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Arsenal take their chants to literary approaches, down loud Leeds. Dream Theories! AS THIS pulsating FA Cup tie drew to a close, as Arsenal finally overcame the magnificent resistance of literary approaches Simon Grayson's men, Elland Road reverberated to a chorus of ''we're Leeds and we're proud of it''. Define Polities! Whatever the disappointment of approaches bowing out believe that is, of the Cup, particularly after Bradley Johnson's stunning strike had made it 2-1, a performance full of belief should give Leeds hope for literary approaches the future. They had refused to surrender when Samir Nasri and Bacary Sagna guided Arsenal into a seemingly untouchable lead. They had revelled in the goal from Johnson shortly before half-time, a sweet moment for punca gejala sosial kalangan remaja the midfielder having been released by approaches, Arsenal as a teenager. But then came Robin van Persie, heading in Nicklas Bendtner's excellent cross. Yet Leeds still refused to go quietly. Arsenal now play Huddersfield Town at the Emirates while Leeds resume their promotion campaign, trying to professional relationship, ensure they face Nasri and his gilded ilk on a regular basis. Literary Approaches! Storms forecast in Madrid with Mourinho angry again. Leeds' game plan had been to press but Arsenal simply played around them, gliding into the lead within six minutes. Define Polities! Until Johnson's sensational response, Nasri ran the approaches first half, immediately showing his class when running through on goal.

Nasri captained the visiting side, acquiring the armband with Cesc Fabregas rested on the bench, and the Frenchman led by example. Of Database! The build-up to Nasri's 14th goal of the season was typically Arsenal, the ball swept to receptive feet, starting with Kieran Gibbs, then Andrei Arshavin and Marouane Chamakh, who worked the ball to Nasri. He floated through, waiting for approaches Kasper Schmeichel to commit himself before rolling it past the keeper. As Arsenal celebrated, Leeds fans responded by goading the away contingent. ''You couldn't sell all your tickets'', they chanted, an allegation Arsenal rejected, pointing out define polities, they accounted for all their 3000 allocation. Any gaps at Elland Road were in Leeds' defence.

After Sagna was tugged back, Nasri whipped over a free kick that Chamakh met with a strong, downward header, drawing a magnificent right-handed save from the Leeds keeper. You will now receive updates from Sport Newsletter. Get the approaches latest news and updates emailed straight to your inbox. By submitting your email you are agreeing to melting point aspirin, Fairfax Media's terms and conditions and literary approaches privacy policy . Professional! The atmosphere was electric. Leeds fans became particularly enervated when Arshavin went to ground too easily, prompting chants of ''are you [Theo] Walcott in approaches, disguise?''. Then they began twirling white scarves above their heads, generating a marvellous sight to accompany the unending noise. Back came Arsenal, Arshavin twice going close.

Then Sagna crossed low and hard towards the stretching Bendtner, who failed to turn the ball in. ''That's why you're [number] 52,'' chorused the Leeds supporters. Arsenal's fans responded, taunting with chants of ''You're not famous any more''. Leeds fans sang of better days, of Dominic Matteo scoring in the San Siro. Behaviorists That! Arsenal's control was soon confirmed with a second goal. Sagna began and finished the literary approaches move, wining the ball in midfield and inviting Bendtner, Arsenal's No.52, to charge through the punca gejala remaja middle. Chamakh took over as Bendtner continued his run. Having received the ball back, Bendtner overran it, giving Andy O'Brien a chance to clear. Unfortunately for Leeds, the ball flew to Sagna. Steaming in at approaches, pace, Sagna belted the ball past Schmeichel: 0-2. It seemed all over. Gejala! The presses prepared to literary approaches, roll on the obituaries of Leeds' Cup fortunes for another year.

Arsenal looked so in control. The ball seemed to belong to Nasri. But Grayson's side, marvellously, had other ideas. Willed on history of database system, by their fans, who certainly never accepted Arsenal's superiority, Leeds embarked on mission impossible. They had to make acquaintance of the ball first. Jonny Howson, a local lad responding to the adrenalin shots from the terraces, never stopped believing. The Leeds captain found possession and drove through midfield, narrowly avoiding a high-speed lunge from Denilson.

Then Howson laid the ball off to his accomplice in central midfield, Johnson, whose response was majestic, drilling it past startled goalkeeper Wojciech Szczesny from 30 yards. Game on? Elland Road believed so. Even when Arsenal began pouring forward again after the literary break, when Schmeichel saved from Alex Song, Leeds fans still believed. Even when Robert Snodgrass somehow got back to nick the ball away from the threatening Arshavin, Leeds fans still believed.

Max Gradel and Snodgrass began making good ground down the flanks. Sanchez Watt was more of a menace in the hole behind Billy Paynter. But how they missed Luciano Becchio, who failed a fitness test on his back before kick-off. Midway through the second half, Grayson shook up his attack, withdrawing Paynter and sending on dream theories, Davide Somma, used too sparingly by the manager for some supporters' tastes. Sensing the growing threat in white shirts, Wenger turned to Fabregas and literary van Persie. ''Who needs Cesc Fabregas? We've got Rob Snodgrass'' came the response from relationship, Leeds fans. Even with Fabregas involved and Nasri still influential, Arsenal could never relax.

Not with Howson in literary approaches, midfield. Not with Snodgrass looking to make bustling little breaks. But then Fabregas got the ball, sending Bendtner down the right and the Dane really delivered, hoisting a superb cross to the far post. There was van Persie, rising high, meeting the ball perfectly to send it back past Schmeichel and in. It was the type of headed finish that Arsenal legends Frank Stapleton or Alan Smith would have been proud of. With seven minutes remaining, Nasri was taken off, departing to sporting applause from more than a few Leeds fans.

Still, their team never gave up. Echoing his father, Schmeichel went up for a late corner, although failed to repeat his dad's feat and score. It was soon all over bar the chanting. Bellamy: Munster dropped the trophy. Melting Aspirin! Heroes welcome for Melbourne Storm. Latest from the Sports Desk of The Sydney Morning Herald. Get notified when the literary approaches big things happen. History Of Database! Australia to feel selection heat: Smith. Approaches! Offer too good to refuse: Popovic explains shock Wanderers exit.

How India protagonist Kohli is punca gejala sosial remaja, inspiring an Aussie comeback. Vettel at risk of a grid penalty after bizarre post-race crash. Wanderers' core identity is following Popovic out the door. Worm-infested steak served at North Ryde restaurant. More than 50 dead, 400-plus injured after mass shooting in Las Vegas. Threat of summer boycott on Paddle Pop, Golden Gaytime and Magnum. The performance that will save lives. NRL grand final: Storm confirm themselves as the literary greatest side of the modern era. Copyright 2017 Fairfax Media. Save articles for later. Subscribe for unlimited access to news.

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Quaid E Azam- an Architect of Pakistan. Submitted to: Sir Superman Submitted by: James Bond Degree 34 Syndicate CIA Date: 21-03-2013 CONTENTS Chapter 1 * Background * Quaids early life * Education Chapter 2 * Politics * Membership of Congress * Hindu-Muslim Unity * Devotion to Muslim League * Leadership of approaches Muslims Chapter 3 * Thought of Separate Homeland * Pakistan Resolution * Gandhi-Quaid meetings * Views about Quaid Chapter 4 * Defending Policy of Quaid Chapter 5 * Formation of professional Federal Cabinet * Constitutional Problems * Establishment of Capital * Provincial Government Establishment of Administrative Headquarters * Foreign Affairs * Education Policy CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY REFERENCES 1) Syed Shamsul Hassan ed. , Correspondence of Quaid-i-Azam M. A. Approaches? Jinnahand other papers, Shamsul Hassan collection, Organizational Matters, Vol. I (1936-1947) 2) Akbar S. Ahmed, Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity, (Karachi: Oxford University press, 1997) 3) Prof. Khurshid Ahmed, Islamic Ideology (Karachi: Karachi university,2002). 4) Quaids speech at define polities, university stadium Lahore, 30 october 1947 5) Syed Hussain Imam Sterling qualities of Quaid. Literary? ) Ahmad Khan Yusufi, Speeches, statements and messages of Quaid-e-Azam. Melting Point Aspirin? 7) Rajmohan Gandhi, Eight Lives: A Study of the Hindu-Muslim Encounter (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1986) 8) Wikipedia the free Encyclopedia. 9) www. national heritage . government. pk 10) Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Government of Pakistan Website. 11) Quaid-e-As is Mohammad Ali Jinnah.

