to disrupt to? Process (Strategy): How best to disrupt existing business model (DNA) in order to obtain future business model (DNA)? Additional file 1 : Figure S4 shows a one-page template for the Disruptor’s Arrow of general zia ul haq Time, which visually summarizes the above questions. The Disruptor’s Arrow of Time, which is described in [ 5 ], is Essay on An of Sweatshops Labor a one-page visual tool for Value Disruption Design [ 5 ] and in etihad jobs, particular, universal storytelling, problem-modeling, problem-solving, planning, design, and innovation.

As a worksheet, the Disruptor’s Arrow of Time is used to Essay Exploration Labor, plan, execute, and manage the serotonin hormone, disruption strategy and business model of startups as well as established businesses. Additional file 1 : Figure S4 features a Value Disruption Strategy or “ODDE Wheel” which consists of a four-stage cycle: Observe; Disrupt; Design; Execute. The disruptive business model of Zipcar, an RFID-startup. Founded in the year 2000, Zipcar is a membership-based carsharing company that has its headquarters in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. Exploration And Child? Zipcar provides vehicle reservations and usage to its members, whom it bills by the hour or day of usage. Zipcar’s fleet of vehicles has RFID transponders that are located on study thesis, the windshield. Essay On An Of Sweatshops? These RFID tags make it possible for customers to lock and unlock the doors of Time Essay vehicles for Essay Exploration of Sweatshops and Child, their use. Zipcar is limitations thesis sample currently a Publicly Traded company and has branches in USA, Canada, and United Kingdom. And Child Labor? It employs over 400 people. Compared to traditional vehicle rental companies in limitations study sample, the USA such as Enterprise Rent-A-Car, Hertz, and Avis, the business model of Essay Exploration of Sweatshops Labor Zipcar is considered to be disruptive. Zipcar positions itself as being in the industry and business of “carsharing” and not in the business of car rentals.

Zipcar’s RFID technology allows it to offer a type of service (online membership and wireless carsharing) that is unique in the industry of renting and sharing vehicles. Additional file 1 : Figure S5 illustrates diverse business model strategies in the industry of renting and sharing vehicles. Additional file 1 : Figure S6 provides an overview of Zipcar’s disruptive business model innovation which is in contrast to the sustaining business model of Enterprise Rent-a-Car and Hertz. Zipcar’s Arrow of hormone Time can be used for of Sweatshops and Child Labor, branding, positioning, and articulating as well as adaptively planning and managing its disruptive business model. Details of Zipcar’s validated business DNA model are shown in Additional file 1 : Figure S7. Although the business model of Zipcar is now validated, there are constant changes and competitive threats in of the sample, the environment. On An Exploration? For instance, Hertz has started using RFID cards instead of general zia ul haq keys in its car rental service. Consequently, Zipcar has to constantly review, adapt, and manage its business model. Additional file 1 : Figure S8 shows the resources that Zipcar should use in order to achieve its value proposition and mission.

Tools such as the Disruptor’s Arrow of Time as well as business DNA model and map would help businesses especially scalable RFID-startups such as Zipcar to Essay and Child Labor, adaptively plan and manage business models in their lifecycles. In today’s highly volatile environment, traditional and general zia ul linear tools such as Waterfall Business Planning are ill-suited for planning and managing risks of startups that are inherently disruptive and have unvalidated business models. To increase the odds of success for on An of Sweatshops and Child, potentially disruptive startups, adaptive planning and management tools such as the Disruptor’s Arrow of Time would have to be used. As a one-page visual tool, the Disruptor’s Arrow of Time facilitates not only the presentation and articulation of a startup’s mission, vision, and brand but also management of its strategy and evolving business model. Additional file 1 : Figure S6 shows an example of etihad jobs how the Disruptor’s Arrow of Time can be used to visually summarize the Value Disruption Strategy and evolution of the business model of a disruptive startup such as Zipcar. Essay On An Exploration Of Sweatshops And Child Labor? The Blue (Dream) Ocean Model of Zipcar strongly contrasts the Red (Nightmare) Ocean Model of Time Enterprise and Hertz. Zooming in on the Blue (Dream) Ocean of Zipcar’s Arrow of Exploration Time reveals details of Zipcar’s future or Blue Ocean business model, which is shown in Additional file 1 : Figure S7.

In order to realize the desired results of Zipcar’s Blue Ocean business model, a suitable project team would have to implement and manage Zipstar’s business model strategy and prejudice tactics as shown in Additional file 1 : Figure S8. In the emerging era of the Internet of Things, the Disruptor’s Arrow of Time will play a significant role in Essay on An of Sweatshops and Child, the successful evolution of potentially disruptive startups especially those using RFID technology. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an prejudice attitudes, Open Access article distributed under the Essay, terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Rod King 1 Email author 1. Time Essay? Ideal-Solutions Management Fresno USA. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley.

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Essay on the world of the Exploration and Child Labor, 21st century. It is all the transcendence of human race that people today reach the height of maximum luxury upgrading from the hormone, days of their very ancient Stone and Cave age. What human being has achieved today was once only a dream out of reach. But man's curiosity—perhaps the most wonderful gift given to man by Essay on An of Sweatshops and Child, God was behind his quest leading to wholehearted efforts to convert all impossible dreams of yesteryears into reality. Today in the 21st century, men have reasons enough to be proud for their unique achievements. Schizotypal! From stepping into Labor, the moon of cloning genes, there has been a long list of tremendous success of science and technology. But restless people's mind has still enough desire for even greater achievements.

And there is every reason to believe that in general haq, the coming days many of such dreams would be possible for Exploration and Child Labor us. Today at the starting days of the 21st century, Technology is the Time Essay, most pronouncing name all over the world. We are at the age of computer. Application of Exploration of Sweatshops and Child computer is becoming a common name in all aspects of life. Computer now no longer remains only a laboratory kit. Its application ventures into industrial setups, health care facilities, educational institutions, banking systems, ticket booking counters, carrying out schizotypal test, business proceedings, governmental jobs in fact in on An Exploration of Sweatshops, all aspects. Greater accuracy, more memory capacity and time saving ability of computer make people more and more interested towards its application. CD-ROMS have already ventured into conventional paper printings with their greater storage capacity and longer safety. Etihad Jobs! Internet the name has already created history turning out the on An and Child, world into a global village. Electronic commerce (E-com) is Essay, all set to create big bonanza in the 21st century where a man in India sitting with his computer could order his required assets at a market complex in America and within hours, he could get delivered his required assets at Exploration and Child Labor his doorstep.

Software experts are continuing their efforts to etihad jobs, create even new miracles. Essay Of Sweatshops And Child Labor! Home works have already been carried out to attitudes, regulate computer applications. Pirated software packages, leaving computer viruses in and Child Labor, the net are creating havoc all over the world. The recent love bug menace stalled net application throughout the world for several hours leading billions of etihad jobs dollar loss incurred in the worldwide business proceedings. Need therefore now arises to have strict international cyber laws to prevent such crimes.

Medical science is yet another area where man has already gained big success. Bypass surgery organ transplantation, CAT scan, ultrasound, Keyhole surgery are the names that have given maximum safety to on An of Sweatshops and Child, human life. Using modern equipment in general zia ul, human body, diagnosis and surgery has already created history. Computer application has given greater accuracy and sophisticated modes to medical facilities. Telemedicine now makes possible distant treatment, where a patient can consult with his physician by pressing keys in the keyboard. In the coming days, it would have greater access where a patient sitting in India could consult and get treatment from Exploration of Sweatshops a specialist in America. Application of robots in surgery is already under experiment in Western countries. In the coming days of the 21st century where a surgeon could sit in his place and general zia ul, just by pressing keys perform surgery getting assistance from the robot. The recent success by the scientists in human gene mapping has marked another grand success in the field of medical science. Scientists now believe that it would be possible to have absolute treatment for diseases like cancer or AIDS in our coming days. Like polio or pox, many other diseases would also be completely eradicated from our life.

However, in Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops Labor, the time of schizotypal personality overall human health management, there remain many shortfalls. Essay On An Exploration And Child Labor! Inequality in human health security is a big defeat for medical science. High cost now becomes a factor where the rich can only afford to get specialised medical facilities. For the poor, better medical facilities are still a distant dream. Large number of children still is dying of malnutrition in etihad jobs, many African countries. Every day, more than 1000 women die all over the world in Essay Exploration and Child Labor, problems related to pregnancy and childbirth. In our country malaria and tuberculosis still cost large number of deaths. In many places, villagers nave still to depend on quacks since they cannot afford modern medical treatment.

What we now need is equality in terms of schizotypal health care facilities. Let's hope we achieve this goal in the coming days of the on An Labor, 21st century. Attitudes! In the field of space science, there has been success beyond imagination. Once people dreamt of getting the moon in their hands. And today after stepping into the moon they are now dreaming of making holiday resorts at moon.

Success achieved in mission Mars has thrown new light on the possibility of life in other planets. Grand success achieved in space science has now led to spectacular achievements in the field of communications like E-mail, Internet, ISD system, mobile Tele system, fax etc. Recent revolution in TV broadcasting is also due to grand success achieved in the Space science. In transport, air service system has already created revolution turning the world into of Sweatshops Labor, an area of only a few hours of journey. Supersonic jets are now under trial, which would give fastest ever transport facilities. Railway system of transportation has achieved steep heights. Japan has already created history by introducing fastest ever electronic railway engine. Gradual decrease of conventional fuels like petroleum or coal has now led people to find out non-conventional fuel resources. A vehicle driven with solar energy is already under trial.

Solar energy would be the mains source of haq fuel in on An Exploration, future, which would also be eco-friendly. In the field of agriculture also, people's efforts have led to etihad jobs, tremendous achievements. Green revolution has created history all over the world Biotechnology has helped hybridization where scientists have come out with success in producing advanced varieties of high-yielding, disseat resistance or drought-resistance seeds. With the assistance of Exploration satellites meteorological science has got new boost-up with early prediction of general zia ul proper time management or water management for better cultivation. As has been reported scientists in Britain recently created a type of Essay Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor insect the can kill any other type of crop destructing pests. In the coming days man new evolutions are in the line which, would make possible even evolution are in the line which would make possible even better crop management. Schizotypal! In the field of nuclear science, scientists have already developed fission technology to produce greater energy. They have already learnt to on An Exploration and Child, produce nuclear energy from high-powered radioactive elements like plutonium, thorium or uranium.

In the wake of decreasing stock of non-renewable sources, people have even learnt of etihad jobs making artificial radioactive material India's Kamini Research Reactor has already set example using Uranium 233; a man-made fissionable material derived from thorium, as fuel. Efforts have been continued to harness fusion of hydrogen atom. In the coming days of the 21st century, scientists would certainly come out with success trapping large amount of energy from fusion of hydrogen atoms, to be used in useful purposes. Success of science and on An of Sweatshops and Child Labor, technology is tremendous. We have already achieved a lot and there is lot more to be achieved in the coming days. But where science and technology has made us materially rich in socioeconomic front, the world is also going to be a big loser. Man's de; to achieve beyond limit has now threatened safety of human life. Thesis! We fast proceeding industrial setup, environmental pollution is becoming a common name.

Vehicular pollution is fast growing at a pace emitting poisonous gases everyday in the environment. Essay And Child Labor! Number of patients suffering from respiratory ailments, skin diseases or other health hazards is increasing every day. Test! Being one of the most polluted cities in the world, thousands of residents in Delhi are reportedly suffering from respiratory problems. Green house effect is becoming a serious concern threatening world environment. With the increase of industrial activity and decrease of forest coverage, carbon-di-oxide level is rising in the environment at a rate faster than the normal resulting in rising of world temperatures. Essay And Child Labor! Scientists have reported melting of etihad jobs ice in the Polar Regions and on An and Child, rising of the sea level. Limitations Of The Study Thesis! It has now been predicted that by the mid of the 21st century, many islands and parts of the countries will submerge under sea. Ozone depletion is Essay Exploration of Sweatshops Labor, yet another reality creating havoc in our life. Refrigerator, a success of science, has added luxury to our life, but the coolants used here now remain one of the attitudes, major sources of chloro-floro- carbon (CFC), that causes depletion of the Ozone layer, the protection barrier of the poisonous ultraviolet light.

With the Essay Exploration and Child Labor, influence of UV light, danger of etihad jobs skin cancer is rising tremendously. As Darwin explained in his theory of evolution, to keep balance on earth every species need to keep its multiplication at a balanced rate. With excessive multiplication of human population, other species are downing their population rate. Several varieties of birds and animals are already extinct from our environment. Essay On An Exploration And Child! With greater human establishment, forest coverage is fast reducing. Landslides, heavy rains leading to floods have now become the common occurrences. Large-scale competition among the human beings has led to shortage of all conventional resources on the earth. For example, the scientists have predicted that by the mid of this century, the world would face big potable water crisis. On the social front, disparity between the rich and the poor is general zia ul haq, increasing tremendously. Social tension is mounting steadily.

People are going to be more and Essay on An of Sweatshops and Child, more mechanical. Joint family norms is general haq, now almost outdated. People have become more and more self-centered. With lack of sympathy among the rich for the poor, social crimes are raising reducing safety to man's life with deprived classes as also neo-rich taking to crime. Disparity among the countries has also been rising. Essay On An Of Sweatshops! Countries have become more and thirstier to increase their influence.

Various world organisations like WTO, UN, etc. have no longer remained fair in conducting their business. In these organisations, voice of the rich countries prevails to the neglect of the poor countries. The North-South gap has been rising tremendously. Where the American and European countries are turning to be world's heaven in personality test, terms of luxury, people of many African countries are dying of Essay on An of Sweatshops Labor malnutrition, disease and death. Political disparity is mounting among the global powers increasing regional tensions. Even after experiencing war havoc a number of times; nations do not seem to have learnt to avoid conflict. To show their own muscle power, countries have concentrated beefing up their stockpile of etihad jobs conventional and nuclear arms.

Again both economic and political disparity is giving birth to rebel groups within the countries. World terrorism is now creating havoc all over the world. Man is the Exploration and Child, most successful creation of God. Prejudice Attitudes! And all human beings always seek mental peace perhaps the most wonderful gift of God. On An And Child! The revolution of scientific inventions was all started to give comfort and happiness to man's life. When Einstein evaluated his theory of relativity (E=mc2) perhaps he did not even imagine that one day men would apply it to enrich their stockpile of dreaded nuclear weapons. But very unfortunately people's desires to feed beyond limit make them hawkish against one another. It took thousands of years to reach at general zia ul haq today's level of progress, but it will not take even a day to go back to our days of origin. Fortunately a sane human mind can never desire for Essay of Sweatshops destruction. World efforts are continuing to ensure permanent peace.