The Jinnah Society. 12) Jinnah: South Asias greatest ever leader. 13) BBCs Poll for South Asias greatest ever leader. 14) The Father of Pakistan. The Most Influential Asians of the literary approaches Century by TIME. 15) Muhammad Ali Jinnah (18761948). Story of define polities Pakistan. Approaches? 16) Jinnahs speech to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan. 11 August 1947. 17) Jinnahs Thought at a Glance. Dream Theories? Yes Pakistan. com.

18) Mohammed Ali Jinnah (18761948). Harappa. com. 19) Pictures of Quaid (Album). Urdu Point. 20) South Asias Clarence Darrow. Chow. 21) I Remember Jinnah. Literary Approaches? Daily Dawn (newspaper). 22) 1947 August. History? Chronicles Of Pakistan ACKNOWLEDGE This research paper is dedicated to all those martyres who worked the reation of a separate home land for Muslims.

They helped Quaid-e-As am in this great mission and approaches gave sacrifices for our independence . Relationship? They face many problems and hardships for the independence of Muslims in the subcontinent. I would like to thank James Bond for assigning this topic to me. It was truly an enlightening experience for me to do research on this topic. I would also like to thank my respected teacher Iron Man for guiding me and providing me with more than enough knowledge on literary this topic. The research was mainly done using the help of computers and internet therefore the bibliography section may look a little empty at dalam kalangan remaja, first. But once one gets to visit these internet sites he is marveled by the amount of literary approaches data provided on the respective topic. So hats off to all those people who are spending their precious time to run these enlightening websites. Without these the worth of internet would be much less in the context of knowledge. The main objective of this research paper is to highlights the efforts of the Quaid-e-As am Muhammad Ali Jinnah in professional, the creation of Pakistan.

This modern disease has even spread to those who live in the West but have Pakistani roots. It is however interesting that all these critical people studied in literary approaches, Pakistani schools, travelled on Pakistani passports and have families in that country. Painting a realistic image of Pakistan in our young peoples minds is the dream theories only way they can hope to have a sense of belonging to the country and literary the elderly generation has a duty to provide a great deal in helping such parents and families living abroad whose roots are still fastened firmly with this land. Coming back to he topic, it is melting, very difficult to add something new or something that is not known about literary approaches him. Yet the paradox is that the younger generation has to be reminded of his contribution to the history of Muslims of the Subcontinent What I want to share with you about Quaid, is behaviorists language is, not only the approaches information from history books, magazines and professional films, but also what was told to me by my father and those who saw the literary approaches Quaid, worked for the cause of Pakistan and saw the creation of Pakistan. Define Polities? Pakistans story is so much linked with the life of the Quaid e-As am that one cannot be told without the other.

So who was this great man, who with the help of his type writer and an adoring sister created the literary approaches largest country for Muslims in the world in a span of few years. In his biography of titled Jinnah of Pakistan, the American historian, Stanley Wilbert, makes the following observation that so accurately describes the legacy of Quaid and his footprint on history: Few individuals significantly alter the course of history. Fewer still modify the map of the define polities world. Hardly anyone can be credited with creating a nation-state. Muhammad Ali Jinnah did all three. During his lifetime, he brought the wisdom to walk in the path of literary approaches honor, the point aspirin courage to follow his convictions, and literary approaches an abiding compassion for others. He enriched us all by the nobility of his spirit. - - CHAP # 1 Quaids Early life Background According to dream theories Sarojini Naidu, a famous Congress politician, close friend and follower of Gandhi but also author of literary Quaids first biography, Quaids ancestors were Hindu Rajput who converted to of database management Islam. Jinnahs family belonged to the Ismailia Kahoka branch of Shia Islam.

Early Education He studied at approaches, several schools at the Sind Madras a-tool-Islam in Karachi; briefly at the Goal Das Ten Primary School in Bombay; and punca remaja finally at the Christian Missionary Society High School in Karachi, where, at age sixteen, he passed the matriculation examination other University of Bombay. Higher Education in England In 1892, at the age of only 16, he sailed to England to approaches study and in dream theories, 3 years, at age 19, he became the youngest Indian to be called to the bar in England. During his student years in England, Jinnah came under the influence of 19th-century British liberalism, and his education included exposure to the idea of the democratic nation and progressive politics. But later as an Indian intellectual and political authority, Jinnah would find his commitment to the Western ideal of the nation-state and the reality of Indian society of many religions, cultures and ethnic groups difficult to reconcile during his later political career. In 1896 he returned to India and settled in Bombay. He built a House in Malabar Hill, later known as Jinnah House. He. Like most of the Congress at the time, Jinnah did not favor outright independence, considering British influences on education, law, culture and industry as beneficial to India. Quaid had initially avoided joining the All India Muslim League, founded in 1906 because he regarded it as too religiously oriented. However he decided to provide leadership to the Muslim minority. Hindu-Muslim Unity ; Joining Muslim League His efforts to literary work for all Indians was so much respected that he was called; Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity.

Eventually, he joined the Muslim League in 1913 and became the President at that is, the 1916 session in Luck now. Jinnah was the architect of the 1916 Luck now Pact between the literary approaches Congress and the League, bringing them together on most issues regarding self-government and believe that presenting a united front to the British. Jinnah broke with the Congress in 1920 when the Congress leader, Mohandas Gandhi, launched a law violating Non-Cooperation Movement against the British, which a temperamentally law abiding barrister Jinnah disapproved of. Literary Approaches? One Western journalist asked Quaid, why he never went to jail while all Congress leaders like Gandhi, Nehru, Patel and Baldev Singh have been in many times in prison. Quaid replies: I am a parliamentarian. Prison is for criminals. In 1924 Quaid, officially reorganized the Muslim League and of database Devoted the next seven years attempting to bring about Unity among various ranks of literary approaches Muslims and to develop Rational formula to effect a Hindu Muslim settlement, Which he considered the pre-condition for define polities Indian freedom.

This task was very difficult and was frustrated in the start. Balder Singh He once remarked that every time, I put my hand in the pocket, I find forged coins, refereeing to disunity and internal fight among Muslim leaders. Even if he was working tirelessly to literary approaches unite Muslims in Hindustan, he attended several unity conferences between Congress and Muslim league. He wrote the Delhi Muslim Proposals in 1927, pleaded for the incorporation of the basic Muslim demands in behaviorists believe language, the Nehru report, and formulated the Fourteen Points Furthermore, in 1927, Quaid entered negotiations with Muslim and Hindu leaders on the issue of a future constitution, during the struggle against the all-British Simon Commission. The Muslim League wanted separate electorates while the Nehru Report favored joint electorates. Quaid personally opposed separate electorates, but accepted the decision of his party. He then drafted compromises and put forth demands that he thought would satisfy both. These became known as the 14 points of literary approaches Mr. Jinnah. However, they were rejected by the Congress and other political parties. The British government called 2 Round Table Conferences in London to let Hindustani leaders to define polities work out their differences, but talks failed.

Quaid was so disillusioned by the breakdown of talks, that in 1931 he relocated to London in order to approaches practice in relationship, the Privy Council Bar. Approaches? Devotion to Muslim League. That was a dark time for Muslims in define polities, India. But luckily, prominent Muslim leaders like Allama Iqbal, the Aga Khan and Chaudhary Rah mat Ali made efforts to convince Quaid to return from London to India and take charge of a now-reunited Muslim League. Approaches? In 1934 Quaid returned and began to re-organize the party, being closely assisted by Liquate Ali Khan, who would act as his right-hand man.

In the behaviorists believe that 1937 elections to the Central Legislative Assembly, the League emerged as a competent party, capturing a significant number of seats under the Muslim electorate, but lost in literary approaches, the Muslim-majority Punjab, Sind and the North-West Frontier Province. After the election success, Quaid offered an alliance with the Congress both bodies would face the define polities British together, but the Congress had to share power, accept separate electorates and the League as the representative of Indias Muslims. That was a proof of Quaid was willing to go a long way to have an independent united Hindustan where Hindus and Muslims would be equal partners. The latter two terms were unacceptable to the Congress, which had its own national Muslim leaders and membership and adhered to One India. Even as Quaid held talks with Congress president Rajendra Prasad, Congress leaders suspected that Quaid would use his position as a lever for exaggerated demands and obstruct government, and literary approaches demanded that the League merge with the Congress.

The talks failed, and while Quaid declared the resignation of all legislators from provincial and central offices in 1938 as a Day of Deliverance from Hindu domination, some historians assert that he remained hopeful for an agreement. But it was becoming clearer to Quaid and aspirin his associates that may be Congress was interested in such solution. Gandhi often said to Quaid; Let the British leave. Approaches? Afterward, we can figure out a solution. In one of his famous letters, Quaid asked Gandhi to be more precise as to how the power would be distributed. Behaviorists Believe? Gandhi replied; My dear Jinnah, I cannot answer your questions because my inner light is literary approaches, not working. Quaid wrote back; To hell with your inner light. Why do not you admit that you have no answer to what I am asking? - CHAP # 3 The Idea of Pakistan By the management system way, a wish for a separate homeland for Muslims of Hindustan was in the air for literary approaches some time. In a speech to the Muslim League in 1930, Llama Irbil raised the idea of an independent state for Muslims in Northwest India.

Chaudhary Rah mat Ali published a pamphlet in professional relationship, 1933 advocating a state called Pakistan. Thought of Separate Homeland Following the failure to work with the literary approaches Congress, Quaid, who had embraced separate electorates and the exclusive right of the Muslim League to represent Muslims, was converted to of database system the idea that Muslims needed a separate state to protect their rights. Literary? He came to believe that Muslims and Hindus were distinct nations, with unbridgeable differencesa view later known as the Two Nation Theory. Quaid declared that a united India would lead to the marginalization of Muslims, and eventually civil war between Hindus and Muslims. This change of view may have occurred through his correspondence with Allama Iqbal, who was close to professional relationship him. Pakistan resolution In the session in Lahore in 1940, the Pakistan resolution was adopted as the main goal of the Muslim League. The resolution was rejected outright by the Congress, and criticized by many Muslim leaders like Maulana Abu Kalama Azad, Khan Abdul Gaffer Khan, Side Abdul Al Muddy and the Jamaal-e-Islamic.

On 26 July 1943, Quaid was stabbed and wounded by a member of the extremist Chasers in an attempted assassination. During the mission of British minister Stafford Cripps, Jinnah demanded parity between the number of Congress and League ministers, the Leagues exclusive right to appoint Muslims and a right for Muslim-majority provinces to literary secede, leading to the breakdown of professional talks. When it became clear to both British and Congress party that Quaid and Muslim League would not budge from its demand, they made a common front against literary him. Gandhi-Quaid meetings. In 1944 Gandhi held talks fourteen times with Quaid in Bombay, about a united front while talks failed, Gandhis overtures to dream theories Jinnah increased as a last ditch effort to avoid the literary partition of Hindustan. But League was becoming very representative of all Muslims. The Leagues influence increased in the Punjab after the death of Unionist leader Sikandar Hayat Khan in 1942.

In the 1946 elections for the Constituent Assembly of India, the Congress won most of the elected seats, while the League won a large majority of Muslim electorate seats. Interim Government portfolios were announced on 25 October 1946. Muslim Leaguers were sworn in on history management system 26 October 1946. The League entered the literary approaches interim government, but Quaid refrained from professional accepting office for himself. This was credited as a major victory for literary Quaid, as the League entered government having rejected both plans, and was allowed to appoint an equal number of believe that language is ministers despite being the minority party. The coalition was unable to work, resulting in a rising feeling within the literary Congress that independence of Pakistan was the only way of behaviorists language avoiding political chaos and possible civil war. Literary Approaches? Different views about Quaid. Some revisionist historians like H M Serve and define polities Ayesha Jalap assert that Quaid never wanted partition of India.

It was actually the outcome of the Congress leaders being unwilling to approaches share power with the Muslim League. It is asserted that Quaid only behaviorists is, used the Pakistan demand as a method to mobilize support to literary obtain significant political rights for Muslims. Whatever the case may be, looking at the poor situation of dream theories Indian Muslims today and their second class status, Pakistanis should be grateful that Quaid gave up the idea of approaches a united India after the British departure and insisted that Muslims in Hindustan should have their own homeland. Quaid has gained the gejala admiration of major Indian nationalist politicians like Leal Krishna Advani whose comments praising Jinnah caused uproar in his own Bharatiya Janta Party Jessant Singh likewise praised Jinnah for literary standing up to the Indian National Congress and the British. Everyone from dream theories Mount baton, Gandhi, and literary Nehru down to ordinary persons, friend and foe all agreed that during his lifetime, he brought the dream theories wisdom to walk in the path of honor, the courage to approaches follow his convictions, and an abiding compassion for others.

He enriched us all by the nobility of his spirit. In his book Verdict on India (1944), Beverley Nichols, the British author and journalist has a chapter; Dialogue with a Giant. Dream Theories? This is literary approaches, about his meeting with Quaid. Gejala Dalam Kalangan Remaja? He wrote; Mr. Jinnah is in approaches, a position of unique strategic importance. He can sway the battle this way or that as he chooses. His 100 million Muslims will march to the left, to the right, to the front, to the rear at his bidding and at aspirin, nobody elses. If Gandhi goes, there is Nehru or Raj opal or Paten or a dozen others.

But if Jinnah goes, who is there? CHAP # 4 Jinnahs Vision for Pakistan Defending Policy of Quaid. In 1937, Quaid defended his ideology of equality in his speech to the All-India Muslim League in Luck now where he stated, Settlement can only literary approaches, be achieved between equals. He also had a rebuttal to Nehrus statement which argued that the only two parties that mattered in India were the British Raj and INC. Jinnah stated that the define polities Muslim League was the third and equal partner within Indian politics. Literary? Quaid gave a precise definition of the of database management system term Pakistan in 1941 at Lahore in which he stated: Some confusion prevails in literary approaches, the minds of some individuals in regard to dream theories the use of the word Pakistan. This word has become synonymous with the Lahore resolution owing to the fact that it is literary approaches, a convenient and compendious method of describing it. Punca Gejala Sosial Dalam Kalangan? Whilst giving an interview to American press representatives in July 1942, when asked by one of the journalists whether the Muslims were a nation or not, Quaid replied: We are a nation with our own distinctive culture and literary civilization, language and literature, art and architecture, names and nomenclature, sense of values and proportion, legal laws and moral codes, customs and calendar, history and traditions, aptitudes and point aspirin ambitions, in short, we have our own distinctive outlook on life and of life. By all cannons of international law we are a nation. A controversy has raged in Pakistan about whether Jinnah wanted Pakistan to be a secular state or an approaches, Islamic state. His views as expressed in his policy speech on 11 August 1947 said: I think we should keep that in front of us as our ideal and you will find that in course of time Hindus would cease to be Hindus and Muslims would cease to be Muslims, not in the religious sense, because that is the personal faith of each individual, but in the political sense as citizens of the State. Jinnah, 11August 1947 presiding over the constituent assembly. Quaid wanted a secular state, but with Islamic principles. The reason is that a true Islamic state is not a theocratic state Pakistan is not going to be a theocratic State to be ruled by priests with a divine mission.

We have many non-Muslims Hindus, Christians, and Parses but they are all Pakistanis. Dream Theories? They will enjoy the same rights and privileges as any other citizens and will play their rightful part in literary, the affairs of relationship Pakistan. Broadcast talk to the people of the United States of America on Pakistan recorded February 1948 Inaugurating the assembly on 11 August 1947, Quaid spoke of an literary approaches, inclusive and pluralist democracy promising equal rights for all citizens regardless of religion, caste or creed. This address is a cause of much debate in Pakistan as, on its basis, many claim that Jinnah wanted a secular state while supporters of Islamic Pakistan assert that this speech is being taken out of context when compared to other speeches by him. On 11 October 1947, in an address to professional Civil, Naval, Military and Air Force Officers of Pakistan Government, Karachi, he said: We should have a State in which we could live and breathe as free men and which we could develop according to our own lights and culture and where principles of Islamic social justice could find free play. On 21 February 1948, in literary approaches, an address to the officers and men of the 5th Heavy and 6thLight Regiments in Mali, Karachi, he said: You have to stand guard over the development and maintenance of dream theories Islamic democracy, Islamic social justice and literary approaches the equality of manhood in your own native soil. With faith, discipline and selfless devotion to duty, there is nothing worthwhile that you cannot achieve.

CHAP # 5 Quaid-e-As am as a Governor General On 14th August 1947, Quaid-e-As am Mohammad Ali Jinnah became the 1st Governor General. Define Polities? He remained Governor General for thirteen months. Literary Approaches? During this period, he solved many important national issues. Some of them are mentioned as under: Formation of Federal Cabinet As soon as the Quaid-e-As am took an immediate action and nominated members of the Federal Cabinet to run the Government affairs smoothly. Liquate Ali Khan was elected as the Prime Minister. Other members of the cabinet were also nominated. Punca Gejala Kalangan Remaja? This first cabinet of Pakistan took oath on 15th August 1947. Members of the literary Cabinet 1. Melting? Vardar Abdul Rib Nester (Transports) 2. Raja Ghazanfer Ali Khan (Agriculture) 3. Fazal-ur-Rehman (Education) 4. I. I Chundrigar (Industry) 5. Glulam Mohammad (Finance) 6. Jogander Nath Mandala (Law) 7. Sir Afar Ulla Khan Adjani (Affair) Constitutional Problems The Act of 1935 was amended and enforced in the country as there was no constitution available of the newly born state. Thus this great achievement was done under the administrative leadership of the literary Quaid-e-As am. Establishment of Capital Karachi was made Capital of Pakistan.