At the beginning of the 21st century, can we really hope of etihad jobs getting a world of love, unity and peace in Exploration of Sweatshops and Child, our coming days? Religion which should be source of of the study mental peace, universal brotherhood, and respect for Exploration and Child other beliefs is now being misused to promote terrorism whether it is Kashmir, Chechnya, the Philippines or elsewhere by Islamic fundamentalists. The unprovoked killing of innocent and devout pilgrims to Amarnath, the Nature-made (not man-made) Shiv lingam, in Jammu Kashmir is a gruesome reminder to the extent where religious fanaticism has reached. Is it not better to be an atheist than theist, if such brutalities are to be heaped on human beings in the name of religion? Amar Nath symbolises God's incarnation in snow to most, it is serotonin, not Ram Janambhoomi-Babri Mosque dispute which should lead to inter- religion clashes. Let man learn to co-exist that is the only wish of every peace-loving person for Essay on An of Sweatshops and Child Labor the 21st century.

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essays assignments The assignment is to write an essay in two parts. The topic should be a question, not just a concept or theme. In Part 1 you show how one of our authors would have answered your question. Exploration Of Sweatshops And Child? In Part 2 you comment on the adequacy of that answer. Ask a good question. Schizotypal Personality? (Tips and details.) In Part 1, interpret or reconstruct how one of our authors would have answered your question. The author's answer includes the conclusion and the arguments in support of that conclusion. Present your reconstruction of the author's answer as a direct response to your main question. (Interpret the author's answer to this question and only the author's answer to this question.) Support your interpretation with textual evidence. Using textual evidence means, among other things, to cite the text by page number for every significant claim you attribute to the author, whether you are quoting or merely paraphrasing. (Tips and details.) In Part 2, start to assess the adequacy of the author's answer and on An Labor supporting arguments.

Comment on their strengths and general haq weaknesses as you see them, and present your evaluation as a direct response to Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops Labor, the author's position in Part 1. (Evaluate the position you interpreted in Part 1 and only the position you interpreted in Part 1.) Assess the author's arguments, not just the author's conclusions. Prejudice? If you had to of Sweatshops, choose, assessing the schizotypal test author's arguments is more important than assessing the author's conclusions. Support your evaluative comments with explicit arguments of your own. Address your arguments to the open-minded, educated public. (Tips and details.) Be fascinating and profound. (Tips and details.) Think of this paper as the beginning of a dialogue between two thoughtful people on some important question. The two thoughtful people are you and on An of Sweatshops Labor the author. The important question is yours. In Part 1 you are listening to limitations of the study thesis sample, the author; in Part 2 you are speaking.

In Part 1 you are interpreting the author's answer to the question; in on An Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Part 2 you are evaluating it. The purpose of the paper is to help you and your readers make some progress toward answering this important question. That's the simple, grand idea. Make your main question explicit early in the paper, preferably in the title. Label Parts 1 and 2 explicitly so that you and I both know where to find them.

The two parts are equal in weight in general zia ul haq the final grade and should get roughly equal space. To get started you need a question and an author. I usually ask for and Child, these two decisions in writing one week before the etihad jobs paper is due. Look to the syllabus for the page range and the due date. I don't expect you to absorb this long description of the assignment at one sitting. I include it here as a reference and Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops study aid. My Hard Essay? If you wonder what a certain part of the on An Exploration assignment really requires, or if you are having trouble with a certain part, read my elaboration on that part here. Then let's talk. Ask a Good Question Reading the author's text and discussing it class undoubtedly made you think. What questions were you moved to think about? Pick one for the paper.

Make the question explicit very early in the paper, for example in the title or first paragraph. Don't make us wonder what your question is or infer it from statements about etihad jobs issues and problems. I will grade you, in part, on how directly and adequately you address your own question. So pick your words with care when stating the question, and monitor how closely you stick to your question throughout the Exploration of Sweatshops paper. From all the questions that arise from the author's text, pick a question that is of the thesis, important to you. You'll write a much better paper this way and the labor will be in a good cause. Essay On An Exploration And Child Labor? Philosophy papers should not be merely academic. Your question should also be important to prejudice attitudes, the author.

If it isn't, it may be a very good philosophical question to raise and pursue, but not a good paper topic for this author. Not all good philosophical questions make good paper topics for this assignment. Essay Exploration Of Sweatshops And Child? Some are too big. Some are too small. Some are best addressed to of the study, authors we're not reading. By all means pose and investigate these questions; this will deepen your inquiry and help you grow as a philosopher. Exploration Of Sweatshops And Child Labor? But for the paper, look for a question that fits both the page range and the authors in schizotypal personality our syllabus.

One reason I often ask you for your topic question a week before the paper is due is to give you feedback on whether the question is too large or too small. If you want this kind of feedback even earlier, I'd be happy to talk (in my office or by email) about the questions you are considering or to help you frame your emerging topic as a question. You may have trouble picking a topic question with relatively clear boundary lines. You may like question A, but see that it commits you to write about Essay and Child Labor B, C, and D, when each of those commits you to attitudes, write about further topics. This is a genuine problem. You've noticed that in philosophy all issues are connected. Don't blame yourself or the author. Essay On An Exploration Of Sweatshops Labor? The solution is to use your best judgment to give your primary topic primary attention in the paper, and to prejudice, give secondary topics merely secondary attention. Don't hesitate to mention related topics, especially when doing so will illuminate your primary topic.

But don't digress deeply into secondary topics and, above all, don't let them take over the paper. If your digressions go more deeply than your analysis of the primary topic, then change your topic to the subject of Essay Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor your deepest digression. Ask a question about real issues, not merely about what an author believed about real issues. For example, ask, Can free will and zia ul haq causal determinism be reconciled? not, Does Leibniz think free will and and Child Labor determinism can be reconciled? You can still write Part 1 of your paper on Leibniz, if you like.

But you'll also write a Part 2, which assumes that the question is Overcoming Time, interesting and important in its own right. The question need not be one that the author directly addressed. Essay Of Sweatshops And Child? When it isn't, you won't find the author's answer already laid out in black and serotonin hormone white in Exploration of Sweatshops and Child the text, but you can often find plenty of textual clues to what the author would have said. Overcoming My Hard? In Part 1, limit yourself to Exploration and Child, those parts of the author's position that answer the main question. In Part 2, limit yourself to those evaluative comments that bear on the author's answer to limitations sample, the main question. In this sense, the question is the organizing key to the paper. The question should tell you what to include in the paper, what to on An of Sweatshops and Child, omit, and when to stop. But the paper in turn may suggest revisions to study sample, make in the question. Let the question and the paper addressing it influence each other reciprocally. When you are finished, the two ought to be in perfect alignment. Organizing the paper around a single question lets you focus, and therefore helps you achieve depth rather than breadth.

To reach depth in this sense is at least (1) to attain a fine level of detail, (2) to respect the complexity of the position and argument you are discussing, and (3) to qualify otherwise oversimple interpretations, explanations, and arguments. It might also include (4) identifying and addressing deeper assumptions or presuppositions and (5) asking questions that take us to even more basic issues. Breadth is Essay of Sweatshops, only objectionable in a short paper and only because it prevents depth in this sense. Don't spread yourself thin, saying something superficial about many sub-topics, when by concentrating you could reach significant insights about one. There is no shortcut to depth, but you can help yourself by picking one question and sticking to it mercilessly. Part 1. Interpret the Author's Answer You've asked a good question. What's the author's answer? Interpretation is an attempt to understand the author, not just to excavate your impressions or reactions. You may have to use your imagination to reconstruct the author's answer and argument from limitations sample, subtle clues in the text. The author's supporting argument is part of the position and must be included.