Provincial Government Quaid-e-As an elected Chief Minister and Governor. Here are chief ministers of provinces: Khan Iftikhar Husain Midmost Punjab Khuwaja Nazam-ud-Dn East Bengal Khan Abdul Qayyum N. W. F. P Mohammad AyeChurro Sind Chief Commissioner (British) Baluchistan Administrative Head Quarters For the administrative reformation, a committee was set up and Chaudhary Mohammad Aye was made the Secretary General. Civil Services were re-organized and Civil Services Academy was constituted. The Secretariat was established. Moreover, Head-quarters for Army, Navy and Air Force were set up.

An ammunition factory was also set up. Attention to Foreign Affairs Realizing the sensitivity of foreign affairs, Quaid-e-As am paid his utmost attention to the Foreign Policy. He developed healthy relations with the neighboring and developed countries that were the main objective of the Foreign Policy. Membership of professional relationship UNO After independence, Quaid-e-As am paid immediate attention for acquiring membership of the United Nations Organization (UNO). On 30th September 1947, Pakistan became the member of the UNO. This all, was done under the dynamic leadership of Quaid-e-As am. Implementation of Education Policy Education plays an important role in the development of a country. It improves living standard of a nation and development. Education sector also needed attention at the time of independence. For this purpose, he held the first Educational Conference in 1947. He wished that every citizen of Pakistan should serve his nation with honesty and approaches national spirit.

He made nation with honesty and national spirit. He made acquisition of dream theories scientific and technological education compulsory for the students. Quaid-e-As am did a lot to improve education policy of the literary country. In the Service of Pakistan. Quaid-e-As am served his country till his death. Despite his bad health, he kept on going through the important files. He succumbed to deadly disease of consumption. First Cabinet of professional Pakistan First cabinet of Pakistan was also elected by Quaid-e-As am. He took of literary approaches it.

Liquate Ali Khan was first Prime Minister of behaviorists Pakistan. CONCLUSION In the conclusion I would like to say that Quaid was great leader and a true Muslim and he was a real architect of Pakistan. Approaches? He was great leader and define polities he proved it by the creation of approaches Pakistan and he is guiding star for the generation to come and he is professional relationship, role model for generation to come. Limitations First of all I am thankful to literary approaches Allah Almighty who enabled me to make this assignment. It is professional, wisely said that one feels no pains after he has been successful in doing a work. Approaches? But I would like to mention some as they are asked. I live in hired hostel where internet is not available. Therefore, I faced many difficulties in gathering data. Moreover, I do not have my own computer so I had to point work on approaches my roommates computer or on the lab computer.

I had much burden of studies of other subjects. Professional? So, I could not give as much concentration to this assignment. I am very firstly living in literary approaches, hostel therefore I have time management problems. I also do not possess very vast general knowledge. Bibliography * Syed Shamsul Hassan ed. , Correspondence of Quaid-i-Azam M. A. Jinnahand other papers, Shamsul Hassan collection, Organizational Matters, Vol. I (1936-1947) * Akbar S. Ahmed, Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity, (Karachi: Oxford University press, 1997) * Ahmad Khan Yusufi, Speeches, statements and messages of Quaid-e-Azam. * BBCs Poll for South Asias greatest ever leader. * 1947 August. Chronicles Of Pakistan. * I Remember Jinnah. Daily Dawn (newspaper). Jinnahs speech to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan. 11 August 1947. * Jinnahs Thought at a Glance.

Yes Pakistan. com. * Jinnah: South Asias greatest ever leader. * Muhammad Ali Jinnah (18761948). Story of point aspirin Pakistan. * Mohammed Ali Jinnah (18761948). Harappa. com. * Prof. Khurshid Ahmed, Islamic Ideology (Karachi: Karachi university,2002). * Pictures of Quaid (Album). Urdu Point. * Quaids speech at university stadium Lahore, 30 october 1947. * Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Government of Pakistan Website. Literary? * Quaid-e-As is Mohammad Ali Jinnah. The Jinnah Society. Rajmohan Gandhi, Eight Lives: A Study of the Hindu-Muslim Encounter (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1986). * Syed Hussain Imam Sterling qualities of Quaid. Define Polities? * South Asias Clarence Darrow. Literary? Chow. * The Father of Pakistan. Professional? The Most Influential Asians of the Century by TIME. Literary Approaches? * Wikipedia the free Encyclopedia. * www. national heritage . government. pk - - THE END - - - Havent found what you want?

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Need someone for company law assignment essay help? Guaranteed Higher Grade Or Get Your Money Back! Corporate law is the legal study of formation and literary operations of corporations and their continuing regulation during the procedures for dealing with their assets when they are terminated in professional relationship liquidation. Literary? This discipline is history of database management system, closely related to commercial and contract law. If you decide to approaches compose a company law essay assignment, you certainly have an idea that the history of database management laws vary from literary state to state. It becomes very difficult to come up with a well-researched company law essay assignment unless you have law experts to give you best possible company law essay assignment help . Divisions of company law for company law essay assignment help. When you are writing a company law essay assignment , you must know that company law is categorized into two segments: Our company law essay assignment experts define corporate governance as the study of the power relations among a corporation’s senior executives (its board of directors and those who elect them). Our company law essay assignment writers explain that corporate finance deals with the area of finance related to sources of dream theories, funding and capital structure of corporations. It also handles the actions that managers implement in order to approaches enhance the value of the firm in front of the shareholders.

Company law essay assignment help for various forms of business organization. The simplest legal form of business. No legal filling requirements of fees and no professional advice is need to set it up. It is controlled by a one person, does not need a complex organizational structure. Not a particular useful business form for raising capital. The profit of the business belongs to the sole trader but so do the losses. Trade Descriptions Act 1972: deal with criminal offence knowingly making false or misleading claims. A very flexible legal business form. No legal filing is dream theories, involved in becoming a partnership. Just two members and the partnership will be deemed a as legal partnership. A partnership will end on literary approaches the death of a partner.

The partners are jointly and severely liable for the debts of the partnership. Partnership Act 1890: the oldest and most basic model. Limited Partnerships Act 1907: Section 4(2), Section 6(1), Section 5 are involved under this act. Limited Liability Partnerships Act 2000. The company is formed by applying to the registrar of companies, providing a constitution, the names of the first directors and members and plus a small fee. Have the ability to subdivide their capital into small amounts. Limited liability also minimizes the risk for investors, and is said to encourage investment.

Forming a company and complying with company law is expensive and time consuming. It also appears to be an inappropriately complex organizational form for small business. The Companies Act 1956. The Companies Amendment Bill 2006. Pre-2006 Act system Registering a Company. Post 2006 Act System for Registering a Company. Company law essay assignment help on characteristics of a company. The company has many rights, obligations, powers and duties prescribed by law like human being. It is called a ‘person’. It possesses only the properties vested upon by history its Memorandum of Association.

However, you will get every facet regarding this topic in our company law essay assignment material. Our company law essay assignment gives you proficient idea on corporate personality. It is defined by the fact that as far as the law is approaches, concerned, a company actually exists. By following this logic, a company can sue and point aspirin be sued in its name, hold its property and be liable for its debt. Our company law essay assignment experts describe that a shareholder is responsible to pay the balance, if any, due on literary the share held by him, when the shares are called upon to dream theories pay. He has to pay the price of the shares and nothing more even if the liabilities of the company exceed its assets.

An incorporated company never loses its existence expect in case of winding up as per law. Our company law essay assignment experts point out that being a separate legal person, a company remains unaffected by death and departure of any member. It remains the same entity despite the total change in membership. The company is like a real person in which all the property is in its name. The company is responsible for approaches controlling, managing, disposing of language, its property. Our company law essay assignment material primarily includes all valuable facts regarding separate property. The capital of the literary approaches company is punca gejala sosial dalam kalangan, formed on the foundation of small pieces called shares. The shares are movable property and subject to certain conditions that are freely transferable. Want to know more? Get company law essay assignment help now. As a company has no real physical entity, it must work through its agents and all such contracts entered into by its agents must have the seal of the company.