Expound the author's position and argument as a direct response to the main question. Don't make us wonder about the Essay Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor connection between the position you are expounding and serotonin hormone the main question. Interpret all those parts of the author's general position that are necessary to answer your main question. To leave some out will oversimplify the author's answer. Only interpret those parts of the author's general position that are necessary to Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops, answer your main question. In a short paper you don't have space to My Hard, waste on inessentials.

You may assume that your readers have already read the author's book. They may not agree with you on how to interpret or evaluate it, but at least you needn't summarize it for them in order the set the stage for your narrower inquiry. Essay? Cite the text by page number for every significant claim you attribute to the author, whether you are quoting or merely paraphrasing. This is necessary even if you are adopting a reading that I presented in class. The rationale is the same here as it is for general, published scholarship. Your readers may disagree with your reading and of Sweatshops and Child Labor want to verify your claims. Or your readers may be inspired by haq, your reading and want to Exploration of Sweatshops and Child, follow-up and deepen the inquiry. Etihad Jobs? Two of the chief weaknesses I see in interpretations are lack of textual evidence and oversimplification. Of Sweatshops? These go together. If you force yourself to back up your interpretive claims with textual evidence and page numbers, then you'll be in a much better position to notice subtleties or complexities that you might have been overlooking.

Oversimplified positions are almost always weaker than properly qualified or nuanced positions. Hence, oversimplification is a double fault. First, it weakens the interpretation by replacing the Overcoming Time Essay author's rich and complex position with a caricature. Second, it invites unfair or misguided evaluation in Part 2. Unless the author's meaning in a quotation is obvious, interpret it for us. On An Exploration Of Sweatshops Labor? Explain what the author meant and show us how that meaning supports the point you are making. Quotation proves that the author said the words, but it doesn't tell us how you interpret the words and it doesn't prove that the test words support your interpretation. If your reader didn't understand the Essay on An of Sweatshops Labor author the first time, then she won't understand your quotation until you offer your help. Demurrer . Although I judge interpretations by the standard of accuracy, rather than originality and cleverness, I do not assume that there is such a thing as the prejudice author's intended meaning which exists independently of our collective interpretive efforts. But neither do I assume that there is Exploration, not such a thing. This is a good philosophical question on which it would be prejudicial for me to make an assumption one way or another.

I assume only that to interpret a text as if the author intended a discoverable meaning will take you several steps beyond narcissism and toward productive listening, and of the that this is good education. So how can I grade you by the standard of accuracy? First, I look for and Child Labor, those signs of hormone listening that take one beyond narcissism. Second, while I may not know the author's intended meaning on your topic, I do know passages in the text on your topic. If your interpretation does not take them into account, then it oversimplifies or fails to respect the on An complexity of the text, an important kind of inaccuracy. Schizotypal Personality Test? Here's a rough and on An Labor ready way to tell whether you have written a good interpretation. If a peer from class read the book but was particularly baffled by the author's position on the question you've picked as your topic, would she receive concrete help from reading your interpretation? The most common problems I see in interpretations are the following.

Missing the target. Prejudice Attitudes? Focusing on some aspect of the author's position other than his or her answer to your topic question. Weakening the Essay Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor author. Presenting the author's conclusions without their supporting arguments. Oversimplifying the author. Failing to respect the complexity or nuance of the text. Omitting your evidence. Not citing the text by page number for every significant claim you attribute to general, the author. Tying your own hands. Failing to interpret the parts of the author's position and Essay of Sweatshops Labor argument on personality which you want to Essay Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor, make evaluative comments in Part 2.

Part 2. My Hard Essay? Evaluate the Author's Answer You've asked a good question and reconstructed the author's answer. Now, what do you think of Essay Labor that answer? I say evaluate the My Hard author's position only as shorthand. This brief formulation hides four aspects of an evaluation that are hard to Essay Exploration of Sweatshops and Child, squeeze into a headline. To evaluate a position is to evaluate its adequacy as an answer to the main question . Its adequacy for other purposes is secondary here. To evaluate the adequacy of a position requires us to evaluate the adequacy of both the conclusion and its supporting argument . To evaluate the adequacy of a position and argument is to judge them from your own standpoint . General Zia Ul Haq? Your evaluative judgments must be supported by explicit arguments of and Child Labor your own. The assignment is not merely to reveal and articulate your standpoint in judging the author; that would be mere confession, not philosophy. Prejudice Attitudes? The assignment is to Essay on An Exploration and Child, defend or justify your standpoint. We are all stymied or intimidated by the bottom-line question whether the Overcoming author was right or wrong on Exploration of Sweatshops Labor the topic question. But this is not the only question to address in Part 2, and My Hard Time not even the on An Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor preferred question.

If so, then what's left, exactly? Consider some of these possibilities. Look closely at limitations thesis the author's arguments for the answer to the main question, as you have interpreted them in Part 1. Are you persuaded? What in Essay Exploration and Child them is strong? What in them is weak? Is the author's position on this question consistent with what he or she said elsewhere on another question? (To pursue a line like this, make sure that both parts of the author's text were interpreted in Part 1.) Is the author's position one-sided? Does it fail to take into account some kind of evidence, or some line of reasoning, or some relevant phenomenon, that you can argue should have been taken into attitudes, account? Take an objection to the author's position. It might be your own or a classical objection from the history of philosophy. Interpret the author's likely reply to the objection in Part 1. Here in Part 2 ask whether the author's response is adequate and persuasive, strong or weak. Explore what you find persuasive and unpersuasive, attractive and unattractive in the author's position and argument.

Explore what's attractive by seeing how it might apply in contexts the author didn't consider. Explore what's unattractive by trying to put your finger on Essay on An Exploration and Child an error or weakness. Explore the position by following out lines of attitudes thought to Exploration and Child Labor, see whether their consequences make the position, all in all, more attractive or less. Test its truth by seeing how well it can answer certain objections or explain certain phenomena. Perform these explorations in front of our eyes. Don't do them in your head or on general zia ul scratch paper and show us only the conclusions. In a philosophy paper, the reasons are at Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops Labor least as important as the conclusions. In short, there are many less intimidating ways to evaluate a position and argument than to come to a judgment on whether the author's answer to the main question was right or wrong.

To make this clear I often prefer to say that the prejudice attitudes assignment in Part 2 is to write evaluative comments rather than an Essay on An of Sweatshops Labor, evaluation as such. This is not just semantics. Etihad Jobs? I really have the friendlier and less intimidating assignment in mind. I still want you to evaluate the Essay Exploration and Child author's position, and the adequacy of that position as you see it is still the only issue in Part 2 of the paper. But your comments need not be final, definitive, or certain; they may be exploratory and tentative. If you see some strengths and some weaknesses, tell us about them and offer your arguments. Tell us why the aspects you consider strengths are strong and why the aspects you conaider weaknesses are weak. But don't worry if they don't add up to schizotypal personality test, a definitive judgment. Essay On An And Child? I want you to make progress toward answering the main question; it would be unfair for me to expect you to finish the job #151;when philosophers themselves are still at work on it. Don't change the subject in Part 2. Hormone? Limit your comments to Exploration and Child Labor, the author's answer to limitations study, the main question, as you interpreted that answer in Part 1. Exploration? There are two reasons for this.

You cannot comment responsibly on the adequacy of hormone any position that you have not previously interpreted. The author might not deserve the judgment you have rendered. We won't know and you won't know until you show exactly what the author said on on An and Child that subject, an interpretive job that belongs in Part 1. If you interpret the author on one question, and then evaluate the author on different questions, then you waste the prejudice labor of your interpretation. You waste your limited space for evaluation on issues irrelevant to Essay on An Exploration and Child, your chosen question. You miss an opportunity to deepen the inquiry by responding to what the author really did say on the question.

The dialogue between two thoughtful people on an important question fizzles into two monologues. Personality Test? If you find yourself making evaluative comments on on An Exploration and Child parts of the author's position that you have not previously interpreted in Part 1, then you face a choice. Either delete your off-topic evaluative comments or change your question (and rewrite Part 1) in order to set up the topic of Time your evaluative comments. Your topic in Part 2 is the adequacy of the author's position, not whether you agree or disagree. If you think the author's position was strong on some point, don't tell us that you agree with it; tell us where it was strong and why. If you think it was weak on some point, don't tell us that you disagree; tell us where it was weak and why. Indicating your agreement or disagreement is neither relevant nor sufficient. The question in Part 2 is not whether you agree or disagree, but whether you ought to agree or disagree.

If you agree with the author, you and the author might both be wrong. If you disagree with the author, then you think you are right and the author wrong, but of course the author would think it's the other way around. You won't help settle the question by telling us what you accept and Essay of Sweatshops and Child Labor what you reject. Other inquirers can't build on that, unless they are simply counting votes. But you will help settle the question by serotonin, showing exactly where and how the author's arguments were strong or weak. You may not even know whether you agree or disagree with the author's answer to the main question. Don't be alarmed. Your reluctance to judge can actually help you write a good paper. (Somehow many students get the idea that philosophy is all about Exploration Labor having opinions; it's not.) You may see pros and personality cons without having made up your mind about how they balance out. Exploration Of Sweatshops? Fine: tell us about them.

Your comments on what's strong and what's weak can be illuminating even if they are inconclusive and you remain undecided. In fact, your evaluative comments are likely to etihad jobs, be weak (one-sided and dogmatic) if you made up your mind made before undertaking the reasoned inquiry required for Part 2. Essay And Child Labor? Making up your mind is not always important; and when it is, then it's important to do it right. That requires you to look closely at sophisticated answers to the question, think about their strengths and test weaknesses, and frame your reasons for finding them to be strong or weak. This is just what Part 2 calls on you to do. Essay On An And Child? The evaluative comments should show what you think about the limitations of the author's answer to the main question. What's important to on An Labor, me is limitations study thesis sample, that you think about that answer.

I don't care whether you agree or disagree or can't make up your mind. I would much rather have you think without agreeing or disagreeing than to agree or disagree without thinking. Expound your evaluative comments as direct responses to on An Exploration of Sweatshops, the author's position and argument in Part 1. Don't make us wonder how your comments are relevant to the author's position or your evaluative judgment of it. Avoid making significant, new interpretive claims in Part 2. This steals space needed for evaluation, limiting the personality depth of Labor your evaluative comments. Moreover, in my experience, interpretive claims in etihad jobs Part 2 tend to be made as asides, without adequate textual evidence. To make them superficial is a problem; to of Sweatshops and Child, give them adequate textual evidence in Part 2 would subtract from the space left for etihad jobs, evaluation. Lesson: Give them adequate textual evidence, but do it in Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops Part 1. Since you are interpreting as well as evaluating the author, make sure your readers can tell when you are speaking for the author and etihad jobs when you are speaking for yourself. Don't be afraid to use the word I and on An Exploration of Sweatshops and Child take responsibility for your views, regardless of what you were taught in High School.

The evaluative comments are roughly half the paper in importance and etihad jobs weight, and on An of Sweatshops hence, roughly half a paper's grade. So give them roughly half the limitations of the study sample space. You may find it easier to criticize an author than to support one. On the one hand, don't mistake the Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor easy path for the best path; on the other, don't worry if you only general, have critical comments. If you worry that you have to Essay on An Exploration and Child Labor, balance all negative comments with positive comments, then stop; you don't.

If you worry that you have to disagree with an author to serotonin, be a good philosopher, then stop; you don't. If you worry that I will penalize criticism (on the theory that I don't assign authors when I don't agree with them), then stop; I won't. If you worry that your negative comments might be missing some of the story, then good; they might. If you worry that you can't express major agreements as easily as minor disagreements, then good; you should work on this. Because the author has already argued in favor of his or her position, probably very well, it is difficult to on An of Sweatshops, find anything to say in serotonin support of the position without merely repeating what the author has said. This is often true, but don't be led by these pressures to criticize a position that you support. One way to support an author is to show that the author's position can satisfactorily answer objections which (for one reason or another) the author didn't explicitly address. You may well have studied some of these objections in on An Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor class; certainly you can find some in the library. Another way is to show that the position can satisfactorily explain phenomena or solve problems which (for one reason or another) the author never considered. Study Thesis? Another is to show that an apparent problem is not a real problem, or that the solution to one problem dovetails or coheres beautifully with the solution to another problem. Another is to Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops, show that the philosopher solves a problem left unsolved by some previous philosopher, yet without creating the new problem that prevented the previous philosopher from seeing or adopting the same solution.

Use your imagination and you'll find many other ways as well. Zia Ul Haq? On the other hand, don't hesitate to on An Exploration and Child Labor, criticize a position strongly. You will not violate some unwritten rule or offend me. I defend our authors against misinterpretation in order to limitations sample, help us interpret them accurately, and I defend them against objections (at least while I'm teaching them) in order to show you what resources these positions have to defend themselves. And I defend my decision to include them in the syllabus, as authors worth your time and attention. But that's it. I don't defend them against a well-argued critique. Don't distort your paper by avoiding a critique in fear of offending me or jeopardizing your grade. Essay Exploration? I'm teaching, not preaching. You can learn a lot from an attitudes, author by Exploration of Sweatshops, clarifying your suspicion that something has gone wrong, putting your finger on what you believe to be a mistake, and arguing that such a step is general zia ul haq, mistaken. The justification of your critique matters to me, but its severity does not.

In short, if you criticize one of the author's positions, just make sure that the Essay on An of Sweatshops author deserves it. If you need a checklist to keep you honest, then try to (1) show that the author actually asserted the claim you want to criticize, (2) show the personality author's reasons for asserting it, and (3) show what's wrong with those reasons. Here's a little elaboration on these three tasks. If you criticize the author for saying x , then make sure that in Part 1 you provide textual evidence to show that the author really did say x . Don't criticize a position that the author never asserted, and don't criticize an asserted position that you haven't yet interpreted for us. Make sure that in Part 1 you reconstruct the author's arguments for x . Exploration Of Sweatshops Labor? Show the case for x at prejudice its strongest, at least in the strongest form in which this author gives it. Essay And Child? If you don't, your evaluation is bound to schizotypal test, be unfair.

Make sure that you directly address the author's arguments. Exploration Labor? If you have an serotonin, original argument againt x , that's good; we want to Essay on An Exploration and Child Labor, hear it. But whether you have such an hormone, argument or not, you must address the author's argument for x and show us why you think it fails to establish x . The reason is Essay on An and Child, simply that your arguments against x might be weaker than the author's arguments for prejudice, x . Of Sweatshops Labor? We won't know until we see you evaluate the author's arguments and identify where they go wrong. Try to imagine how the Overcoming My Hard author would reply to your criticism. Essay On An Exploration And Child? Can you answer the author's objections? Should you make any concessions to them and qualify your criticism? Interpreting the author's arguments in Part 1 is schizotypal, part of careful reading. Evaluating those arguments in Part 2 is part of responsible dialogue. But the task here is one of sensitive imagination.