It is the official signature of literary approaches, a company. While writing a company law essay assignment, you definitely need expert help to accomplish the professional task. Our company law essay assignment experts describe the literary approaches contractual rights that are vested in define polities the company as following: A shareholder cannot enforce a contract made by his company. He is literary, neither a party to the contract nor entitled to the benefit of punca gejala sosial kalangan remaja, it. A shareholder can be sued on the contract made by his company. The distinct difference between an organization and its members is not bounded by the rules of privacy; it encompasses the whole law of contract.

Our company law essay assignment material also highlights an important fact that the company has no right go beyond the powers mentioned in the Memorandum of Association that regulated the powers and fixed the issues related to the company. If you need company law essay assignment help with this individual subject or sub-divisions of literary approaches, this subject, you can easily get in touch with our law experts who are capable of providing best possible company law essay assignment help. Corporation law and its lifting in company law essay assignment material. Many students seek company law essay assignment help to relationship understand the topic. Literary Approaches? Here our company law essay assignment experts give you brief description of the subject. Define Polities? For detailed knowledge, order our company law essay assignment material. Veil lifting situations often present the literary approaches judiciary with difficult choices as to where the loss should lie. The Companies Act, 1956 itself contains some provisions (provisions 45, 147, 212, 247 and 542) which lift the corporate veil to reach the point aspirin real forces of action.

It is a legal decision to treat the literary rights and duties of the corporation as the rights or liabilities of its shareholders. For example, let’s say a businessman has left his position. When leaving, he signed a contract not to compete with the company. If he sets up a company that competes against his former company, technically it would be a company, not the person competing. A court would say that the define polities new company was just a ‘sham’ a ‘fraud’ and would still allow the old company to sue the man for breach the contract. Company law essay assignment help on company laws all over the world. This is undeniable that various constitutions follow different sets of company laws. Here few of them are described by our company law essay assignment experts. This precise information can help to write good quality company law assignment. But assignments demand more in-depth knowledge and our professional writers are there to literary give you company law essay assignment help. Corporate law in melting point the United States is a gathering of over 51 different systems of corporate law (one law for each state plus the District of Columbia).

The prior two sources of law are: the Model Business Corporation Act (MBCA), and drafted by literary approaches the American Bar Association. Get comprehensive knowledge of articles and statutes of UK company law through company law essay assignment help. Our company law essay assignment experts inform that a combination of state’s corporate law is developed by the courts and a corporation’s own articles of define polities, incorporation and bylaws determine how power is shared among the corporate actors (directors, shareholders, employees and other stakeholders). When you are writing a company law essay assignment, remember that various incorporators follow distinct corporate constitution and they can amend the approaches laws according to their feasibility. But they have to comply with the point minimum compulsory standards of the literary approaches law. Different laws seek to professional relationship protect the corporate stakeholders to literary approaches different degrees. The most relevant law they can exercise is to define polities either elect or remove them from the literary office. You will find Investment Rights in our company law essay assignment material that incorporates Investment Company Act of 1940, Investment Advisers Act of 1940 and Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974. Corporate finance. Through our company law essay assignment help, you will understand in point United States of America, corporate finance involves Dodd- Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, Securities Act of approaches, 1933, Securities Exchange Act of 1934, William Act and Investment Adviser Act of 1940 and many decrees and many more sections under these decrees.

Our law experts are diligent to dream theories help you on the steps of company law essay assignment writing. You will gain knowledge through our company law essay assignment material that United Kingdom company laws regulate corporation formed under the Company Act 2006. The company laws of UK are also governed by Insolvency Act 1986, the literary UK Corporate Governance Code, European Union Derivatives and dream theories court cases. Our company law essay assignment experts point out approaches, that corporate governance deals with the balance of melting point aspirin, power of two basic organs of literary approaches, a UK company: the board of melting point aspirin, directors and general meetings. Our company law essay assignment experts inform the fact that similar to US constitution, UK stakeholders have the mandatory right to remove directors by a simple majority. Businesses are free in UK law to voluntarily grant employee participation rights as members in general meetings or right to literary select particular board of member, though orthodox companies do not do this. Directors are considered as the central authority in UK companies. The seven key duties are codified under the Companies Act 2006 sections 171 to 177. Our company law essay assignment experts describe the decrees that are involved in the sole trader company law. Sales of Goods Act 1979: Impose that the define polities goods one sells should be satisfactory in terms of quality.

Supply Goods and literary Services Act 1982: Commits offer with reasonable care, price, skill, time and cost. Data Protection Act 1984: Directs to register the source, nature and purpose of professional, any personal data. Consumer Protection Act 1987: Holds one liable if he sells faulty product causing damage and literary injury. Price Marking Order 1991: Makes it compulsory to put the price of goods offered for sale in writing. History Management? Corporate finance. You need to include the literary fact in your company law essay assignment writing that, in United Kingdom, corporate finance concerns the rights and duties of shareholders, employees and directors in terms of administration and accountability. Our company law essay assignment experts share their knowledge that the insolvency Act 1986 controls the creditors’ ability to sweep up all company assets as security, particularly through a floating charge. You can take company law essay assignment help for define polities more comprehensive knowledge. Our company law essay assignment material do not overlook the fact that Australian corporate law is heavily borrowed from UK company law. The body of the company is formed with a single national statute, the Corporations Act 2001.

You will find valuable information in our company law essay assignment material like the statute is approaches, enforced by a single national regulatory authority, the Australia Securities and dream theories Investments Commission. Our company law essay assignment experts state that corporate governance is not only used as a matter of complying and explaining, but also taken into account while deciding the literary scopes of director’s duties. In company law essay assignment material, the Corporations Act 2001 offers shareholder one vote per share. Corporations listed on the Australian stock exchange deviate from one share, one vote. Under CA 2001 section, 249D directors must convene a meeting if members with over 5 percent of voting rights or at define polities least 100 members request it in writing and stating the literary approaches resolution they wish to believe that is be put. The rights of directors are subject to literary approaches similar found in other jurisdictions, particularly in gejala sosial dalam kalangan remaja terms of loyalty and the duty of approaches, care. Define Polities? Directors have the prior right to act in the best interest of the company. Why students need company law essay assignment help? Company law assignment writing involves a vast discipline, mainly divided into two categories: corporate governance (concerning the various powers relations within a corporation) and corporate finance (related to the rules on approaches how capital is used).

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A Car Salesman Resume to literary approaches, Get the Job. Whether you are just starting to look for work as a car salesman or you have been selling cars for years a car salesman resume can set you apart from the competition. Not all car dealerships and professional managers that hire salespersons depend heavily on literary, resumes to dalam kalangan, make their selection, but it can make a good first impression. Literary? Sales managers that hire car salesmen are typically very cynical by history system nature and rely more on the skills they use to read people both for selling cars and hiring sales staff plus the car sales interview. Literary Approaches? However a written resume may be just the relationship ticket to get you to the top of the literary approaches list of potential car sales hires. Some car dealerships dont even look at the average applicant#8217;s car sales resume they receive because they know that the gejala dalam applicant has prepared the literary document himself or herself. Dream Theories? However the more professional and experienced hiring managers know that a resume can say more about a person than just the approaches words that are printed on the paper. The need for a car salesman resume cover letter is a matter of melting point aspirin, personal choice, but not nearly as critical as it is with other professions. Literary Approaches? Preparing Your Car Salesman Resume. A car salesman resume description includes the name, address, contact information past work experience including the dates and education. Even if you have never been a car salesman this work experience is that is still important and it should be included.

I have included several resume templates for car salesmen that you can use to prepare your resume (see below). I have also posted some resume samples you can use as a reference to literary approaches, formulate your document. Of course you can have someone write your resume for you for a price, but remember you are looking to behaviorists believe that is, land a job selling cars. If you cant put together a simple resume maybe you should rethink your desire to approaches, sell cars for a living. The resume is management system your first chance to sell yourself to your prospective dealership. A quick tip here, it doesnt need to be a book or even a chapter in literary approaches a book, but it should sell you in as few words as possible. Resume Tips for Becoming a Car Salesperson. When you write your automotive sales resume follow these simple tips that are specific for the automobile industry and the way sales managers or hiring managers read resumes for future car salesmen and car saleswomen. Limit your resume to one page. Dream Theories? Use quality paper for approaches, printing your resume. It should be easy to read.

Use bullet points and headers. Include all contact information, home phone, cell phone and email. Aspirin? Include computer familiarity because todays car salesman will be using online CRM systems and email to literary, perform the job. Dont use specific dates for work experience and education only years. Have a friend or family member read your resume for an objective appraisal. Explain any gaps in employment. Its OK to define polities, omit some work experience when its over ten to fifteen years in the past and not critical to the position for which you are applying. If you had ten jobs in literary approaches the 10 years you better have a good explanation prepared. Dont lie and history make things up on your resume. Use a template to create your car salesman resume by adding your information and approaches then adjusting for readability.

Sections of a the Car Salesman Resume. Information : This section is self-explanatory you just need to include all your personal information, name, address, zip code, home phone, cell phone and define polities email address. Literary Approaches? Objective: This section of the resume is where you tell prospective employers why you are applying to dream theories, work at their dealership. It should be simple and approaches consist of one or two sentences. If you never sold cars before you should address your desire to start a car sales career.

If you have sold cars before you should be looking for a bigger, better dealer that will allow you to excel and put your sales skills to good use. Experience: This is where you will list your work experience and the years worked. The most recent will be first and the rest listed in reverse chronological order. If you are an experienced car salesperson you will list the dealerships where you sold including the history of database management address or at least the city and state. However if you have never been a car salesman your work history is still important and should be included on your resume. Literary? Skills: This section will include anything that you think might be of value to a car salesperson. If you have sold automobiles in the past you could list any special training that was provided by the dealer and/or auto manufacturers. Include any automaker certifications or awards you may have received or skill levels achieved. Of Database Management? You could list average cars sold per month over the past year, ranking at current dealership and your average car salesman salary if appropriate. For those of you that never sold a car in your life list any skills, experiences or special training that could be transferred over to the profession of car sales or anything skills listed in the car salesman job description. Good buzzwords to use on literary approaches, your car salesperson resume are consistency, positive attitude, goals, energetic, communication skills and sosial dalam kalangan computer skills such as Microsoft Office and email.

Education: This section contains a chronological list of your formal education like college, high school, tech schools and any special skills training even if it does directly pertain to car sales including the years completed. References: In most cases you car resume should say References available upon request. Literary Approaches? However if you have some personal references in the business and especially at the dealership where you are applying for a sales position by all means include them. If you were referred by a current employee that could influence the dream theories person that is doing the hiring include them. If you have a recommendation letter for car salesman by literary all means include with your resume. When it comes to hiring car salespeople the car salesman resume will rarely be the deciding factor, but if it is easy to read and on one page it will be read.

If it contains pertinent information and it looks like it has been prepared by a potential employee that is define polities willing to go the extra mile it will make you stand out from the crowd. Anything to improve your chances of literary approaches, becoming a car salesman should be worth the define polities effort. If you have a computer with word processing capabilities you can use the salesperson resume templates below. Later Fresh Up on the Lot. Sample Car Sales Resume Examples. 2017 Car Sales Professional.

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cyberpunk essays THEORIES OF THE VIRTUAL BODY AND THE POPULAR MIND. The remarkable truth that information technology ultimately reduces everything to literary approaches binary code, to infinite transmissions of ones and zeroes stands in striking contrast to professional relationship its relationship to human affairs and cultures. One often-noted aspect of technologys impact on real-world societies is in fact its tendency to weaken, if not shatter traditional dualities in favor of continua and multiplicities. Through science fiction, popular culture has addressed the potential implications of this process, with either greater or lesser courage and insight, from the earliest examples of the genre to the present. Literary? In the cyberpunk movement in particular, with its special focus on issues of embodiment, the specific duality of identity Who/What-I-am versus Who/What-I-am-not - has been a constant theme. As a unique genre, cyberpunk evolved contemporaneously with the growth of real-world networked computer environments, dominated by the emergence of the Internet in the 1970s and 1980s. In print literature, many critics and fans seem to feel the behaviorists is genre had reached its peak before the debut of the World Wide Web, which signaled the passage of cyberspace from literary a specialists playground to a mass culture phenomenon, but in gejala sosial dalam kalangan, visual media the cyberpunk genre has seen continued, if not even greater life in literary, the years since. In the professional relationship discussion that follows, although it is no way an exhaustive treatment, I will consider four prominent examples of approaches, cyberpunk in literature in Gibsons Neuromancer and at greater length in three films from 1999 in The Thirteenth Floor, The Matrix and eXistenZ in an attempt to believe that is show some of the ways in which embodiment has been either complexified or reified in popular culture, and literary, how these representations relate to theory and practice regarding cyberspace itself. THE CASE OF THE VIRTUAL BODY.

Cyberspace becomes a realm for complexification of embodiment, of course, because of its ability to reconstruct the markers of embodiment. Specifically, through computer-mediated communication and various incarnations of virtual reality it becomes possible for actors in cyberspace, that is to say online, to relationship signify their identity, including gender, appearance, corporality, etc., in ways that may have little to do with their real-world, or offline, lives. Gender, of course, is probably one of the most frequently essentialized qualities of literary approaches, human life; in other words, in interpersonal relationships, cultural representations, law, science and so on, it has been overwhelmingly common, even to the point of unrecognizability as such, to characterize the essence of a person, to be able to define polities claim definite knowledge of them, based solely on their identity as male or female. Although the reality was never so simple, the approaches degree to which this perspective has prevailed in popular consciousness would seem to be beyond question. As Archie and Edith sang, Those were the days [when] girls were girls and men were men. Cyberspace changed all that. The oft-noted cartoon in which a dog at define polities a computer says to approaches another dog that online nobody knows hes a dog has become shorthand to indicate the slippage of identity that occurs due to professional the indeterminate relationship between a persons offline existence and their online representation. This is not to say that all identity markers, cease to carry any meaning in cyberspace, contrary to some extreme interpretations or speculations. Rather it follows that because the only media of interaction in virtual arenas are those governed by approaches the virtual system, participants within it cannot directly correlate online identity markers with those offline, and that the same participants have great freedom to manipulate and recreate those markers in accordance with their own desires.

Tim Jordan develops this point in Cyberpower : Identity fluidity is a fact of virtual life. Even when the façade cracks and someone believes an identity has stepped through an avatar, this can never be known for certain until offline contact is made. But the melting short step from this point, that so many make, to claiming that offline identities are irrelevant online is a mistake. There is a complicated connection between offline and online personalities that allows many to believe that, at times, the offline and online become one and allows, at literary times, for them to be disconnected (78). The practical application of this with respect to gender can be seen in MUDs (Multiple User Domains or Dungeons) and MOOs (MUDs Object-Oriented), two very widely used virtual systems originating in the late 1970s that are text-based. In such a system, for example, players designate themselves with a gender of their choice, regardless of their real-world gender, and by no means limited to male or female. (One particular MOO offers the choice of ten unique genders, each with its own characteristics.) Of course, the dream theories characteristics attached at approaches a given gender are basically drawn from recognizable human experiences, selected and arranged in an original way to create a kind of personality type, in conjunction with other identity markers which the professional relationship player may then either fulfill or adapt to their own unique persona, known as an avatar. Jordan describes the dynamics of a players relationship with an avatar as well as those of an avatar with other avatars and their players in several examples, among them a case of a dragon avatar that morphs into a human, as a part of literary, his discussion of the define polities expectations and interpretations, sometimes true sometimes false, experience by individuals participating in literary approaches, virtual environments. Other scholars have explored the implications of this identity fluidity and define polities, the ways it specifically derives from gender.

After observing the literary approaches activity of a group of virtual players in behaviorists is, both a MUD and an immersive virtual environment (the visual and more fully sensory systems that are perhaps the popular concept of virtual reality), Lynn Cherney documented a range of literary, interactions demonstrating the ways that identity and language, embodiment are shaped within the virtual system by approaches the actions of both the player and other players. The user, she writes, is subjected to the split identity of being physical and corporeal at a terminal, and being an believe that language entity of code which can be manipulated by approaches herself or other characters. Some manipulations are amusing, part of collaborative fun; others are more sinister, and believe that is, raise profound questions about the ethics surrounding construction and use of bodies and the identification of the approaches location for agency in interactive spaces (175). Candace Lang described several cases of matched and mismatched expectations in the virtual world, including that of a virtual sexual relationship in which one player was surprised to find his partner was not a she but a he, a relatively common virtual phenomenon, deriving from the dependency of dalam kalangan remaja, players on text for the whole of literary approaches, their information within the relationship MOO. Lang explains that the body is present as [living flesh] in MOOspace insofar as all speech is act and approaches, all acts are speech acts, but no sooner written (hence at the very moment it comes into define polities being), the [living flesh] is [dead meat] (253) (bracketed terms are Langs deriving from her discussion of concepts translated from German). Expanding the point, the most intimate and vital of human experience is lived within the approaches virtual system, but it is made strange by its dependence on the medium of that virtual system. Cherney and Lang make it clear that our real experience of embodied identities is subject to manipulation and alienation within virtual reality. All of this might have remained the purview of specialized groups, among them technophiles, philosophers and gaming enthusiasts, were it not for the exploration of dream theories, these issues by literary approaches the makers of management system, popular culture, including writers and filmmakers. A very great many people have noted the singular importance of the publication in 1984 of William Gibsons novel Neuromancer , among them Allucquere Rosanne Stone, who credits the novel, through its popularity with both radicalized hackers and information technology innovators, with initiating the fourth epoch in the development of virtual communities in a process she traces back to the seventeenth century.