The author never heard your criticism and on An Exploration of Sweatshops and Child never responded to it. Can you imagine how the prejudice author would reply? This task also requires you to reply to objections, even though they are imagined objections. This requires fair-mindedness with those who disagree with you, the humility to articulate objections to your own views, the logical sense to know when you've answered an Essay of Sweatshops and Child, objection and when you've evaded one, the honesty to change your mind in the face of persuasive objections, and the skill with language to qualify your claims so that they capture the criticism you think is warranted and still acknowledge the strengths you wish to concede. If you can imagine objections to your own views and answer them, then you'll go a long way toward avoiding the one-sidedness fallacy. Hormone? Here's one perspective on the last couple of points. Don't be impatient to get to the important business of supporting what you support and Essay on An of Sweatshops opposing what you oppose, as if the Time author didn't exist or didn't offer arguments. There are two jobs to do first.

First, ascertain whether the author supports what you oppose, or opposes what you support. That is, read the of Sweatshops Labor author carefully enough to know whether he or she deserves your support. Second, be open to persuasion from the author that you should support something different. Part 2 is your chance to do philosophy, not merely to read and reconstruct the philosophy of others. Part 1 can be construed as an historical or textual exercise, but Part 2 cannot. As philosophers, we do the kind of work in Part 1 for the sake of the kind of work in Part 2. Here's a rough and ready way to tell whether you have written a good evaluation. Serotonin Hormone? If a peer from class agrees with you on how to read the author's position on the question you've picked as your topic, but is tormented by Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops Labor, indecision on etihad jobs whether the author's position is a good one, would she receive concrete help from reading your evaluation? The most common problems I see in evaluations are the following. Changing the subject. Essay On An Of Sweatshops And Child? Not focusing the evaluation on the position you interpreted in prejudice attitudes Part 1. Dogmatizing. Not supporting your evaluative comments with argument.

Fighting a straw man. Criticizing the on An Exploration and Child author while oversimplifying, or even disregarding, the author's arguments for prejudice attitudes, the conclusion you criticize. Quitting early. Not giving the evaluation roughly the same space as the interpretation. Be Fascinating and Profound.

You understand why your question matters. Can you communicate this understanding? Write for the audience of the wide world, not just for me, yourself, your peers, or people of your own gender, race, culture, or century. Hence, be sensitive to the fact that large sectors of your audience share few if any of Essay Exploration of Sweatshops your values or background assumptions, and simply do not take for granted what you take for granted. Assume that your audience has read the of the thesis books for the course, and on An Exploration of Sweatshops Labor is open-minded, but does not (yet) agree with you on test their meaning or merits. Essay On An Exploration Of Sweatshops? Make sure that this very diverse audience knows (1) what you are talking about, (2) why it should agree with you, or at least why it should find your view reasonable and responsible, and (3) why it should care. Overcoming Time Essay? To make yourself intelligible you will have to strive for a philosopher's clarity and precision, not those of daily discourse.

To make yourself persuasive you will have to make cogent use of and Child Labor textual evidence (in your interpretation) and general haq argument (in your evaluative comments). The request to argue is Essay on An of Sweatshops and Child, not a request to be quarrelsome, defensive, or aggressive. It is general zia ul, a request to be accountable to your audience, giving it good reasons in Essay on An and Child Labor place of attitudes asking readers to take your word or to believe blindly. To make yourself fascinating and profound to this diverse audience you will have to reach beyond your own self and the provincial interests of on An of Sweatshops and Child Labor those like yourself to the interests of all humanity. Explicitly raise objections to your evaluative comments. Answer them and argue for your answers.

The objections could be from the standpoint of the author you are interpreting, another author from our course, a scholar you found in the library, or your imagination. Do some library research . This might help you interpret the author's position and prejudice attitudes argument or evaluate their strengths and weaknesses. If you do use the library, cite all your sources in a bibliography. Write an abstract for your paper. Done in the right spirit, this is not extra work but a technique for improving your clarity. Make your paper comparative . In Part 1 give the answers of two of our authors to your main question, along with their supporting arguments. Leave the evaluation for Part 3 and on An of Sweatshops and Child Labor insert a new Part 2 showing how they would respond to zia ul haq, one another's arguments.

How would each object to the other, and how would each respond to the other's objections? Limit this dialogue to the issues that arise in answering the Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops main question. Then in Part 3 comment on My Hard Essay the strengths and weaknesses of the two positions and their supporting arguments. Start to judge who has the stronger argument. Explicitly label your sections Part 1, Part 2, and Part 3 so we can both tell where they are. Essay On An Exploration Of Sweatshops? Give each section roughly one third of your paper. Sometimes I assign comparative papers; when I do, this is what I mean. When I don't, this option is always available, but talk to me before taking it on. Make your paper semi-comparative. Etihad Jobs? Write the evaluative comments of another philosopher (Part 2) as well as, or in addition to, your own (Part 3) on the author's position in Part 1. For example, Part 1 interprets Descartes on the ontological argument. Part 2 interprets Hume's evaluation of Descartes' position.

Part 3 offers your own evaluation of Descartes' position, perhaps in Essay on An Exploration and Child Labor light of Hume's evaluation. In Part 2, you'll have the same obligation to provide textual evidence for the second philosopher's views that you have in Part 1 for etihad jobs, the first philosopher's views. If you write two sets of evaluative comments, then to avoid oversimplification the paper would have to be about 33% larger than the regular assignment. To write only one set of evaluative comments (those of another philosopher), the paper will be of the regular length. Talk to me before choosing either option. With permission, and if you are ambitious, change the assignment for Part 2. Instead of Essay of Sweatshops writing evaluative comments on the author's answer to the main question, offer your own answer to the main question and an argument that your answer is superior to personality, the author's answer. This is much harder to do well than the original assignment, so think twice before proposing it. End your paper with a series of questions . The questions can raise issues that must be explored before we can finish answering your primary question.

Or they can show the direction for further inquiry now that you've settled the primary question. They can ask about deeper issues within your own topic or about neighboring topics. They can ask about Essay of Sweatshops and Child logical presuppositions or consequences of the author's position, or historical antecedents or subsequent influence. Don't feel obliged to have answers. Let your inquisitive nature run. Sometimes students attach hand-written notes to their papers. I worked hard on limitations study thesis x this time. Of Sweatshops? Did I do a good job? #151;when x is interpreting arguments and not just positions, using textual evidence, arguing explicitly, sticking to the subject, grappling with a slippery distinction, raising objections and answering them, writing clearly, organizing, proofreading, or that puzzling passage on page 14 of the author's text. Sometimes the Overcoming My Hard Time Essay notes give some personal context on why this topic is important. Sometimes they describe an admitted problem with the paper and ask for suggestions on how to of Sweatshops Labor, avoid or solve it. I enjoy these notes.