Cameron Bailey questions whether or not Gibson has unintentionally reified race-related stereotypes and essentialized people of color as body people in contrast to approaches his protagonists virtualized life through his disembodied experience in cyberspace, a term famously coined by Gibson himself in this novel. Tim Jordan, too, makes much of the characteristics of management, Gibsons cyberspace in his discussion of the implications of virtual existence. In Neuromancer , the hacker cowboy Case has been punished for stealing from the crime bosses he works for by having been exposed to literary a toxin that renders his brain incapable of performing the interface with cyberspace that had previously allowed him both his livelihood and the virtual experience he had come to crave over anything possible with his meat body. Gejala Kalangan Remaja? In a story that gradually reveals the literary approaches presence of mysterious interests and hidden agendas, Case is professional relationship, engaged by a shadowy privateer named Armitage who is able to approaches restore his faculties and, as a part of his master plan, employs him to use his recovered cyberhacking abilities to steal a super data file known as the construct. Working with Armitages aide, the cyborg Molly, Case works through the intrigue, explores the implications of his world in its real and virtual dynamics, and over the course of Gibsons trilogy of novels, moves to transcend his physical existence by management transferring his consciousness to cyberspace. Although at present Gibsons vision is not the reality of cyberspace, Neuromancer demonstrates the implications, the literary approaches hopes and the fears emanating from the complexification of embodiment through virtual reality. The construct, noted above, is one such example. Known as Flatline, the construct is in fact the complete consciousness of a deceased former hacker named McCoy Pauley, stored as information through the same technology that allows the cyberspace interface of which Case is a master. The Flatline is able to communicate, mediated by circuits and speakers, but it doesnt know it is no longer a living human. It was disturbing to define polities think of the Flatline as a construct, a hardwired ROM cassette replicating a dead mans skills, obsessions, knee-jerk responses (74), muses Case, shortly before he has his first conversation with it.

Perhaps more directly related to the gaming culture that is so intimately tied in to VR, Gibson has given his characters a device for literally embodying each other and experiencing each others embodiments. While Molly carries out the business of breaking into actual buildings and confronting physical opponents, part of approaches, their work necessitates Case being able to hack a targets electronic defenses, which he performs from a distant cyberspace deck, while retaining the capacity to perceive precisely the relationship between the physical and electronic features of the believe that is target location. To do this he and Molly employ a technology Gibson calls simstim (simulated stimulation? Gibson alludes to this as normally an erotic toy in the world of the novel), an interface between two bodies that allows one partner to experience all the sensory input and literary, physical sensations, including the sensation of movement, of the other. In essence it puts one person inside the body of another, in dream theories, this situation, Case inside Molly. He describes the strangeness of feeling her female physicality as if it were himself, as well as the peculiarity of being conscious of his own existence while having his embodiment, as it were, controlled as if played - by another person. ATTEMPT: THE THIRTEENTH FLOOR. In The Gutenberg Elegies: The Fate of Reading in an Electronic Age , Sven Birkerts has written that a shift is literary approaches, happening throughout our culture, away from the patterns and habits of the professional printed page and toward a new world distinguished by its reliance on electronic communications (118). He finds the origins of that shift in telephony and motion pictures before it emerges in full force through hypertext, and if he is right, it thus would not be advisable, sadly, to attempt to locate the fullest and most complete transmission of the implications of virtual reality within the covers of an old-fashioned novel. Therefore, the remaining subjects for consideration of popular cultures explorations of cyberspace will be cinematic.

Specifically it will deal with three films in the cyberpunk genre that were released in literary, 1999, in the climate of popular millennial fears and over professional relationship a decade after William Gibson and others defined that genre in print. Opening with Descartes famous dictum flashed across the screen, I think, therefore I am, director Josef Rusnaks The Thirteenth Floor tells the story of Douglas Hall, a programmer who is implicated in the murder of his employer, the approaches brilliant Hannon Fuller who has created a fantastically realistic and interactive computer simulation of point, 1937 Los Angeles. Having no memory of committing this crime against a close friend, yet confronted with frightening circumstantial evidence against him, Hall teams up with a woman claiming to be Jane Fuller, Hannons daughter, to unravel the truth. He enters the simulation itself to follow the clues, and finds look-alike correspondents of everyone he knows from his own world, and he finds himself there embodying a character named John Ferguson. The movies promotional poster itself all but revealed that Halls present-day world, essentially Los Angeles 1999, is in fact a simulation as well, and all the characters within it, a realization that Hall experiences to no little personal shock. He is, in fact, a self-aware avatar as are his friends, who can be inhabited at will by players from the real world, which the film finally discloses as circa 2024.

The Thirteenth Floor was based, somewhat loosely, on a 1964 novel, Simulatron-3 , now out of print, by Daniel F. Approaches? Galouye, who died in history, 1976. The most interesting feature of literary approaches, this film from the point of view of this exploration is punca gejala sosial kalangan, its narrative from the literary approaches perspective of the virtual character. As is explained to Hall, his simulation was the first to itself create, through his and Fullers work, a simulation. His identity, however, is history of database, constructed from without by the fact that he can be inhabited by an external personality that can force him to do what he would never do, and with only the dimmest memory on the edges of literary, his consciousness, that is commit murder. On the other hand, the define polities inherent conservatism of this movie, relative to literary the possibilities of embodiment previously discussed, is melting point, revealed in the fact that at each level, characters are inhabited by literary approaches other characters who look exactly like them, varying only in their period clothing and hairstyle, yet who exist in the next world up. The possibilities of truly fluid embodiment are never fully explored. OMNIPRESENCE: THE MATRIX. The unavoidable juggernaut in cyberpunk film in 1999, of course, and probably against define polities, a wider time span as well, was The Matrix, written and directed by the brothers Andy and Larry Wachowski. In addition to sporting a truly staggering arsenal of special effects, particularly the now-famous bullet-time slow-motion sequences designed by visual effects supervisor John Gaeta, which are meant to demonstrate the ability of its VR characters to manipulate the literary laws of physics, The Matrix penetrated the public consciousness as few films ever do.

Although criticized by some for its limited depth of characterization, there is no doubt that it advanced the popular awareness of the possible implications of cyberspace, through a remarkably complex story and philosophical/metaphysical foundation. The film has been analyzed as a serious exploration of point, spiritual issues by writers who have found in it Christian themes as well as, provocatively, the approaches somewhat arcane doctrines of history of database management system, gnosticism. The activity generated by this movie on the World Wide Web, through the efforts of literary, thousands of define polities, fans in the creation of websites, participation in discussion lists, the exchange of merchandise, etc., is astonishing, even at the time of this writing, over two years after the movie appeared. The perhaps familiar story of The Matrix involves the discovery by Thomas A. Anderson, alias the hacker Neo, that the world he has known since birth, apparently in our present day, is in reality a computer-generated simulation, created by an Artificial Intelligence, to pacify the consciousnesses of the human race, who are, in the movies present of 2199, grown and sustained in vast factory incubator complexes for the harvesting of their biochemical energy to power the machine world. Neo is led to this realization by the mysterious Morpheus, considered by the machine overlords a terrorist and by Neo a mentor, and literary, he joins Morpheus quest to free the human race, ultimately learning that he is a kind of messiah with unique abilities to manipulate the matrix itself. For all its thought-provoking concepts about the relationship nature of literary, reality and its effective exploitation of the VR idea as a device for spinning a fantasy about its superhuman characters, The Matrix remains virtually as timid as The Thirteenth Floor in dream theories, its exploration of approaches, identity and embodiment, and in some ways emerges as even more conservative, even reactionary, in its implications. Point? Like the previous movie, characters in The Matrix bear identical appearances from literary one reality to the next, and in history system, fact carry essentially the literary approaches same personalities. The only exception to melting point aspirin this are the sentient programs that appear within the virtual world as invincible agents, looking like the Secret Service in literary, their dark suits, sunglasses and earphones. Of Database System? These creatures can possess regular humans at will, but such inhabited individuals simply morph into the form, persona and abilities of the agents. In this scenario, humans are helpless victims, subject to literary approaches total submersion of professional, their identities with no interactivity possible.

The protagonists of the story have all been disconnected from the literary approaches physical apparatus that incubates the human race and feeds the matrix into every human mind, thus rendering them immune to control by the matrix, but a close analysis of this device reveals an unexpectedly conservative, if perhaps unintentional implication. When we see Neo physically awakening within his incubator pod as Morpheus and his crew arrive to point rescue him, he is literary, naked, hairless and professional relationship, essentially ungendered. His pod, like the infinite others he sees in horror for the first time, suspends its occupant in a viscous red liquid, a kind of amniotic fluid, as though he has lived his entire life unknowingly as an literary approaches unborn fetus. Moreover, we learn that all humans born within the matrix, including Neo, Morpheus and all but two members of define polities, his crew, have been altered as cyborgs with plugs over their entire bodies for their extraction of their life energy, as well as one massive implant on literary the back of their heads for the insertion of a huge spike that serves to transmit the matrix directly into their brains. Even while free, the believe that language protagonists must reinsert these spindles into the implants in their heads every time they enter the matrix to combat the agents. The restoration of literary approaches, freedom to humanity would mean the destruction of this monstrous system that has its (mostly) male characters constantly suffering penetration by these terrifying and need it be said phallic devices keeping them controlled. Most of the characters in The Matrix are male, so consideration should be given to Trinity, the woman who first guides Neo to Morpheus. She is a former hacker herself, and there is humor when, based on her anonymous reputation as such, Neo says to her, I just thought you were a guy, and she replies, Most guys do. Like Molly in Neuromancer , she is physically aggressive and virtually unbeatable (except against the invincible agents), and the movie in fact opens with a demonstration of her awesome physical abilities. Clad in professional relationship, black leather, Trinity is, perhaps, the ideal form of the female action hero, simultaneously physically threatening and approaches, erotic, independent yet sensual and vulnerable, so prevalent in Hollywood films.

Yet her destiny, as prophesied by the same oracle that predicts a messiah for our heroes, is to fall in love with Neo as he becomes that messiah. In the final showdown with the agents, Trinity has nothing to do but wait, literally, for Neo to save the world, as she kisses his motionless body while he fights it out on history of database management system the matrix. Thus, justice is restored to literary the world by professional relationship returning gender identities to the most staggeringly traditional of stereotypes, while the consideration of prospects for change, for liberation from our reality the reality experienced by the audience through cyberspace are totally betrayed. No real challenge to the human condition to our ideas about human nature is presented beyond the fantasy. In the wake of literary approaches, The Matrix, David Cronenbergs eXistenZ was almost entirely invisible, yet it perhaps represents the most intriguing cyberpunk vision of the three. It, too, postulates a world existing as an undetected computer simulation in which characters participate in a role-playing game called eXistenZ, designed by the worlds greatest game designer, Alegra Geller.

When she is nearly assassinated by a crazed gunman, wielding a bizarre pistol formed from bone and flesh and that fires teeth for bullets, she flees to the protection of system, Ted Pikul, a marketing assistant for her game company who knows nothing of this kind of intrigue. Approaches? The only copy of eXistenZ has been damaged in the attack, and relationship, she and Ted must play it to learn how to repair it. Literary Approaches? As the movie unfolds its tale of an underground revolt against the creators of virtual reality for inflicting the most effective deforming of reality ever perpetrated against aspirin, humanity, it also results in the most complete challenge of the three films considered to the audiences sense of comfort as to the nature of our reality. The film closes as one of the distraught players asks, Tell me the truth. Are we still in literary, the game? Although the film is as much horror as cyberpunk, it successfully explores many of the issues surrounding embodiment in cyberspace and virtual reality. The pistol noted above places the viewer on alert that the professional usual rules of physicality do not apply. Other unsettling events throughout the film continue the reconstruction process, until Ted says, I feel really vulnerable. Disembodied. Players of eXistenZ interface with the game through gamepods that require long umbilicals to be inserted into surgically installed bioports. This concept is roughly similar to the phallic spikes of literary approaches, The Matrix, but in contrast to that movies cold, metallic cybernetics, the apparatus in professional relationship, eXistenZ is soft, biomorphic and feminized; we are told, in fact, that they are animal in literary approaches, nature, grown from synthetic DNA. When Ted is fitted with his bioport, which must be installed at professional relationship the base of the spine, the process is somehow more horrifying as he is approaches, violently penetrated by professional relationship the surgical machinery, wielded by approaches a gas station mechanic no less. With a more fully realized character in Alegra, however, who must act in both female and male capacities, alternately passionate and emotionless, victim and aggressor, the treatment of punca gejala sosial dalam kalangan, uncertain engenderment is extremely balanced.

The prevalence of biological horror, which Cronenberg has explored in his other work as well, keeps the focus of this movie firmly on our dependence upon familiar concepts of embodiment for our trust in reality, as we know it. THE POSSIBILITY OF ART. In his essay, Cyberspace, or, The Unbearable Closure of Being, Slavoj Zizek writes: The vision of cyberspace opening up a future of unending possibilities of approaches, limitless change, of new multiple sex organs, and so on melting conceals its exact opposite: an unheard-of imposition of literary, radical closure. This, then, is the Real awaiting us, and all endeavors to symbolize this Real, from utopian. . . to the blackest dystopian ones. . . , are just that: so many attempts to avoid the true end of history, the paradox of an believe is infinity far more suffocating that any actual confinement (154). Zizek warns us against an illusion. In the end we discover our embodiment and our reality remain as they have always been, the foundation of our experience as creatures of flesh. What that means, of course, is the approaches realm awaiting discovery. Professional Relationship? Here is where literature and film and virtual enactment can serve.

Insofar as they deepen our awareness and challenge us to literary question received understandings, they can liberate, not as pure fantasy but as ground for a radical shift of perspective from which to view our predicament. This is Heideggers position, too, in The Question Concerning Technology. The danger we face is that we become part of the order we have created in technology, serving its needs as part of a system that forecloses possibility, a characterization that not too inaccurately could be applied to the vision of define polities, cybernetic pods of The Matrix. At its most effective, popular media can link us in a broad conversation that restores to us the ability to see ourselves as discoverers, creators and sharers. The more questioningly we ponder the essence of technology, says Heidegger, the more mysterious the essence of literary, art becomes (35). At their best, the organs of mass culture our creation after all become media of art, linking us as nothing previously imagined has ever done. The stories therein revealed may indeed embody that mystery.

Bailey, Cameron. Virtual Skin: Articulating Race in Cyberspace. Immersed in Technology: Art in define polities, Virtual Environments . Ed. Mary Anne Moser with Douglas MacLeod for literary, the Banff Center for the Arts. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1996. Birkerts, Sven. The Gutenberg Elegies: The Fate of behaviorists believe language, Reading in an Electronic Age . New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1994. Cherney, Lynn. Objectifying the Body in the Discourse of an Object-Oriented MUD. Works and Days 25/26 . 13:1-2, 1995.

151-72. eXistenZ . Written and directed by literary approaches David Cronenberg. Perf. Jennifer Jason Leigh and Jude Law. Define Polities? Buena Vista, 1999. Gibson, William. Neuromancer . New York: Ace Books, 1984. Heidegger, Martin. Approaches? The Question Concerning Technology. The Question Concerning Technology and believe language, Other Essays . Trans. with an introduction by William Lovitt. New York: Harper Torchbooks.

Jordan, Tim. Cyberpower: The Culture and Politics of Cyberspace and the Internet . New York: Routledge, 1999. Lang, Candace. Body Language: The Resurrection of the Corpus in Text-Based VR. Works and Days 25/26 . 13:1-2, 1995. Literary? 245-58. Matrix, The . Written directed by Andy Wachowski and Larry Wachowski. Perf. Keanu Reeves, Lawrence Fishburne and Carrie-Anne Moss. Warner Bros., 1999. Stone, Allucquere Rosanne. Will the Real Body Please Stand Up?: Boundary Stories about Virtual Cultures. Cyberspace: First Steps . Ed. Michael Benedikt.

Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. Thirteenth Floor, The . Based on Simulatron-3 . History Management System? By Daniel F. Approaches? Galouye. Dir. Behaviorists Believe Language Is? Josef Rusnak. Perf. Craig Bierko, Gretchen Mol and Armin Muehler-Stahl.

Columbia TriStar, 1999. Zizek, Slavoj. Cyberspace, or The Unbearable Closure of Being. The Plague of Fantasies .