They help me know you better and respond more specifically to your effort. Why not type them, so I can read them more easily, and staple them to the paper, so I won't lose them? I'll try to Overcoming Time, comment on them as I do on and Child the paper itself. My grading criteria follow this definition of the assignment. Attitudes? Any specific grading criteria that I will use for papers will be written in the syllabus or announced in class. Essay On An? In general I will look for: a sharp question your interpretation of the author's answer and its supporting argument conscientious use of the text to support your interpretation your evaluative comments on the adequacy of the author's position explicit, persuasive argument to support your evaluative comments clear, precise writing depth over breadth in prejudice attitudes analysis respect for the complexity of the Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops text, problem and/or position, and schizotypal personality careful proofreading. Please take these criteria seriously; I do. Papers that take on more difficult questions will be graded with loving kindness. Note that these grading criteria do not include spelling, diction, punctuation, grammar, or organization.

The reason is not that these are unimportant; on the contrary, they are presupposed. To think that these essentials of good writing count only in of Sweatshops and Child Humanities or English classes is a mistake that hinders your growth as a writer. In grading I do not comment on matters of style. But clarity and precision are not merely matters of style. Clear writing reflects clear thinking. (Sometimes clear thinking produces clear writing, and sometimes clear writing produces clear thinking.) An important criterion of clarity is whether a reader who was puzzled by the book you're interpreting would receive concrete help from reading your paper. Write with the attitude of one trying to help a baffled peer from class to understand. Sometimes I will grade your interpretation and zia ul evaluation separately, and give the simple average of these two grades to the paper overall. This kind of differentiated feedback helps you focus on where you need to improve. It also helps to emphasize that each of these two tasks is half the paper in weight.

If you would like me to Essay on An Exploration and Child, give you comments without a grade, I will be happy to thesis, do so. I must grade you for the sake of the college, but I can leave the grade off your paper. I try hard to grade fairly. If you don't understand why I gave you a certain grade, or if you think it was unfair, please come in so we can talk about it. One of my most painful grading dilemmas is the high-quality essay that does not fulfill the assignment.

I've decided to deal with these by praising them, failing them, and requiring rewrites. If you want to Exploration of Sweatshops Labor, change the assignment, talk to me in limitations of the study thesis sample advance. If you would like more explanation of the assignment, what it is to write a philosophy paper, to on An and Child, interpret a text, evaluate a position, imagine and answer an objection, or argue for a conclusion, then see me and we can talk. If you are unsure about the wording or focus of your topic-question, its narrowness, difficulty, or importance, or if the connection between the writing assignments and the objectives of the serotonin hormone course is ever unclear, I'd be happy to talk to you in my office.

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IGCSE and GCSE Geography Coursework (Paper 4) Paper 4 is the alternative to Essay on An Exploration and Child Labor, coursework paper that is worth 27.5% of your final IGCSE grade. The coursework paper tests your understanding of how coursework is carried out. Zia Ul Haq? The paper is 1 hour and 30 minutes long and divided into two 30 mark questions. You answer all the questions on the examination paper, most questions are short in length, between 1 and 4 marks. The paper requires a combination of knowledge and skills. Essay On An Of Sweatshops? The questions usually focus on coursework to hormone, do with; coasts, rivers, settlements or weather.

As a IGCSE geographer it is possible to carry out Labor, coursework on many aspects of the general zia ul, course. Possible topics and areas of study may include: Changes in river velocity from source to mouth Changes in load (shape and size) from source to mouth Changes in channel depth, width, cross-section and wetted perimeter from source to mouth Changes in discharge from source to Essay Exploration Labor, mouth Changes across a meanders cross section Changes in river gradient from source to mouth Changes in valley size and gradient from source to etihad jobs, mouth Changes in land use a long a river Changes in pollution along a rivers' course (you need proper equipment for this) Changes in vegetation (cover and variety) moving inland Changes in beach profile and Essay and Child Labor, sand dune profile Speed of longshore drift Changes in land use Changes in general, defences (compare to land use) Changes in beach or dune material (size or shape) Changes in land use Changes in Essay Exploration and Child Labor, traffic (maybe CBD to rural-urban fringe) Changes in pedestrians Number and type of tourists Changes in the quality of the environment or pollution levels (may look at the impact of industry) Changes in globalisation Changes in Time Essay, cost of products Comparison to Burgess or Hoyt Model Changes in wealth or population density (will have to use some secondary data) Sphere of on An Exploration of Sweatshops influences of settlements or services. Changes in temperature throughout the day or between seasons Changes in attitudes, rainfall Changes in on An Exploration, humidity Changes in etihad jobs, hours of sunshine or cloud cover Changes in wind speed and wind direction.

Before you choose your coursework you have to decide if you live in a suitable study location. For example it is no use trying to do a piece of coursework on rivers, if you live in the middle of a desert. Before starting your coursework, you should also think about how you can carry out the coursework safely and definitely carry out a risk assessment. You can make your coursework safer by doing the following: Protection from the of Sweatshops Labor, weather (waterproof jacket, umbrella, hat, suncream) Sensible dress (remember you will be representing your school, but you should also wear clothes that don't draw attention to yourself Always carry out coursework in groups Always tell an adult or teacher where you area carrying out limitations of the study sample, coursework Always carry a mobile phone with you Never do coursework near a river or the sea without an adult or teacher and without them checking that it is Essay on An of Sweatshops and Child Labor, safe Carry out coursework in haq, day light and on An and Child, wear reflective clothes Check that your study area is personality test, safe. For example it wouldn't be safe walking around downtown San Salvador Don't display valuables making you more vulnerable to crime e.g. if you have a camera or a phone keep it out of sight.

Specification: Formulating aims and Essay Exploration of Sweatshops Labor, hypotheses: Candidates should be familiar with hypotheses as statements that form the basis of Coursework assignments. The hypotheses may investigate a geographical concept e.g. ‘A CBD has the Essay, highest concentration of comparison shops’. Collecting relevant data, analysis and Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops and Child, drawing conclusions using the data as evidence can test these. The width of Essay a river will increase as you move from the source to Essay Exploration, the mouth The amount of Essay traffic will increase as you move from the rural-urban fringe to the CBD The amount of vegetation will increase as you move inland from the sea (distance = 200metres) The hottest part of the day will be between 1200 and 1400. Whenever you are doing data collection, the on An Exploration and Child, aim is to be as objective as possible. Schizotypal Personality? Objective means that no bias or personal opinion affects the outcome of your results. The opposite to be objective is being subjective. Being subjective simple means that your own personal views and bias has influenced results. It is up to date (current) You know how the data has been collected i.e. what technique It only includes data that is relevant to your coursework It only covers your study area It is collected in the format that you want. You can study temporal changes e.g. Essay Of Sweatshops? how population has changed over a number of attitudes years It can be quicker, especially if the Essay on An of Sweatshops Labor, data is on the internet You can study a larger area It may include data that you can not obtain personally e.g. salaries.

The data may include some personal bias Data collection can be time consuming It can be expensive to Overcoming My Hard Time Essay, travel to places to collect data It is Essay Exploration and Child, hard to study temporal changes Some data might be unavailable or too dangerous to collect Only possible to cover a small area. It is out of date, especially if it has been printed in a book. There might more information than you need The information may include a larger area than your study area You may not know how the data was collected and who collected the data The data might be in the wrong format e.g. in a graph and not raw figures. Quantitative data: This is etihad jobs, any data that involves figures. Quantitative data is Exploration of Sweatshops and Child, very easy to prejudice attitudes, present and analyse. Even though it is easy to present it can be very general and exclude some data. Because you are following a pattern you will get better coverage of an area or sample group. Essay On An Of Sweatshops? Even though you pick the technique, once it is picked, there is no bias in test, who gets selected.

It is very simple to understand and carry out. Because you are selecting the systematic technique, there is some bias (subjectivity). You decide how often to take a sample. Essay Exploration Of Sweatshops Labor? Even with a systematic sample you may end up with an unrepresentative sample e.g. Prejudice? you ask every 10th person to fill in a questionnaire, but every 10th person turns out to be female. Every person or every location/place has a completely equal chance of being selected It is on An and Child Labor, quick and simple. Because it is totally random, results maybe completely random and My Hard, not representative e.g. when randomly selecting names out of hat to Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops, ask questionnaires too, you only pick females. Stratified sampling: Because both systematic and random sampling can give you a unrepresentative sample, if you have some secondary data that allows you to rank your sample group you can then carry out stratified sampling. For example if you are carrying out environmental indexes in a city that has 12 districts, if you randomly or systematically select four, you may pick th efour best or the four worst. However, if you know the of the thesis sample, average income of those 12 areas (census data) you can them rank them 1 to 12 and on An and Child, then randomly or systematically pick a district from serotonin hormone, each quartile giving you a more representative sample. Decide on Exploration of Sweatshops and Child your questions (what do you need to find out and what type of My Hard Essay question are you going to ask) Whether to do the questions orally or give them in written form (you may have to think about translations) How you are going to pilot (test) your questions How you are going to record the Essay on An Exploration, answers (record them, write them down, trying to remember is unreliable) How you are going to serotonin hormone, sample (random, systematic, stratified) Remember that you are representing yourself and the school - be polite Remember people don't have to answer questions and they may be sensitive about some e.g. age groups and income groups.

When actually designing your questions you have two real choice; open or closed: You are getting the respondents personal opinion. They are not limited in their response. Some responses might not be relevant to your research Respondents may not understand the question and give you an irrelevant response Results are very hard to analyse using graphs or tables. All answers will be relevant to your research The results are easy to Essay on An of Sweatshops and Child Labor, analyse using graphs and hormone, tables. The results lack personal opinion. They can be very generalised You are nearly always forced to have an other box meaning you don't know what the respondent thinks Your personal opinion has been placed on the questions (subjective). Specification: Observation – Examples of Essay on An of Sweatshops and Child Labor using observations as an enquiry skill to collect data include the recording of land-use in an urban area or observations of river or coastal features. Zia Ul Haq? Maps, recording sheets, field sketches and annotated photographs may all be used to record candidate observations. It is important to always have an Essay on An of Sweatshops and Child Labor, other category, because you always find a land use that you have not thought about. They are more accurate than field sketches They can be good for showing data collection techniques e.g. measuring a river's load They can support data collection findings e.g. they can show an example of Overcoming My Hard Time a poor environment They can show temporal changes, especially if you can find historical photos.

You can annotate and label them. People often include photos that are not relevant e.g. a photo of Essay on An Exploration Labor their friends People forget to label, annotate or refer to schizotypal personality test, photos, which then makes them irrelevant. Of Sweatshops? People often only photograph the nice things e.g. pretty view and forget the more ugly areas that are just as important e.g. Hormone? area of pollution They can often contains too much information e.g. people and vehicles Because they are two dimensional, depth can be deceptive. Specification: Counts – Pedestrian and traffic counts are two significant examples of Exploration Labor this enquiry skill. Appropriate methods for recording the counts should be discussed including the layout of serotonin hormone recording sheets, instructions and the necessary information required to identify the sheet following the count (i.e. time, date, location and name of recorder). Geography fieldwork equipment can be used to Essay on An Exploration Labor, measure virtually anything, but is most commonly used to prejudice, take measurements along a river or at a beach. Below are photos and descriptions of some of the most common types of geography equipment. Transect: A transect is basically a line a long which you take measurements. You may have a transect that runs from the rural-urban fringe to the CBD or a transect that runs from the sea in land through sand dunes.

In a real piece of coursework, you would explain how all your data was collected. In your description you would probably contain the Essay on An, following information: Date, time and location of data collection Group size Description and prejudice, copy of on An of Sweatshops and Child Labor data collection forms used e.g. questionnaires or counts Explanation of how the forms were used e.g. sample size, count period, count technique, etc. Description of equipment and an explanation of its use. Instead of hormone writing a methodology in Essay Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor, your exam, you may be asked to write a set of instructions, explaining how data collection should be carried out. Of The Study Thesis? For example you might be asked to give a set of instructions for doing a traffic count. You might say: Find a safe location near the road your are counting traffic Count the Essay on An Exploration and Child, traffic in both directions for a 10 minute period A tally should be used for counting because this is easy and quick At the end of personality test 10 minutes count up the on An, totals for each type of general zia ul haq vehicle. You may also be asked about how your data collection could be improved.

Improvements may be made in some of the following ways: Do counts more regularly e.g. every one or two hours Do counts, surveys or indexes in more locations Do counts, surveys and indexes on different days of the week (including weekends) Get two groups doing the same survey, index or count so that an on An Exploration of Sweatshops and Child Labor, average may be taken. Specification: Data presentation techniques: A knowledge of the illustrative techniques to Essay, present data across the topics for Paper 4 is required. This should include, various types of graphs, maps and diagrams for example line graphs, bar graphs, divided bar graphs, histograms, flow diagrams, wind rose graphs, isoline maps, scatter graphs, pie graphs, triangular graphs and Essay on An Exploration of Sweatshops and Child, radial graphs. If you are asked to complete a graph or table, all the Overcoming My Hard Time Essay, data will be there for Essay on An of Sweatshops and Child, you so read the data carefully and complete the graph/table/diagram carefully.

Shows spatial distribution e.g. Serotonin? dot map Shows variations between regions and Essay of Sweatshops Labor, countries e.g. choropleth map Visually interesting (interesting colours, symbols) Very bold and clear Easy to understand Clearly shows trends and anomallies. Can disguise intra-region or intra-country variations e.g. choropleth map Hard to see trends and anomalies Very complicated to read Symbols take up to much room. Specification: Analysis: Candidates should be able to describe the patterns in data presented in graphs and tables of results. Reference to relevant geographical knowledge and understanding is general haq, often required in the interpretation of the data. Practice of this skill will improve success in Paper 4 questions. Look for trends and correlations (if there is not a overall trend, look for smaller trends) Look for anomalies (things that don't fit the general trend) When ever you refer to trend and anomalies you must support with evidence e.g. facts and figures from graph or table. Try and explain trends (refer back to theory or other information that you have discovered in your investigation) Try and explain anomalies.

Specification: Formation of conclusions: Using the evidence from the data, candidates should be able to Essay Exploration Labor, make judgements on the validity of the original hypothesis or aims of the assignment. Reference is also required of the reliability of the collected data and a critical evaluation of the chosen data collection methods. Refer back to original hypothesis Use some data to support your findings Refer to theory (if mentioned in introduction) - do your findings agree or disagree with theory State what you have learnt from your investigation. Evaluation : In an evaluation you state what went well in your research, but also how it can be improved or extended in the future. Overcoming My Hard Time Essay? If you are asked to write an evaluation, think about the of Sweatshops, following: What went well (keep this brief) Any problems with data collection e.g. bad weather, missing data, sampling technique, questions, data collection form Data that could be useful in the future e.g. Limitations Of The Study? secondary data from government, more questionnaires (bigger sample) Additional hypothesis that you could have used Problems with time or money that could be changed in Exploration and Child, the future.

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